Văn ph m Anh văn

VĂN PH M ANH VĂN

Các thì trong ti ng Anh
Kevin Khoâi Tröông vaø Nam Phöông 1- HI N T I ðƠN/HI N T I ðƠN TI P DI N 1- THÌ HI N T I ÐƠN

The English alphabet consists of 26 letters. The sun rises in the east. She goes to school every day. Thì hi n t i ñơn gi n di n t hành ñ ng có The boy always wakes up at 8 every morning. th t trong quá kh , hi n t i, và tương lai. Thì hi n t i ñơn gi n cũng di n t thói quen và ho t ñ ng hàng ngày. SAI: CH T + Ð NG T (ñ ng t thì hi n They are always trying to help him. t i, ñ ng t thêm "S" hay "ES" n u ch t là ngôi 3 s ít: She, he, it, Mary, John) We are studying every day. Thì hi n t i ñơn gi n có th di n t th i gian trong tương lai khi ý nghĩ ñó thu c v th i khóa bi u. ÐÚNG: They always try to help him. We study every day. The game starts in ten minutes. My class finishes next month.

C m t và t ng ch th i gian: Always, usually, often, sometimes etc., (a fact, habit, or repeated action), every time, as a rule, every day (every other day), once (a month), once in a while

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THÌ HI N T I TI P DI N

I'm typing right now. Thì hi n t i ti p di n di n t hành ñ ng ñang x y ra. CH T + IS/ARE/AM + Ð NG T THÊM -ING It is raining at the moment. Shhh! The baby is sleeping. She is taking ESL 107 this semester.

M t hành ñ ng gì ñó ñang x y ra tu n này, Tammy is writing a letter to her mom tháng này, ho c năm này. tomorrow. Thì hi n t i ti p di n có th di n t th i gian trong tương lai khi ý nghĩ ñó là 1 s ñ nh s n. Jack is visiting his relatives tomorrow. SAI: It is raining tomorrow. (Rain không th là 1 s d ñ nh trư c

C m và t ng ch th i gian: Right now, at the moment, at present, now, shhh!, listen!, look!, this semester. Kevin Khôi Trương

SIMPLE PRESENT Tóm t t: Present simple ñ ch : 1) S vi c x y ra trong hi n t i 2) Nh ng s th t hi n nhiên, s vi c l p ñi l p l i h ng ngày: Thí d : Trái ñ t quay xung quanh m t tr i. H ng ngày tôi th c d y lúc 7 gi sáng 3) Nh ng ñ ng t không nh hư ng ñ n th i gian: ñ ng t tĩnh (static verbs) To belong to, to cost, to know, to believe, to like, to love, to mean, to see, to understand ... I (dis)like / love / hate / want that girl

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I believe / suppose / think you’re right I hear / see / feel the world around us It tastes / smells good 4) Sau nh ng liên t WHEN, AS SOON AS 5) TH NGHI V N: Thêm ñ ng trư c DO hay DOES (ngôi th 3 s ít) 6) TH PH Ð NH: thêm DON'T , DOESN'T __________________ The simple present is used to express actions which take place in the present or which occur regularly (Things that happen repetedly) . It also serves to express general or absolute statements not anchored in a particular time frame (Things in general) I work at home. The earth revolves around the sun Politics are a dirty business. Jill speaks four languages fluently. I get up at seven o’clock every morning Mrs. Smith teaches English at my school On Sundays, we like to fish.

INTERROGATIVE FORM In the interrogative, the present is generally introduced by a form of the verb "to do" ("do / does"): Does your father like to cook? Do you have time to stop by my place? NEGATIVE FORM The appropriate form of the verb "to do" will also be used for the negative: I do not (don't) work at home. No, he does not (doesn't) like to cook. AFTER WHEN AS SOON AS ...

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After the conjunctions "when," "as soon as," etc., the present is used, even though actions expressed may refer to the future: She'll come when she can. He'll pay us as soon as we finish. Forming the simple present The present is extremely regular in its conjugation. As a general rule, one uses the base form of the infinitive (minus the preposition "to"). For the third person singular ("he," "she," "it"), an "-s" is added if the verb ends in a consonant, or "-es" if the verb ends with a vowel: To work I work you work he / she / it works we work they work To go I go you go he / she / it goes we go they go However: verbs ending with "consonant + y" (for example, "to try," "to cry," "to bury," etc.) will end in "-ies" in the third person singular: To bury I bury you bury he / she buries we bury they bury

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"To have", "to be" The only irregular verbs in the present are "to have," "to be," and the modal verbs. To have I have you have he / she has we have they have To be I am you are he / she is we are they are

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TÓM T T 1) Ð nói s v t x y ra trong lúc ta ñang nói chuy n 2) Nói m t vi c mà ta ñã chu n b ñ làm. M t tương lai ch c ch n ñã so n s n 3) Nh ng ñ ng t tĩnh trong ý nghĩa hi n t i ____________________________ 1* To say that st is happening at or around the time of speaking 2* you are talking about what you have already arranged to do 3* Les verbes statistiques dans le sens du présent simple *** 1) Don’t interrupt while I’m talking to somebody else

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Please be quiet, I’m watching a good programme He’s trying to get the car to start /Not now, I’m thinking 2) I can’t meet you tomorrow because my parents are coming to see me What are you doing tomorrow evening ? - I’m going to the theatre This is Tom’s diary for next week: he’s playing tennis on Monday, he’s going to the dentist on Tuesday, he’ having dinner on Friday... 3) What are you thinking about ? We’re not seeing a lot of him these days Are you not feeling well today ? We’re tasting the wine to see if it’s alright

Nam Phương

2- HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH/HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N THÌ HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH CH T + HAVE/ HAS + QUÁ KH PHÂN T (PAST PARTICIPLE) She has never seen snow. I have gone to Disneyland several times.

Thì hi n t i hoàn thành di n t hành ñ ng We have been here since 1995. ñã x y ra ho c chưa bao gi x y ra 1 th i

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gian không xác ñ nh trong quá kh . Thì hi n t i hoàn thành cũng di n t s l p ñi l p l i c a 1 hành ñ ng trong quá kh . Thì hi n t i hoàn thành cũng ñư c dùng v i i since và for. Since + th i gian b t ñ u (1995, I was young, this morning etc.) Khi ngư i nói dùng since, ngư i nghe ph i tính th i gian là bao lâu. For + kho ng th i gian (t lúc ñ u t i bây gi ) Khi ngư i nói dùng for, ngư i nói ph i tính th i gian là bao lâu.

They have known me for five years.

C m và t ng ch th i gian: Never, ever, in the last fifty years, this semester, since, for, so far, up to now, up until now, up to the present, yet, recently, lately, in recent years, many times, once, twice, and in his/her whole life THÌ HI N T I HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N Thì hi n t i hoàn thành ti p di n nh n m nh kho ng th i gian c a 1 hành ñ ng ñã I have been waiting for you about 20 x y ra trong quá kh và ti p t c t i hi n t i minutes. (có th t i tương lai). CH T + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + Ð NG T THÊM -ING The child has been sleeping all afternoon.

C m và t ng ch th i gian: All day, all week, since, for, for a long time, almost every day this week, recently, lately, in the past week, in recent years, up until now, and so far Kevin Khôi Trương

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

I have been doing You have been doing He has been doing

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We have been doing You have been doing They have been doing TÓM T T: Ð nói m t hành ñ ng kéo dài trong quá kh và V A M I ng ng. Ð h i vi c x y ra bao nhiêu lâu trong quá kh và ta h ng thú câu chuy n: hành ñ ng chưa ch m d t. ************************** This tense is formed with the modal "HAVE" or "HAS" (for third-person singular subjects) plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): 1* To talk about a long action which began in the past and has just stopped. 2* To ask or say how long st has been happened. The action began in the past & is still happening or has just stopped how long ; for ( for 5 years ; for over an hour ); since ; today ; recently ; 3* For actions repeated over a period of time ( how long ; for ; since ) *** To say how long st has been happening . *** We are interested in the action : the action has not been finished . 1* I have been working in the garden all morning. George has been painting that house for as long as I can remember. You're out of breath . Have you been running ? She has been running and her heart is still beating fast. Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing ? That man over there is bright red. I think he's been sunbathing. Janet is hot and tired . She has been playing tennis. Ann is very tired . She has been working hard It has just been raining. 2* It is raining now. It began to rain 2 hours ago and it is still raining . It has been raining for 2 hours Have you been working hard today ? How long have you been learning English ? I've been waiting here for over an hour

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I've been watching TV since two 2 o'clock . George hasn't been feeling well recently. 3* She has been playing tennis since she was eight How long have you been smoking ? It's raining : How long has it been raining ? My foot is hurting : How long has your foot been hurting ? Kevin is studying He has been studying for 3 hours Mary is working in London . She started working there on 20 May . She has been working since 20 May. Nam Phương

3- QUÁ KH /QUÁ KH THÌ QUÁ KH

TI P DI N ÐƠN

Thì quá kh ñơn di n t hành ñ ng ñã x y I went to the library last night. ra và k t thúc trong quá kh v i th i gian xác ñ nh. She came to the U.S. five years ago. CH T + Ð NG T QUÁ KH He met me in 1999. When they saw the accident, they called the police.

When + thì quá kh ñơn (simple past) When + hành ñ ng th nh t

C m và t ng ch th i gian: last night, last year, last time, etc., ago, in 1999, today, yesterday, then = at that time, in the 1800's, in the 19th century, when, and for Today ñôi khi ñư c dùng thì hi n t i ti p di n và tương lai ñơn. For ñôi khi ñư c dùng thì hi n t i hoàn thành (present perfect). THÌ QUÁ KH In (a), 2 hành ñ ng ñã x y ra cùng lúc. Nhưng hành ñ ng th nh t ñã x y ra s m hơn và ñã ñang ti p t c x y ra thì hành ñ ng th hai x y ra. CH T + WERE/WAS + Ð NG TÙ THÊM -ING TI P DI N a. What were you doing when I called you last night? b. He was watching TV while his wife was cleaning the bedroom.

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While + thì quá kh ti p di n (past progressive) In (b), 2 hành ñ ng ñã x y ra cùng m t lúc.

C m và t ng ch th i gian: While, at that very moment, at 10:00 last night, and this morning (afternoon) Kevin Khôi Trương

SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS

I was doing You were doing He was doing We were doing You were doing They were doing

TÓM T T: Hành ñ ng kéo dài, ti p t c, m t th i ñi m nào ñó trong quá kh gi a công vi c, trong m t th i gian nào ñó. Không

Ð nói hành ñ ng kéo dài, ñang cho bi t khi nào ch m d t.

********************************* 1* The PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE indicates continuing action, something that was happening, going on, at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the helping "to be" verb, in the past tense, plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): 2* To say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. 3* To say that st happend in the middle of st.

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4* It doesn't tell us wether an action was finished or not. 5* To tell how long something has been happening Examples: 1* I was riding my bike all day yesterday. Joel was being a terrible role model for his younger brother. Dad was working in his garden all morning. During the mid-50s, real estate speculators were buying all the swampland in Central Florida, and innocent people were investing all their money in bogus development projects. Was he being good to you? 2* This time last year I was living in Spain. What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night ? 3* Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the lunch While I was working in the garden , I hurt my back. I saw Jim in the park. He was sitting on the grass. It was raining when I got up . Carlos lost his watch while he was running.I was sleeping on the couch when Bertie smashed through the door. 5* Tom was cooking the dinner . (He was in the middle of cooking, we don't know wether he finished or not). COMPARE: When Tom arrived, - we were having dinner. (We had already started dinner before Tom arrived ) - we had dinner ( Tom arrived and we had dinner ) You've been smoking too much recently. You should smoke less. Ann has been writing letters all day.

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Nam Phương

4- QUÁ KH THÌ QUÁ KH

HOÀN THÀNH/QUÁ KH

HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N

HOÀN THÀNH

I had just finished watering the lawn when Thì quá kh hoàn thành di n t 1 hành it began to rain. ñ ng ñã x y ra và k t thúc trong quá kh trư c 1 hành ñ ng khác cũng x y ra và k t She had studied English before she came to thúc trong quá kh . the U.S. CH T + HAD + QUÁ KH PHÂN T After he had eaten breakfast, he went to school.

THÌ QUÁ KH

HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N

Thì quá kh hoàn thành ti p di n nh n m nh kho ng th i gian c a 1 hành ñ ng ñã ñang x y ra trong quá kh và k t thúc trư c 1 hành ñ ng khác x y ra và cũng k t thúc We had been living in Santa Ana for 2 trong quá kh . years before we moved to Garden Grove. CH T + HAD + BEEN + Ð NG T THÊM -ING

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C m và t ng ch th i gian: Until then, by the time, prior to that time, before, after Dùng thì quá kh hoàn thành cho hành ñ ng th nh t. Dùng thì quá kh cho hành ñ ng th hai. M o: Quí v có th nh theo cách này. Ch cái ti ng Anh A B C.......

"A" ñ ng v trí th nh t và "A" là ch cái ñ u tiên c a ch "After". Cho nên After + hành ñ ng th nh t. Trư c tiên: Alex had gone to bed. Sau ñó': He couldn't sleep. After Alex had gone to bed, he couldn't sleep. Trư c tiên: Jessica had cooked dinner. Sau ñó': Her boyfriend came. Jessica's boyfriend came after she had cooked dinner. "B" ñ ng v trí th hai, và "B" là ch cái ñ u tiên c a ch "Before". Cho nên Before + hành ñ ng th 2. Trư c tiên: Kimberly had taken the test. Sau ñó': She went home yesterday. Kimberly had taken the test before she went home yesterday. Trư c tiên: Brandon had brushed his teeth. Sau ñó': He went to bed. Before Brandon went to bed, he had brushed his teeth. Kevin Khôi Trương

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

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TÓM T T: Ð di n t m t hành ñ ng kéo dài, ÐÃ CH M D T m t th i di m trong quá kh .

Không có Past perfect progressive cho "To be". "Had been Being" ñư c di n t b ng "Had been" .

*** THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE indicates a continuous action that was completed at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the modal "HAD" plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): "I had been working in the garden all morning. George had been painting his house for weeks, but he finally gave up." I hadn't been going You hadn't been going He hadn't been going We hadn't been going You hadn't been going They hadn't been going To say how long st had been happening before something else happened It had been raining (the sun was shining and the ground was wet it had stopped raining. ) I was very tired when I arrived home , I had been working hard all day He was out of breath . He had been running The house was quiet when I got home. Everybody had gone to bed. Tom wasn't there when I arrived : he had just gone out The man was a complete st ranger to me . I had never seen before.

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Bill no longer had his car: he had sold it NOTE: There is no past perfect progressive for the "to be" verb. "Had been being" is expressed simply as "had been": "We had been successful before, but we somehow lost our knack." Nam Phương

5- TƯƠNG LAI/TƯƠNG LAI TI P DI N THÌ TƯƠNG LAI ÐƠN Khi quí v ñoán (predict, guess), dùng will ÐOÁN: Dùng c WILL l n BE GOING ho c be going to. TO Khi quí v ch d ñ nh trư c, dùng be going to không ñư c dùng will. CH T + AM (IS/ARE) GOING TO + Ð NG T ( hi n t i: simple form) Khi quí v di n t s tình nguy n ho c s s n sàng, dùng will không ñư c dùng be going to. CH T + WILL + Ð NG T simple form) ( hi n t i: According to the reporter, it will be sunny tomorrow. HO C According to the reporter, it is going to be sunny tomorrow. I'm going to study tomorrow. (không ñư c dùng WILL) I will help you do your homework. (không ñư c dùng BE GOING TO)

THÌ TƯƠNG LAI TI P DI N Thì tương lai ti p di n di n t hành ñ ng s I will be watching the "Wheel of Fortune" x y ra 1 th i ñi m nào ñó trong tương lai. show when you call tonight. CH T + WILL + BE + Ð NG T THÊM -ING ho c Don't come to my house at five. I am going to be eating.

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CH T + BE GOING TO + BE + Ð NG T THÊM -ING

C m và t ng ch th i gian: In the future, next year, next week, next time, and soon Kevin Khôi Trương

6- TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH/TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N THÌ TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH Thì tương lai hoàn thành di n t 1 hành ñ ng trong tương lai s k t thúc trư c 1 I'm going to go to school at eight. My hành ñ ng khác trong tương lai. friend is going to come to my house at nine tomorrow. By the time my friend comes to my house, I will have gone to school. CH T + WILL + HAVE + QUÁ KH PHÂN T (PAST PARTICIPLE) She will have put on some make-up prior C m và t ng ch th i gian: By the time to the time her boyfriend comes tonight. and prior to the time (có nghĩa là before) THÌ TƯƠNG LAI HOÀN THÀNH TI P DI N Thì tương lai hoàn thành ti p di n nh n m nh kho ng th i gian c a 1 hành ñ ng s ñang x y ra trong tương lai và s k t thúc trư c 1 hành ñ ng khác trong tương lai. CH T + WILL + HAVE + BEEN + Ð NG T THÊM -ING He will have been studying for four hours by the time he takes his examination tonight. Kevin Khôi Trương

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M o t - Articles
Nam Phương

Tóm t t:
Indefinite articles: a, an ** Có 2 d ng "A" và "AN"** AN khi ñ ng trư c môt nguyên âm : vowel a cat an accident some dogs Ngo i tr trư c U nhưng ph i ñ c là "ju" (phát âm như ch "yêu" ti ng Vi t. Thí d a University a unit not a one a unicorn Definite articles: The Gi ng như adjectives (possessive, demonstratives, numeral, ...) m o t " THE "dùng ñ b nghĩa cho danh t . Nó ñ ng trư c danh t . (Ti ng Vi t: cái , con, trái... như cái hoa, con nai, trái cam...) ** Dùng ñ ch ngư i, v t, nơi ch n... mà ta ñã xác ñ nh r i. Thí d như "con gái hông hàng xóm", ta bi t là ai r i, nên ta dùng definite article "the". N u như m t ngư i nào ñó, thì dùng indefinite article "a". ** Dư i d ng ghi v n và ph ñ nh, m o t không thay ñ i. ** Trư c m t nguyên âm, "the" ñư c ñ c là "ñi" ** Không dùng m o t khi: *Danh t tr u tư ng,

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* S nhi u c a "a" * Ngày, tháng, năm * Ch c v o0o KHI DÙNG CH C TƯ C NGH NGHI P He interviewed the president yesterday We saw the Queen on TV The Doctor left an hour ago Exception: « The Emperor » et « The Tsar »

DANH T

RIÊNG S nhi u (proper names, noms propres)

The Wilsons, the Bakers

DANH T Ð A DƯ S nhi u : The West Indies, the USA, the British Isles Exception: The United Kingdom H (of) Lacs The lake of Geneva TÊN BI N, Ð I DƯƠNG, GIÒNG NƯ C The Thames, the Mississippi, The Pacific The Mediterranean [‘rein]

TÊN DÃY NÚI The Alpes, the Rocky Mountains

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TÊN ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M (Có ch "of" ñ ng trư c) The House of Parliament

Khi nào không dùng m o t ?
Khi ch c tư c, ngh nghi p ñư c ti p theo b ng TÊN c a ngư i ñó ( Titre, grade, profession.. ils sont suivis du nom de la personne ) He interviewed Pr. Kennedy We saw Queen Elizabeth on TV Doctor Qeen left an hour ago President Mitterrand completed two terms. We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant. She met with Doctor Schmidt. DANH T Christ DANH T RIÊNG S ÍT

Ð A LÝ S ÍT

France, England Wales (s ít) HÔ, Ð NH NÚI, ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M (Lacs, Sommets, Rues et monuments) Lake Ontario Mount Everest, Ben Nevis Fith Avenue, Oxford Street Wesminter Abbey NAM PHƯƠNG

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Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t chung (nouns in general), ñ t "a," "an," ho c "kho^ng ma.o tu?`" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. "a" ñư c dùng trư c ph âm (b, c, d, f.....). "an" ñư c dùng trư c nguyên âm (a, e, i, o, and u). "kho^ng ma.o tu?`" ñư c dùng trư c danh t s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c. Quí v ch nên nh 5 nguyên âm. Ngoài ra là phu âm ch không nên nh v a nguyên âm v a ph âm. Danh t s ít Danh t s ít Danh t s nhi u Danh t không ñ m ñư c He met a girl. I threw an apple away. Books are made from paper. (không có m ot trư c ch "books") Milk is good for everyone. (không có m o t trư c ch "milk") NGO I L : a uniform, âm "d".) a university, a union (u ñư c phát âm là "diu" và ñư c coi là 1 nguyên

an honest girl,

an honorable man (h câm)

Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t b t ñ nh (indefinite nouns), ñ t "a" ho c "some" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. "some" ñư c dùng v i danh t b t ñ nh s nhi u và danh t b t ñ nh không ñ m ñư c. Danh t s ít Danh t s nhi u Danh t không ñ m ñư c Lan bought a shirt. Nancy wants to order some chairs. Andy got some mail today.

Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t xác ñ nh (definite nouns), ñ t "the" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. Khi c ngư i nói l n ngư i nghe ñ u bi t v 1 danh t rõ ràng, ñ t "the." trư c danh t ñó. "the" ñư c dùng v i danh t s ít, s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c. Danh t s ít Danh t s nhi u Danh t không ñ m ñư c Ch có 1 m t tr i Where is the car, Joseph? She already talked to the children. Thank you for the advice, Amy. The sun was bright yesterday. We have just bought a house. The house is beautiful. The house is big. The United States, the Philippines, the United Nations...

Khi quí v bi t danh t ch có duy nh t 1, dùng "the". Khi quí v nh c ñ n 1 danh t nào ñó t l n th 2 tr ñi, dùng "the". Nhà ñư c nh c ñ n l n th 2.

Khi quí v nói v 1 hi p h i hay liên ñoàn, dùng "the". Nư c M có 50 ti u bang. Phi Lu t Tân dư c bao quanh b i hơn 7000 hòn ñ o.

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Shall
Nam Phương

Ngôi th nh t s ít và s nhi u (I SHALL va WE SHALL): Thì Tương lai: 1) Câu h i:
Ð h i ý ki n hay l i khuyên b o Shall I help you ?

2) Câu tr l i: B i vì tôi không th làm khác hơn ñư c... hay tôi s làm n u vi c ñó không làm phi n tôi ...

Yes, I shall

3) Dùng I SHALL, WE SHALL khi: a) B bó bu c, không có s ch n l a hay ý mu n.. b) Không ñư c t do c) Hành ñ ng không th lay chuy n ñư c d) Nh ng ho t ñ ng không c ý: to know, understand, remember, forget Now, Ernest, I will give you one more chance, and if you don’t say « come », I shall know that you are self-willed and naughty I shall always remember your calling me a liar e) Cho nh ng c m giác và tình c m: to be cold, glad, disappointed, to like, to enjoy, to hate...

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We shall be glad to meet your friend We shall meet you when you have gone We shall all be very tired Thí d : Shall I tell him about it ? - What shall I do ? (Tôi s làm gì ñây?) - What shall we have for lunch ? (Ta s ăn gì trưa nay?, h i ý ki n ) - How long shall we wait ? - I shall not (shan’t) do it by myself. (I can't...) - I shall be very grateful if you do - I shall (not will) call you tomorrow. (tương lai) - We shall (not will) be sure to keep in touch (tình c m)

Shall - Will
Võ Th Di u H ng

A - Shall

I) Ngôi th

nh t (I, We)

1) Thì tương lai

Khi dùng ngôi th nh t (I và We), chia v i tr ñ ng t (auxiliary verb) SHALL + ñ ng t chính nguyên m u , n u kèm theo nh ng tr ng t (adverb) ch th i gian tương lai (tomorrow, next year, tonight...) thì shall dùng ñ nói v thì Tương lai I shall be late home tonight. (Tôi s v nhà tr t i nay) If you do that one more time, I shall be very cross. (N u... s ..) I shall never forget you. I shall have to call you back - there's someone at the front door. Next month I shall have worked here for five years.(1) Shall we be able to get this finished today, do you think? I'm afraid I shall not/shan't be able to come to your party. I shall hope to hear from you again soon.(Formal = hình th c) I shall look forward to meeting you next week.(Formal) So we'll see you at the weekend, shall we (= is that right)? (2) We shall (= intend to = có ý ñ nh, có m c ñích) let you know as soon as there's any

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Văn ph m Anh văn news. This is an important point in my argument, and I shall (= intend to) come back to it. *** (1) Future perfect = Hành ñ ng trong tương lai, bi t trư c s ñư c hoàn t t trong năm năm t i, m t hành ñ ng trong tương lai nhưng x y ra trư c (th i gian năm năm) Thí d : • • • She will have finished before eight o'clock. (Hành ñ ng "to finish" xong TRƯ C "eight o'clock") Tomorrow morning they will all have left. (Hành ñ ng "to leave" xong trư c "Tomorrow morning") They will already have finished eating by the time we get there.

(2) "We shall...": Vì có nhi u ý ki n khác nhau. Ý chúng tôi cũng có th s t i cũng có th không ... ý c a các b n có thích chúng tôi t i không? N u dùng "We will..." thì ta ch có m t con ñư ng duy nh t là "chúng tôi s ñ n g p các b n cu i tu n này này"

2) Yêu c u (Suggestion) a) Câu h i:
Dư i d ng câu h i: Tùy n i dung trong câu (v ng ) mà ta hi u ñó là s yêu c u (suggestion ), s phán xét (judg(e)ment), ñ h i ý ki n hay l i khuyên b o, ñ nói lên s yêu c u làm m t vi c gì ñó. Shall I help you ? I'm cold. Shall I close this window? (Tôi l nh. Tôi có th ñóng c a ñư c không?) Shall we go out for dinner tonight? (Mình ñi ăn t i nhen?) Shall I (= Do you want me to) pick the children up from school today? What shall (=What do you suggest that) we do about this broken window? Which restaurant shall we (=would you like us to) go to?

b) Câu tr

l i:

B i vì tôi không th làm khác hơn ñư c... hay tôi s làm n u vi c ñó không làm phi n tôi ...

Yes, I shall

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Văn ph m Anh văn

3) ý nguy n
Shall dùng ñ nói lên m t ý nguy n, m t l i h a, m t m nh l nh, m t công vi c mà ta xác ñ nh, qu quy t M T CÁCH M NH M Dùng ñ nói lên m t ý nguy n ch c ch n hay m t vi c ch n ch n s chính b n kh ng ñ nh là vi c ñó s x y ra x y ra hay

Don't worry, I shall be there to meet the train. I'm determined that she shall not be allowed to suffer. The school rules state that no child shall be allowed out of the school during the day, unless accompanied by an adult.(Hình th c) You shall (=I promise that you will) go to the ball, Hương.

4) Tóm l i:
dùng I SHALL, WE SHALL khi:

a) B bó bu c, không có s b) Không ñư c t do

ch n l a hay ý mu n..

c) Hành ñ ng không th lay chuy n ñư c d) Nh ng ho t ñ ng không c ý: to know, understand, remember, forget Now, Ernest, I will give you one more chance, and if you don’t say « come », I shall know that you are self-willed and naughty I shall always remember your calling me a liar e) Cho nh ng c m giác và tình c m: to be cold, glad, disappointed, to like, to enjoy, to hate...

We shall be glad to meet your friend We shall meet you when you have gone We shall all be very tired

Thí d :

Shall I tell him about it ? - What shall I do ? (Tôi s làm gì ñây?)

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Văn ph m Anh văn What shall we have for lunch ? (Ta s ăn gì trưa nay?, h i ý ki n ) How long shall we wait ? I shall not (shan’t) do it by myself. (I can't...) I shall be very grateful if you do I shall (not will) call you tomorrow. (tương lai) We shall (not will) be sure to keep in touch (tình c m) x y ra hay chính ta kh ng ñ nh

f) ý nguy n ch c ch n hay m t vi c ch n ch n s I shall be there with you, don't worry.

B) Shall và Will
Vì Shall và Will ñ u ñư c rút g n gi ng nhau (I Will --> I'll , We shall --> We'll) nên ta không ñ ý ñ n chúng n a. Nhưng th c s có s khác bi t:

1) N u ta dùng I, We v i Shall và You, He, Them v i will = Bình thư ng. Ý nghĩa s khách quan, ta không có ý ki n gì trong ñó (objective, simple statement of fact)

I shall be in London tomorrow. You will see a large building on the left He will be wearing blue We shall not be there when you arrive You will find his office on the 7th floor They will arrive late

2) N u ta dùng I và We v i Will và You, He Them v i Shall = qu quy t m nh m , m nh l nh, l i h a, ý nguy n... Tùy theo nôi dung trong m nh ñ .

I will do everything possible to help (tôi quy t..) You shall be sorry for this (anh ph i...) It shall be done.

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Văn ph m Anh văn We will not interfere. You shall do as you're told They shall give one month's notice (h h a...)

Cũng gi ng như lu t c a SHOULD VÀ WOULD, nhưng v i Should và Would thì nh nhàng hơn, quý phái hơn: I should be grateful if you would kindly send me your latest catalogue.

C) K t lu n
Will và Shall cho ta bi t cách di n t , ý c a ngư i nói, nghĩa là hành ñ ng có liên quan ñ n quan ni m c a ngư i nói và tùy theo v ng (nh ng ch sau "shall" hay"will") ñ bi t tác gi câu nói ñó ý như th nào. Nhưng có m t ñi u rõ ràng là : - Will ch s thánh. m t chi u, m t con ñư ng, không có ý ki n trái ngư c, như trong Kinh

- Shall ch nhi u chi u hư ng có th x y ra., nh ng ý ki n trái ngư c, như trong Khoa h c.. Tôi nói như v y là vì tôi nghĩ th cho dù ý ki n c a các b n có ñ i l p v i tôi ñi chăng n a thì tôi cũng c nói Ireland shall be free: M c dù nh ng ngư i khác nghĩ không gi ng tôi, m c dù không ph i v y, nhưng tôi v n nói là Ireland s ñư c t do! We shall overcome: Chúng ta s th ng l i. Có nhi u ngư i không ñ ng ý v i tôi, không tin l i tôi nói, m c dù v y tôi v n c b o ñ m l i tôi nói! (Ch c trong Chính tr , các ng c viên ph i dùng thư ng xuyên "Shall") . Ngoài ra cũng có ý hăm d a hay h a h n - You will pay for this: V i câu nói này anh ch có m t con ñư ng là ph i tr ti n chuy n quá rõ vì ngư i nghe không ch ng ñ i. - You shall pay for this Cho dù anh không ch u ñi n a , tôi cũng b t anh ph i tr ti n . - Will you come with us ? = anh ñi v i chúng tôi ch ? (L i m i) - Will you be coming with us ? = Anh s ñi v i chúng tôi không? (câu h i)

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Văn ph m Anh văn - Will you lend your car please ? = l i th nh c u: Anh có mu n cho mư n xe không? - Will you be lending your car ? = Anh có s cho mư n xe không?

- Will you stay with us for the week-end ? = câu h i thư ng - Shall you stay at home for the week-end ? = Câu h i tương lai -Will you be staying at home for the week-end ? = Tương lai -Yes, I will = Vâng r t s n sàng. nhà!

-Yes, I’m afraid I shall = H i ơi! Vâng, tôi nghĩ r ng s ph i

-You will go to the pictures and we shall stay here = Anh ñi xem chi u bóng còn chúng tôi l i ñây ñ làm xong công vi c (m t s nh n xét bình thư ng, vì We thì shall và You will) - We will go to the pictures and = Chúng tôi ñi xem chi u bóng (thích l m!) -You shall stay here to finish our work = Anh ph i (ngư i nói nghiêm kh c ra l nh) l i ñ làm xong công chuy n

- He says he won’t do it = Anh ta nói không làm chuy n ñó (anh ta t

ch i)

- He shall do it! = Anh ta ph i làm! (ngư i nói câu này nghiêm kh c ra l nh) - She shan’t go to VN with you! = Cô ta không ñư c ñi VN v i anh! (Ngư i nói câu này ch ng ñ i không mu n cô ta ñi nên dùng SHE SHAN'T) - She won’t go to VN with you!. = Cô ta s không ñi v i anh. Ðây ch là m t nh n xét thông thư ng là chính cô ta t ch i ñi VN v i anh ch ngư i nói không có liên can gì c . B i vì SHE WON'T, câu nói thông thư ng. - I shall be 18 next week = Tu n sau tôi s ñư c 18 tu i cho dù tôi có mu n hay không

Tính t
Kevin Khôi Trương

TH
Determiner Observation

T

C A TÍNH T
Origin Material Qualifier Head Noun

Physical Description

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Size Shape Age two her delicious some inexpensive my this several small comfortable big small round old lovely short young

Color children white Vietnamese French Canadian white oak dining silk business suit food chair beads

rocking chair

Không nên dùng quá nhi u tính t trong 1 câu. Gi i h n t 2 ñ n 5 tính t trong 1 câu. Dùng d u ph y gi a 2 tính t ch khi nào nh ng tính t này cùng lo i. The short, yellow bristles of brass (2 tính t trong physical description) A delicious, expensive Italian meal (không dùng d u ph y gi a expensive and Italian)

TÍNH T

V I ED VÀ ING
ED: Quá Kh Phân T (Past Participle) I'm a tired person. She is an amazed lady. I'm a frightened guy. They are disappointed people. We are shocked people.

ING: Hi n T i Phân T (Present Participle) The work tires me. The story amazes her. The dogs frightens me. It is a tiring work. It is an amazing story. It is a frightening dog.

The news disappoints them. It is a disappointing news. The news shocks us. It is a shocking news.

ING: Hi n T i Phân T (Present Participle) ch th ch ñ ng: Công vi c làm tôi m t. ED: Quá Kh Phân T (Past Participle) ch th b ñ ng: Tôi b m t b i công vi c. Quí v có th nghĩ theo cách này:

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Văn ph m Anh văn

H i: Ai làm hành ñ ng trong câu? Ngư i ñó hay v t ñó g i là giver. Ai nh n hành ñ ng trong câu? Ngư i ñó hay v t ñó g i là receiver? Nói v giver, dùng ING Nói v receiver, dùng ED

Th s ít và s nhi u
Kevin Khôi Trương

V I DANH T Nhi u danh t s ít tr thành s nhi u b ng cách thêm ch "S" ho c "ES" cu i.

S A cat A hat

ÍT Two cats Two hats

S

NHI U

Khi danh t t n cùng b ng ch, s, sh, x, ho c z, ñ t "ES"

cu i.

CH There is a church in this town. S I gave her a kiss. SH He brought one dish full of food. X They received a fax yesterday. Z We heard a buzz outside.

There are two churches in this town. I gave her many kisses. He brought two dishes full of food. They received four faxes yesterday. We heard a number of buzzes outside.

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Văn ph m Anh văn

LU T "Y" Khi 1 danh t t n cùng b ng 1 nguyên âm (A, E, I, O, U) và ch "Y", thêm ch "S" ñ thành s nhi u.

S

ÍT

S

NHI U

The child has several toys. The child has only one toy. We saw some boys walking down the street. We saw a boy walking down the street. My boss gave me one day to finish this job. My boss gave me two days to finish this They rescued a monkey in the zoo. job. They rescued a few monkeys in the zoo.

Khi 1 danh t t n cùng b ng 1 ph âm và ch "Y", thay ch "Y" b ng ch "I" và thêm "ES".

Her family is really poor. The lady is so beautiful. Her duty is to lock the bank vault. A new baby was born yesterday. Give me a tray, please. The study showed that what he said was wrong.

Some families in the U.S are rich. The ladies are so beautiful. She has many duties. Ten babies were born yesterday. Give me two trays, please. Many studies have been made recently.

LU T "F" - "FE" N u danh t t n cùng b ng ch "F" ho c "FE", thay ch "F" ho c "FE" b ng ch "V" và thêm "ES".

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Văn ph m Anh văn

S

ÍT

S

NHI U

She is drawing a calf. A leaf is falling down from a tree. She bought a loaf of bread. I bought her a scarf. Don't play with a knife. You have one life to live. His wife is nice.

She is drawing a calves. Leaves are falling down from a tree. She bought several loaves of bread. I bought her two scarves (ho c scarfs). Don't play with knives. They risked their lives to rescue you. Their wives are selfish.

NGO I L : Vài danh t t n cùng b ng ch "F" có ch "S" Belief --- Beliefs Chief --- Chiefs Cliff --- Cliffs Proof --- Proofs Roof --- Roofs Safe --- Safes

cu i.

LU T "OES" - "OS" Ðôi khi danh t t n cùng b ng ch "O" có "ES" ho c "S" ho c c hai "ES" và "OS" cu i.

OES Echo --- Echoes

Hero --- Heroes

Potato --- Potatoes

Tomato --- Tomatoes

OS Auto --- Autos Memos Photo --- Photos Solos Soprano --- Sopranos Video --- Videos

Concerto --- Concertos Piano --- Pianos Studio --- Studios Zoo --- Zoos

Kilo --- Kilos Radio --- Radios Tattoo --- Tattoos

Memo --Solo ---

C hai "OES" và "OS" Mosquito --- Mosquitoes/Mosquitos Tornado --- Tornadoes/Tornados

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Volcano --- Volcanoes/Volcanos

Zero --- Zeroes/Zeros

TH S

NHI U C A DANH T

B T QUY T C

Child --- Children

M t vài danh t có th s nhi u b t quy t t. Foot --- Feet Goose --- Geese Louse --- Lice Man -- Men Mouse --- Mice Ox --- Oxen Tooth --- Teeth Woman --- Women

TH S

ÍT VÀ S

NHI U GI NG NHAU

Vài danh t gi ng nhau c th s ít l n s nhi u. Deer --- Deer Fish --- Fish Means --- Means Sheep Species --- Species

Series --- Series

Sheep ---

TH S

NHI U ÐƯ C MƯ N T

NH NG NGÔN NG

KHÁC

M t vài th s nhi u c a danh t ñư c mư n t nh ng ngôn ng khác. Criterion --- Criteria Phenomenon --- Phenomena Cactus --- Cacti/Cactuses Stimulus --- Stimuli Alumnus --- Alumni Syllabus --- Syllabi/Syllabuses Analysis --- Analyses Basis --- Bases Crisis --- Crises Hypothesis --- Hypotheses Parenthesis --- Parentheses Oasis --- Oases Thesis --- Theses Appendix --- Appendices/Appendixes Index --- Indexes/Indices Formula --- Formulas/Formulae Vertebra --- Vertebrae

Bacterium --- Bacteria Curriculum --- Curricula Datum --- Data Medium --- Media Memorandum ---Memoranda Agendum --- Agenda

V I Ð NG T

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Trong thì hi n t i ñơn, r t nhi u ñ ng t có ch "S" ho c "ES" câu là ngôi ba s ít.

cu i khi ch t trong

Khi ñ ng t t n cùng b ng ch, s, sh, x, ho c z, ñ t "ES"

cu i.

CH S SH X

Z

Watch --- Watches He watches TV every night. Kiss --- Kisses She kisses her daughter before she goes to work in the morning. Brush --- Brushes The boy brushes his teeth each morning. Fax --- Faxes She faxes at least two receipts to the insurance company every day. Buzz --- Buzzes His left ear buzzes each time the plane takes off.

Tr ng t - Adverbs
Nam Phương và Kevin Khôi Trương

Tóm t t:
Indefinite articles: a, an ** Có 2 d ng "A" và "AN"** AN khi ñ ng trư c môt nguyên âm : vowel a cat an accident

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Văn ph m Anh văn

some dogs Ngo i tr trư c U nhưng ph i ñ c là "ju" (phát âm như ch "yêu" ti ng Vi t. Thí d a University a unit not a one a unicorn Definite articles: The Gi ng như adjectives (possessive, demonstratives, numeral, ...) m o t " THE "dùng ñ b nghĩa cho danh t . Nó ñ ng trư c danh t . (Ti ng Vi t: cái , con, trái... như cái hoa, con nai, trái cam...) ** Dùng ñ ch ngư i, v t, nơi ch n... mà ta ñã xác ñ nh r i. Thí d như "con gái hông hàng xóm", ta bi t là ai r i, nên ta dùng definite article "the". N u như m t ngư i nào ñó, thì dùng indefinite article "a". ** Dư i d ng ghi v n và ph ñ nh, m o t không thay ñ i. ** Trư c m t nguyên âm, "the" ñư c ñ c là "ñi" ** Không dùng m o t khi: *Danh t tr u tư ng, * S nhi u c a "a" * Ngày, tháng, năm * Ch c v o0o KHI DÙNG CH C TƯ C NGH NGHI P He interviewed the president yesterday We saw the Queen on TV The Doctor left an hour ago

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Exception: « The Emperor » et « The Tsar »

DANH T

RIÊNG S nhi u (proper names, noms propres)

The Wilsons, the Bakers

DANH T Ð A DƯ S nhi u : The West Indies, the USA, the British Isles Exception: The United Kingdom H (of) Lacs The lake of Geneva TÊN BI N, Ð I DƯƠNG, GIÒNG NƯ C The Thames, the Mississippi, The Pacific The Mediterranean [‘rein]

TÊN DÃY NÚI The Alpes, the Rocky Mountains

TÊN ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M (Có ch "of" ñ ng trư c) The House of Parliament

Khi nào không dùng m o t ?
Khi ch c tư c, ngh nghi p ñư c ti p theo b ng TÊN c a ngư i ñó ( Titre, grade, profession.. ils sont suivis du nom de la personne ) He interviewed Pr. Kennedy

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Văn ph m Anh văn

We saw Queen Elizabeth on TV Doctor Qeen left an hour ago President Mitterrand completed two terms. We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant. She met with Doctor Schmidt. DANH T Christ DANH T RIÊNG S ÍT

Ð A LÝ S ÍT

France, England Wales (s ít) HÔ, Ð NH NÚI, ÐƯ NG VÀ CÔNG TRÌNH K NI M (Lacs, Sommets, Rues et monuments) Lake Ontario Mount Everest, Ben Nevis Fith Avenue, Oxford Street Wesminter Abbey NAM PHƯƠNG

Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t chung (nouns in general), ñ t "a," "an," ho c "kho^ng ma.o tu?`" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. "a" ñư c dùng trư c ph âm (b, c, d, f.....). "an" ñư c dùng trư c nguyên âm (a, e, i, o, and u). "kho^ng ma.o tu?`" ñư c dùng trư c danh t s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c. Quí v ch nên nh 5 nguyên âm. Ngoài ra là phu âm ch không nên nh v a nguyên âm v a ph âm. Danh t s ít Danh t s ít Danh t s nhi u Danh t không ñ m ñư c He met a girl. I threw an apple away. Books are made from paper. (không có m ot trư c ch "books") Milk is good for everyone. (không có m o t trư c ch "milk") NGO I L :

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Văn ph m Anh văn

a uniform, âm "d".)

a university,

a union (u ñư c phát âm là "diu" và ñư c coi là 1 nguyên

an honest girl,

an honorable man (h câm)

Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t b t ñ nh (indefinite nouns), ñ t "a" ho c "some" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. "some" ñư c dùng v i danh t b t ñ nh s nhi u và danh t b t ñ nh không ñ m ñư c. Danh t s ít Danh t s nhi u Danh t không ñ m ñư c Lan bought a shirt. Nancy wants to order some chairs. Andy got some mail today.

Khi quí v nói v nh ng danh t xác ñ nh (definite nouns), ñ t "the" trư c nh ng danh t ñó. Khi c ngư i nói l n ngư i nghe ñ u bi t v 1 danh t rõ ràng, ñ t "the." trư c danh t ñó. "the" ñư c dùng v i danh t s ít, s nhi u và danh t không ñ m ñư c. Danh t s ít Danh t s nhi u Danh t không ñ m ñư c Ch có 1 m t tr i Where is the car, Joseph? She already talked to the children. Thank you for the advice, Amy. The sun was bright yesterday. We have just bought a house. The house is beautiful. The house is big. The United States, the Philippines, the United Nations... KEVIN KHÔI TRƯƠNG

Khi quí v bi t danh t ch có duy nh t 1, dùng "the". Khi quí v nh c ñ n 1 danh t nào ñó t l n th 2 tr ñi, dùng "the". Nhà ñư c nh c ñ n l n th 2.

Khi quí v nói v 1 hi p h i hay liên ñoàn, dùng "the". Nư c M có 50 ti u bang. Phi Lu t Tân dư c bao quanh b i hơn 7000 hòn ñ o.

Ð i t - Pronouns
Nam Phương Có nhi u lo i ñ i t : CH T TÚC T (SUBJECT) : I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They (OBJECT) Me, You, Him, Her, It, Us, You, Them

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Văn ph m Anh văn

PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: Mine, Yours, His, Hers, Its, Ours, Yours, Theirs DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS : This one, That one, These ones, Those ones, She who, He who, They who. RELATIVE PRONOUNS : Who, Whom, Whose, That, Which, That which, What. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS: Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, Yourselves, Themselves RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS : Each other, One another

Cách dùng:
Túc t ñi sau d ng t :
• • • • • • • •

Did you buy it? You didn't buy it. You bought it. Will you come to the store with me? He left without her. I have spoken to her. I gave this present to them. Nhưng : I gave them this present.

Thư ng túc t gián ti p (indirect object) ñi sau gi i t "to", tr khi trư c nó có m t túc t tr c ti p, lúc ñó m t gi i t "to": I gave them this present

Th t các ñ i t :

Ch t He

ñ ng t gave

túc t tr c ti p it

túc t gián ti p to me

túc t gi i t for Christmas

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Văn ph m Anh văn

• •

Don't tell that to him. He couldn't sell the car to them.

Ngo i tr : Như ta ñã nói trên, ta có th b gi i t "to" khi túc t tr c ti p ñ ng trư c túc t gián ti p

• • •

He gave me it for Christmas. Don't tell him that. He couldn't sell them the car.

Các lo i ñ i t :
1) POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
• • • • •

I --> mine your --> yours he, she, it --> his (masculine), hers (feminine), its (impersonal) we --> ours they --> theirs Do ñó:

• • • •

I have my likes, and she has hers. If you give me one of yours, I'll give you one of mine. I like our house, but frankly, I am jealous of theirs! That's mine!

2) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS TÓM T T: Chúng gi ng như demonstrative adjectives tr s ít thì thêm ONE vô
• • • • •

These tomatoes are fresher than those. These are better than those. Would you like a little of this? That strikes me as really weird! The book is more interesting than that one.

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Trư c m t relative pronoun (thí d "who") thì nó bi n thành "THE ONE" (the ones) ñ ch v t. "HE/SHE WHO" , "THEY WHO" ñ ch ngư i.

• • •

This film is the one that you hated so much. He who eats well works well. This pen is the one with which the President signed the new law.

3) RELATIVE PRONOUNS Dùng ñ n i hai câu v i nhau:

I found an apartment. This apartment has three rooms.

may be joined using a relative pronoun:

I found an apartment which has three rooms

Các d ng c a relative pronouns Relative pronouns có nhi u d ng khác nhau:who, whom, whose, that, which, that which, what. Specific person Specific thing That Subject Who Which Whet That Who Direct object Whom Object of a preposition Which Preposition + Prep + Whom Which Special cases Possession Time Space That + Prep + Which What Prep + What That Which Which Unspecific thing That

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Whose When Of which Ch t Who : ñ ch ngư i Which, that: ñ ch v t, ñ v t
• • •

Where

There's the man who stole my wallet! I read a novel that entertained me a great deal. He made a mistake which embarrassed him.

Khi không rõ là ai, dùng "what" (và "that which", nhưng không thông d ng b ng)
• • •

What interests me in this film is the music. That which eludes us intrigues us the most. I don't know what happened.

Túc t Whom : cho ngư i That, Which: cho v t
• • •

She is a person whom I respect a great deal. He ordered a beverage which he didn't drink. She is talking about the trip that we're going to take

Chú ý: Ta có th b "Whom" hay "That", (nhưng không ñư c b "What" hay "That which") khi nói ñ n specific antecedent.
• • •

She is a person I respect a great deal. He ordered a beverage he didn't drink. She is talking about the trip we're going to take.

Khi antecedent (ch ñ ng trư c relative pronoun) không rõ ràng, ta dùng "What" (có th dùng "That which" nhưng ít thông d ng)

You can do what you want.

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What they are doing seems useful.

4) POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS S h u (Possession): "whose" / "of which" Whose : cho ngư i Of which : cho v t
• • •

The tourist whose ticket had expired filed a complaint. There is the man whose mother is our mayor. That was a good article, the point of which was to make us think.

5) PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTS Gi i t thư ng ñ ng trư c túc t c a nó
• • • •

Here's the pattern with which I made this shirt. The woman for whom I work is quite strict. Here's the tree next to which Newton was sitting. They went out for dinner, after which they went home.

Trong văn nói, gi i t có th ñ cu i câu. Tuy nhiên v i pronoun What, c u trúc này ñư c dùng , ngay trong văn vi t
• • • •

Here's the pattern which I made this shirt with. The woman whom I work for is quite strict. Here's the tree which Newton was sitting next to. Tell me what you're thinking about.

6) Ð I T

TH I GIAN

Pronoun "When" dùng v i danh t ch th i gian. Tuy nhiên nhi u khi cũng không c n pronoun này nên b luôn
• • • •

I remember the day when we met. I remember the day we met. He arrived at the moment when we were speaking of him. He arrived at the moment we were speaking of him.

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7) Ð I T

KHÔNG GIAN

Khi nh ng gi i t ñ c bi t ch nơi ch n (thí d "on", "under"...) không c n thi t, ta th b ng pronoun "Where"
• •

Here's the house where my parents were born. She doesn't know where she's going.

8) REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS : Ð ch hành ñ ng t mình làm cho mình (thí d tôi t h i, nó t mua cho nó...)
• • • • • • • •

I --> myself you (singular) --> yourself you (plural) --> yourselves he --> himself she --> herself it --> itself we --> ourselves they --> themselves

• • • •

I told myself it would never happen. She talks to herself all the time. Look at yourself in that mirror! I would like to give myself a raise

phía cu i câu, ta có th thêm reflexive pronouns ñ nh n m nh ch t trong câu. (còn ñ ng t không ñư c nh n m nh)
• •

I would rather do that myself. Can you talk to him yourself?

9) RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS Ð ch hai ngư i, hành ñ ng l n nhau, ta dùng reciprocal pronouns "each other" hay "one another". thí d : "chúng thương nhau", "chúng tôi ñánh nhau"

They hate each other.

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• •

They killed one another. We talk to each other often.

Gi i t - Prepositions
Nam Phương

Không gian
Gi i t dùng ñ ch v trí không gian và th i gian t m t v trí ñã ñ nh.
• • •

I put the book on the table. She arrived before the others. He came toward me.

Có r t nhi u gi i t . Ðây là m t ph n c a danh sách, thí d :
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

to -- He gave the book to his friend. (nơi ñ n; à) at -- They arrived at his house at 5 o'clock. ( , lúc; à) of -- It was the third day of the month. (c a; de) from -- That young women comes from Thailand. (t ; de) on -- She put the plate on the table. (trên; sur) under -- The cat crawled under the bed. (dư i; dư i) over -- The boy threw the rock over the tree. (trên cao; au-dessus) underneath -- The rabbit escaped underneath the fence. (bên dư i; au-dessous) before -- (time) She arrived before the movie started. (trư c khi, ch th i gian; avant) after -- He called his mother after he finished shopping. (sau, après) in front of -- His mother parked her car in front of his apartment. (trư c m t, en face) behind -- The dog ran behind the house. (sau lưng, derrière) for -- He went to the store for more milk. (ñ , pour) toward -- The criminal walked toward him with a gun.(British English: toward, ñ c là [tơw d]. American Engish vi t là "towards" và ñ c là [tôdz]: v phía; vers) against -- Everyone was against that idea. (ch ng; contre) around -- The athletes ran around the track six times.(xung quanh, kho ng; autour) close to -- He placed the food close to the squirrel. (sát; près de. "close" là adverb.) far from -- He placed the food far from the lion. (xa; loin de) next to -- He was hot, so he sat down next to the air conditioning. (bên c nh; à tôté de)
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• •

facing -- She sat down on the other side of the table, facing him. (sát trư c m t; en face de) in the midst of -- I don't know where to find any free time in the midst of these emergencies. ( gi a, trong s , gi ng ch "among"; en plein milieu, parmi)

Cách dùng gi i t
R t ph c t p, khó có th có m t lu t l bao quát m i v n ñ . Tuy nhiên, ch chú d n môt cách ñ i lo i, có th giúp ích ph n nào thôi. Mu n ñi sâu vào văn chương Anh, ph i tham kh o nhi u. B i m t ñ ng t có th có hàng trăm nghĩa khi ghép v i nh ng gi i t hay tr ng t . Ð a lý: S chuy n ñ ng ñ n m t nơi nào ñó thì dùng TO (ñ n; à) Còn ñi ra kh i nơi nào ñó thì dùng FROM (t ; de)
• • • • •

When are you going to Canada. He went to Asia last year. I spent three years in London. She was born in Normandy. He comes from Mexico.

Chuyên ch BY: di n t cách di chuy n như th nào. IN và ON: ta
• • • •

TRONG xe

I came by bike. Traveling by plane is my favorite. I was already on (in) the train when he arrived. She is waiting for me in the car.

Th i gian GI * AT (lúc; à)

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• •

Let's meet at six o'clock. They arrived at 4:45.

NGÀY * ON
• •

His birthday is on Monday. It happened on March 3, 1997.

THÁNG * IN
• • •

My birthday is in September. We will begin work in August. DÀI TH I GIAN (duration)

Ð

* FOR, IN
• • •

I am going away for a few days. He worked with them for three years. I can read that book in a day.

Gi i t "TO"
Thông thư ng, khi gi i t TO ñ ng TRƯ C danh t làm túc t gián ti p (indirect object; complément d'objet indirect, vi t t t là COI) nó s bi n m t. Thí d : Give me your knowledge Nhưng: Give your knowledge TO me

Ð ng t v i m t gi i t

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Gi i t r t quan tr ng, nó làm thay ñ i hoàn toàn ñ ng t . M t ñ ng t có th có năm b y ch c nghĩa khác nhau vì nh ng gi i t ñ ng bên nó và nh ng ch trong câu. Nên tôi ñã vi t m t bài riêng v ñ ng t kèm gi i t l y yên là "Nh ng gi i t thông d ng c n bi t" ñ các b n h c thu c nghĩa. Tôi s b túc thêm, s d ch ra ti ng vi t sau này, vì hi n gi còn ph i vi t nh ng bài quan tr ng. B i bài này tôi ch d ch ra ti ng Pháp ñ d y h c sinh c a tôi mà thôi.
• • • •

to speak -- to say words to speak up -- to speak loudly to speak down (to someone) -- to be condescending toward someone to speak for (someone) -- to speak in someone's place

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

to put -- to set down to put up -- to place up high to put up -- to put in jars or cans to put away -- to put something back where it belongs to put down -- to release one's grasp of something to put out -- to place outside, or to take outside to put on -- to wear to turn -- to twist to turn on -- to make something function (a light, a motor) to turn off -- to remove the power to (a light, a motor) to turn around -- to turn to face the opposite direction to turn up -- to augment the sound, the light to turn down -- to diminish the sound, the light to turn out -- to become to turn red, white, etc. -- to change colors

C u trúc câu: Khi câu có m t túc t (object), túc t s theo sau gi i t . N u túc t ñó ñư c thay b ng m t ñ i danh t (personal object pronoun) thì ñ i danh t s ñ ng trư c :

• • • •

He turned on the television. He turned it on. She put away her books. She put them away.

Ð ng t v i nhi u gi i t :

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Có nhi u ñ ng t dùng hai gi i t :
• • • •

to put up with (something, someone) -- to tolerate someone to go out with -- to accompany someone to go off on (a digression, an adventure) -- to begin, to start to run away from -- to flee

C u trúc câu: Khi ñ ng t ñư c theo sau b i 2 gi i t , túc t theo sau 2 gi i t này khi gi i t là ñ i danh t (pronoun)

• •

How can you put up with him? Bill should not go out with Monica.

Ð ng t ñi ñôi v i gi i t :
Có nh ng ñ ng t luôn ñi ñôi v i gi i t và gi i t này luôn ñ ng trư c túc t . Tuy nhiên ý nghĩa không thay ñ i

• • • • • • • • • • • •

to wait for to look for to look at to listen to to pay for to ask for to be happy with something to be mad at (or: with) someone to depend on to be interested in to thank fort to be busy with

Thí d câu:
• • • •

She's the one who paid for our dinner! I'm not asking for anything! I'm busy with my own stuff. That depends on you.

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M nh ñ

Tr ng T

Kevin Khôi Trương M nh ñ tr ng t là 1 nhóm t mà có subordinating conjunction (SC), ch t , và ñ ng t . M nh ñ tr ng t là 1 m nh ñ ph và ph i ñư c n i v i 1 m nh ñ ñ c l p (có ch t và ñ ng t ).

Khi quí v ñ t m nh ñ tr ng t

ñ u câu, ph y "," cu i m nh ñ ñó. Before I go to school in the morning, I take a shower.

SC + CH T + Ð NG T + D U PH Y + CH T + Ð NG T

While my niece was watching TV, I was reading a book. (while nghĩa là trong lúc ñó)

Khi m nh ñ tr ng t theo sau m nh ñ ñ c l p, không dùng ph y "," CH T + Ð NG T + Ð NG T + SC + CH T I take a shower before I go to school. (không ph y)

NGO I L : Ph y "," cu i m nh ñ ñ c l p m c dù m nh ñ tr ng t theo sau m nh ñ ñ c l p khi quí v dùng ch "WHEREAS ho c WHILE". Ch WHILE trong trư ng h p này có nghĩa là ngư c l i ch không có nghĩa là trong lúc ñó. Jerry is strong, whereas Jack is weak. She is rich, while I'm poor. (Cô ta thì giàu, ngư c l i tôi thì nghèo.)

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SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS THƯ NG DÙNG: After As As soon as As long as Although Because Before By the time Even if Even though Every time If In case that In the even that Now that Once Only if Provided that Providing that Since So long as So that The first time The last time The next time Though Unless Until When Whenever Whereas Whether or not While

M nh ñ tính t
Kevin Khôi Trương

Quí v c n bi t s khác nhau gi a m nh ñ và c m t . M t m nh ñ là 1 nhóm t mà có 1 ch ng và ñ ng t . Nhưng 1 c m t là 1 nhóm t mà không có ch ng và ñ ng t .

Nh ng bư c ñ t o 1 m nh ñ tính t : a. Nhìn vào câu th nh t và h i danh t nào mà quí v mu n b nghĩa (danh t nào quí v mu n nói t i). b. Nhìn vào câu th hai và tìm t nào mà ñ c p ñ n (có nghĩa là) danh t trong câu th nh t.. c. Quy t ñ nh n u t trong câu th hai là ch t hay túc t và thay nó b ng ñ i danh t làm ch t (WHO, WHICH, THAT) ho c ñ i danh t làm túc t (WHOM, THAT, WHICH, NOTHING).

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DÙNG V I CH T WHO cho ngư ii WHICH cho v t

(SUBJECT):

THAT cho c ngư i và v t

Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "my friend". Do ñó t "She" nghĩa là "my friend", và "She" là ch t c a câu th hai. "She" ñư c ñ i b ng "who" (b i vì "she" là ngư i) ho c "that."

1. I talked to my friend. 2. She lent me some money.

I talked to my friend who lent me some money. I talked to my friend that lent me some money.

Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "TV". Do ñó t "It" nghĩa là "TV" và "It" là ch t c a câu th hai. "It" ñư c ñ i b ng "which" (b i vì "It là v t) ho c "that."

1. They have a TV. 2. It is very big.

They have a TV which is very big. They have a TV that is very big.

DÙNG V I TÚC T

(OBJECT):

WHOM cho ngư i (ho c WHO nhưng không nên dùng) WHICH cho v t THAT cho c ngư i và v t NOTHING ( không WHOM, WHICH, THAT: ch ñư c dùng v i túc t (object) mà

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thôi.

Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "the girl".

1. The girl is so cute. 2. I talked with her at the library yesterday night .

Do ñó t "her" nghĩa là "the girl", và "her" The girl whom I talked with at the library là túc t c a câu th hai. yesterday night is so cute. "Her" ñư c ñ i b ng "whom" (b i vì "her" The girl who I talked with at the library là ngư i), "who," "that," ho c "nothing." yesterday night is so cute. (không tr nh tr ng và không nên dùng) M t s ngư i không phân bi t ñư c s khác nhau gi a "WHO" và "WHOM". The girl that I talked with at the library yesterday night is so cute. "WHO" ñư c dùng như là ñ i danh t làm túc t trong trư ng h p không tr nh tr ng. The girl I talked with at the library Quí v không nên dùng cách này. yesterday night is so cute. (không c n whom ho c that gi a the girl và I)

1. The dress is expensive. 2. She bought it from Nordstrom. Trong thí d này, chúng ta nói v "the dress". Do ñó t "It" nghĩa là "the dress", và "It" là túc t c a câu th hai. "It" dư c ñ i b ng "which" (b i vì "It" là v t), "that," ho c"nothing." The dress which she bought from Nordstrom is expensive. The dress that she bought from Nordstrom is expensive. The dress she bought from Nordstrom is expensive. (không c n dùng which ho c that gi a the dress và she)

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Vài ngư i không bi t t i sao ñôi khi chúng ta ñ t câu th hai cu i câu th nh t và ñôi khi chúng ta ñ t câu th hai gi a câu th nh t. Quí v có th c m c gi ng v y không? Ðây là lý do t i sao. Ð t m nh ñ tính t càng g n danh t mà nó b nghĩa ñ nh n m nh ý. 1. I talked to my friend. 2. She lent me some money. I talked to my friend who lent me some money. 1. The girl is so cute. 2. I talked with her at the library yesterday night . The girl whom I talked with at the library yesterday night is so cute.

M NH Ð QUAN TR NG VÀ M NH Ð KHÔNG QUAN TR NG: ESSENTIAL (Identifying, restrictive) AND NONESSENTIAL (Nondentifying, nonrestrictive) CLAUSES: Hãy t h i mình n u m nh ñ tính t c n thi t ñ nh n d ng danh t . N u m nh ñ c n thi t, không nên dùng d u ph y. N u m nh ñ không c n thi t, dùng d y ph y b i vì m nh ñ ch là ph n ph và quí v không c n dùng nó ñ nh nh d ng danh t . Thêm vào ñó, có vài cách ñ quy t ñ nh n u m nh ñ là không quan tr ng. Nhìn vào danh t mà m nh ñ b nghĩa cho nó.

Không nên dùng d u ph y khi m nh ñ tính t quan tr ng: Do not use comma(s) when the adjective clause is essential:

a. The instructor who teaches ESL N49 is a. Chúng ta không bi t giáo viên nào an excellent lecturer. chúng ta ñang nói ñ n. "Who teaches ESL N49" r t là quan tr ng ñ nh n d ng ông ta hay bà ta. b. Chúng ta không bi t thành ph nào chúng ta ñang bàn ñ n. "Which has one million people" r t là quan tr ng ñ nh n d ng thành ph nào. Thành ph mà có 1 tri u dân không ph i thành ph có 2 tri u b. I lived in a city that has one million people.

c. The girl who is wearing the short skirt is
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dân. c. Chúng ta c n m nh ñ tính t ñ nh n d ng cô gái nào.

a cheerleader.

Dùng d u ph y cho m nh ñ tính t không quan tr ng: Use comma(s) for nonessential adjective clauses:

1. Danh t riêng (tên ngư i ho c nơi ch n) a. Tên ngư i b. Tên nơi ch n a. Mr. Lewis, who is an English instructor, has helped me a lot with my English. b. Vietnam, which is a beautiful country, used to possess Nam Quan frontier.

2. Ðư c nh c ñ n trư c ñó ho c ñư c bi t b i c hai ngư i nói và ngư i nghe.

a. Trong câu ñ u, "cousin" là danh t chung. Nhưng mà trong câu th hai "cousin" ñư c nh c ñ n trư c ñây. Do ñó, b. The dress, which was beautiful, m nh ñ tính t không quan tr ng. belonged to Helen.

a. Linh has a cousin who is living in Canada. The cousin, who often contacts Linh by email, is Eric.

b. C ngư i nói và ngư i nghe ñ u bi t cái c. After a work-out, one should drink áo nào h ñang nói t i. H và Helen ñi plenty of water, which is essential for his or mua s m cu i tu n r i. her health. c. T t c chúng ta ñ u bi t nư c là gì.

3. Duy nh t (ch 1 cái duy nh t trên th gi i) Ch có 1 m t tr i

The sun, which contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System, has a diameter of 1,390,000 kilometers.

a. Chickens, which have two wings, are delicious food. 4. Dùng t ng quát a. Ð c p ñ n t t c gà con b. Rice, which is grown in Thailand, is good.

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b. M i ngư i ñ u bi t g o là gì c. M i ngư i ñ u bi t cái gh ñ u là gì

c. A stool, which I bought yesterday, is too high.

5. M nh ñ tính t th a (không quan tr ng) Her boyfriend, who was drunk, asked her "who was drunk" không quan tr ng. Quí v to stay home. có th b nó ñi. "Her boyfriend asked her to stay home." là ý chính và "who was drunk" ch là ph n th a.

Irregular verbs
Nam Phương

to awake to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bet to bid

awoke bore beat became began bent bet bid

awoken borne beaten become begun bent bet bid

(se) réveiller Th c d y supporter. ch u ñ ng battre. Ðánh devenir. Tr thành commencer. B t ñ u (se) courber., Cúi , cong parier. Cá cu c offrir (un prix). Cho giá

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to bind to bite to bleed to blow to break to breed to bring to build to burn to burst to buy to cast to catch to choose to cling to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to dwell

bound bit bled blew broke bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove dwelt

bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelt

lier, relier. Trói, bu c mordre.C n saigner. Ch y máu souffler. Th i casser. B élever (du bétail). Chăn nuôi apporter. Mang. construire. Xây brûler. Ð t, cháy éclater. N acheter. Mua jeter. Ném attraper. Ch p b t choisir. Ch n l a s'accrocher. Treo venir. Ð n coûter. Giá ramper. Bò couper. C t distribuer. Phân phát creuser. Ðào faire. Làm dessiner. V rêver. Mơ boire. U ng conduire. Lái habiter.

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to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to flee to fling to fly to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to get to give to go to grind to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel

ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt

eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt

manger. Ăn tomber. Té nourrir. Nuôi sentir, éprouver. C m nh n combattre. Chi n ñ u trouver. Tìm ra s'enfuir. Tr n jeter violemment. Ném m nh b o voler. Bay interdire. C m oublier. Quên pardonner. Tha th geler. Ðông l nh obtenir. Có ñư c donner Cho aller. Ði moudre. Nghi n grandir. L n lên pendre, accrocher. Treo avoir. Có entendre. Nghe. (se) cacherTr n, gi u frapper, atteindre. Ðánh, Ð t ñ n tenir. C m blesser. Làm t n thương garder. Gi s'agenouiller. Quì

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to know to lay to lead to lean to leap to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet to pay to put to quit to read to rid to ride to ring to rise to run to saw to say to see

knew laid led leant leapt learnt left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put quit read rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw

known laid led leant leapt learnt left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put quit read rid ridden rung risen run sawn said seen

savoir, connaître. Bi t poser à plat. N m mener. D n ñ n s'appuyer. D a sauter. Nh y apprendre. laisser, quitter. R i xa prêter. Cho mư n permettre, louer. Cho phép. Mư n être étendu. N m allumer. B t ñén perdre. M t faire, fabriquer. Làm signifier. Nghĩa là (se) rencontrer. G p payer. Tr ti n mettre. Ð cesser (de). T b lire. Ð c débarrasser. B chevaucher. C i sonner. Reo s'élever, se lever. Lên courir. Ch y scier. Cưa dire. Nói voir. Th y

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to seek to sell to send to set to sew to shake to shear to shed to shine to shoe to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to sleep to slide to sling to slink to slit to smell to sow to speak to speed to spell

sought sold sent set sewed shook sheared shed shone shod shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid slung slunk slit smelt sowed spoke sped spelt

sought sold sent set sewn shaken shorn shed shone shod shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid slung slunk slit smelt sown spoken sped spelt

chercher. Tìm vendre. Bán. envoyer. G i fixer. Ð , ñ t coudre. May secouer. L c tondre (des moutons). H t (lông c u) verser (des larmes) Ch y nư c m t briller. Sáng ferrer, chausser. Ðóng móng ng a, ñi giày tirer. B n montrer. Ch rétrécir. Co rút fermer. Ðóng chanter. Hát couler. Chìm être assis. Ng i dormir. Ng glisser. Trư t lancer (avec force). Ném m nh aller furtivement. V i vàng ñi fendre, inciser. Ch sentir (odorat). Ng i semer. Gieo parler. Nói aller à toute vitesse. Ði nhanh épeler. Ðánh v n

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Văn ph m Anh văn

to spend to spill to spit to split to spoil to spread to spring to stand to steal to stick to sting to stink to stride to strike to string to strive to swear to sweep to swell to swim to swing to take to teach to tear to tell to think to throw

spent spilt spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank strode struck strung strove swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought threw

spent spilt spat split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck strung striven sworn swept swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown

dépenser. Tiêu xài renverser (un liquide). Ð nư c cracher. Kh c fendre. R ch gâcher, gâter. Làm hư répandre. R i ra jaillir, bondir. phun nư c être debout. Ð ng voler, dérober. Ăn c p coller. Dán piquer. Chíc puer. Th i marcher à grands pas. Ði r o bư c frapper. Ðánh enfiler, tendre (une corde). Căng s'efforcer. Ép bu c jurer. Th balayer. Quét enfler nager. Bơi se balancer. Ðu ñưa prendre. L y enseigner. D y déchirer. Xé dire, raconter. Nói, k penser. Nghĩ jeter. Ném

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Văn ph m Anh văn

to thrust to tread

thrust trod

thrust trodden understood woken worn woven wept won wound wrung written

enfoncer. n xu ng fouler aux pieds comprendre. Hi u (se) réveiller porter (des vêtements). M c áo tisser. D t pleurer. Khóc gagner. Th ng enrouler. Bao tordre. V t écrire. Vi t

to understand understood to wake to wear to weave to weep to win to wind to wring to write woke wore wove wept won wound wrung wrote

Cách dùng OTHER(S)
Kevin Khôi Trương

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Văn ph m Anh văn

S Dùng ANOTHER

ÍT

S Dùng OTHER(S)

NHI U

OTHER(S) nghĩa là 2 hay nhi u cái n a (2 ANOTHER nghĩa là 1 cái n a (1 cái khác) hay nhi u cái khác) trong cùng 1 nhóm. trong cùng 1 lo i (nhóm). Thí d : Có 5 trái cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã Thí d : Có 5 trái cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã ăn 1 trái, và quí v mu n ăn thêm 2 trái ăn 1 trái, và quí v mu n ăn thêm 1 trái n a. Quí v nên nói như sau: n a. Quí v nên nói như sau: I want other oranges. (other + oranges: I want another orange. (another + orange: other là tính t .) another là tính t , adjective.) I want other ones. (other + ones: other là I want another one. (another + one: tính t .) another là tính t , adjective.) I want others. (không có ch nào ñi theo I want another. (không có ch nào ñi theo sau others: others ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i danh t , pronoun.) sau another: another ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i danh t , pronoun.) LƯU Ý: oranges và ones là danh t s nhi u. LƯU Ý: orange và one là danh t s ít. Dùng THE OTHER(S) Dùng THE OTHER THE OTHER nghĩa là cái cu i cùng (cái còn l i) trong cùng 1 nhóm. THE OTHER(S) nghĩa là nh ng cái cu i cùng (nh ng cái còn l i) trong cùng 1 nhóm.

Thí d : Có 4 (ho c 5 và nhi u hơn) trái Thí d : Có 2 trái cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã cam trên bàn. Quí v ñã ăn 2 trái. Ch còn ăn 1 trái. Ch còn sót l i 1 trái. Quí v nên sót l i 2 (ho c 3 và nhi u hơn) trái. Quí v nói như sau: nên nói như sau: I want the other orange. (the other + orange: the other là tính t .) I want the other one. (the other + one: the other là tính t .) I want the other. (nothing after the other: the other ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i danh t .) LƯU Ý: orange và one là danh t s ít. I want the other oranges. (the other + oranges: the other là tính t .) I want the other ones. (the other + ones: the other là tính t .) I want the others. (nothing after the others: the others ñ ng 1 mình là ñ i danh t .) LƯU Ý: oranges và ones là danh t s nhi u.

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Khi quí v có s xác ñ nh 2, 3, 4, v.v, h u như quí v dùng ñư c THE OTHER(S). S ít hay s nhi u là tuỳ theo câu cu i cùng. Thí d : There are two books on the table. One belongs to Mr. Lewis. The other belongs to Nga. I have three brothers. One is Vu. The others are Phong and Hai

Kevin's dictionary
Kevin Khôi Trương

A
Em ám ch gì ñó? ð a bé tìm s an i nơi m nó. Ð ng có an i tôi. Không x y ra án m ng. (không có ngư i nào ch t c ) Nhi u th c ăn ñư c ăn b ng cách bóc; hãy b t chư c nh ng ngư i xung quanh. Anh cho con ăn chưa? Cô ta mu n tôi ñ n ăn cơm t i nhà cô y. Em mu n ăn gì? (Anh có th n u cho em cái gì nè?) Anh không nên ăn no r i ñi ng li n. Không ñư c ăn v ng món tráng mi ng. Tr i tr nên âm u khi cơn bão p t i. N u h n ân c n (chu ñáo) và ít nói, cha m cô ta ñã cho phép ñôi tr ñi chơi quá gi gi i nghiêm. N u ch b qua cái này, ch s ân h n ñó. Nó (không) t o ñư c n tư ng ñ u tiên t t v i tôi. Chúng ta không nên ñi u (b t tuân What's that supposed to mean? The frightened child sought Comfort from her mother. Don’t try to Console me. There was no loss of life. Some food are eaten with Hands; take your lead from others. Did you feed the baby? She wants me to come to Dinner at her house. Could I Cook something for you? You shouldn’t eat a Heavy Meal and then go to bed immediately. Get your Fingers out of the Dessert. The Sky Grew Dark as the Storm Approached. If he was Considerate and made small talks, her parents would allow the couple to stay out past curfew. If you ignore this, you will repent later. He makes a good (poor) first Impression with me. We shouldn’t Jaywalk. Trang 63

Văn ph m Anh văn

lu t giao thông). Ðám nhóc ñã ph i bão ñang p ñ n.

nhà vì có 1 cơn

The children stayed home because a Storm was Approaching.

B
Bà ta là ngư i bà con (thân thu c) còn s ng duy nh t c a tôi. Bao lâu n a thì ch t i? H th ng báo cháy Ch không bao gi ñòi h i s báo ñáp. Chúng tôi yêu c u ít nh t là 2 tu n báo trư c n u anh quy t ñ nh b vi c. B o ñ m có vi c làm khi t t nghi p. Cô có b o hi m (xe) không? H là nh ng ngư i b o th . Tôi có nên bày t tình c m c a tôi (v i cô/anh y) không? Tôi ñã băng (băng keo cá nhân) v t thương l i r i. Hai ngư i b b n ch t. Chúng tôi chào t m bi t cô ta m t cách b t ñ c dĩ. Ông ta b chóng m t và b t t nh sau ñó. V t b n cà phê Hành ñ ng b n th u L n này tôi b y (làm h ng) r i. Ti ng b kh p tay Tôi hy v ng tôi ñã không làm b cái tr ng nào. Tôi c m th y khó ch u r ng thay vì bênh v c cho ba anh y, tôi ng i ñó và l ng nghe. Bà ta ñã ch t sau 1 cơn b nh dai d ng. H nên bào ch thu c She is my only living Relative. How Soon can you get here? Smoke detector You never ask for anything in return. We Request at least 2 Weeks' Notice if you decide to quit. The admission is virtually a Guarantee of a good Job upon Graduation. Are you insured? They are Conservative people. Should I reveal my feelings?

I put a bandage on it. Two people were Gunned Down. We reluctantly bid her farewell. He got dizzy and then passed out. Coffee Stains Dirty deed = dirty action I Screwed up this time. Knuckles cracking I hope I didn't crack any egg. I am also feeling very bad that instead of Defending his father, I sat there and Listened. She Died from a Long Illness. They should make pills for

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Văn ph m Anh văn cho lo i b nh này. Ch khôn ngoan nh n th c r ng ngư i ta ph i ñư c d y làm sao bày t l i chia bu n. Em có mu n chơi bi da không? Cô ta ñã bi t ñư c bí m t c a anh r i. Anh b b mánh r i. ð ng nói cho cô ta bi t. Cô ta s phá ho i bí m t c a tôi. Anh h t bia r i. Tôi cho anh bi t, ... Cô ta ñư c bi t ñ n b i s thành th t c a cô y. Bình tĩnh ñi! Em b nh bao lâu r i? Chân anh ñã b gãy. Tôi ñang bó (b ng n p) nó l i ñây. Nó b nhà ra ñi. Cô ta có th b rơi anh ngay khi có ngư i nào t t hơn anh. Tôi không ph i là ngư i b rơi b n bè ñ ñi v i b n trai ñâu. Cái gì làm cho cô quy t ñ nh b vi c v y? Chú có mu n chơi bóng g không? Tôi nhìn vào bóp c a tôi. B giáo d c B trư ng tư pháp N i b n ch n trư c bu i trình di n Tôi luôn luôn b n ch n (căng th ng) khi g p ñàn bà. B i vì... Nó s làm cho chúng ta b t ñi s nghi ng l n nhau. Búng ngón tay Nó t c gi n và b c b i. Tôi b c mình khi 1 this. It is Astute of you to realize that one has to be taught how to express Condolences. Do you want to Shoot Pool? She Cracked your Code. Don't tell her. She'll blow my cover. You're running low in Beers. For your information, ... She is Known For her Honesty. Lighten up! = Calm down! How long have you been Sick? Your leg broke. I'm splinting it. He Ran away from Home. She might chuck you as soon as someone better comes along. I'm not the girl who ditches her friends for her boyfriend. What brought about your Decision to Quit your Job? Do you want to Go Bowling? I look in my wallet. Department of Education Attorney General Preshow Jitters I am always Nervous around women. On Account of… = Because of… It'll help alleviate all the superficial suspicions we have of one another. Snapping Fingers He's angry and resentful. It bothers me that one of them

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Văn ph m Anh văn ngư i trong s h nói x u ba anh y. M c dù tôi ñã bày t s b c t c c a tôi v i cô ta, cô y v n x b a bãi. Thư c a quí v s không ñư c g i ñi n u không ñ bưu phí. Tôi không ñ ti n ñi xe buýt. Bad- Mouthed his father. Even though I expressed my exasperation, she didn't pick up after her. Your letter won’t be delivered unless it has the correct Postage. I don’t have Enough Money to take the Bus.

C
Ca làm vi c khuya (ca 3) Ca 2 (làm t chi u t i khuya) T i sao anh ñi cà nh c v y? Nó cách âm ñó. Vài ngư i trong chính ph ñang c g ng c i thi n ñ i s ng dân nghèo. Ð ng cám d (quy n rũ) tôi. Cô ta can ñ m quá. Cám ơn ch ñã m i tôi ñi c m tr i. C m ch Bà có mang theo th căn cư c không? Kéo căn nó ra. Có câu h i nào v v n ñ ñó không? Nàng ng c nhiên b i l i c u hôn c a chàng. Anh là m t ngư i c u th . Nư c cam này không chát l m. Anh ñang chà 2 tay v i nhau. Anh ñang dùng tay chà m t bàn. H n không ch i ñ u. Tôi ch y chân không qua c . Xe c a tôi b ch t máy (trong lúc ñang lái xe).

Graveyard: 12AM-8AM Swing shift: 3 (4) PM-12AM
Why are you limping?

It’s Sounproof. There’re some people in the government who are trying to improve the lives of Poor people. Don't Tempt me.
She’s so Courageous. Thank you for Inviting me to Go On the picnic. Dimple Chin

Do you have any ID On you? Keep it Taut. Any questions On that? She was surprised by his Proposal of Marriage.
You're a slob.

This lemonade isn't too Tart. You’re Rubbing your Hands together. You’re Rubbing the top of your Desk with your Hand. He leaves his Hair Unkempt.
I ran Barefoot through the Grass. My car stalled

D
Anh d thương quá. D p gì v y? Nó ñ m vào b ng tôi. Chúng ta có ñi m x u r i. You're so sweet. What's the occasion? He punched me in the stomach. We're cursed. Trang 66

Văn ph m Anh văn Nó là 111-2222. Tôi ñ c l i có ñúng không? Anh ñã ñùa c t v i tình c m c a tôi. Ngư i nào mu n ñ ng ñ n cô ta thì ph i bư c qua (xác ch t c a) tôi. That's 111-2222. Is my read back correct? You trifled with my feeling. The first man that touches her will have to come through me.

E
Nó ñã ñư c ép nh a r i. H e th n và tr m l ng.

It's Laminated. They are shy and reticent.

G
N u cô ta ch nghĩ ñ n b n thân và không quan tâm (lo l ng, màng ñ n) anh thì anh nên g t cô y ra kh i danh sách b n bè. N u như anh ph i gãi, nên th n tr ng (kín ñáo) m t chút. Tôi ganh t v i ch ñó. Chúng tôi th nh tho ng g p nhau. Nó ñáng ghét l m. Cái b ng ghi (ch ) là gi m 50 ph n trăm. Tôi ñang vi t nh ng l i ghi chú v nh ng câu h i mà tôi mu n h i th y. Ghi s (n ) cho tôi ñi. If she acts as if it's all about her and never about you, you should slash her from your buddy list. If you have to scratch, be discreet. I Envy you. We see each other once in a while. He seems to be cursed. A big Sign indicates a "50 off". I’m making Notes about Questions I want to Ask the teacher. Put it on my Tab.

H
Tôi hài lòng (vui m ng) v i nh ng gì tôi ñã có. Cô có l s hài lòng v i ñ cô mua. Coi ch ng ngư i ham ti n (trong quan h tình c m). Tôi hãnh di n quá. ði cùng v i ý nghĩ c a s hào hoa, ngư i ta cho r ng ñàn ông cung c p (nhi u th ) cho I’m Thrilled with what I got. You will probably be Satisfied with your purchase. Beware of a Moneygrubber. I’m Flattered. Along with the idea of Chivalry comes the assumption that men

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Văn ph m Anh văn Provide for women.

ph n .

I
Im ñi! Câm mi ng ñi! Im l ng là vàng Hush up! Be quiet! Pipe down! Knock it off! Silence is Golden.

K
Dùng tay kéo căng da (m t). Xin l i tôi ñ n tr . Tôi b k t xe trong gi cao ñi m. Tôi m t 30 phút thay vì 15 phút ñ ñ n ñây. Tôi không có k ho ch nào trư c c . T t c nh ng gì ñã k trên... A: Anh s b m t ch c ñó. B: Thì k nó ñi. H n kiêu ng o quá. Use your hand to pull the skin taut and stretched. I’m sorry I’m late. I was Held Up by the Rush Hour traffic. It took 30 minutes for me to get here instead of 15. I don’t have to do any advance Planning. All of Aforementioned things... A: You'll lose your command. B: So be it. He's conceited.

L
Nó la cà (chơi) v i ñám b n x u. L c ngoài bi n Ph i bao nhiêu tu i thì ngư i ta m i ñư c lái xe? Bob và Don ñang lái xe trên ñư ng. Cô ta lái xe (t p) vô l . A: Kêu h b vũ khí xu ng. B: Làm theo l i anh ta ñi. Tôi s lau nhà. He Hangs out with a Wrong crowd. Lost at sea How Old does a person have to be to get a Driver’s License? Bob and Don are riding on a car. She pulled over to the side of the road. A: Tell them to put their weapons down. B: Do as he said. I'll mop the floor.

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Văn ph m Anh văn

M
Em có tin là có ma không? Có chuy n gì v y? Em trông gi ng như là v a g p ma v y ñó. Không có cái màn che (t m ch n) c as . Con r n c n anh ta m t cá. Em m c (ñeo) cái này ñ p quá. Do you Believe in Ghost? What’s the matter? You look as if you had seen a Ghost. There isn’t a Screen on the window. The Snake Bit him on the Ankle. It looks good on you.

N
ð ng có n n lòng. Tôi s n m bãi bi n ñ t m n ng. San Francisco n m phía b c c a Los Angeles. Tôi ñã không th n n ná ñư c lâu vì có nhi u ngư i ñang ñ i. Tôi năn n mà. Don't get discourage. I'll Lie on the beach in the sun. San Francisco Lies to the north of LA. I couldn't Linger any longer because there were other people waiting. I insist.

O
ð m vào th n c a nó. ðánh cho nó ói máu luôn. Tôi l ng (lách) ñ tránh gà l n trên ñư ng. Punch him in the Kidney. Make him Puke Blood. I Swerved to Avoid a big Pothole in the street. You're Annoying. I was bored, so I didn’t Stay for the End of the movie. I'm in a love triangle. Stay tuned! Don’t go away. You should say "excuse me" when you burp
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Mày n ào (nói nhi u, phi n ph c) quá ñi. Tôi chán quá, do ñó tôi không l i cho ñ n h t phim. Tôi (n m) trong m i tình tay ba. yên t i ch . ð ng ñi ñâu h t (khi chương trình TV ngưng ñ ch y qu ng cáo). Con nên nói "xin l i" khi con .

Văn ph m Anh văn

P
Anh ñã phá ñám cư i c a tôi. T i nó phá phách (cáu k nh) l m. Khán gi ph n ñ i ngư i nam di n viên. M không ph n ñ i (c n) con g p anh ta. Tôi có b n ph n làm bài ki m hôm qua, nhưng tôi không ñư c phép vào phòng thi vì bài thi ñã b t ñ u. Hãy cho cô ta m t tràng pháo tay th t l n. You Sabotaged my wedding. They're cranky. The audience booed the actor. I don't Object you seeing him. I was supposed to take a test yesterday, but I wasn't admitted to the testing because the examination hed already begun Give her a big Round of Applause

Q
Con quá ñáng r i. Cám ơn ông ñã cho tôi quá giang. Tôi không thích nghe ñi n tho i qu ng cáo. Nó s qu u qu (cáu k nh) n u tôi không ñó. Tôi quen (g p) cô ta quán cà phê qua m y ngư i b n. You're overreacting. Thanks for the lift. I don't take sollicitation calls. He'll be Cranky if I'm not there. I Met her through friends at the local coffee shop.

R
Ngư i h t (thu) rác Cái qu n c a tôi b rách r i = Tôi làm rách qu n r i. Rát quá (khi x c thu c). Tôi ph i b h c vì nh ng r c r i trong gia ñình. Răng r ng Garbage collector My pants Split. = I ripped my pants. It Stings.

I had to quit school because of some Trouble at home. A tooth falls out

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Văn ph m Anh văn

S
Cô ta là 1 con m t sách. Cô ta ñã sanh (ñ ) r i. Cô y sanh con trai. Sao x t Tu c nơ vit dùng ñ si t (v n) vít vô g . Sue và Ron s p s a có con. Sue hy v ng có con trai. Cho b a ti c sinh nh t c a tôi, ... She's a Bookworm. She went into Labor. She gave Birth to a boy. Shooting star Screwdrivers are used to Fasten screws into wood. Sue and Ron are Expecting a child. Sue is Hoping for a boy. For my Birthday dinner Celebration,...

T
Ng i xu ng tâm s (b u b n) v i tôi ñi. Không t l m (khá l m) Tiên, tham kh o ý ki n riêng. Tôi th ng th ng v i ch . Cô y không thương anh ch vì anh không ñ ti n ñ cô ta ñi mua s m. ð em ti n anh (ra c a). Em có tin vào ti ng sét ái tình không? Cô y trêu ch c v cách ăn m c c a tôi. Sit down and keep me Company. Not bad (very good) Tiên, huddle. I'm completely blunt with you. She doesn’t want you just because your bank account doesn’t match her Shopping Budget. Let me show you to the door. Do you believe in Love at first sight? She makes fun of what I wear.

U
Hôm nay tr i âm u quá. ð ng có rũ (bu n, nhăn nhó) n a. ðư c ưa chu ng trên th trư ng It’s a Gray day today. Don't be Glum. Popular in the Market Place

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Anh ng h em 100 ph n trăm.

I’m Behind you 100 percent.

V
Có s va ch m nào gi a nh ng ngư i trong gia ñình cô ta không? Cô y có r i xa căn nhà m n yêu c a cô ta không? Cha m c a cô y còn s ng và m nh kh e không? Tôi v a m i vá (ñ p) xong cái l th ng trên mái nhà ñó. Văn hoa bay bư m Cathy v n âm thanh c a máy cassette nh l i. Xin chào! Vào ñi. M i vào. Is there Friction between Her family members? Did she lose a Home that was Dear to her? Are her parents Alive and Well? I have just patched the hole. Flowery Langugage Cathy Turned Down the Volume on the tape player. Hi! Come on in.

X
Lái xe t Chicago ñ n Indiana có xa không? ð ng coi tôi như ngư i xa l (k c , b trên) mà. Is it a long drive from Chicago to Indiana? Don't patronize me.

British English - American English
Nam Phương

BRITISH Aerial Anywhere Autumn

AMERICAN Antenna Anyplace Fall

FRENCH Antenne (télé) Quelque part Automne

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Banknote Bank holiday Bill Bonnet Boot Brace Caretaker, porter Car Centre Chemist’s Chips Christian name Cinema City centre Class Colour Condom Crisps Crossroads

Bill National holiday Check Hood Trunk Suspenders Janitor Automobile Center Drugstore French fries First name Movie house Movie theater Downtown Grade Color Rubber Chips Intersection

Billet de banque Jour férié Addition, facture Capot Coffre (voiture) Bretelles Concierge Voiture Centre Pharmacie Frites Prénom Salle de Cinéma Centre ville Classe Couleur Préservatif Chips Carrefour

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Cupboard Dinner-jacket Don’t mention it ! Ex-serviceman Film Flat Fortnight Full stop Grammar school Ill Ground floor (First floor) purse, pocket-book Holiday Hoover (to) Interval Letter-box, pillardbox Lorry Luggage

Closet Tuxedo You’re welcome Veteran Movie Apartment Two weeks Period High school Sick First floor (second floor) Handbag Vacation Vacuum (to) Intermission Mail box Truck Baggage

Placard Tenue de soirée Il n’y a pas de quoi Ancien combattant Film Appartement Deux semaines Point Collège Malade Rez-de-chaussée Sac à main Vacances Passer l’aspirateur Entracte Boîte aux lettres Camion Bagages

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Mark Motorway Pavement Pedestrian (zebra ) Crossing Petrol Postal code Prison Programma Public school purse, pocket-book Queue Rubbish Second hand Single ticket Spirits Stand for (to) State school Student, school boy 1st year undergraduate

Grade Free way Side walk Crosswalk Gas, gasoline Zip code Jail Program Private school Handbag Line Garbage, trash Used One way ticket Liquor Run for (to) Public shool Student Freshman

Note Autoroute Trottoir Passage piétons Essence Code postal Prison Programme Ecole privée Sac à main Queue Ordures Occasion, usagé Billet aller simple Alcool Être candidat à Ecole publique écolier, étudiant Etudiant de1ère année

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Văn ph m Anh văn

2nd year underg 3rd year student 4th year student Surname Sweets Tap Taxi Telephone booth Theatre Timetable Tin Trousers Tyre

Sophomore Junior Senior Last name Candies Fauce Cab Payphone Theater Schedule Can Pants Tire

2 è année 3 è année 4 ème année Nom de famille Bonbons Robinet Taxi Cabine téléphonique Théâtre Emploi du temps Boîte de conserve Pantalon Pneu

Câu h i
Kevin Khôi Trương

CÂU H I YES/NO V I Ð NG T

"BE"
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BE (AM, IS, ARE, WERE, WAS) + CH T + TÍNH T / DANH T

Are you busy? Is she a scientist?

BE (AM, IS, ARE, WERE, WAS) + CH T + Ð NG T THÊM -ING

Are they doing their homework? Is she writing a letter?

CÂU H I YES/ NO V I TR

Ð NG T

(AUXILARY/HELPING VERB)

Do you speak Vietnamese? TR Ð NG T (DO, DOES, DID, WILL, Does he do exercise every day? CAN...) + CH T + Ð NG T (th hi n Did you go to school yesterday? t i không có "S" hay "ES" cho dù ch t là Will you give me the key tomorrow? ngôi 3 s ít) Can you help her?

Làm sao quí v bi t ñư c khi nào dùng "BE" ho c "TR Ð NG T " trong câu h i YES/NO? Ðây là lý do t i sao. Quí v nên nhìn câu tr l i cho s n ñ coi n u nó có ñ ng t "BE" ho c "ACTION VERB" (ñ ng t ch s ho t ñ ng: eat, listen, run.....). N u câu tr l i có ñ ng t "BE", câu h i c a quí v ph i có ñ ng t "BE." A: ---------------------------------------? B: Yes, ------------------ (They are in my ESL 107 class.) Cách làm: A: Are they in your ESL 107 class? B: Yes, they are in my ESL 107 class. N u câu tr l i có "ACTION VERB," câu tr l i c a quí v ph i có "TR Ð NG T " (HELPING VERB). A: ------------------------------------? B: Yes, ----------------- (I go to school every day.)

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Cách làm: A: Do you go to school every day? B: Yes, I go to school every day. Khi quí v có y' vi. co' "TR Ð NG T " (HELPING VERB) trong câu h i, ñ ng chia ñ ng t chính m c dù câu h i có ch t ngôi 3 s ít (the third person singular). Ð ng t chính không có "S", "ES" hay "Ð NG T QUÁ KH ". Does she jog every morning? (jog không có "S" m c dù câu h i có "she"). NHƯNG : She jogs every morning. (jog có "S"). Does he watch TV every day? (watch không có "ES"). NHƯNG : He watches TV every day. (watch có "ES"). SAI: Did they went shopping this afternoon? ÐÚNG: Did they go shopping this afternoon?

CÂU H I WH- V I Ð NG T

"BE"

WH- WORD + BE + CH T

Who are you? Where is Vy?

WH- WORD + BE + CH T T THÊM -ING

+ Ð NG

What is Virginia doing? Where is Thao going?

CÂU H I WH- V I "TR Ð NG T

(HELPING VERB)

Why did we do that? WH-WORD + TR Ð NG T + CH What should I wear to the prom? T + Ð NG T (th hi n t i không có Whom did you talk to? "S" hay "ES" măc dù ch t là ngôi 3 s ít ) How do people eat this food? When does she go to school every day?

Khi WHO ho c WHAT là ch t c a câu h i, ñ ng dùng ñúng tr t t c a câu h i. Tình hu ng này nên là

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WHO/WHAT + Ð NG T

CHÍNH

Who called me today? (Who là ch t c a câu h i) What happened last week? (What là ch t c a câu h i)

N i câu
Kevin Khôi Trương

PARALLEL STRUCTURE: AND, BUT, OR, NOR (coordinating conjunctions) Quí v không nên ñ t danh t (ñ ng t , tính t , ho c tr ng t ) bên trái c a liên t (conjunction) và ñ ng t (danh t , tr ng t , ho c tính t ) bên ph i c a liên t .

Laura has a car and bicycle. DANH T TÍNH T + AND + DANH T + AND + TÍNH T + AND + TR NG T + AND + Ð NG T + BUT + TÍNH T + BUT + Ð NG T + OR + Ð NG T + NOR + Ð NG T Truc is a beautiful and nice girl. Mrs. Keith speaks slowly and clearly. We visited Las Vegas and bought a lot of souvenirs. Your chair is new, but uncomfortable. Sang called Tuan but couldn't reach him. Would you like to go shopping or (to) stay home? I don't often drink coffee, nor do I drink tea.*

TR NG T Ð NG T TÍNH T Ð NG T Ð NG T Ð NG T

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Văn ph m Anh văn

SAI: She is nice and has a cat. *Khi quí v có 1 câu hoàn ch nh ñi sau "nor," quí v ph i ñ o ngư c tr t t c a câu ñó (gi ng như tr t t c a câu h i).

C P LIÊN T : PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS

EITHER + DANH T

+ OR + DANH T

Khi quí v cò 2 ch t n i b i Either Uyen or Trang is here. EITHER...OR, ñ ng t s ít hay s nhi u s ph thu c vào ch t k ñ ng t là s ít Either Uyen or her friends are here. hay s nhi u.

NOT ONLY + DANH T DANH T

+ BUT ALSO + Not only Mr. Park but also Huong was surprised.

Khi quí v có 2 ch t n i b i NOT ONLY...BUT ALSO, ñ ng t s ít hay s nhi u s ph thu c vào ch t k ñ ng t là Not only Mr. Park but also the students s ít hay s nhi u. were surprised.

NEITHER + DANH T T

+ NOR + DANH Neither Jackie nor Pat is going to go to work tomorrow.

Khi quí v có 2 ch t n i b i NEITHER...NOR, ñ ng t s ít hay s nhi u s ph thu c vào ch t k ñ ng t là Neither Jackie nor the tutors are going to s ít hay s nhi u. go to work tomorrow.

BOTH + DANH T

+ AND + DANH T

Khi quí v có 2 chy' vi. co' 2 ch t n i b i Both my father and my mother are over 50 BOTH...AND, ñ ng t luôn luôn là s years old. nhi u.

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Văn ph m Anh văn

LIÊN T

V I M NH Ð Ð C L P (CÂU GHÉP):

CONJUNCTIONS WITH INDEPENDENT CLAUSES (COMPOUND SENTENCES) Coordinating conjunctions: BOYFANS sounds like BOYFRIEND huh? B ut Or Y et F or A nd N or So

CH T + Ð NG T + D U PH Y + LIÊN T + CH T + Ð NG T

1. Tam has a full-time job. 2. She goes to school part-time.

Khi quí v n i 2 m nh ñ ñ c l p b i 1 liên t , ñ t d u ph y trư c liên t ñó. Ðôi khi Tam has a full-time job and she goes to quí v có th b d u ph y khi quí v có 2 school part-time. câu ng n.

,

Quí v có th th y 1 liên t b t ñ u 1 câu trong báo, t p chí, ho c sách. B t ñ u 1 câu b ng 1 liên t ñư c dùng trong l i không tr nh tr ng. Thêm vào ñó, vài gia'o viên không cho phép h c sinh dùng cách này.

She has a full-time job and she goes to school part-time. She has a full-time job. And she goes to school part-time. (informal and not recommended)

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Nguyên nhân và k t qu
Kevin Khôi Trương

NGUYÊN NHÂN VÀ K T QU V I BECAUSE, INASMUCH AS, NOW THAT, AS, SINCE, AS/SO LONG AS TRONG M NH Ð TR NG T (ADVERB CLAUSES) Khi m nh ñ tr ng t ñ ng trư c Because Brian didn't study well, m nh ñ ñ c l p, ph y "," sau he failed the test. m nh ñ tr ng t . Khi m nh ñ tr ng t theo sau m nh ñ ñ c l p, d u ph y ñư c b ñi. Brian failed the test because he didn't study well. (không có d u ph y) Inasmuch as I'll stay home all day tomorrow, you can stop by my house any time you want. You can stop by my house any time you want Inasmuch as I'll stay home all day tomorrow. (không có d u ph y) Now that Maria has a black eye, she doesn't want to go anywhere. Now that nghĩa là b i vì bây gi . Maria doesn't want to go anywhere now that she has a black eye. (không có d u ph y) As Vy got 3.5 GPA, her name was listed on the Dean's Honor List at Cal State Fullerton. As nghĩa là b i vì. Vy's name was listed on the Dean's Honor List at Cal State Fullerton as she got 3.5 GPA. (không có d u ph y)

Inasmuch as nghĩa là b i vì inasmuch as ñư c dùng trong l i nói và vi t tr nh tr ng.

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Since Thuy doesn't have a driver license, she cannot drive a car. Since nghĩa là b i vì. Thuy cannot drive a car since she doesn't have a driver license. (không có d u ph y) As long as/so long as Mrs. Lauren was late, she didn't catch the bus. Mrs. Lauren didn't catch the bus as long as/so long as Mrs. Lauren was late. (không có d u ph y)

As long as/ so long as nghĩa là b i vì.

CAUSE AND EFFECT WITH BECAUSE OF AND DUE TO: NGUYÊN NHÂN VÀ K T QU V I BECAUSE OF VÀ DUE TO BECAUSE + CH T + Ð NG T Because the weather was nice, we went on a picnic. Because of the nice weather, we went on a picnic. Due to the nice weather, we went on a picnic.

BECAUSE OF/DUE TO + TÍNH T /DANH T Because of và due to là gi i t (prepositions) và ñư c theo sau b i 1 tính t /danh t . DUE TO + THE FACT THAT + CH T + Ð NG T Due to ñư c dùng trong l i vi t tr nh tr ng.

Due to the fact that the weather was nice, we went on a picnic.

Câu không ñúng ng pháp Kevin Khôi Trương

CÂU KHÔNG NG NG: RUN-ON SENTENCES

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Câu không ng ng là 2 m nh ñ ñ c l p n i v i nhau mà không có d u ch m gi a. Ð S A CÂU KHÔNG NG NG Dùng d u ch m gi a hai câu (period: SAI:

.

)

Getting married is easy staying married is difficult. ÐÚNG: Getting married is easy

Dùng subordinating conjunction và d u ph y ( ) Dùng d u ch m ph y ( ) Dùng d u ph y và coordinating conjunction (BOYFANS sounds like BOYFRIEND huh?) BUT OR YET FOR AND NOR SO

,

. ; ,

Staying married

;

is difficult. Even though getting married is easy staying married is difficult. Getting married is easy is difficult. Getting married is easy but staying married is difficult. staying married

,

CH M PH Y (COMMA SPLICES) SAI: Eric works full time, he takes evening classes. A comma splice x y ra khi quí v n i 2 m nh ñ ñ c l p v i nhau b i 1 d u ph y mà không có coordinating conjunction. Ð s a comma splice, quí v dùng lu t gi ng như lu t c a run-on sentences ÐÚNG: Eric works full time classes. Though Eric works full time he takes evening classes.

.

He takes evening

,

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Eric works full time classes.

; ,

he takes evening

Eric works full time and he takes evening classes. CÂU KHÔNG Ð Y Ð : SENTENCE FRAGMENTS SAI: They went to see Dr. Chen's office. Because they had an appointment with her. Because they had an appointment with her là 1 m nh ñ ph , do ñó nó không th Sentence fragments không ph i câu hoàn ñ ng 1 mình ñư c. Nó ph i ñư c n i v i ch nh ho c ch là 1 ph n c a câu. M t câu 1 m nh ñ ñ c l p. hoàn ch nh ph i có t i thi u 1 m nh ñ ñ c ÐÚNG: They went to see Dr. Chen's l p: office because they had an appointment with her. CH T + Ð NG T + TÚC T (ñôi khi 1 túc t không c n thi t). SAI: Quí v nên c n th n khi b t ñ u 1 câu v i We visited several hotels in Las Vegas. m t trong nh ng t sau ñây (subordinating For example, New York New York Hotel, conjunctions). MGM Hotel, Rio Hotel, and Luxor Hotel. after, before, when, while, as soon For example, New York New York Hotel, as, although, though, as, because, MGM Hotel, Rio Hotel, and Luxor Hotel even though, if, even if, since, không ph i là 1 câu hoàn ch nh. Nó không who, which, có ch t và ñ ng t . M i subordinate clauses b t ñ u b ng nh ng ch trên và 1 m nh ñ ñ c l p ( m nh ñ chi'nh). ÐÚNG: We visited several hotels in Las Vegas. For example, we stopped by New York New York Hotel, MGM Hotel, Rio Hotel, and Luxor Hotel. SAI: Susan was lost. Having no money and being lonely in the big city. Having no money and being lonely in the

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big city không có ch t và ñ ng t . ÐÚNG: Susan was lost. She had no money and was lonely in the big city. OR Having no money and being lonely in the big city Susan called a friend to entertain her around the city. SAI: Many teenagers who are single mothers. Ðây là 1 m nh ñ ph (m nh ñ tính t ) theo 1 danh t . ÐÚNG: Many teenagers are single mothers.

,

Phép ch m câu
Kevin Khôi Trương

D U PH Y: COMMAS ( 1. th

,

)

Dùng d u ph y ñ tách r i 3 tr lên

She has pencils highlighters.

,

pens and

2. Dùng d u ph y ñ tách r i ph n không c n thi t

Ly

,

my new friend

,

is from

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Vietnam. This is my favorite food 3. T ng liên quan t i t mà chúng ta b nghĩa không dùng d u ph y 4. Dùng d u ph y v i liên t : Coordination and subordination Dùng d u ph y v i coordinating conjunctions (BOYFANS sounds like BOYFRIEND huh?) B ut Or Y et F or A nd N or So Dùng d u ph y v i subordinating conjunctions: ph y sau m nh ñ ph n u m nh ñ ph ñ ng trư c m nh ñ ñ c l p. Không dùng d u ph y khi m nh ñ ph ñi sau m nh ñ ñ c l p. She is rich

,

pho

(Vietnamese noodle soup). Jose the Fat was an excellent leader. My friend John has two houses.

,

but he is poor.

Because it rained yesterday

,

I

didn't go to school. I didn't go to school because it rained yesterday. (không dùng d u ph y b i vì m nh ñ ph because it rained yesterday theo sau m nh ñ ñ c l p.) When she called

,

I was

studying. I was studying when she called. (không dùng d u ph y)

By ten in the morning 5. Dùng d u ph y v i c m t gi i thi u

,

we

wanted to see a movie. After the party on Friday went to the beach.

,

they

6. Dùng d u ph y v i c m t chuy n ti p

Instructors

,

on the other hand

,

receive a lower salary than

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Văn ph m Anh văn

assistants professors. 7. Dùng d u ph y ñ tách r i parenthetical elements

By the way tonight?

,

are you free

8. Dùng d u ph y v i m nh ñ không c n thi t: nonrestrictive clauses (adjective clauses, m nh Sam who is a student likes ñ tính t ) watching comedy shows.

,

,

9. Dùng d u ph y v i ñ a ch

We live at 14375 Bolsa Street

,

Westminster

,

California.

Ly arrived in California on 10. Dùng d u ph y v i ngày ñ y Wednesday ñ 21 11. Không dùng d u ph y v i 1 t ch ñ a ch (single-word address) ho c ngày ñ ng trư c b i 1 gi i t (date preceded by a preposition) 12. Ph y sau ch Yes ho c No

,

March

,

2001.

Ly arrived from Vietnam in March.

No

,

I don't like it. Yes

,

I like it.

13. Ph y sau tên ngư i ñư c g i 14. Ph y sau thán t (interjections: ah, oh, gee, well) 15. Dùng d u ph y ch s ph n tương

Kevin

, ,

what are you looking for?

Ah

,

this cake is delicious.

Nancy

not Mimi

,

is my

partner.

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D U CH M PH Y: SEMICOLONS (

;

)

D u ch m ph y gi ng như d u ch m hơn là d u ph y. D u ch m ph y ñư c dùng trong nh ng trư ng h p sau ñây:

Jim was so tired a. Gi a 2 ý nghĩ hoàn ch nh mà có liên h m t thi t v i nhau

;

he went to h trong

bed right after work. (ch he ñư c vi t thư ng.)

Computer use is skyrocketing computer crime is, too. (ch trong computer ñư c vi t thư ng.) b. Trư c tr ng t chuy n ti p Tr ng t n i: famous movie star n i và vài t Arnold Schwarzenegger is a

;

c

Accordingly, Besides, Consequently, For example, Furthermore, Hence, However, In addition, In contrast, Indeed, Moreover, Nevertheless, Nonetheless, On the other hand, Otherwise, Therefore, Thus

;

moreover,

he is a muscleman. (ch m trong moreover ñư c vi t thư ng.) Andre Agassi played well

;

nevertheless, he lost the match. (n ñư c vi t thư ng.)

D U HAI CH M: COLONS (

:

)

Dùng d u hai ch m trong nh ng trư ng h p sau ñây: Li t kê 1 danh sách ch khi nào ñã có 1 câu hoàn ch nh I need the following items a chair, hammer, and nail. (I need the following items là 1 câu hoàn ch nh)

:

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Văn ph m Anh văn

Gi a s gi và phút Sau l i chào trong 1 lá thư tr nh tr ng

: Dear Ms. Nguyen: :

Henry arrived at 3 15.

To Whom It May Concern

:

The scientist Stephen Jay Gould wrote "I am, somehow, less interested in the weight and convolutions of Einstein's brain than in the near certainty that people of equal talent have lived and died in cotton fields and sweatshops." There are several ways to learn Gi i thi u 1 l i gi i thích English better participate in class, always do homework, and try to talk to your instructor as much as you can.

Gi i thi u 1 s 3 hàng

trích d n dài hơn

:

D U NGO C KÉP: QUOTATION MARKS ( ... ) Khi dùng d u ngo c kép, quí v nên ñ ý nh ng d u ch m câu khác. Dùng d u ngo c kép trong nh ng trư ng h p sau: Di n t chính xác l i c a ngư i nói (l i d n tr c ti p) M i s trích d n b t ñ u b ng 1 ch vi t hoa. Mom said, "Dinner is ready." The child said, "Give me the cake."

" "

D u ch m than (!) và d u ch m Allen said, "Watch out " h i (?) n m trong d u ngo c kép n u chúng là 1 ph n c a s trích "Where have you been?" he d n. N u không, chúng n m asked. ngoài. Did you say, "I love you"? D u h i và d u ch m cu i s trích d n luôn luôn n m trong d u ngo c kép.

!

"Go to your room

,

" Dad said, "

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Văn ph m Anh văn

and think about what you did

.

"

D u hai ch m và d u ch m ph y "Give me liberty or give death" n m ngoài d u ngo c kép. these are immortal (longremembered) words. D u ph y ñư c dùng ñ tách r i ph n trích d n c a 1 câu v i ph n The father said còn l i c a câu ñó.

:

,

"Shut up!"

Khi 1 câu trích d n b chia làm 2 ph n, ph n th 2 b t ñ u b ng 1 ch vi t thư ng n u ph n th hai "My cousin is a trilingual," they không ph i là 1 câu m i. said. "He lives in Fullerton." (He lives in Fullerton là 1 câu m i.) The physics professor said, the problems at the end of Chapter Five, Energy,

"My cousin," they said, "is a trilingual." ( is a trilingual là ph n th hai c a câu.)

Dùng 1 d u ngo c kép ( ... ) ñ bao quanh 1 s trích d n n m trong 1 s trích d n khác.

' '

"Do

'Work and

' for class on Friday." " "

Some people don't know what Dùng d u ng c kép ñ tách r i t ng nư c ho c t ng ñ c bi t v i ph n còn l i c a câu. the word pho means. "Pho" means Vietnamese noodle soup. What's the difference between

"it's" and "its"?

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In the article

"Save the "My terrible

Planet, the author states that...... In the essay Dùng d u ngo c kép ñ tách r i t a ñ c a t p chí, báo, sách, chương trong 1 quy n sách, truy n ng n, thơ, và bài hát. day

"

"......

"Database Administration".... In the story "My Sister".... In the poem "When I have Fears"..... In the song "Knife".....
In the chapter

D U LƯ C: APOSTROPHES (

')

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have + not = haven t

'

' I + am = I'm I + have = I've I + had = I'd (I had + past
I + will = I ll participle) I + would = I d (I would + simple form of the verb) D u lư c trong l i vi t rút g n (M t d u lư c ñư c dùng khi 2 t ng ñư c n i v i nhau thành 1 t .

'

' do + not = Don't did + not = Didn't It + is = It's (It is +
Who + is = Who s adjective/noun) It + has = It s ( It has + past participle) Is + not = Isn t Could + not = Couldn t They + are = They re Will + not = Won t The car that belong to Jason = Jason s car The house owned by Mr. Newby = Mr. Newby s house The generosity of my parents = my parents

'

'

'

'

'

'

D u lư c dùng ñ ch quy n s h u ( belongs to, possessed by, owned by, or of)

'

' generosity
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Văn ph m Anh văn

D U N I (quãng ng t gi a 2 âm): HYPHEN (

-) -

Dùng d u n i v i 2 t ng (ho c Michelle has a full time job. nhi u hơn) mà ñóng vai trò như 1 ch di n t 1 danh t . I have a fifteen year old

Determiners
Nam Phương

Definite articles
Danh t thư ng ñư c các ch the, a hay an ñ ng trư c. Nh ng ch này tên là DETERMINERS (t h n ñ nh). Nó ch cho ta bi t danh t thu c lo i gì. T h n ñ nh THE ñư c g i là DEFINITE ARTICLE (m o t xác ñ nh). Ta dùng nó cho danh t s ít và s nhi u

Singular the taxi the paper the apple

Plural the taxis the papers the apples

Indefinite articles
T h n ñ nh a (hay an, khi danh t theo sau nó b t ñ u b i m t nguyên âm) là INDEFINITE ARTICLE (m o t không xác ñ nh). Ta dùng a, an cho danh t s ít. a taxi a paper an apple M o t THE, A/AN là determiners ph thông nh t, tuy nhiên có nhi u m o t khác: any taxi that question those apples this paper

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Văn ph m Anh văn

some apple whatever taxi whichever taxi Có l phương ti n thông d ng nh t ñ di n t s lư ng là dùng s . Ta s quan sát ch s dùng làm determiner trong ph n sau ñây:

Cardinal numeral adjectives
Ch s là determiners khi chúng xu t hi n trư c m t danh t . Trong v trí này, cardinal numeral (s nguyên th hi n s lư ng) di n t s lư ng one book two books twenty books

Ordinal numeral adjectives
Cũng cùng v trí ñó, ordinal numeral (s th t ) di n t th t : first impressions second chance third prize

General ordinals
L p dư i c a ordinal bao g m nh ng ch không tr c ti p liên h v i s lư ng (như FIRST liên h v i ONE, SECOND liên h v i TWO, vân vân..). Nh ng ch này g i là GENERAL ORDINALS, và chúng bao g m LAST, LATTER, NEXT, PREVIOUS và SUBSEQUENT next week last orders

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previous engagement subsequent developments Khi chúng không ñ ng trư c danh t như chúng ta ñã th y, numerals là m t l p dư i c a danh t . Cũng gi ng như danh t , nó có th dùng determiner the two of us the first of many Th m chí chúng có nh ng determiner ñ ng trư c chúng: five twos are ten Trong ví d này, TWOS là DANH T nó S NHI U và determiner FIVE c a nó trư c

Pronouns and Determiners
Có s trùng nhau quan tr ng gi a DETERMINER CLASS và DETERMINER SUBCLASS c a PRONOUN (Ð i t , là t dùng thay th cho danh d ). Nhi u ch có th dùng cho c hai

Pronoun

Determiner

This is a very boring book This book is very boring That's an excellent film That film is excellent

Như b ng này cho ta th y, determiners thư ng ñ ng trư c danh t , nhưng pronouns ñ c l p hơn. Nhi m v c a chúng gi ng như danh t , và có th ñư c thay th b i danh t như nh ng câu dư i ñây:

This is a very boring book ~Ivanhoe is a very boring book That's an excellent film ~Witness is an excellent film

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M t khác, khi nh ng ch này là determiners, chúng không ñư c thay th b i danh t (nh ng ch có g n * là không ñúng)

This book is very boring ~*Ivanhoe book is very boring That film is excellent ~*Witness film is excellent

PERSONAL PRONOUNS (ñ i danh t ; I, you, he, vân vân) không th là determiners. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS cũng v y (mine, yours, his/hers, ours, and theirs). Tuy nhiên, nh ng pronouns ph i có hình dáng tương ñương v i determiners

Possessive Pronoun The white car is mine Yours is the blue coat The car in the garage is his/hers David's house is big, but ours is bigger Theirs is the house on the left

Determiner My car is white Your coat is blue His/her car is in the garage Our house is bigger than David's Their house is on the left

Definite articles và indefinite articles không bao gi là pronouns. Chúng luôn luôn là determiners. Th t c a determiners

Determiners ñư c th y trư c nouns, chúng ch cho bi t danh t là lo i gì. Tùy thu c vào th t tương ñ i c a chúng trư c m t danh t , ta phân bi t 3 lo i determiners:

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Predeterminer I met all

Central Determiner my

Postdeterminer many

Noun friends

M t câu như th này thư ng ít khi dùng b i vì hi m khi c ba determiners ñư c l p vô trong cùng m t câu. Thông thư ng, ch môt hay hai v trí ñư c l p vô.

Predeterminers (pre = trư c)
Predeterminers ñ nh rõ s lư ng cho danh t theo sau chúng và có 3 lo i quan tr ng: 1. "Multiplying" expressions, including expressions ending in times: (Nhân) twice my salary double my salary ten times my salary

2. Phân s

half my salary one-third my salary 3. The words all and both: all my salary both my salaries Predeterminers thư ng không di n ñ t chung ñư c *all half my salary

Central Determiners (central = gi a, trung tâm)

Definite article the và indefinite article a/an là nh ng central determiners thông d ng nh t all the book half a chapter

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Như nhi u thí d trư c ñây c a ta ñã cho bi t, ch MY có th chi m v trí central determiner. Possessive (s h u t ) pronouns và possessive determiners cũng v y all your money all his/her money all our money all their money Demonstratives (ch ñ nh t ) cũng v y , là central determiners. all these problems twice that size four times this amount

Postdeterminers (post = sau)
Cardinal và ordinal numerals chi m v trí postdeterminer the two children his fourth birthday General ordinals cũng v y (t c là v trí cu i) my next project our last meeting your previous remark her subsequent letter Nh ng ch ch s lư ng khác cũng là postdeterminers: my many friends our several achievements the few friends that I have Không như predeterminers, postdeterminers có th dùng chung: my next two projects several other people

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Nouns are often preceded by the words the, a, or an. These words are called DETERMINERS. They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The determiner the is known as the DEFINITE

Singular the taxi the paper the apple

Plural the taxis the papers the apples

ARTICLE. It is used before both singular and plural nouns: The determiner a (or an, when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the INDEFINITE ARTICLE. It is used when the noun is singular: any taxi that question those apples this paper some apple whatever taxi whichever taxi Perhaps the most common way to express quantity is to use a numeral. We look at numerals as determiners in the next section

Numerals and Determiners Numerals are determiners when they appear before a noun. In this position, cardinal numerals express quantity:

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one book two books twenty books In the same position, ordinal numerals express sequence: first impressions second chance third prize The subclass of ordinals includes a set of words which are not directly related to numbers (as first is related to one, second is related to two, etc). These are called general ordinals, and they include last, latter, next, previous, and subsequent. These words also function as determiners: next week last orders previous engagement subsequent developments When they do not come before a noun, as we've already seen, numerals are a subclass of nouns. And like nouns, they can take determiners: the two of us the first of many They can even have numerals as determiners before them: five twos are ten In this example, twos is a plural noun and it has the determiner five before it

Pronouns and Determiners
There is considerable overlap between the determiner class and the subclass of pronouns. Many words can be both:

Pronoun

Determiner

This is a very boring book This book is very boring That's an excellent film That film is excellent

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As this table shows, determiners always come before a noun, but pronouns are more independent than this. They function in much the same way as nouns, and they can be replaced by nouns in the sentences above: This is a very boring book ~Ivanhoe is a very boring book That's an excellent film ~Witness is an excellent film

On the other hand, when these words are determiners, they cannot be replaced by nouns:

This book is very boring ~*Ivanhoe book is very boring That film is excellent ~*Witness film is excellent

The personal pronouns (I, you, he, etc) cannot be determiners. This is also true of the possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his/hers, ours, and theirs). However, these pronouns do have corresponding forms which are determiners: Possessive Pronoun The white car is mine Yours is the blue coat The car in the garage is his/hers David's house is big, but ours is bigger Theirs is the house on the left Determiner My car is white Your coat is blue His/her car is in the garage Our house is bigger than David's Their house is on the left

The definite and the indefinite articles can never be pronouns. They are always determiners Definite articles và indefinite articles không bao gi là pronouns. Chúng luôn luôn là determiners. The Ordering of Determiners

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Determiners occur before nouns, and they indicate the kind of reference which the nouns have. Depending on their relative position before a noun, we distinguish three classes of determiners

Predeterminer I met all

Central Determiner my

Postdeterminer many

Noun friends

A sentence like this is somewhat unusual, because it is rare for all three determiner slots to be filled in the same sentence. Generally, only one or two slots are filled.

Predeterminers (pre = trư c) Predeterminers specify quantity in the noun which follows them, and they are of three major types: 1. "Multiplying" expressions, including expressions ending in times: twice my salary double my salary ten times my salary 2. Fractions 3. The words all and both: all my salary both my salaries Predeterminers do not normally co-occur: *all half my salary

Central Determiners (central = gi a, trung tâm) The definite article the and the indefinite article a/an are the most common central determiners: all the book half a chapter

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As many of our previous examples show, the word my can also occupy the central determiner slot. This is equally true of the other possessives: all your money all his/her money all our money all their money The demonstratives, too, are central determiners: all these problems twice that size four times this amount

Postdeterminers (post = sau)
Cardinal and ordinal numerals occupy the postdeterminer slot: the two children his fourth birthday This applies also to general ordinals: my next project our last meeting your previous remark her subsequent letter Other quantifying expressions are also postdeterminers: my many friends our several achievements the few friends that I have Unlike predeterminers, postdeterminers can co-occur: my next two projects several other people

Vi t hoa
Kevin Khôi Trương

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Ch hoa ñư c dùng trong nh ng cách sau ñây: 1. Ch cái ñ u tiên trong câu 2. Tên riêng và tính t ñi chung v i tên riêng They sold their house last week. She is a nice girl. Tri Le Scott Brown Joey Adams United Nations American flag

3. Ch cái ñ u tiên c a 1 l i trích Mimi said, "You are a liar." d n tr c ti p BUT: "You are," Mimi said, "a liar." Dr. Robert Senator Dole Professor Smith BUT: There are 100 senators in the U.S. Congress. My 4. Danh hi u ho c c p b c trư c 1 professors are strict. tên riêng NGO I L : Donna Chung, M.D. Ron is working on a B.A. in business. (Bachelor of Vi t hoa ch vi t t t c a b ng c p Arts) BUT: Ron is working on a bachelor's degree in business.

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We live in Santa Ana. BUT: We live in a city. He'll fly to Florida. My came from Vietnam. Thailand is in Asia. They passed the Pacific Ocean. BUT: They passed an ocean. 5. Tên riêng v nơi ch n và ñ a lý I saw Lake Superior. (thành ph , ti u bang, qu c gia, l c BUT: I saw a lake. ñ a, ñ i dương, h , sông, sa m c, núi, ñư ng xá, tòa nhà, công viên, trư ng h c, và s thú) He crossed the Mississippi River. BUT: He crossed a river. Danh t chung như là ñư ng ph , ñ i l , công viên, h , ñ i dương, sông, sa m c, ho c núi ñư c vi t The Sahara Desert is in Africa. hoa khi nào là 1 ph n c a tên BUT: They died on a desert. riêng. Khi ñông, tây, nam, b c là 1 ph n We saw the Everest Mountain. c a v trí, chúng ñư c vi t hoa. BUT: We saw a mountain. Khi ñông, tây, nam, b c ñ c p ñ n phương hư ng trên la bàn, chúng không ñư c vi t hoa. She lives on Brookhurst Avenue. They'll meet in Mc. Cathy Hall. I saw her in Mile Square Park yesterday. BUT: Let's go to a park. Have you ever gone to San Diego Zoo? California is in the West. BUT: China is north of Vietnam. Head south for two blocks and turn east on Bolsa Street.

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This year, her birthday falls on Tuesday. 6. Ngày trong tu n, tên c a tháng You were born in May. trong năm và ngày l nhưng không People have parties on Christmas Day. Four seasons of the year are spring, summer, vi t hoa 4 mùa và khóa h c. fall/autumn, and winter. 7. Tên c a s n ph m qu ng cáo My nephew knows all the words of Diet Pepsi's advertisement. We read the book Gone with the Wind. While waiting for my friend, I watched Friends and read an article in Reader's Digest. Let's go see Rush Hour 2. I like listening to the song You Will See, which was sung by Madonna.

8. T a sách, t p chí, báo, truy n, thơ, phim, chương trình tivi, bài hát và bài văn c a quí v

One of the leading software companies is 9. Tên c a hãng, ñoàn th , công Microsoft. ñoàn, câu l c b , ñ ng chính tr , và They have an account at OCTFCU (Orange nh ng t ch c khác County Teachers Federal Credit Union). They went to Westminster High School. BUT: They went to high school together. I am going to California State University, 10. Tên trư ng h c và tên l p h c Fullerton. BUT: I'm going to a university. She is taking Economic 315 this semester. BUT: She took an economic class last year. I can speak Vietnamese, English, and a little 11. Tên c a ngôn ng và qu c t ch Spanish. He is an American. 12. Ð i danh t "I" Vy and I have been friends for a number of years.

13. Quan h gia ñình ch khi nào I'll tell Dad about this. We are talking to Aunt nó là 1 ph n c a tên riêng ho c n u Van. nó thay th cho tên riêng BUT: I'll tell my dad. We are talking to our aunt. 14. Tôn giáo, môn ñ và th n thánh Muslims, Buddhism, Christianity, Jehovah, Islam

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Many people remember the Civil War. 15. S ki n l ch s , giai ño n, văn She was born in the Middle Ages. ki n (tài li u) và ho t ñ ng Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? He told us about the Abolitionist movement.

Ngu n VietSciences

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