If we consider only the octavefrequencies 250, 125, noisecalculations givenin column12, and values are 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and gOO0, then the following of Zr fromEq. (41)or
Zr = B,+AB,+ 8+ K- •7o' are given in the last column.


equation approximately is correct. •,= - 10 log{EWe10 -•/'ø} (lO0)
where k takes the successive values of 125, 250, 500, 1000,2000,4000,and 8000.The weights givenby are

In this-appendix relationship the betweenthe hearing loss speech and the hearing audiogram for •4 loss will be considered. t•i be the hearinglossat the freLet quencyf for a pure tone. It is the ordinatein the audiogram. we consider hasthe same If t•i effectupon For 125 c.p.s. W=0.000, 250 c.p.s. W=0.003, 500 the threshold level as an attenuation -R from the c•p.s. W=0.104, 1000 c.p.s. W=0.388, 2000 c.p.s. flat response system, thenby analogy Eq. (23) the . W=0.395 4000 to , c.p.s. W=0.106,8000 c.p.s. W=0.004. So for most purposes needsto consider one only the hearing loss speech/t, givenby for is 'four frequencies 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 and use weights 0,1, 0.4, 0.4 and 0.1. For a fairly flat audiogram is approximately it correct to take an averageof the hearing lossat 500, • H. Fletcher, method calculating "A of hearing loss speech for 1000,and 2000c.p.s. froman audiogram," Acous. J. Soc.Am. 22, 1 (1950).

W•Jo.7• = G•df.

10-•,n0= fo•øG110-•llOdf. (99)








The SpeakingMachine of Wolfgangvon Kempelen*
Homer DrrDL•

Bdl Talephone Laboratories, Murray Hi!l, New Jersey

T. H. T^•ocz¾

Biophysi•al Laboratorythe of Institute Anthropology Museum Natural for ofthe of History, Budapest, Hungary
(Received October17, 1949)

Thephysiological motions involved speaking beindicated theeyeor to theear.For theeye in can to suitably chosen symbols bewritten indicate physiological may to the positions assumed forming in each sound; theearsynthetic for sounds beproduced motions a mechanism to simulate may by in built the speech organs. degree phonetic The of success beestimatedthecase thevisible may in of symbols listening by
to sounds formed when indicated the physiological processes carried andin thecase thespeechare out, of simulating mechanism comparing synthetic by the speech produced normally to spoken speech. Signifi•nt advances along boththevisual theaurallines described earliest and are from times down thepresent. to

Wolfgang Kempelen yon produced firstspeaking the machine worthy thename of around 1780. This paper gives background, his a description apparatus built, a discussion methods in ofthe he and of the used producing various the sounds, his fitting work theover-all into picture speech-imitating from of devices the speakingidols ancient of of times down theautomatic to electrical reconstructing ofspeech thevocoder. in For portraying theeyethephysiological to characteristics of speech there discussed more are the outstanding methods claimed from symbolic alphabets ancient of languages to therecent down spectrographic

vocal system. 1791 published456In he a garian,Wolfgang Ritter von Kempelen, in of thehuman or, • with 25 plates, describing his Hungarian, Kempden Farkas Lovag, firstbuilta com- pagebook, illustrated observations human speech on productionand his plete and, on the whole,a surprisingly successful during twodecades hadbeen the he workspeaking machine. Speech formed manipulationexperiments was by ing on his speaking machine. appearance his The of event.Introductory the to * Orally presented theAcoustical before Society America,bookwas a great social of
sametime (1791).

OWARD endof the 18thCentury Hunthe a

of mechanical elements simulatingthe essential parts

May 5, 1949,New York, by Dudley with originaldraft by der Sprache nebst Beschreibung der Tarnoczy. paper The here,in general, follows oral presenta- • Mechanismus menschlichen the sprechenden Maschine. Alsopublished Frenchat the in tionincluding setof figures alsoothermaterial in the seiner a and not

ed 22 Sep 2011 to Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright; see http://asadl.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info

Czechoslovakia.152 HO3.He madethe ins 6f the fountains in Sch•inbrunn and later the le.This scientific of vigor manifested itself stronglyin the designof automata to produce motionsof varioussortswhenenergized application modemcivilization indicated the to is by industries built uponspeech since Kempelen's yon day. windinga spring. An Account the •[echanism an of of Oxford University Press. to The answer part.There was stirringa healthfulskepticism which demanded that truth be soughtnot in a blind faith but by experimental methods cut-and-try. 1734. tl. attempted this difficulttask in the centuries preceding day m the 1769 he started a job that.newspapers.The continuing importance speech its deception. as These three factorswill be dis.IER DUDLEY' AND T. advertisements. Fla.140.Russia. Am. so far as known. off and on. see http://asadl.It moved its wingsand walked in a natural manner. Aulic Counselor the of (_hamer of the Domainof Empress and QueenMaria '1heres• He traveledwidelyover Europe. For thispurpose additioIlto this general urge.a thousandyears later. more fundamentally. 32 (1871). in is that he had someinterestin the problemof speech by deaf-mutes.in 1767.the Great in hisexpedition againstthe Scythians.igns of the Royal Castleof Buda.But. of in Von Kempelen was born in a time of arousedscientific curiosity. the In cussed brieflybeforereturningto his book.Galileohad passed lessthan a century on earlier.in ancient times. that particulartime. no doubt. the priests tried to make their idols all basicimportance and significance speech. [ : reached high government position the Habsburg in mt. But the telephone industries carrythe spoken wordthousands of milesand at speeds millionsof miles per minute. would take over two decades complete. ded 22 Sep 2011 to 130. muddling in the 'act. in appearto speak directlyto the people.there were from the lower animals. and Hungary. It drank water.man took speech a symbolof his divine origin and to of as ing machine a man of his ability and inclination by at assumed his gods were.and from this there had Orpheuson the Isle of Lesbos? one revelation.therewasstirringabroad speechwas piped in from a concealed priest to make in van Kempelen's an aroused day scientific curiosity in words issue forth from the mouth of the Oracle of the wake of the Reformation. •. or android as it • was called.Thus a Frenchman named Vaucanson built a man-like figure. education. and died in Vienna on March 26. phonographindustries preserve speech unborngenerations hear. etc. somehow.assubscribers. Desaguliers) (1742).depended then as now uponthe spoken and written word. 1804. perhaps in some ways the most extraordinary automaton ever constructed. He organized the •. ool manufacture South-Hungary. (translationby J. magazines.on Kempelen was born on January 23. Religion. •nd evenin yon Kempelen's timestherewereindustries handling the printed word which have expanded enormously the intervening in years to flood us with books. speaking gods. of But.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info/ .232. fact all organized in society. By speech man raised himself to a position above and distinct as by. T\RNOCZV bookarelisted. pamphlets.Letterson A•atural }[aglc (1832).a city in westernHungaD'. the professions. 24. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. later made for I-Ie an automatonfor simultaneously playing a shepherd's pipe held in one hand while beating a tamhour with the other hand. several factors favorable thedevelopment a speak.this In arisengraduallythe faint beginnings physiological oracleaccuratelypredictedthe violent death of Cyrus of phonetics a science. that played a flute with all the complicated motionsneeded the lips and fingers. etc. maps.narchybecoming. Automaton. of radio industries providefor audiences numbering millions of people at a time. names outstanding 122 of peopleof Austria. in P( vsony. folders. now Bratislava.Accordingly. T. Pervading timeshas beenthe Naturally then.91. yet like the modelsof ingenuitywith concealed tubesbringingin a air we breathe. Middle Ages. Courtesy of of aSci. It would take corn from one's hand and swallow it with a completesimulationof the digestionprocess : The ScieMifi• Papers of Sir Cltarles Wlteatslone(1879). wasa skilfful in He engineer a genius organization.Italy. Sir David Brex•ster.for no one had. Roger Baconand Speech of suchbasicimportance is that civilization othersbuilt small talking headsof bronzeand woodas asknowntodaycouldnot existwithoutit. and in '•-•e questiona ises as to what motivated van Kempelento attempt the building of any speaking machine.it so envelops that we take it for speaker'svoice but without intent of superstitious us granted. 1. Automaton chessplayer van Kempelen. Man's unaided voicecarries lessthan a mileat a speffd of only 12 milesper minute. Transfor to mission the written wordhasbeenaccomplished of by the telegraph and morerecentlythe facsimile industries.a speed actuallysomewhat lessthan that of a fast jet plane of today. He also developeda miraculousduck.

Robert Willis. • Bishop JohnWilkins.His attemptedanalysis doesnot of the head.Von Kempden himself remarkedthat this chess player was not a true auto- London. 876--7.140. 9I-I. London. The difficultyof the problem.91.the mechanical in. and then dart down into the box as the lid closed. as indicated Hebrewbelowthepicture in on the chess player. Camb.represented actual tonguepositions on one the and so should eachof which contained strongmagnet. But the chessautomaton was ahead of the 'distorted tongueis part of the Hebrew completed six monthswhile the speaking in machine letter M but seems have no phoneticsignificance. its pourforth a melodious song.its only.Bishop JohnWilkins in England. 1) with a turbanedTurk playing an alm6st unbeatable game of chessseated at a desk on which there was mounted a chess board. Phil. althoughthe and in hisdevelopment the speaking of machine startedin latter are shownopen by Helmont. 1821. he his in actersby the useof phoneticsymbols portrayingvocal This aroused growing and spirit of experimental in.tract positions published a book a year later by was in s vestigation science general in in naturallyled to ques.with 10 Plates(1821).Here are illustratedthe pictures layingthe foundation experimental of phonetics a of the head with vocal positionsfor 34 soundsconas science.the breadthof view and to someextent the for the sound M. made up a writing child while his son made a bullfinch that wouldjump up from a snuffbox.pro- synthetic vowelproductionwrotea 40-page 5 booklet nounced 5 Mere." for instance. and five voiced semivowels. The small element the same year. Hebrewletter. those numbered of maton mechanism. J. The deception apparentlyconsisted in Fro. A History of Chess (Oxford University Press. 6. Another Frenchman.1913). thus page378 of his book. The device was exhibited over Europe in the next four years by yon Kempelenand after his death by Maelzel in Europe and later in America until burned in a fire in 1836. spread wings. pp.Von KempelencriticizedHelmont.The chess be useful in teachingspeechto the deaf-dumb. Corfiparing consonants the book in Latin contending 7 that the Hebrewalphabet in the list with those givenby Fletcher onenotesthat ø ' H. When everything was closed. and ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130. 2.An EssayTowards RealCharacter a and a Philosophical Language (1668). outstanding featurebeingthe skill of the deception. the tongue of position of little imis feeland daring showmanship for manifested von portance that the significant by but positions in the are Kempden the chess in playerarecharacteristics shown open nasal passages the closedlips. games. Speech Hearing(1929). 1769. Alphabeti vere Naturalis Hebrai•i Brevissima Ddineatio (1667). four voiced and four unvoicedfricatives. s RobertWillis.p.The figuresin the borderof the headband agree entirelywith Murray'sexplanation the auto. Le Droz.SPEAKING MACHINE OF WOLFGANG VON KEMPELEN 153 aided by chemicalmeans. sisting eightvowels of and 13pairsof voiced consonants Baron Franciscus Mercuriusab Helmont published with unvoiced a counterparts. de Kempden with an Easy Method Imitatingthe of Movements thatCalebrated of Figure. notedfor his later researches on maton. Murray. The tongue position is for M.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info . Before the exhibition the cloak at the back of the Turk was lifted and.the Turk laid down a long-stemmed pipe and starteda chess move.232. with a lot of noisefrom insidemachinery. several a time.M as a tongue position havinga skilledplayer conceal himselfin the cabinet accordingto Helmont.3. In the spirit of mechanical ingenuityof the times he built* in 1769his famous"chess automaton"(Fig.Figure3 is a copyof tionsas to the physiology speech of production.being copiedfrom ancient coins. the 13th letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 2.are related forms for the letter M. to occupied von Kempelen muchof the time for over for A more seriousrepresentationof alphabetic chartwentyyearsbefore published results 1791.wagits tail. Wilkins differsin showing ½ Robert Willis.Von a playeris saidto have beatenNapoleon one of its Kempelen reproduced in four of Helmont's illustrations. Now yon Kempelenwas alsoa skilledmechanician. *Baron Franciscus Mercurius ab Helmont. and play the game from informationreceived the in upwarddisplacement a smalliron ball undereach was a "natural" alphabetin that the letter symbols of square whichtherewasplaced of the chessmen. Fletcher. pointing out that genuity.whenthe playerwasbeingexhibited In in oneof whichisshown hereasFig. 231 (1829). see http://asadl. variouscompartments the at of desk wereopened to show up theirapparent emptiness.A century before von Kempelen'sstudies. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. R. consonants. Soc. An Attemptto Analyzethe Automaton Chess both lists contain four voiced and four unvoicedstop Playerof M. "4. Trans.

154 HOMER DUDLEY AND T. see http://asadl.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info/ . H. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright.232. TARNOCZ¾ ded 22 Sep 2011 to 130.140.91.

note that since yon Kempelen's time. grunts. nasalconsonants list h.a section shown revealthe position vocal in 9h.refersto placedhigh."the sounds from it usedin the ß tion covering84 consonants and vowels. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. combination of one dot or hook at the bottom and the of is Alexander Graham Bell.e..consonants are the unvoiced ones. right. 3.elevation the bottomposition. we vowels. "visiblespeech.This explana"universal alphabet.while the small horizontal bars in the lower six rows indicates round the Lord's Prayer written with thesesymbols. considerable front. Bell. pair of dosed a lips for p. showsa sort of back-mixed.is considered 1867). To round out the picture of phoneticportrayal. pointof the tongue lips with a semicircle smallwave to represent or vocal or thelips producing consbnant the columns which 1-4 recordactionfor 13.91. the dot or hook positions the vertical bar.shutconsonant 11is the back-shut k. Consonants here follow. three. is in edition. hn. 9a. etc.or low for the first three of his wavy line from the uvula in the diagram vowelsand a semicircle similarlyplacedfor the other closing the nasalpassages with the uvula to give the calledback-nasal. Somephysically in the diagramby the concave quarter of the threesignificant symbolsused are a circle for the rounded quartercircles. t• FromExplanatory Lecture Visible on Speech (1870).232. sneezes. showedonly eight vowelsas counterparts He given in the next six rowswith short against in the Fletcher 11 list.givenin the right diagram. He listsy as a vowel. In rows c and i the main quarter of the symbol is syllabary reproduced as Fig. The International Phonetic Association. 2 the consonant symbols indicating consonantsin rowsd and k. hi. Wilkins. the In The unvoiced semivowels foundin some are languages universal alphabettable. the dot in of is by vocalactionin producing only the speech not sounds not sowide. closed tongue. for for thoughtheseare not in the illustratedlist of Fig. and lip-mixed. The first six rows of w provideda multiplicity of h sounds with his five un.His consonant of Fig. voiceconsonant g. page 376. point-mixed. of the symbols the tonguepositions vowelsare a The reasonfor includingthem here is that they com. consonant the y.front-mixed. Van Nostrend Company. detailed the topposition. middle.clicks.oval in 9b with a bar addedto showhoarse lip In vocalityas tions. whistles.many not to •oAlexanderMelville Bell. and mixedpositions the tongue represented of are furtheradvance beenmade. and y.• New York• be found in any language. a low by a by sighs.e. column. hng. 4 includes w. thereis a minoraperture the quarteropposite the in to and a slightlycurvedline at the top to represent the main apertureas represented a pair of small threeby flow of air throughthe noseas in the caseof m.respectively. quarter circles. second speech sounds indicated greatdetailby Mr. the sonant-vowel combinations.The row numbered! givesthe six vowelshe circleclosed a straightline representing "shut" as thus used row2. eachof the other25 illustra. point. theirsymbols. the con.the indicatedconsonants termed are and hn. Me•hanisra Speezh o] (1907). see http://asadl. sobs. all othersounds and pro. a medium mid-elevation the A and or by explanation the symbols alsogivenby his son. coughs. front-divided. le is the back3-8 consonant combinations and columns10-15.In particular. kisses. In the final rows f and m of the consonants.founded in ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130. Thus u as in pull listedas 6k wouldbe defined a high-back-wide-round as vowel.Inc. nineheads shown are with no sectioning a column row a.hisses. He . front. glidesin 5. preceding vowelare shown divided.An uprightbar indicates bine with the vowels. proposed phonetic symbols.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info . frontof the tongue. showing howthe physiological production the various of u Alexander GrahamBell. straight a horizontal through line the are calledback. such consonants called backare in listedin column those 1. and vowel symbols. and left plus right has The hook indiMelville Belltøworked out a set of symbolshe termed of the vertical vowel bar. Englishalphabet. rowsb and h of the consonant the In symbols for the consonants wherethereis a relativelyfreeflow.SPEAKING MACHINE OF WOLFGANG VON KEMPELEN 155 a complete of unvoiced set semivowels hm. mouth to represent flow of air throughthe mouth spectively. respectively. i. the vowelsin 6-8.Thepointof constriction is to of (aperture) represented is parts within the mouth and throat. throat probably considered as a vowel(we=fiE)and really sounds and modifiers in 9 and 0. In the upperright-hand inside barsaddedto represent voicing. and an X for the closed in 9. bar for voicing. with the voiced voicedsemivowels.consonants represented are in with Welshcontaining five. n. andh.indentedto representdividing the 'air stream as in are ing a vowelin a syllable shown smalllettersas the sound f (4c). and Columns givevowel. andomitting threetransitionals w.. in the samebook. glottis three-by-three arrangement for thosesoundshaving in 9c. The back. 4. Rowse and I have the three-quarter for the by a alone. i. VisibleSpeech--The Science [lniof adequatefor versal Alphabetks(D. vowelsspoken with roundlips.n Figure 5•2 shows his basic otherat the top.position in the stopconsonants.At the bottom of the figureis vowel as in columns6-8 throughout. and lip consonants. employsa small circle etc. the upperleft portion a circlefor wide openas in producing soundh of In the of Fig.140.A partialopening in whispering shown an as is by significant positions." showing minutedetailthe complete cates that the voice channelis openedwide. high elevation ducibleby the human vocal mechanism. hm. and two diagrams definethe chief to andhr. 3. The aperturemay be at the backof the the the lipsof the o sound.The elevation the tongue indicated on but alsowhispers. The diagramat corner for each of the 34 sound illustrations are Wilkins' the left showsthree cord positions. The meanings etc.• all 1-4.Alexander by dots or hooksat the left. Mixture combinedwith the gives mixed-divided the consonants represented by capital letters listed column Column gives division as in 9.

232.( •1. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. Wilkin's English languagesyllabaryfor a philosophical language.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info .91. H.I01"/ IVLT • I.. •.( "l/d /l '1.140.( '(L/d LIJ.I/U •q. see http://asadl. ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130.156 HOMER DUDLEY AND T. 4. •.('q /I/). TARNOCZY ! 3 6 7 8• FIG.

first He madefive tubesas shownin cross section Fig. 213-48(1916)andJ. the two lower ones. 7. (note). he substitutesfor the mouth a wooden box. characteristics speech of sounds revealed spec. Green. increasing from 1 to 5.book describes the stepsof buildinghis speaking mascribedapparatusfor automaticwriting of the symbolsby the chine. words The "visible speech" such to the formingof speech from a sounds and how theseparts spectrogram shown Fig. his tests as he went along and finally how to voicebut the symbols in definiteness uniformity that lack and so they can hardly be classified alphabeticin the stageof develop.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info . These cut-and-try were usefulto yon Kempelenin clarifyinghis vowelseries couldbe covered alternatelyforwardand designs understanding the mechanics sound of of production by in reverse the pipe lengthwasincreased. de Physique21. we ofthehighlights Kempelen's This ofyon book.and Kopp. 388-456--The Speaking portrayingthe soundspectrumautomatically.E. whileFig.s the tongue a hinged woodenflap. i. the E (they). simplest the hand-operated mechanism produce to fair and speech teachers the mechanism speech. Thus. A. B. 1-28--Speech General. yon therewas eachsoundand by groups consider to what wouldbe much speculation linguists. pp. sourcefor imitating the tone from the vocal cords. nose. ChapterV. VisibleSpeech (D.considering used the particularly functhe mental training program portraythe distinguishing to tioning thelungs.producethe different soundsand combinethem into as ment described. (1780).He began with a searchfor a suitable sound J. see http://asadl. 6b shows function are in normally under and faultyconditions."phonographic speech. Von Kempelenin the fifth and final chapterof his •aPotter. Then he proceeds for to the consonants. 358-80 (1782). producing five vowel sounds/A(father). The most natural-sounding 353-62 (1948). and that. and u.91. tongue. are the long vowel soundsas used on the Continent The numbers showrelativesizes.These O and so. 178-387--Sounds European Machine. in Thesetubesroughlyapproximated sizeand shape the of the vocalpassages whenset to produce different the sounds. Figure8. pp." et Schweizer Archiv 14. book is sometimes used less idealized methods as even in this case the B andD sounds.teeth. pp. operableby a string. thus He thesetof manual alphabetic symbols in an experi. thus: 1888 providing symbols presumably speech ChapterI.thus The first two chaptersgive brief discussions speech of replacing assumed positions the vocalparts with and its origin in quite generalfashion. • "Tentamencoronaturn voce. visiblespeech analysis with the soundspectrograph. 28-56•Origin of Speech. as in the case symbols of shown the present in paper. alphabet"in "The true nature of speech. Others were also active in this period."Acta Acad. New York. for consistency.In the third of objectively recorded physical characteristicsactually chapter examines whichbodilypartscontribute of he into spoken speech. in fact.for organpipe. 1947). the European alphabetic sounds. Inc. "Steno-sonographic alphabet" sourcehe found after exin "Le sonographe: elements principes. amirtingmany musicalinstruments was a drone reed from a bagpipe. 57-177--VocalParts and Their Functions."J. the of air. of trachea. In the fourth chapterhe listsmostof as by trograms.as stated openingsfor the vowels a. glottis. Van Nostrand Company. yon Kempelen's Plate XII.for making the voicedexplosive In soundsB and D. pp. for the lips a pair of hinged woodenshutters. born in TM Wernigerode. e. as His final speakingmachine Fromthe foregoing background returnto a review the human mechanism. Germany. He extends his observations to fit into this tabulation seven othervowels a total of 12. de The completearticle is in "Sur la naissance la formationde• de voyelles. Dreyfus-Graf.SPEAKING MACHINE OF WOLFGANG VON KEMPELEN 157 1886.explains voice. of Languages. See. for all in sounds but without special physiological connotation ChapterII. on of The imitations of these sounds. then proceeds He for In the centurypreceding Kempelen.I.232. will be explained of as later. mouth. Some other writers have de.startedworkingon his speaking machinein results: 1769 and continued to 1791 at least. Petersburg of offered annual its prizefor explaining physiological differences andmaking in.Von Kempelen. wereenergized free reedsexceptthe I All by tube whichwasblowninto directlyin the fashion an of Vowelsound a e i o Mouth opening Tongue-channel opening $ 4 3 2 3 2 1 4 u 1 5. Recently Potter and his co-workers •a have developed ChapterIV.I (machine). this figure. 6a. Pettop. illustrateshis method of practical visualizationand adaptationas he reduces applicable vocalparts to the simplest manuallyoperable mechanism a groupof for sounds.The two top subfigures for the B beforeand after the start of the explosive emission obtainedfrom a singlepipe the length of which was sound adjustedfor the differentsounds.drewup an International Phonetic Alphabet in dividedinto five chapters. pp. First he observes his own understanding physical of science advancing was from vocal systemas objectivelyas possible determine to philosophical speculation scientific to experimentationexperimentally relative mouth and tongue-channel the with physicalapparatus.for example. and lips. o. ChapterIII. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright."Trans. showedthat the shapesof Kratzenstein'stubes were and for the air supplya tube to whichcouldbe fitted a are not important as the required resonances could be reed for voicing.. It is interestingto note that Robert Willis. with these earlier. in 1779 the Imperial Academy St.140. be usedhere.for D.and lJ (crude). by physicists. 35. apparatus for. Flower. who becamea Professor of Physiology at Halle and later at Copenhagen.The prize will waswon by ChristianGottlieb Kratzenstein. psychologists.E.He first tried to producethe vowels with a bell-shapedmouth attached to such a reed as ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130.

and u. o.232. express mechanism sounds common to the of in type. H.140.thus usingindividualreedsfor a thebellmouthin various positions formthedifferent the different to voiced sounds. Irishpronunciations and of the Fro.. He writes he obtainedsome matterhowhishands wereplaced. shown Fig. Instead using sliding in of the plateshown trolling froma common air bellows separate to passages at the bottomhe usuallyplacedhis hand on or near eachcontaining reed. words ' Visible Speech" * The Marginal Numbers Lettersmaybeused.p.forming fair for a a. He also obtained fair consonantsoundsfor console shown Fig.91.10with13piano-like con. the Scotch. The followlng examples show English. and 1.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info/ . m. triedrectangular He boxes sounds onlyobtained but non-vowel tones and later vowel-like tones with a characteristic "ah" sound no such as the two at the left and then round boxessuch as the four at the right. The results werenot very satisfactory for his second so model he built a good vowel distinctions thefirsttime. With these formed as in keys he simple words like ded 22 Sep 2011 to 130. TARNOCZY Consonan Po$igion$ Vowel Positions THE UNIVERSAL ALPHABET. see http://asadl. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright.158 HOMER DUDLEY AND T. and instead theVisible of Speech Letters.9. Sa.

91. 5b. Ewald. experimented the on He with sounds not blend togetherin a natural way. arm• &c•. (Seeopposite pagefor Fig. The "universal alphabet"of Alexander Mdville Bell with symbol-defining diagrams and illustrations in English." yon Pfitigers the edge it beat against with thin soft glove leather Archiv f. statingthat he left this improveshould awaywith hismultiplicityof reeds. R final or before a consonant.232. die gesarnte PhYsiologie 1•2. In this connection. vowelsin particular cameon rather explosively.] i a 2 s 1• sh 4 wh 5 hearo• 6 up 7 • 8 eel 9 ]• 0"• aeeen• a b alell •otd• b 'd t•in near -t•n* -ces* •11 d e k t p ask -al* alr• e • ink • hin• lamp l arm• an sir oldll f ] zealazure way' k ] t•en pull-ure • k 1 . "Zur kOnstruktion polsterpfdfen.•. Thus:• in C•O (ale). • Fro. D•I•t. gloor.) "papa"and "mama" but noticed two troubles. ß difficultto obtain a variablepitch so he satisfied himHe decided that to overcome the first trouble he selfwith a monotone. 171 (1913). the around closure bothsides. R. in as lr3[(•l• (mention). is the ' Point-Glide' •a[ as Thus :• {It (air). 2 3 4 fi 6 7 8 9 0 The sounds marked occur * onlyin unaccented syllables.D•{•f•If•-places. vibrating reed and thus alter the pitch but he found it thus addinga k-like sound.•/(orator}.Then. JO]. 5a. &c. l• (arm). [The Italicletters theEnglish are equivalents Visible of the Speech Letters the•orr•ondln• in sections the Universal of Alphabet. ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130.SPEAKING MACHINE OF WOLFGANG VON KEMPELEN 159 THE ENGLISH ALPHABET. in air. Accent is alwayson the first syllable unlessothenvhe•Cl•[}(0[•O (ex'9ressed). ]'l• (old). and an adjustable did wire to change effective the lengthof the second. do producing ment to later workersin the field. asin hero.140. The' glide' 5a heard between vowelandr.fief. lined the reedand of he • J. Ewald developed to ta the explosive oncoming vowels. The markisplaced 1•['13•}•(be'fore) syllable which the to it G)I'•I• (reSfers). a airy. first. R. 5. all voicedsounds from the samereed.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info . 13{t•%• (fatal. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. to prevent it is of interest note that J. FI•. Ot•%t•œ (history. and 5/. The sounds ' ale' and ' old' includethe ' glides'5c.•/(pleasure). see http://asadl.

Recent visible speech spectrogram (Potter). Riesz. speech beingproduced on the downmotion. 11.increasing to pressure giving placed. m. II $ P rr CH Fro. H.[. Riesz gavea fair minimumshortof stopping reedvibration.but with by •6 rangeof pitch variationaccording the air pressure the openinggreater than for i. 273 (1930). the thussetting in vibratory it Class Produced \'ot produced motion. sh.232. ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130. R.His description of third effort resultedin his final speaking machine. R. for i the flat hand is to tightly across mouth opening the and the index applied thevibratingreed. .the positionsinfers he tried to modify a secondresonant essentials which are shownwith a scaleindicating frequencyof the vowel spectrumas doeshis consideraof size in Fig. Von Kempelenalso producedthe soundof ch (ich) found in German but not in English for a total of 19 consonant sounds. of tongue-to-palate mouth. s. z. Semivowels 1. The vowelsare probc duced by working the bellowswith the right elbow whileblocking nostril-imitating the tubesm and n by fingers therighthand. n. yon Kempelen thenstartedanew. Soc. d.N'ostrand of Company. 6a. j (judge) zh. th' (then).160 HOMER DUDLEY AND T.9 and 10. sch. f.• I E• LE. The left handis placed palm inward beforethe opening of bell C. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright.more air pressure being rereeds." Acous. sound For a the hand is kept distant from the mouth opening.x invented R. a reproduction his Plate XXV. w. v.Of these by six sounds. . Inc. b.140. With by-pass in keys s Kempelen'smachine is obtained by comparingthe and sch closed. that thereappears the second so at tried had long been successfully applied to pipe organ knuckle a small opening. g. k. for u the hand is to resemblance to the human mechanism and that the held •at with the openingof the mouth reducedto a the artificial laryn_.The fingers the right hand are of set to operatethe special consonant controls marked r.n.noneare mentioned yon Kempelen. increasing pitch. t.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info •6R. produce he adjustedhis To r IV I. for e the handis hollowed slightlywith its bottomedge against mouthand its top edgeaboutone inch the away. see http://asadl. r. TARNOCZY somespringed cushions vibrate in a pipe in close about one-halfinch from the mouth.He saysthe Having thus failed in his first two attempts to make positions othervowels for suchas the umlautsare intera speakingmachine along the lines represented in mediateto the givenpositions caneasilybe located and Figs. "Description demonstrationan artificial and of larynx. and s.with the left handsetin such of position beforeC as listening and practice indicated bestfor theparticular vowelbeing produced. y (German j) ch. ng A brief description be givenof how the different Stops will sounds produced are according yon Kempelen. 1. to The ¾ricatives operator rests rightarmonthebellows andpumps his X it with an up-and-down motion. Van .This with a small amount of practice. quired for this vowel than for the others. th (thin). for o the top of the hollowed handshould be Transitionals p. also that the methodyon Kempelen fingerthen crooked. and bellowsX shownin part at the top is usedto set up An over-all picture of the consonants made on yon an air pressure "wind-box"A.Courtesy D. Of the four semivowels listed as producedby yon KempelensoundI was made like the vowelsbut with the left thumb curving inside the rubber mouth to correspond the way I is producedin normal speech to with the tongue arched to divide the air stream in the mouth. The soundof m wasproduced closing by the mouth with the left hand while leaving open both nostrilsand soundn by leavingopen only one nostril of the speaking machine.the excess pressure box A can only ones he claimed with a list of the 24 consonants used in be reduced leakage discussed and by passage in Englishas given by Fletcher:9 by as later of air against reededge.Of the six soundslisted as not produced. only ng is foundin the Germanlanguage. m. The tion of the two openings.91. . Am. h.

140.SPEAKING MACHINE OF WOLFGANG VON KEMPELEN 161 p b k g t d p•¾ be key go to gay f v • 5 s z • 3 t•[ d3 h for vote thin then . Van Nostrand of Company.Courtesy D. made p by he with the vibratingreed.91.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info . Inc.232. Manuals3 mbols alphabet recent for of visible speech (Potter). a positions the following for voweland then depressedwhich wasclaimedto produce trilled r that was not the key markedr whichpusheda wire into contact perfectbut better than many peoplecouldmake. see http://asadl. thus giving a rattling effect ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130.6b.see zoo she azure church judge he ohead whe m me n no r] sing w we j you r reed 1 let eve it hate met at esk father not all obey foot boot --about up word word • •. Of the six stop consonants produced. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. 3 g' l al say el I boy al out clu go ou new Fza.

schematic showing essential features for a.from a completedepression the bellows of B Of the five fricativesand three transitionals produced. Von Kempelen's y. ducedzh.not visiblein Fig. This. Schematic representation Kratzenstein's vowelsynthesizers of five (from Young'sVaturalPhilosophy. he did not provide separate means as would seem indicated but after considerable experimentation decidedthat he could he modify the p and b soundsin a way. g. to give tolerableresemblances the in to desired sounds. of ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130. one would think. see http://asadl. the soundbecamew. he made f from the leakage of air with all openings closedwhile exertingstrongbellowspressure. He made h in the sameway but with the mouth left openand with lesspressure the bellows. He made v like f exceptthat a small escape air was permitted at of the mouth openingbc. For t. The by-pass tubefromwind-box to bellC evidently A wasted some his air for he tellshow he couldonly of produce short combinati&•s of sounds in connected speech.91. Germanj.sh (alwayswritten B D schby yon Kempden)wasmadeby depressing key the marked sch.. 11 but clearlyshown in the next figure. k. FIG. a•dding a little voicingto s gavez. in sufficient air passing reedto produce voicingeffectsohe placed the a a small by-passing brasstube as shownin Fig. Adding voicingproduced i. sufficientto vibrate the reed. 1845). whereuponthe air was by-passedto the other side of the reed through the escapetube shown at the bottom whichtube wasdesigned an sh sound for resonance.in this case the depression of key s openeda by-passto air at the side of the reed with the air escaping through the small funnel shown underthe s key. 8. With less air but a larger percentageof vibrational power from the reed. releasingthe hand suddenlyfrom in front of the mouth.e. Similarly. this funnelbeingdesigned a resonant of sizeand shapeto make a hisslike the sounds. closing openings all and then. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright.Adding voicingto p gave b.162 HOMER DUDLEY kND T. The sound of s was made by depressing key marked s with the everythingelse closed. that he doesnot describe detail.German ch on was made like h but with the bellowspressed slightly harder but not enoughto vibrate the reed. H.n intermediateamount of voicingcould have promechanizing production B and D sounds. This soundwas rather weak at first so he provided an auxiliary storagebellowsunder the left side of the wind-box. 11 near the sch key between the wind-box A and the bell mouth C.140. 7.232. TARNOCZY F[o. he saysled to a goodp sound. d. upon release of pressure. whenpressure wasbuilt up. but yon Kempelen does not mention zh at all.He found that buildingup the pressure in the "wind-box" and the mouth for sound p resulted.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info .

Because this. y. for of f. Summarizing. This completes the description yon Kempelen's of work on his speaking machine. find six (p.Fig. seven(s.140. and was made. Von Kempelen's console some for vowels consonants. 11. h and w.we have no further record any suchwriting from the date of the of publication his bookin 1791to 1804whenhe died. splitting the airby stream in the mouth. r) were made by switching five different in resonant passages. b. years'work and startsover completely and d 22 Sep 2011 to 130. : \l 'z . n. of One must admirethe patience the man who worked of 22 yearson his speech machine before completing to it the point of wantingto describe in writing and also it the perserverance one who twice discards of sometwo afresh. were stop consonants made with an arrangementdesigned p. and two transitionMs." while the human vocal system can producephrases several times longer on a single expiration of the breath. v. k. wouldcontinue the he his writing.232. five.he waslimitedto producing bf shortphrases a time suchas "Leopoldus at Secundus. Fro.SPEAKING MACHINE OF WOLFGANG VON KEMPELEN 163 although bellows sLx the capacity th• had times air of the lungs. 10.1. I ' Fro. d. and German ch. were made by using escaping having a hissingsound air similar to f. m.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/inf . Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. t. the 19 consonant of sounds yon Kempelentells of producing. Von Kempelen's final speaking machine. see http://asadl. g) we jr : Fra. had keys but not a single reed)and saysin conclusion that if he foundtime to improve machine. one. explaining what he had done. z.91. sh. While he mentions his belief that the final machinecan easily be fitted with keyslike a piano(the second model. 9.consisting the threefricatives. Von Kempelen's first vowelsynthesizer. 10. as in human speech.

These were presumablyinferior to von Kembut he had an acute and observantear for speech pelen's qualityof speech in produced. ". Piccadilly.. meetingof the British Association the Advancement for The similarity of all vowelswhen sustained a con. Helmholm. Techmer. and Italian languages.232. (1882). Phonetik (1870).69-170(1884). "Naturwiss. manyothers and havesynthesized /Reed cut off ••.particularly from the standpointof modifiedthe p-b soundsto obtain his tolerablere. of by R. In 1846 a certain Professor JosephFaber speech likely to observe. C.Sprachwiss. Notices (1835).Proc.. p. to Finally he obHelmholtz with a seriesof tuning forks. D.. He mentions speech. F. $ of Auxilia• • .348-367."•. exhibitedin Paris with pin-cylinderdrivesas in music Von Kempelen was not only a skilled mechanician boxes. Die Spraddaute(1926). is perhaps with annoyance.London. TheScientific Papers Sir Charles of Wheatstone (1879). A ticket panyingexplosive effectis alsowell known.London 358 (1879). Techmer.91. Adv.Preeceand Stroh with gearedwheels •a making a In conclusion. German is much harder because the prevalence of of briefly mentioningsome significantfurther developmentsof speech synthesis from his time on. Miller.BritishAss.Roy. ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130. H. Preece A. W. Professor Wheatsounds as well as a lot of common sense.havinga variablepitch that permittedsinging.This is shown for in schematically siderable time is a characteristic the modern worker on in Fig. shall round out the picture by phonographic we record. The deviceis pictured in Fig. in is The as "Euphonia" in the Egyptian Hall. French. This a because a child's voice is not criticized. F. 1.pp. Stroh.reveala true understanding of ing machine which he demonstrated the Dublin •? in the manifold nature of speechand its interpretation. difficultyof startinga vowelsoundwithout an accom.. 14.. Gabriel. of Viennademonstrated speech a roaching advertised s its disappearance dynamicspeech cheering. 12. About this sametime. M. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. and the singingof airs ending that selecting high pitched voice is an advantage with "God Save the Queen" (Victoria'sreign).. semblances the t-d and k-g sounds. London& Westminster Review28 (1837).of Sciences August.""':•'2'/• ' ." of Proc. have beena big improvement is to over of the lack of sameness from voice to voice when he Yon Kempelen's.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info . analyse synthese hrrbaren und der sprache. translated Ellis.C. Koenig •ø •ø servedthat peoplewould interpretsounds muchmore with a shaped siren."J. built a speakfirst-handobservations . 28.use machine said.conversation. SWhistle Leather Nostril X Section through Resonator Reed and Fro. f.Qudques Experiences d'A½oustiqu. 8. H.He again costingone shillingpermitted the bearer to hear the observes difficultyof getting a substitutefor the performance the consisting ordinary speech.140. Sensations Tone(1875).. pipes. Wheatstone's speaking machine.1835."On thesynthetic and examination vowelsounds. Koenig. Science MusicalSounds of (1916). Sci. He made . Soc... TARNOCZY He statesthat in threeweeks time a person make can astonishing progress playingthe machine he limits in if himselfto the Latin. 13. see http://asadl. Some of his stone. allg.." Zeits. of whispered vocal cords that sounds at all voice-like. Int. Faber.164 HOMER DUDLEY AND T. 12.from von Kempelen's description. •8C. • '• .Miller• and Stumpf with setsof • easilywhengivensomecluebeforehand. de Physique 274-5 (1879)."Machinepadant de M. Stumpf. Kratzensteinand alsoAbb• Mical of France are said to have built speakingmachines which they consonants in German.

for producingindividuallyalmostevery consonant vowel and sound as discussed detail. vowels. 215-25 (1946). in his book? Wagner in 26 built a vowel-copying electricalcircuit to control the amount of power in the region of the fundamental frequencyand in each of four formant frequency regions." Am. ed 22 Sep 2011 to 130. "Demonstration lecture introducing the new tone synthesizer.music othermaterialis obtained or in electricalform from a phonographrecord and con- Pagetmadedevices plasticene.SPEAKING X ACHINE OF WOLFGANG VO'q KEMPELE'q 165 Fla. 13. simulate the tone characteristic of sound sources than the vocal cord tone for the basic various musical instruments. see http://asadl. Riesz u H.Human Speech (1930).(1936L 14. Wissenschaft. the power. Some partialsynthesis devices makeuseof the human mouth but supply a substituteenergy sourcefor the vocal cords.The art of electronicmusicis closelyrelated. of course. Stewart'selectricalsynthesizer simplespeech for sounds. Courtesyof A'alure. R. including.91. Electronics13.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info . LI. • Paget.140. "Ein neues elektrischesSprechgerat zur Nachbildung der menschlichen Vokale. Fletcher.etc. the artificial laryr•x of R. Faber's speech organ. Wagner. 67 (August.In particular.kad d. d. Wright•-• developed "Sonovox" a whichuses other that it can better voice. J. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. of rubber. •. Phys. •.Thus. referred tot• suppliesa vibrating reed for vocal cords A recentlybuilt 100-element tone synthesize• hasbeen that have been removed or cannot be used satisfaca providedwith variable build-up and decaycontrolsso torily. 1940).232. Wright. saK. '• G. Preuss." Abhandl.

" of Nature 110. "An electrical analogue the vocalcords. of with the vocoder mentioned later.automaticelectricalspeech of synthesizer. Firestone. see http://asadl. Stewart. Franklin Inst.Soc. •9J.electricalcircuit for producing CODER) havingan electrical of speech synthesizer similar speech with manual controls. Similar effectsare producible electrically from electricallyanalyzedspeech for automatically operating the synthesizerinstead of using manual controls. Riesz. 15. 14 for makingsome of'the speech sounds. Courtesy Journal the of of Acoustical Society America. Professor Firestone •a built and on November 3. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright. Q. "RemakingSpeech. an Dudley. and Watldns.91. 15 was demonstrated skilled by trained operatorsat the New York and San Francisco World's Fairs." Acous. 1940 demonstrated before -the Acoustical Society apparatus projecting for sounds from an electricalorganor other electricalsource into the mouth whereupon mouthing gavea modulation to produce multi-voice singing and similareffects. I1.ionally correa spondingdevice known as the vocoder (from VOice • FIO. TARNOCZY Fro. Figure 16 showsfunct. 311 (1922). 11.Courtesyof Journal of theFranklin Institute.Soc." J. 739 (1939).org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info/ . 227.140. 16. Stewart first set up an all-electrical 29 networkas in Fig.Silent of speaking modulatessuch powerinto sound patterns givingthe effectof sound produced from otherthan vocalcordtones. 169 H.Am. "Artificial larynx for speaking and choral singing oneperson. ded 22 Sep 2011 to 130. 28 A. Schematic the vocoder.232.166 HOMER DUDLEY AND T. 357. The modulated output wavesfrom the mouthat low l•vd are then pickedup and amplified produce to unusual voiceeffects. 1939 In an all-electrical speech mechanism knownasthe Voder aø (from the key lettersof VOiceDEmonstratoR) shown in principlein Fig. H. F." Acous. by J. "A synthetic spea•er. I(1939). to that of the yoderbut making useof controlcurrents vertedto electrical waveswhichenergize sortof bone a conduction receiver transmitthe sound to through cartiß lage thelarynxintothe throat.Am. a*Dudley. Schematic the yoder. 376 (1940).