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Emission mitigation which counts
from 280 to 380 parts per million. however. Either way. its concentration in the air has risen by about a third. Some say it will lead to disastrous consequences. natural gas and oil – and is widely thought to be a contributory factor in trapping heat radiating from the Earth’s surface. while others foresee relatively slight but noticeable variations. Since the industrial revolution. . something has to be done about it. may lead to global warming – the greenhouse effect – and stimulate climate change. and has been present throughout most of geological time. The reductions will be achieved by injecting CO2 underground for long-term storage or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Most of this increase is attributed to the burning of carbon-rich fossil fuels – coal. In Salah in Algeria. in turn. the Snøhvit LNG development in northern Norway. and a CO2 capture facility at the Mongstad refinery on the west Norwegian coast. using hydroelectricity from the Norwegian grid to power installations where applicable. Statoil works purposefully to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions from the group’s installations. The group is currently involved in four commercial projects on CO2 capture and storage at different levels of maturity. fluctuating component of the Earth’s atmosphere. and may well reach at least twice the pre-industrial level by 2100. This. and enhancing energy efficiency. How far this may happen remains unknown.What is carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural. These are the Sleipner area in the North Sea.
Snøhvit off northern Norway The Snøhvit field in the Barents Sea will provide gas for the world’s first gas liquefaction plant with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). with initial start-up at the end of 2007. . Statoil is operator for the Snøhvit project.
Some 700 000 tonnes of CO2 are due to be stored in this way every year. it was decided to capture and store the CO2.mxd This development combines subsea production installations with a 145-kilometre multiphase-flow pipeline running to a gas liquefaction plant under construction on the island of Melkøya near the town of Hammerfest. A dedicated monitoring programme partly financed by the EU has been set up to monitor the behaviour of the CO2 below ground. This gas must accordingly be removed prior to liquefaction. This lies 2 500 metres beneath the seabed. A conventional amine process will be used for capture. and can thereby cause all kinds of operational problems – such as blocking pipes. CO2 has the undesirable property that it solidifies at the temperature of LNG. safely below the gas reservoir. after which a second 145-kilometre pipeline will return the CO2 to Snøhvit. .Snøhvit Askeladd Hammerfest Albatross Oslo Stavanger cos_091291. Ships will export the resulting liquefied natural gas (LNG) at around -163 ºC to Europe and the USA. It will be injected there into a layer of porous sandstone filled with salt water called the Tubåen formation. Just as on Sleipner.
roughly at the same time as the CHP station comes on line. making it possible to shut down large parts of today’s inefficient energy supply at the plant. Two different technologies – amines and chilled ammonia – will be tested in order to reduce risk and cost of full scale CO2-capture.European CO2 – the world’s first low-CO2 refinery A combined heat and power (CHP) station fuelled by natural gas is under construction at Statoil’s Mongstad refinery north of Bergen. It is due to be ready in 2011. An investment decision is expected to be taken in 2012. and will operate for at least five years. and partly in the form of surplus refinery gas. Close collaboration with suppliers and contractors is planned. Creation of a full-scale CO2-capture plant at Mongstad covering test centre at Mongstad the CHP plant and relevant sections of the refinery is also outlined as a phase II in the agreement with the Norwegian government. but the amount captured will depend on the sources chosen. intermediate storage and final storage in a geological formation beneath the North Sea. The CHP facility is due to generate about 350 MW of heat in the form of steam for the refinery. UK Norway Norway Gjøa Troll Mongstad Bergen . The demonstration plant will have an annual capacity of 100 000 tonnes of CO2. the Norwegian government will be responsible for the facilities for CO2 capture. It will be owned by the Norwegian government. In 2008 Statoil prepared a main plan for a full-scale plant. The facility will be owned and operated by Denmark’s Dong Energy. Statoil and a group of domestic and foreign partners. and will be a beacon for CCS-related technology. This represents Norway’s largest project for enhancing energy efficiency. Under the agreement. Both technologies are applicable to natural gas and coal fired power plants and other industrial point sources such as the refinery cracker flue gas. The two largest CO2 sources at Mongstad total more than two million tonnes per year. based in part on results from the demonstration plant. including a recommendation on sources. a large-scale demonstration plant will be built for testing and qualifying CCS technologies. Gas for the CHP station will be supplied partly through a new pipeline from Kollsnes. An agreement was concluded in October 2006 between the Norwegian government and Statoil concerning CCS from the CHP station and the refinery. Under this deal. About 280 MW of electricity will also be generated to supply the Troll A and Gjøa platforms in the Norwegian North Sea and the Troll gas processing plant at Kollsnes further south along the coast.
Troll Gjøa field Subsea CO2 injection Power cable Natural gas pipeline CO2 pipeline Power cable Kollsnes Mongstad .
Natural gas from this North Sea reservoir contains around 9% CO2. which comprises porous sandstone filled with salt water. which exceeds customer requirements. but making this sufficiently compact for installation on a platform in the middle of the North Sea. CO2 capture on Sleipner East uses a conventional amine process. An offshore CO2 tax was introduced by the Norwegian government in 1991 with the aim of reducing CO2 emissions. Sleipner West came on stream in October 1996. This tax is currently around USD 60 per tonne. An overlying gas-tight cap rock 800 metres thick prevents the CO2 from seeping up into the atmosphere. The cost of the extra equipment for CO2 compression and drilling the CO2 injection well was roughly USD 100 million. Gas processing platforms One million tonnes of CO2 reinjected every year Utsira formation USD 100 000 in carbon tax saved daily Carbon injection well Production wells Natural gas reservoir . Encouraged by this levy. So the CO2 needed to be removed. 250 kilometres from land. Statoil proposed removing the Sleipner CO2 offshore and injecting it into a deep geological layer beneath the A platform on the nearby Sleipner East field. probably thousands of years. More than twelve million tonnes of CO2 have so far been stored. This solution was backed by the Sleipner licence partners. which also brought the world’s first offshore CO2 capture plant into operation along with its first CO2 storage project in a geological formation 1 000 metres beneath the seabed. The CO2 will be stored for a long time. and has cut CO2 emissions by almost a million tonnes per year. in this Utsira formation. presented a challenge. That corresponds to roughly 3% of Norway’s CO2 emissions in 1990.Sleipner area in the North Sea The Statoil-operated Sleipner West gas and condensate field was in its planning phase in 1990. The way this gas is spreading through the Utsira formation has been mapped by various research projects partly financed by the European Union (EU).
. has been a key research and development topic at Statoil for more than a decade. Over the years. Fossil fuels can be transformed into two carbon-free energy carriers – electricity and hydrogen – with the greenhouse gas captured and stored safely underground. coal) is used to manufacture the two CO2-free energy carriers. electricity and hydrogen. Natural gas pipeline Electricity CO2 Hydrogen pipelines Fuel cells Gas turbines Hydrogen Hydrogen Geological storage The illustration shows how natural gas (or oil. The new element is the incorporation of processes that capture and store the CO2. the group has developed a vision of where the oil and gas industry may be heading in a climate-driven future.Vision for sub-surface CO2 storage CO2 capture from various power generation processes. including the hydrogen-based route.
but at a safe distance. about 2 million tonnes of CO2 have been captured and stored at In Salah. which is operated jointly by Sonatrach. For both commercial and technical reasons. Italy Spain Algiers Morocco Hassi Mounia Algeria In Amenas In Salah Libya . BP and Statoil. Since 2004. These volumes are held in the same geological layer as the natural gas.In Salah in Algeria Statoil’s third CO2 injection project is located on Algeria’s In Salah gas field in the central Sahara. The same cap rock which holds the natural gas in place will keep the CO2 safely stored. the CO2 is removed from the natural gas as on the Sleipner fields and again with an amine process.
These include the Sacs. France. the USA. This work has mainly been done in various projects financed in part by the EU. industries and research communities during recent years. and has won great attention and recognition. the European CO2Net. the group has also become involved in the EU’s zero emission programme (ZEP). They are all based on post-combustion technology. Its work has yielded good results which can help to build public trust in and acceptance of this important contribution to meeting the climate challenge. Castor and CO2Remove programmes. both alone and with others. The world appears to be moving rapidly in the direction of promoting and accepting CCS as a major medium-term method for potentially reducing CO2 emissions on a global scale. Australia. Spain. Several pilot units have been constructed to study CO2 capture technologies. whilst also sharing data and showing an open and transparent attitude. New projects are being launched in Denmark. the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the CCS Association in the UK. whereby CO2 is removed after combustion in a power station. Indonesia and elsewhere. Statoil plays an active role in this area. including Encap and Dynamis. Germany. CO2Store. Best practice manuals for CO2 storage have been continuously updated in these projects. the UK. Poland. are also the subject of major R&D projects. These are yielding valuable results and inputs for the research programme in order to qualify new technology or optimise traditional solutions. .Research and development Statoil has been the initiator of and an active partner in various R&D projects on CCS. The Netherlands. transport and storage projects. Knowledge of the fundamental properties of CO2 and the impact of its impurities is crucial for all research on CO2 capture and transport. Statoil’s work has served as an inspiration for these new programmes worldwide. Canada. A new laboratory-scale test rig for CO2 pipeline transport is being used to establish operational windows and specifications for offshore operations and for training operators in CO2 pipeline management. Outlook CCS has attracted greatly increased attention and activity at a global level among policy makers. But other capture technologies. A major outcome of cooperative research efforts is that sub-surface CO2 storage can be done safely. The group has combined large-scale commercial projects with internationally recognised research programmes. since the late 1980s. Italy. In recent years. The latest experimental and theoretical results are used for continuous comparison to identify which technology is the most suitable for various conditions. Four-dimensional seismic surveying has been a very important tool in reaching reliable conclusions. such as pre-combustion and oxyfuel. The group’s activities in this area have demonstrated possibilities for creating CO2 value chains and promoting several capture. Statoil is active in several important international initiatives. such as the greenhouse gas programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA).
.statoil. Kjetil Alsvik. Øyvind Hagen.Statoil ASA NO-4035 Stavanger Norway Telephone +47 51 99 00 00 www. Illustrations: Statoil. November 2009.com COS_0891328. Leif Berge. Helge Hansen.