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Find this and other great free products are available for download from the GMAT Club Marketplace. Find the best free resources and also the best deals to save the most money on books, tests, courses, iPhone Apps, and admissions consulting. http://gmatclub.com/marketplace GMAT Club 2011 2 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning

GMAT MATH GMAT Club 2011 3

not the new one (18) © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 4 GMAT Club 2011 ! Make sure you use the orig . what was the percent increase? How much is 15 percent of 20? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Percent 2 4 Percent 2 Answers Answers Percent Formula: Part = Percent x Whole For example. 15% of 20 is: 15 300 3 100 100 Percent Change Formula: × 100% 20 = = Jack’s Raise: 18 − 15 3 100 × 100% = × 100% = = 20% 15 15 5 inal amount (15).Percent 1 3 Percent 2 What is the percent formula? What is the formula for percent change? If Jack got a raise from $15 per hour to $18 per hour.

5 *100 = x * 25 12. the increase was 20 cars. which is 200% of 10 There are 2 solutions to this problem: Long one: 50% of 25 is 12.5 x = 50 Short one but a harder to come up with: 50% * 25 = x * 25% 50 = x © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 5 GMAT Club 2011 . if production was 10 cars . by how many percent did it i ncrease? 100% 200% 250% 300% 333% 50% of 25 is 25% of which number? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Percent 3 6 8 Percent 4 Answers Answers The correct answer is B – increased by 200% For example. and it tripled to 30 cars.Percent 3 5 7 Percent 4 If the production of hybrid cars tripled last year.

Odd/Even Rules 9 11 Odd/Even Rules 2 Check your knowledge of Odd/Even rules Odd + Odd = ? Odd – Even = ? Even + Odd = ? Odd x Odd = ? Odd ÷ Even = ? Odd x Even = ? Hint: try picking numbers © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning Is 0 odd or even? MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Odd/Even Rules 10 12 Odd/Even Rules 2 Answers Answers Odd + Odd = 1+ 1 = 2 (Even) Odd – Even = 3 – 2 = 1 (Odd) Even + Odd = 2 + 1 = 3 (Odd ) Odd x Odd = 3 x 3 = 9 (Odd) Odd ÷ Even = 3 ÷ 2 = 1.5 (Not an integer!) Odd x Even = 3 x 2 = 6 (Even) 0 (zero) is Even MATH: ARITHMETIC 6 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 It is also not positive or negative – it is neutral .

1 2 2 A – C – B is even . Is A+B+C even or odd? 2 − 3 . Let’s take 1: A. 2 + 2 2 + 2 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Odd/Even Rules 3 14 16 Odd/Even Rules 4 Answers Answers Use the “plug numbers” method to check each answer choice.1 2 3. = 1 (Odd). let’s try 3.Odd/Even Rules 3 13 15 Odd/Even Rules 4 (Ultra Hard) If b is an odd number. It usually is a good idea to run 2 through 2 different numbers if you get zero or similar C.   . just in case. = 0 (Even) – however. is odd −1 D. B. 2*1 – 3 = 1 (Odd) 1. E.1 B. C. which of the following must be even? A.

5. B=4. B=0.2 (the answer is "no").3.D. Consider A=6. The correc t answer is E. and C=0. Do not assu me that the numbers are integers if the question does not mention it. 1 2 − 1 = − (not an intenger) 2 1 1 + 2 = 3 (Odd) 2 + 2 = 4 (Even) MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 7 GMAT Club 2011 . and C=2 (th e answer is "yes") and A=0. E. Statements (1) and (2) combined are insufficient.

Div isibility by 9 – the sum of digits is a multiple of 9 MATH: ARITHMETIC The best way to approach this question is to plug in several sets of numbers Man y are tempted to plug 3 for x and then for S2. Divisibility by 5 – the last digit is either 0 or 5 Yes. then x is an integer divisible by 3. The answer is E MATH: ARITHMETIC 8 1 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning . the answer is Yes. i n that case.Divisibility Rules 17 19 Divisibility 2 (Hard) Is 54780 divisible by 2? Is 1671 divisible by 3? Is 5632 divisible by 4? Is 3830 divisible by 5? Is 2658 divisible by 6? Is 396 divisible by 9? Is integer 2 4 divisible by 9? x is an integer divisible by 3 xy is an integer divisible by 9 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Divisibility Rules 18 20 Divisibility 2 Answers Answers Yes. xy is an integer divisible by 9. Divisibility by 3 – sum of all digits is a multiple of 3 Yes. Divisibility by 4 – last 2 digits is a mult iple of 4 Yes. Divisibili ty by 6 – the sum of digits is a multiple of 3 and the last digit is even Yes. the only value y can have is 3. but 2 4 = 1 and is not divisible by 9. Divisibility by 2 – last digit of a number is even Yes. But if we try x=81 and y=9.

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However. The correct answer is D. 3 + 2 + © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Number Properties 22 24 Number Properties 2 Answers Answers To answer the question. then the only solution is x=3. gives us that x=3 or x= 3. Statement 1 is sufficient. T e solutions to this equation are x= 1 and x=3. based on the above. y. MATH: ARITHMETIC 9 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011       . Therefore x=3. The only number that falls into both of those 2 cat egories is 570. If x>0 . Su fficient. x=3 or x= 1. check which integer is both divisible by 3 (since there are 3 integers) and is even. plugging in this value into 2 = + 5. which is divisible b y 7 Statement 2 is sufficient. = − 2. = 2 .Number Properties 21 23 Number Properties 2 (Hard) Which of the following integers represents a sum of 3 consecutive even integers? 200 303 400 554 570 If x>0 2 = y=4 + 5. The result is 27+16+6 =49. Correct answer is E Substitute x. If y=4. and z in the original equation to get the following: 2 − 2 − 3 = 0.

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24. 3. 10. 2. 12. 9. 5. 17. 18. and multiples that are 6. 6. 11. 20. 3. 36… © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning Most often GMAT questions will say “inclusive” but sometimes they don’t – need to rememb er to check The formula for calculating the number of integers between two numbe rs is: N M+1 Therefore. (For example. 13.6. 2. 4. 12. 6 has factors 1.Number Properties 3 25 27 Multiples How many distinct integers are there between 1 and 21 inclusive? What is a multiple? Is 5 a multiple of 55 or is 55 a multiple of 5? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Number Properties 3 26 28 Answers Multiples Answers The multiple of a number is the product of the number and any other whole number . 8. 7.4. 2. 19. 6. the answer is: 21 – 1 + 1 = 21 You can also write out all of the numbers though it is not always possible but just in case: 1. 16. 14. 15. 21 MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 10 GMAT Club 2011   .8 are multiples of 2) Therefore 55 is a multiple of 5 For example.

it is unlikely that GMAT will test this property but it helps to remember Step 1: Find the prime factors of each of the numbers Step 2: Multiply the uniqu e factors (exclude duplicates) Answers Answers Option 2: Step 1: Multiply the two numbers Step 2: Find any factors the two numbers share Step 3: Divide the product in Step 1 by the factors that the two numbers have in common © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 11 GMAT Club 2011 . 0 (zero) is a multiple of everything However.Multiples 2 29 31 Multiples 3 Is 0 (zero) a multiple of 100? How to find a Least Common Multiple (LCM)? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Multiples 2 30 32 Multiples 3 Option 1: Yes.

Multiples 4 33 35 Translate What is the Least Common Multiple of 18 and 24? The product of three and four is reduced by five and then increased by the diffe rence between the original product and eight = ? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Multiples 2 Answers 34 36 Translate Answers Option 1 Find the factors of 18 and 24: 18 = 3 x 3 x 2 24 = 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 ique factors: 3 x 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 72 Multiply the un Option 2 Multiply the 2 numbers: 18 x 24 = 432 Shared factors: 2 and 3 Divide 432 by 2 an d 3 = 72 MATH: ARITHMETIC 3 x 4 = 12 12 – 5 = 7 12 – 8 = 4 7 + 4 = 11 Answer: 11 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 12 GMAT Club 2011 .

5% 8 1 = 16.Arithmetic to Memorize 37 39 Arithmetic to Memorize 2 1 = 2 1 = 4 2 = 5 1 = 20 1 = 8 1 = 6 MATH: ARITHMETIC 1 12 7 8 3 4 = = = 75% = 20% = 2 3 1 83 % 3 16 % = = MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning Arithmetic to Memorize 38 40 Answers Arithmetic to Memorize 2 Answers 1 = 8.5% 8 3 = 75% 4 1 = 50% 2 1 = 25% 4 2 = 40% 5 1 = 5% 20 1 = 12.67% 6 MATH: ARITHMETIC 75% = ¾ 20% = 2 1 5 1 6 5 6 3 1 83 % 3 16 % = = © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning .33% 12 7 = 87.

MATH: ARITHMETIC 13 GMAT Club 2011 .

Arithmetic to Memorize 3 41 43 Arithmetic to Memorize 4 2 2 3 = 2 = 24 = 25 = 26 = 27 = 32 = 33 = 34 = 35 = 42 = 43 = 44 = MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning Arithmetic to Memorize 3 42 44 Arithmetic to Memorize 4 2 2 3 2 Answers Answers =4 =8 4 = 16 2 25 = 32 26 = 64 27 = 128 32 = 9 33 = 27 34 = 81 35 = 243 42 = 16 43 = 64 44 = 256 MATH: ARITHMETIC 14 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 .

15. 105. © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning .Arithmetic to Memorize 5 45 47 Arithmetic to Memorize 6 2 = = 112 = 122 = 132 = 142 = 152 = 162 = MATH: ARITHMETIC Complete the following: 8. 104. 90. 72. 32. 72. …… 160 24. 120 12. 40. 48. 60. 30… 150 120 12. 16. 24. 120 MATH: ARITHMETIC 15 15. 56. 96. 64. 120 30. 16. 36. 80. 40. 24. 75. 36…. 24. © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Arithmetic to Memorize 5 46 48 Arithmetic to Memorize 6 2 5 3 5 Answers Answers 5 3 5 = 25 = 125 2 = 121 11 122 = 144 132 = 169 142 = 196 152 = 225 162 = 256 MATH: ARITHMETIC Complete the following (Answers): 8. 60. 48. 32. 84. 45. 88. 96. 112. 108.

GMAT Club 2011 .

1 . 23. 47 6 3 5 Reciprocal for a number . 7. 43. For example reciprocal of 3 is 3 Reciprocal 125 = 5 243 = 3 MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning .Arithmetic to Memorize 7 49 51 Reciprocal 2= 3= 625 = 169 = List all Primes between 1 and 50 What is a reciprocal? Extra Hard & Extra Credit 2 3 5 6 = 125 = 243 = MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Arithmetic to Memorize 7 50 52 Reciprocal Answers Answers 2 = 1. 37. 3. 11. is a number which when multiplied by . 5 6 1 1 2 = 64 or . 19. 17.4 3 = 1. 5. 13. 29. The reciprocal of a fraction is of 6 is 5. 31. 41.7 625 = 25 169 = 13 Primes: 2. denoted by s 1.

© GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 16 GMAT Club 2011 .

what is the value of x? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Absolute Value 54 56 Absolute Value 2 Answers Answers Step1: Open modulus and set conditions. you need to con sider 2 situations to find all roots: Positive Step 1: Find positive/negative roots: (or rather non negative) Negative Step 2: Solve the equations x x Step 2: Solve new equations from Step 1 on from Step 2 Step 3: Check conditions for each soluti © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning Step 3: Check conditions ( 5 − 1 ≥ 0 & − 1 < 0) −1=4≥0 3 – 1 = 4 < 0 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC   − 1 ≥ 0 in our case.Absolute Value 53 55 Absolute Value 2 If x 1 = 4.       What is the 3 value? step approach to solving equations and inequalities with absolute     − 1 = 4 − 1 < 0 in our case. − − 1 = 4 =5 = 3 . To solve/open a modulus.

MATH: ARITHMETIC 17 GMAT Club 2011 .

which is not sufficient. St atement (2) by itself is not sufficient. If M= 3. which is not sufficient. I f we combine both statements. we have 2 equations: Thus x = 15 and 5.Absolute Value 3 57 59 Absolute Value 4 Is M<0? − = 2 = 9 What is the value of x If x – 5 = 10? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Absolute Value 3 58 60 Absolute Value 4 Answers Answers x – 5 = 10 We must evaluate both the positive and negative outcome since the abs olute value “removes” the negative sign Thus. (Plug in both to check) Absolute value inequalities and equa tions will almost always have 2 answers/solutions! MATH: ARITHMETIC Statement (1) by itself is not sufficient. Statements (1) and (2) combined are sufficient. then M= 3. then –( 3)= 3 or 3=3. M is either a neg ative number or zero. The correct answer is C. M can be either 3 o r 3. From statement (1). From statement (2). MATH: ARITHMETIC 18 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning           X – 5 = 10 X – 5 = 10 (in case it was a negative expression)     .

GMAT Club 2011 .

36. 25. 18. 3. 4. it has factors of 1. 2. etc). and 25. 12) 1 1 1 1 Prime Factors of 462 = 2 . 16. 6.Factors 61 63 Factors 2 How many total factors does 462 have? Do integers usually have an odd or even number of factors? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Factors 62 64 Factors 2 Answers Answers Advanced method for finding the number of all possible factors: Write 22 31 50 out each prime factor and their power. Factors of 36 are 1. for example. 4. 9. Try 25 for example. 3. 6. 9. 6. MATH: ARITHMETIC 19 MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 . 12. 3. 2. 12 can be written as follows : etc (all other primes will have a zero power) Add 1 to all powers and multiply them: (in this case 6) and that’s the number of facto rs (1. make sure it is an even number The only integers that have an odd number of factors are perfe ct squares (that’s numbers such as 4. 3 . 2. 12. Thus when finding the total number of factors. 36. 11 4 Total num ber of factors: 2x2x2x2 = 2 = 16 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning Vast majority of integers have an even number of factors such as 12 for example: 1. 4. 7 . 5.

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unless you can spot a shortcut right away. MATH: ARITHMETIC 22 + 23 + 24 + 2 = ? There are no rules for adding or subtracting powers. d = 3 Therefore. 2 B)2:1 C)2:3 D)4:3 E)1:5 22 + 23 + 24 + 2 = ? A)1:2 =2c. b = 4 0. the ration of a t o d is 2:1 The correct answer is B. since there is a 2 and 3 involv ed 2*6 = 3b. This q uestion is solved by brute force: 4 + 8 + 16 + 2 = 30 The correct answer is (E) © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 20 GMAT Club 2011 .5*4 = 2c.Ratios 65 67 Powers What is the ratio of a to d if 1 2a=3b. c = 1 3*1 = d. and 3c=d? A) 29 + 2 B) 210 C) 25 + 2 D) 25 E) 30 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC MATH: ARITHMETIC Ratios 66 68 Powers Answers With questions like these. the easies t way to solve is to plug numbers: let’s pick a=6.

The base stays unchanged MATH: ARITHMETIC 21 MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 6 2 ×2 . Thus.Powers 2 69 71 Powers 3 24 × 28 26 × 2 22 × 23 × 24 × 25 × 2 = ? A) 2120 B) 3215 C) 215 D) 214 E) 62 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning =? MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Powers 2 70 72 Powers 3 15 Answers Answers 2 ×2 ×2 ×2 ×2= 2 When powers with the same base (2 in this case) are multiplied. the pow ers are summed and the base is held constant. it is 2 to the power of 2+3+ 4+5+1=15. The correct answer is (C) 215 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning 2 3 4 5 24 × 28 = 212 27 = 25 Division of powers with the same base (2) is handled similarly to multiplication except the power values are deducted.

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you need to multiply t he exponents (2 * 3) 33 = 327 Start operations from outside and work your way in: 3 taken to the power of 3 is 27. Thus the base of 3 is taken to the power of 27.Powers 4 73 75 Powers 5 (33 )2 = ? 33 = ? 3 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Powers 4 74 76 Powers 5 Answers Answers (33 )2 = 36 When a number taken to a power is taken to another power. 3 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 22 GMAT Club 2011 .

Not tested on the GMAT.2 × 2. 1 1 Fo r example 2. zero to the power of zero is also 1.3 = = 1 8 Negative powers turn a number to a reciprocal number taken to that power.Powers 6 77 79 Powers 7 2. © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC MATH: ARITHMETIC 23 GMAT Club 2011 .4 =? 50 = ? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Powers 6 78 80 Powers 7 1 23 Answers Answers 2.3 × 26 × 2.2 × 2.3 × 26 × 2.4 = 2.2 = 2 = 2 4 50 = 1 Any number (positive or negative) taken to the power of 0 (zero) equal to 1.

In expression 10 + .Powers 8 81 83 Powers 9 (Ultra Hard) If m and n are positive integers. is the remainder of 10 : 3 4 =? 1 2 larger than the remainder of 3 10 : ? 3 m>n The remainder of is 2 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Powers 8 82 84 Powers 9 Answers Answers 4 = 4=2 Fraction powers are interpreted as follows: the denominator is the root and nume rator is the power. the sum of digits of 1 . For example 3 = 2 3 3 1 2 3 or 2 = 2 1 2 2 MATH: ARITHMETIC Statement (1) by itself is insufficient.

5. which cannot be larger that 10 : the remainder of no ma what m is. as S2 states. Sta tement (2) by itself is sufficient. th e 10 : remainder of 3 is 0. If the remainder of is 2. then is 2.0 is always 1 and is it 10 : the value of n that determines the remainder of 3 . 3 The correct answer is B. n=2 (the answer is "no"). Therefore. If ou plug in m=2. MATH: ARITHMETIC 24 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 . n=1 (the answer is "yes") and m=3. or 8 and the sum of the 3 10 : digits of 3 is divisible by 3.

‐2.€n.0.1.‐2.1.‐5.‐3.€Given€ c .€what€is€Lena’s€percentile€after€ the€two€test What€is€the€sum€of€consecutive€integers€ ‐9.€On€another etter€than€Lena.‐3.2€? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€ARITHMETIC ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€ARITHMETIC Percentiles€ €Answers 86 88 Consecutive€Numbers€ €Answers Take€each€test€result€separately: Test€1:€120€x€80th =€96€(she€scored€better€than€96€ students) Sum€up€the€results: 96€+€176€=€272 120€+€200€=€320 Test€2:€She€scored€better€than€176€students€(2 Sum€of€consecutive€integers€equals€the€mean€ multiplied€by€the€number€of€terms.‐6.‐1.‐5.‐7.‐8.‐4.€If€nobody€ had€Lena’s€score.2€€ 3.‐4. 85th percentile ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€ARITHMETIC ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€ARITHMETIC GMAT Club 2011 25 .5 (mean€equals€to€the€ average€of€the€first€and€last€term .0.Percentiles 85 87 Consecutive€Numbers Lena’s€first€test€score€was€at€the€80th percentile€in€ a€€class€of€120€students.‐1.

18.12. Annex denominator with "9" as many times as the length of the recurring number 3. ×6 2 To convert a recurring decimal to fraction: 1. Reduce the fraction to its lowest terms 13 33 MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC 26 GMAT Club 2011   Example #1: e number is 3: Reducing © GMAT Club Convert 0.Evenly Spaced Set 89 91 Recurring Decimal What is the sum of all members of the set 9.24 ? Express 0.15.3939… to a fraction 1: The recurring number is 39 39 2: 2 digits so two nines are added 99 it to lowest terms: – contributing to each other’s learning th .393939… in a fraction format © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Evenly Spaced Set 90 92 Recurring Decimal Answers Answers The sum of elements of evenly spaced set is given by the formula Sum = = 99 1 : × 2 9:24 Therefore. Separate the recurring number fro m the decimal fraction 2.21.

Fractions (Extra Hard) 93 If a. b. is c=2 a=b+c ( ) an integer? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC Fractions 94 Answers Statement I is insufficient since it does not provide enough information about b or c Statement II: We can rewrite ( ) as : Now plug in the value for a from S2: = 1 1 + since b and c are disticnt positive integers and b is not equal to c. the expres sion cannot be an integer The correct answer is B MATH: ARITHMETIC 27 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 . and c are positive distinct integers.

€ 2 has€to€be€ 0.€what€is€ 6 9 2 3? 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2 3 2 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€ALGEBRA Algebra€ €Answers 2 Based€on€the€setup€(and€Math€principles€tested€on€ the€GMAT).€Therefore€ 2 3 3 2 Therefore:€3 2 The€correct€answer€is€A ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€ALGEBRA GMAT Club 2011 28 .Algebra€(Hard) 1 If€each€expression€under€the€square€root€is€greater€ than€or€equal€to€0.

€7.€9€is€deducted€from€the€first€consecuti m€the€second.5.€there€may€be€either€2€or€3€even€ .€ Then.€there€should€be€10€numbers€rather€ than€9€and€the€average€is€4.5 18 36 The€average€of€10€consecutive€integers€is€12.€and€so€on€until€the€ last€number€which€remains e? A)55 B)50 C)6 D)7.€ ive€integers€(10*12=120)€ and€subtract€the€sum€of€integers€from€0€to€9€(45)€ and€divide€the nswer€is€E.€find€the€consecutive€integers.€you€have€two€options.€14.€what€is€the€average€of€the€even€only€ inte 10 12 13.€you€can€deduct€ there€is€a€ trap€though. You€don’t€need€to€find€each€of€the€numbers.€Divide€3 wer€is€B.€ The€average€of€the€even€integers€is€12€as€well€ (10+12+14€=€36.€7€is€ deducted€from€the€third.€ Instead.5 MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 29 .Average 1 3 Average€2 If€the€average€of€5€consecutive€integers€is€ 12.€12.€13.€11.€Since€ there€are€5.5 E)7 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS Average€ €Answers 2 4 Average€2€ €Answers First.

€the€Median will€be€the€ average€of€the€2€middle€numbers MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 30 .Mean 5 7 Median How€to€find€the€Mean? How€to€find€the€Median? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS Mean 6 8 Median€ €Answers Arithmetic€Mean€=€Average€=€ number of elements Arrange€all€numbers€in€an€order€ from€the€smallest€to€the€largest.€The Median will€be€the€m ven€number€of€ elements.

€If€you€hav .2.€in€an€ array€1.€it€is€always€a€good€idea€to€rewrite€ the€elements€in€an€creasing€order The€Mode€of€an€array€is€the€number€that€ appears€most€often.€In€the€array€1.4.2. wice.4€– the€Mode is€3€and€4€(there€can€be€more€ than€one€mode).3. MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS GMAT Club 2011 31 .Mode 9 11 Range How€to€find€the€mode?€ How€to€find€the€Range? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS Mode€ €Answers 10 12 Range€ €Answers Range€is€the€difference€between€the€ smallest€and€largest€elements€of€an€ array.€For€example.3.

Standard€Deviation 13 15 Standard€Deviation€2 Which€of€the€sets€has€a€higher€standard€deviation? Set€A Set€B How€to€find€the€Standard€ Deviation? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS Standard€Deviation€ €Answers 14 16 Standard€Deviation€2€ €Answers You€won’t€have€to€calculate€SD€on€the€GMAT€but€ you€need€to€understand€the€concept€of€SD St ead€out€the€ members€of€the€array€are.€To€find€the€Standard€ Deviation: Find€the€mean Find€the€difference€between€each€number€and€the€ Set€A€has€the€higher€Standard€Deviation€because€ the€elements€are€distributed€further€from€ mean Square€each€of€the€differences Find€the€average€of€the€squared€differences ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS GMAT Club 2011 32 Take€a€squ .

€look€at€DS€ statements.€the€17%€has€been€verified€in€Excel MATH:€STATISTICS Before€reading€Data€Sufficiency€statements.€ it€does€not€change€the€standard€deviation.45. MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 33 ¡ .€what€can€ we€say€about€the€question?€What€shoul rd€deviation?€"consecutive€even€integers"€ means€that€all€elements€strictly€related€to€each e€set€by€adding€or€subtracting€any€integer.€Thus€the€ decrease€in€standard€deviation€is€17%.€If€we€ create€a€new€set€that€consists€of€all€elements€of€ the€initial€set€bu ange€in€standard€deviation? What€is€the€Standard€Deviation€of€a€set€ of€consecutive€even€integers? (1)€There€are€39€ele n€of€the€set€is€382 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS Standard€Deviation€3€ €Answers 18 20 Standard€Deviation€4€ €Answers We€don t€need€to€calculate€as€decrease€in€all€ elements€of€a€set€by€a€constant€percentage€w ation€of€the€set€by€the€ same€percentage€(the€average€is€decreased€by€17%€ as€well€as€the€d )€ and€all€elements€or€their€squares.€all€we€need€it€is€just€first€statement.€ because€the€more€elements€we€have€the€broader€they€ are€distri .€ You bers P.€So.€One ber€of€elements€in€the€set.S.37}.24.Standard€Deviation€3 17 19 Standard€Deviation€4 What€is€the€fastest€way€to€estimate€standard€ deviation€(without€calculating€it)? There€is€ 101.€A€ is€sufficient.

Standard€Deviation€5 21 Set€A€consists€of€19€integers€with€mean€4€and€ standard€deviation€of€3.€and€therefore.€the€ andard€deviation.€the€smaller€€ the€standard€deviation.€ All on€ from€the€mean Answer:€D ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS GMAT Club 2011 34 .€If€a€new€set€B€is€f at€two€ elements€will€decrease€the€standard€deviation€the€ most? A)€9€and€3 B)€‐3€and€3 C)€6€and€1 D)€4€and€5 E)€5€and€5 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€STATISTICS Standard€Deviation€5€ €Answers 22 Solution:€The€closer€to€the€mean.€D€ has€4€(equal€to€the€mean)€and€5€(differs€from€ mean€only€by€1).

Construct€an€“X”: 14€liters‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐35% X€liters€‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐100% 1.1255 Times€20.510 (as€opposed€to€22.000.000 1 .€compounded€quarterly.03€to€the€4th power€is€1.€what€is€ the€balance€ 14€liters€of€apple€juice€is€mixed€with€cranberry€ juice.000€is€invested€at€12%€annual€ interest.000 1. 20.03 Mixture€problems€require€attention€to€details€to€ both€the€information€given€and€the€questi iters€of€apple€juice€is€35%€ (100%‐65%)€of€the€new€mixture.€that’s€$22.400€for€simp MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS .Compound€Interest 1 3 Mixtures If€$20.€If€the€resulting€mix€contains€65%€ iters€of€the€mix€ were€produced? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS Compound€Interest€ €Answers 2 4 Mixtures€ €Answers Compound€Interest€formula:€ 1 where€C is€the€number€of€periods 20.

40 liters ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS GMAT Club 2011 35 .

Using€the€Work€formula:€ C€=€ Formula:€Sum€of€the€Rates€of€Workers€=€the€combined€ rate .Work€Problems 5 7 Work€Problems€2 What€is€the€formula€for€a€work€ problem? Robert€working€alone€can€unload€a€truck€ in€8€hours.€The€rate€almost€always€ .€is€setting€the€ equation€correctly.€where€W€is€time€required€by€wor e€time€required€ for€both€workers€working€together€(Combined) MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS 3.€on€the€other€hand.€can€ unload€t red€together.€Doug.4€hours€(approximately) ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS GMAT Club 2011 36 .€how€much€time€will€it€ take€Robert€and€Doug€to€unload€the€ truck€working€toge MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Work€Problems€ €Answers 6 8 Work€Problems€2€ €Answers The€key€to€solving€the€work€problems. .€The€work€formula€ ork€rates€(inverse€of€the€time€it€would€ take€to€complete€the€job).

€X€=€28.€If€40%€o e€married€ employees€in€the€office€are€men.€We€can€do€the€rest€of€the€ math€and€fill€out€the€entire€table€to€ MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 37 . Group1€+€Group2€+€Neither€– Both€=€Total 50€+€60€+€20€– Both€=€90 e€formula€and€one€ sample€question€so€you€can€plug€in€numbers€on€ the€test MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS To€answer€this€question€the€fastest.€how€many€ signed€up€for€both€advanced€and€ The€office€of€120€is€split€between€male€and€female€ employees€at€the€ratio€of€3:5.€we€can€put€this€ table€together: Male Married Single Total 20 X–3 45 Female X X€– 75 75 Total 48 72 120 Thus€20€+€X€=€48.€how€many€of€the€ women€working€in€the€office€ar ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS Group€Problems€ €Answers 10 12 Group€Problems€2€ €Answers The€best€and€easiest€approach€to€solving€this€type€ of€problems€is€using€the€both/neither€f tion€is€a€Venn€diagram).Group€Problems€ 9 11 Group€Problems€2 Out€of€90€conference€attendees.€50€registered€ for€the€basic€workshop€and€60€signed€up€for€ ttendees€have€ not€signed€up€for€a€workshop€yet.

€ scenarios€II€and€III€are€possible.€his€stock€of€feed€will€ last€for€4€more€days€than€pla ll€run€out€of€feed€3€days€earlier€ than€planned.€It€means€that€there€were€a s€had€the€last€move.€All€games€ended€in€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS Volume/Mixture€Problems€ €Answers 14 16 Counting€Problems€ €Answers Very€hard€problem. MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 ¡ .€the€ fa any€chickens€ does€the€farmer€have? 12 24 48 55 60 In€a€game€of€chess.€whites€have€made€2319€ moves€altogether€while€blacks€have€made€2315€ moves.€Several€solutions€exist.€If€this€were€true€ then€the€difference€between€the€total€number€of€mov east€5.€it s€only€4.€All€the€other€games€ could€ha s.€In€fact.€T e€difference€in€the€total€number€of€moves€ made€by€whites€and€blacks€during€the€tournament.€If€no€chickens€are€sold€or€bought.€this€one€ is€probably€not€the€most€correct€but€ mber€of€chickens€and€Y€be€the€days€ they€can€survive€on€the€current€feed: (x‐15)(y+4)=(x+20 0 4 15 20 3 7 35 5 Solving€the€first€equation.€which€of€the€following€can€be€ true€about€the€tournament? I.€we€get€x=60€and€y=12 MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS From€the€stem€it€follows€that€there€were€only€4€games€in€ which€whites€had€the€last€move. Scenario€I€is€impossible.€Blacks€won€more€games€than€whites III.€Blacks€lost€5€games II. ot€won€by€blacks€(but€they€ could€well€have€ended€in€a€draw).Volume/Mixture€Problems€(Hard) 13 15 Counting€Problems€(Ultra€Hard) If€a€farmer€sells€15€of€his€chickens.€If€in€any€ga e€did€not€lose.€the€moves€of€whites€and€blacks€ alternate€with€whites€having€the€first€ t.

38 .

€But€if€x€is€ only€marginally€larger.€If e€is€small€(if€y=100€.2y ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS Distance€ €Answers 18 20 Percent€ €Answers Pick€numbers€and€then€check€them€against€the€ options.12*0.€(8€>€6).€the€ new€price€is€0).€the€new€price€is€higher€than€ t .€the€new€price€is€lower.€24€km g€these€into€the€answer€choices.€the€current€being€2€km/h.€ The€correct€answer€is€A MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS Let€P€denote€the€original€price.€Take€12€km€as€the€distance€traveled€ e€the€swimmer s€ speed€to€be€4€km/h.€If€y€is€small.€is€the€new€price€higher€than€ the x>y x=1.€return€ journey€takes€6.€Use€the€same€ reasoning.Distance€(Ultra€Hard) 17 19 Percent A€swimmer€makes€a€round€trip€up€and€down€the€ river€which€takes€her€X€hours. Statement€(2)€by€itself€is€insufficient.€Adding€ S1€to€S2€ tion.9=€ P*1.€If€x€is€much€larg er€than€the€original.€which€takes€her€Y€hours.€thus€a€total€of€8€hours. Statements€(1)€and€(2)€combined€are€insufficient.€In€still€ water.€ which€means€6€km/h€down€the ver€takes€2€hours.008€>€P).€If€the€next€da e€speed€in€ still€water.€which€of€the€ following€statements€is€tru X>Y X<Y X=Y If€a€price€was€increased€by€x%€and€then€ decreased€by€y%.€ The€correct€answer€is€E.81=0.97P€<P. MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 39 ¡ .€For€exam s€P*1.2*0. Statement€(1)€by€itself€is€insufficient.

.

MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 40 .€Therefore€on€the€s irst€day.€on ce€ we€have€2€colonies.€how€many€ days€will€it€ tat’s€limit? 6.33€ 7.5€ 10€ 15€ 19€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€WORD€PROBLEMS Rate€ €Answers 22 We€know€that€the€bacteria€colony€doubles€in€size€ every€day€for€20€days.€at€which€point€it€reaches onger€grow.€it€is€at€100%€of€capacity.€ therefore.€ Similarly.Rate 21 A€certain€bacteria€colony€doubles€in€size€every€day€ for€20€days.€19€days.€Altern nies€=€ 2 The€correct€answer€is€E.€If€two€bacteria€ colonies€start€growing€simultaneously.€on€the€20th day.€both€will€be€occupying€half€of€ the€habitat€by€the€19th day.€and€so€on.

A triangle can only have one angle at 90 egrees since sum of the 3 angles is 180 1. MATH: GEOMETRY 41 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning . Hero’s formula: 2 ( − )( − )( − ) where a. Area = 1 2 × 2. Remember to divide your result by 2. you can add an equally sized triangle to create a square/rectangle/rhombus and find its area (may be ea sier). © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Triangles 2 4 Triangles 2 Answers Answers Sum of all angles in any triangle is always 180° One side is always smaller than t he sum of the other two and is always greater than the difference of the other t wo A right triangle is the one that has a 90 degree angle (it has the right angl e). If you know 2 sides of a triangle but not its height.b.Triangles 1 3 Triangles 2 Sum of angles of ANY triangle equals ? ? What is the right triangle? What can we say about sides of a triangle List all methods for finding an area of a triangle.c are sides of a triangle and s 3.

GMAT Club 2011 .

10 5. x. 12. 20 7. 16. find the third side: 3. 24. x What is th What is the relationship between sides in a right isosceles triangle? e relationship between angles? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Triangles 3 6 8 Triangles 4 Answers Answers GMAT relies on these easy triangles. x 7. 8. x 5. 24. x 6. 4. If you memorize these combinations. 16. it will save you time on the Geometry section 3. 25 A right isosceles triangle will have angles that are 90. 4. and the hypotenuse of 2 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY 42 GMAT Club 2011 . x 12. 45 degrees It will have sides that are x. 13 12.Triangles 3 5 7 Triangles 4 These are 2 sides of a right triangle. 45. 12. 8. 5 6.

then this is a right triangle regardless of the pos ition of point B © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY . relationships. an equilateral triangle has the smallest perimeter – it is the m ost “efficient” triangle AM = MC = MB Angle ABC is a right angle If one of the sides on an inscribed tria ngle is the circle’s diameter.Triangles 5 9 11 Triangles 6 What can you derive from this figure? (M is the center of a circle) B Name as many properties. and formulas you know about and equilate ral triangle A M C © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Triangles 5 10 12 Triangles 6 Answers Answers All sides are equal All angles are equal Area = 3 where 4 3 2 AC is the diameter of a circle 2 where R is radius as is a side of a triangle = 2 × A height is = For a given area.

© GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY 43 GMAT Club 2011 .

MATH: GEOMETRY         .Triangles 7 13 15 Triangles 8 (Ultra Hard) Is the area of the triangle ABC less than 1? ABC What is the value of sides in a < 90 degrees of triangle ABC is greater than 4 Perimeter 30 60 90 triangle? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Triangles 7 14 16 Triangles 8 Answers Answers In 30 60 90 triangle. the perimeter of the triangle ABC is always greater 4 than The correct answer is A. As long a s a>0. then the area exceeds 1 due to the increase of the height 2 . the sides are x. and the hypotenuse is 2x (double the size of the smallest side) The area of the triangle ABC is 2 1 1 + 1 2 = Statement (1) by itself is sufficient. In the extreme case when Angle ABC is rig ht. x 3. the triangle BOC is isosceles 1 and thus 2 = and the area of the triangle ABC i s a = 1. Statement (2) by itself is insufficient. If angle ABC is smaller than 90 degrees.

44 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 .

All points on the circle are equidistant from the center Radius – distance between the center and any point on the circle. It is half the diameter Diameter – a chord passing through the center Circumference – dis tance around the circle Area – a region enclosed by the circle Chord – a line segmen t linking any two points on a circle Tangent – line touching the circle at one poi nt only.14 ≈ 3 ≈ 22 7 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY 45 GMAT Club 2011     Please define the following: Center ? Radius ? ? Area ? Chord ? Tangent ? Secant ? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning Diameter ? Circumference             . tangent lines are always at 90 degrees to the radius Secant – a line that intersects a circle in 2 points MATH: GEOMETRY = 3.Circles 17 19 Circles 2 Area of a circle = ? Length of a circle = ? = ? MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Circles 18 20 Answers Circles 2 Answers Area of a circle = 2 Length of a circle = 2 Center – A point inside the circle.

Coordinate Geometry 21 23 Coordinate Geometry 2 What is the equation of the slope of a line? If a line has a negative slope less than 1 – what does it say about the line? © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Coordinate Geometry 22 24 Coordinate Geometry 2 Answers Answers Slope of a line equation: 2 − 1 = 2 − 1 Negative slope – means line moves from the upper left hand quarant (Q2) to the bot tom right hand quadrant (Q4) or in simple terms. © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY 46 GMAT Club 2011 . Positi ve slope means the opposite (duh) Since the slope is less than 1. in this case. there is less rise than run Where x and y are coordinates of point 1and point 2 on that line. it is a decreasing line. it is a flat l ine (as opposed to steep). Since slope is rise over run.

and C have? Positive/Negative? Less/Greater than 1? A B How to find the X and Y intercepts of a line? C © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Coordinate Geometry 3 26 28 Coordinate Geometry 4 Answers Answers Line A Positive Slope Slope greater than 1 Line B Slope is neither positive or negative Slope is Zero Line C Slope is undefined . B.Coordinate Geometry 3 25 27 Coordinate Geometry 4 What slopes do Lines A.

MATH: GEOMETRY Best option is to plug in the values into the equation of the line For example, a line is y = mx + b To find the Y intercept (this is when the line crosses the Y axis and thus X is zero) solve: y = b To find X intercept (this is when the li ne crosses the X axis and Y is zero) solve: 0 = mx + b The trick is to use Y = 0 when looking for X intercept and X = 0 when looking for Y intercept MATH: GEOMETRY 47 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011

Coordinate Geometry 5 29 31 Coordinate Geometry 6

5

Find the equation of a line passing through the points A (5,4) and B (2,3) © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Coordinate Geometry 5 30 32 Answers

Coordinate Geometry 6 Answers A (5,4) and B (6,3) To find an equation of a line based on two rmula: = 1 2

The slope information in this irrelevant To find distance between A and B is cal culated using the Pythagorean Theorem by drawing a triangle 92 + 52 = 2 ;4 = 4 ;3 = 1 ;1 ; 1 ;4 ; 5 ;6 ;5 ;5

1 ; 2 81 + 25 = = 106 MATH: GEOMETRY

 

If line M with a slope of 9 goes through points A( 5, he length of the segment AB?

2) and B(4, 3), what is t

 

;

1

;

points, use

+ 4 =

− 5

= −

+ 9

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Are the two lines below perpendicular? Inverse Opposite Positive Reciprocal Reciprocal and Negative © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Coordinate Geometry 7 34 36 Coordinate Geometry 8 Answers Answers The relationship between slopes of 2 perpendicular lines is negative reciprocal 1 − .19 . B.Coordinate Geometry 7 33 35 Coordinate Geometry 8 If lines A and B are perpendicular to each other.9 = − Multiply the slopes: Not Perpendicular 14 39 24. Slope AB = 9 . 3 × 1 − 3 To answer. In other words. E. C.14 14 20 9 20 ≠ 9 × −1. the two lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is 1. E. D. find the slope of each line and then check to see if one slope is the negative reciprocal of the other or if their product equals to 1.4 20 5.39 = 39 Slope CD =22.48 = . = 1 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY 49       . what is the relationship betwe en their slopes? A.g.31 = .

GMAT Club 2011 .

3x+4 0. then we can put the two equations together: 3x 3 = 2. Plug 10 into one of the equati ons: 3*10 3 = 27 Intersection point: (10.7x = 7. x = 10 Now we still need to find the Y intercept. 27) MATH: GEOMETRY − 2 + − 2 = 16 is the equation of a circle centered at with radius 4.3x+4? 2 + © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: GEOMETRY Coordinate Geometry 9 38 40 Coordinate Geometry 10 Answers Answers The key to solving the intersection questions is that at the point of intersecti on. both lines will have the same X and Y coordinates. Thus.Coordinate Geometry 9 37 39 Coordinate Geometry 10 (Hard) Does the curve 1) 2) 2 + 2 = 16 − − intersect the Y axis? What is the point of intersection of two lines that have the following equations : y=3x 3 and y=2. if Y coordinates ar e the same. Statement       2 > 16 = + 5 .

As the radius of the circle is only 4 units.tself is insufficient. S1 says that the center of the circle is further than 4 u nits away from the origin but it doesn t specify whether the circle is far enoug h from the axis not to intersect it. The correct answer is B. we can conclude that the circle does not intersect the axis. MATH: GEOMETRY 50 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning GMAT Club 2011 ¡ . From S2 it follows that and thus the center of the circle is at least 5 units away f rom the axis. Statement 2 is sufficient. Statement (2) by itself is sufficient.

Coordinate€Geometry€8 41 43 Coordinate€Geometry€9 Are€the€two€lines€below€perpendicular? What€is€the€point€of€intersection€of€two€ lines€that€have€the€following€equations:€ y=3x‐3€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€GEOMETRY ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€GEOMETRY Coordinate€Geometry€8€ €Answers 42 44 Coordinate€Geometry€9€ €Answers To€answer. The€key€to€solving€the€intersection€questions€is€that€ at€the€point€of€intersection. Slope€AB€=€ Slope€CD€= Multiply€the€slopes:€ Not€Perpendicular 1.€find€the€slope€of€each€line€and€then€ check€to€see€if€one€slope€is€the€negative€ uct€equals€to€‐1.€then€we€can€ put€the€two€equations€together w€we€still€need€to€find€the€Y€intercept.€Plug€10€ into€one€of€the€equations:€3*10‐3€=€27 In MATH:€GEOMETRY ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€GEOMETRY ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 51 .€both€l ordinates.€if€Y€coordinates€are€the€same. Thus.

€Statement€2€is€sufficient. Statement€(1)€by€itself€is€insuf nter€of€the€circle€is€further€than€4€units€away€from€ the€origin€but€it€doesn t€specify€whe he€axis€not€to€intersect€it.€As€the€radius€of€the€circle€is€only€4€ units. MATH:€GEOMETRY ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 52 ¡ .€w rsect€the€axis. Statement€(2)€by€itself€is€sufficient.Coordinate€Geometry€10€(Hard) 45 Does€the€curve€ intersect€the€Y€axis? 1 2 16 16 5 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€GEOMETRY Coordinate€Geometry€10€ €Answers 46 16 is€the€equation€of€a€circle€ centered€at€with€radius€4. The€correct€answer€is€B.€From€S2€it€follows€ tha le€is€at€least€5€units€ away€from€the€axis.

€1€gray€and€1€ green.€combination€and€permutation€is€ shortcuts€for€enumeration.€1€gray€and€1€ green.Enumeration 1 3 Enumeration€2 There€are€three€marbles:€1€blue.€The€main€idea€of€enumeratio l€possible€ways€and€then€count€them.€In€how€many€ways€is€it€possible€to€ a rbles€have€to€be€next€to€each€other? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Enumeration€ €Answers 2 4 Enumeration€2€ €Answers Solution: Let s€write€out€all€possible€ways Solution: Let s€write€out€all€possible€ways€to€ arrange€marbles€in€a€raw€and€then€find€only fy€question s€condition: Enumeration€is€a€method€of€counting€all€possible€ways€to€arrange€ elements.€In€how€many€ways€is€it€possible€to€ar There€are€three€marbles:€1€blue. Answer:€4 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS GMAT Club 2011 53 ¡ ¡ Total:€6 ¡ .€Although€it€is€ ten€the€fastest€ method€to€solve€hard€GMAT€problems€and€is€a€pivotal€principle€for€any€ oth act.

) S1€is€sufficient ith€certainty€that€last€digit€equals€to€3 S2€tells€us€that€N€is€not€1€or€3€and€is€either€2€ t€will€be€3 The€correct€answer€is€D MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 54 . 2.€each€sum€ends€with€a€zero€since€5!=120. MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS This€is€a€very€hard€question€that€requires€a€non‐ traditional€approach€(as€some€of€the€hard s€often€do) Analyzing€factorials.Enumeration€3 5 7 Enumeration€4€(Ultra€Hard) In€how€many€ways€can€5€dresses€be€ arranged€in€a€store€display? If€N is€a€positive€integer.€what€is€the€last€digit€ of€1!€+€2!€+€….€you€will€notice€that€the€sum€of€ factorials€will€have€3€a ing€ with€5!.€and€so€on.€How€many€objects€we€can€put€at€1st€place?€5.€How€many€objects€we€can€put€at€2nd€place mber€of€arrangements€of€n€ different€objects€in€a€row€is€ 1 2 …2 1 ! 5!€=€5*4*3*2*1€=€20€ rial€equals€to€the€ product€of€numbers€from€N€to€1.€N!€? N€is€divisible€by€4 is€an€odd€integer ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Enumeration€3€ €Answers 6 8 Enumeration€4€ €Answers 1.€ 6!=720.

.

Combinations€1 9 11 Combinations€2 What€is€the€number€of€possible€arrangements€of€ objects€k from€a€collection€of€distinct€obj What€is€the€number€of€possible€arrangements€of€ objects€k in€a€certain€order€from€a€collect ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Combinations€1€ €Answers 10 12 Combinations€2€ €Answers A€combination€is€an€unordered collection€of€k€objects€ taken€from€a€set€of€n€distinct€objec n€choose€k€objects€out€of€n€distinct€ objects€is€denoted€as:€ Total€number€of€arrangements€ Now€we€have€to€exclude€all€arrangements€of€k€objects€ (k!) and€remaining€(n‐k) objects€((n‐ n€k objects€and€remained€(n‐k) objects€doesn t€ matter. =€ ! ! ! A€permutation€is€an€ordered collection€of€k€objects€ taken€from€a€set€of€n€distinct€objects oose€k€objects€out€of€n€ distinct€objects€is€denoted€as:€ 1.€The€total€number€of€arrangemen .€Now€we€have€to€exclude€all€arrangements€of€ remaining€(n‐k)!€Objects ! ! ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS GMAT Club 2011 55 ¡ .

€for€ ements€ of€n objects.€how€many€seating€ arrangeme ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Combinations€3€ €Answers 14 16 Combinations€4€ €Answers Permutations€formula€ is€used€when€ ! sequence€of€choice€matters€(meaning€a€group€ABC€ i m€BAC€or€CBA).€Classic€example€is€ choosing€nominees€for€3€specific€positions€from€a€ pool€ ions€formula€C€=€ is€used€when€ ! ! order€of€selection€has€no€impact€and€once€a€small€ grou y€ arrived€there.€we€have (n‐1)! Thus.€Classic€example€is€picking€3€marbles€ from€a€bag€of€10 MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ! ! The€difference€between€placement€in€a€row€and€ that€in€a€circle€is€following:€if€we€shift€a et€different€arrangement€in€ a€row€but€the€same€relative€arrangement€in€a€ circle.€the€answer€is€5!€or€120 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS GMAT Club 2011 56 .Combinations€3 13 15 Combinations€4 What€is€the€difference€between€ combinations€and€permutations?€ When€to€use€which€formula If€six€business€partners€are€having€a€dinner€at€ a€round€table.€So.€instead€of€n!.

Combinations€5 17 19 Combinations€6€(Ultra€Hard)

If€there€are€5€chairs€in€a€room€and€Bob€and€ Rachel€want€to€sit€so€that€Bob€is€always€left€ ngement€be€achieved?€

In€how€many€different€ways€can€a€group€of€8€ people€be€divided€into€4€teams€of€2€people€ ea 90 105 168 420 2520 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Combinations€5€ €Answers 18 20 Combinations€6€ €Answers

Note€that€left€of€Rachel,€does€not€mean€ immediately€next€to€Rachel,€just€left€of€her. This ry€because€it€ eliminates€half€of€the€possibilities€(Rachel€can€sit€ only€left€or€right€of€ er€of€ways€that€Bob€is€left€of€ Rachel€is€exactly€ of€all€possible€ways€or 10

The€solution€to€this€problem€is€the€number€of€ combinations.€First€we€get€one€team€out€of€8 he€next€ combination€is€2€out€of€6€or€ ,€and€so€on.€Having€all€ four€combinations€multiplie r€by€the€number€of€ways€the€teams€can€be€ chosen€,€since€we€are€not€interested€if€the€team€ econd€or€third.€ Therefore,€the€answer€is€found€by€the€following€ formula:€ !

105

The€correct€answer€is€B. MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011

57

Probability€1 21 23 Probability€2 What€is€the€probability€of€getting€Tails when€ flipping€a€coin?€ What€is€the€probability€that€an€ event€n will€occur?

What€is€the€probability€that€an€ eve

What€is€the€probability€of€getting€a€4€when€rolling€a€ die?€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Probability€1€ €Answers 22 24 Probability€2€ €Answers

The€probability€that€an€even€n will€take€place€is€ where€N is€the€total€number€of€possible€ ility€that€an€even€n will€not€occur€is€the€ opposite€of€it€occurring,€so€1 or€1‐ p

The€probability€of€getting€Tails€when€flipping€a€coin€ is€ or€50%€since€there€are€2€total€p ome€each€time€the€coin€is€flipped The€probability€of€getting€a€4€when€casting€a€die€is€ ;€t lities€ (1,2,3,4,5,6)€and€only€one€chance€to€roll€one€of€ them. MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS

©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 58

€Usually.€what€is€the€ probability€of€getting€heads€and€a€"4“€ after€on A€bucket€contains€10€green€and€90€white€ marbles.Probability€3 25 27 Probability€4 If€there€is€a€coin€and€a€die.€ what€ e€green? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Probability€3€ €Answers 26 28 Probability€4€ €Answers The€number€of€green€marbles:€n€=€10 The€number€of€all€marbles:€N€=€10€+€90€=100 Probability cept€in€problems€with€ marbles/cards/balls.€Whereas€in€case€of€ second€marble€differs€(€ a€coin€or€dice€the€pro d€ ).€ ).€When€the€first€marble€is€removed€ from€a€jar€an bility€for€the€ vs. So.€the€probability€of€getting€heads€is€ and€ probability€of€getting€a€"4"€is€ .€For€n€ independent€events€the€probability€is€the€product€ of€all€probabili nt.€If€Adam€randomly€chooses€a€marble.€Theref tting€heads€and€a€"4"€is:€ MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 59 .€a€problem€explicitly€states:€it€is€a€ problem€with€replacement€or€without€re Tossing€a€coin€and€rolling€a€die€are€independent€ events (occurrence€of€one€event€does€not€ f€other€events).

6.€Th in€on€the€first€day€and€sunshine€on€ the€second€day€is: P€=€0.€Therefore.2€*€0.€If€Robert€chooses€ rand t€set€and€one€ card€from€the€second€set.€ irst€set€is€ .8€=€0.€what€is€the€ probability€of€getting€two€odd€number ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Probability€5€ €Answers 30 32 Probability€6€ €Answers The€probability€of€rain€is€0.€Therefo ut€of€the€second€set€is€ .2€=€0.2€ for€20%€or€a€fraction€format€such€as€ f There€is€a€total€of€5€cards€in€the€first€set€and€3€of€ them€are€odd:€{1.8.€therefore€probability€ of€sunshine€is€q€=€1€‐ 0.€5}.€what€is€the€probability€that€it€will€r cond? There€are€two€sets€of€cards€with€numbers:€ {1.16 Note: when€wor to€convert€them€into€a€decimal€format€(such€as€0.€ There€are€3€cards€in€the€second€set€and€2€of€them€ are€odd:€{3.€Finally.8}€and€{3.€3.€the€ probability€of€getting€two€odd€integers€is:€ or€40 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS GMAT Club 2011 60 .2}.5.2.€7}.7.Probability€5 29 31 Probability€6 If€there€is€a€20%€chance€of€rain€on€an€average€ day.3.

€If€2€employees€are€to€be€randomly€ chosen€ robability€that€the€committee€includes€both€ Bob€and€Rachel? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Probability€7€ €Answers 34 36 Probability€8€ €Answers Two€events€are€mutually€exclusive€if€they€cannot€ occur€at€the€same€time.€5.€The€probability€that€the€commi hel€is€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS GMAT Club 2011 .€4.€The€probabi s€a€second€person€when€first€person€is€already€chosen€ is€ .€what€is€the€ probability€of€getting€at€least€a€"3"? There€are€8€employees€including€Bob€and€ Rachel.€The€probability€of€each€ outcome€is€ .€6}.Probability€7 33 35 Probability€8 If€Jessica€rolls€a€die.€For€n€mutually€ex lity€is€the€sum€of€all€probabilities€ of€events: P(A€or€B)€=€P(A)€+€P(B) There€are€4€outcom roll€at€least€3):€{3.€ The€probability€of€ MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Combinatorial€approach:€ The€total€number€of€possible€committees€is€ =28 The€number€of€possible€committee€that€inclu l€is€1 P€=€ Probability€approach:€ The€probability€of€choosing€Bob€or€Rachel€as€a€first€person€ in€committee€is€ .

61

Probability€8€– Part€2 37 39 Probability€8€– Part€3

There€are€8€employees€including€Bob€and€ Rachel.€If€2€employees€are€to€be€randomly€ chosen€ robability€that€the€committee€includes€both€ Bob€and€Rachel?

There€are€8€employees€including€Bob€and€ Rachel.€If€2€employees€are€to€be€randomly€ chosen€ robability€that€the€committee€includes€both€ Bob€and€Rachel? ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Probability€8€– Part€2€ €Answers 38 40 Probability€8€– Part€3€ €Answers

Reverse€Combinatorial€Approach:€ Instead€of€counting€probability€of€occurrence€of€certain€ event,€sometimes€it€is€better€to€ lity€of€ the€opposite€and€then€use€formula€p€=€1€‐ q. The€total€number€of€possible€commit ommittee€that€does€not includes€ both€Bob€and€Rachel€is:€m 2 where,€ is€ the€number€o ed€from€6€remaining€ people is€the€number€of€committees€formed€from€Rob€or€ 2 Rachel€and€on Reverse€probability€approach:€ We€can€choose€any€first€person.€

Then,€if€we€have€Rachel€or€Bob€as€the€first€choice,€we

can€choose€any€other€person€out€of€the€6€remaining€ people.€ If€we€have€neither€Rachel€no ny€person€out€of€the€remaining€7€people.€ The€probability€that€the€committee€includes€bot 1 1 1 1 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS GMAT Club 2011

62

Probability€9 41

Julia€and€Brain€play€a€game€in€which€Julia€ takes€a€ball€and€if€it€is€green,€she€wins.€If€t nd€ ball€(without€replacing€first)€and€she€wins€if€ the€two€balls€are€white€or€if€the€first te.€What€is€the€ probability€of€Julia€winning€if€the€jar€contains€ 1€gray,€2€white€and€4€gr ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS Probability€9€ €Answers 42

Sometimes,€at€700+€level€you€may€see€complex€ probability€problems€that€include€conditions€ or€such€problems€it€could€be€helpful€ to€draw€a€probability€tree€that€include€all€possible€ lities. Now,€It€is€pretty€obvious: ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning MATH:€PROBABILITY€&€COMBINATIONS GMAT Club 2011 63

Recommended Math GMAT Books Need to start from the beginning? MGMAT Math Foundations Need a good level of practice? Kaplan Math Workbook Need the most practice? MGMAT Math Guides or Veritas Prep Math Guides GMAT Total Math Quantitative GMAT Official Guide 2nd ed GMAT book reviews: http://gmatclub.com/books GMAT Club 2011 64 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning MATH: ARITHMETIC .

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VERBAL STRATEGIES GMAT Club 2011 66 .

€Critical€Reasoning.€and€Reading€ C n€with€a€few€examples Illustration€of€errors€and€right€answer€choices€ through€examples€ GMAT Club 2011 ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL 67 .Contents€of€Flash€Cards 2 Basic€Strategies€and€Principles€of€Sentence€ Correction.

Basic€Deconstruction€ 3 Step€1:€Read€the€question€stem€and€categorize€the€question.€Don t€try€to€make€them€fit! Step€5:€Make€s !€ Critical€Reasoning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Contents 2 4 Main€parts€of€a€CR€question€ Main€Point€/€Must€Be€True Weaken Strengthen Assumption Resolve€the€Paradox Reasoning Bold€F Numbers€and€Percents€ VERBAL Conclusion Premise Assumption ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 68 ¡ . Step€2:€Read€the€stimulus€and€i conclusion Step€3:€Try€to€focus€on€the€conclusion€and€think€of€answer€choices€ that€might€b f€elimination€to€rule€out€wrong€answer€ choices.

Inference Main€Point Must‐be‐True ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Premise€&€Conclusion 6 8 Type€II€– Strengthen€&€Support CONCLUSION PREMISE Supports€the€conclusion€– Answers€the€ question€of€“Why?” Because€ Since For/For€the€reason d€by Furthermore Given€that€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Has€a€tone€of€finality and€conveys€the€final€ message€of€what€the€author€is€saying Thus The s€a€result€of/Consequently Accordingly€ It€follows€that/It€must€be€that€ These€are€questions€where€we€assume€that€the€ given€answer€choices€are€true and€try€to€pick t€the€stimulus Possible€Question€Types:€ 1.€ Premise:€These€are€evidenti support€the€conclusion Assumption:€These€are€unstated€premises. Strengthen Assumption€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL . 2. 3. 2.Main€parts€of€a€CR€question€ 5 7 Type€I€– Ascertain€Conclusion€ Conclusion:€This€is€the€final€argument€that€the€ author€makes.€ VERBAL These€are€questions€where€we€assume€that€the€ stimulus€is€true and€try€to€find€answer€choic onclusion Possible€Question€Types:€ 1.€on€ which€the€conclusion€an remise€ rest€on.

GMAT Club 2011 69 .

Type€III€– Weaken€and€Hurt€ 9 11 Most€Common€Mistake€Types€ Out€of€Scope/Irrelevant€Answers Talks€about€something€completely€irrelevant€to€the€ discu eople€tend€to€pick€these€when€they’re€completely€ unsure€of€what€they’re€supposed€to€be€doi wers€that€don’t€agree€with€the€tone€of€the€passage€ Might€be€too€strong€or€too€weak€when€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning This€is€basically€the€opposite€of€the€above€type€and€ aims€to€disprove€the€conclusion€of€th swer€choice€to€be€true here€ as€well.€i.€ People€pick€these€when€they’re€not ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Can€this€answer€choice€be€proven€or€validated€by€what€is€given€in€ the€stimulus?€Is€this€an D€the€ main€point€of€the€passage. 2. Strengthen Assumption€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Most€Common€Mistake€Types 10 12 Main€Point/Must‐Be‐True “Which€of€the€following€represents€the€main€idea€of€the€paragraph?” “Which€of€the€following orrect€Answer€Choices Opposite€Answers€ Does€the€opposite€of€what€the€answer€choice€is€ supposed€to€do People et€confused€ about€the€question€type Shell€Game€Answers€ Sounds€really€similar€to€the€sti the€right€amount€to€be€incorrect€but€still€lucrative.€not€just€a€premise€(for€ Main€Poin ate€conclusion€or€present€it€in€a€different€manner VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 70 .e.€similar€to€the€conclusion? Should€be€validated€by€th en€to€be€true) Should€be€the€main€point€of€the€stimulus.€ Possible€Question€Types:€ 1.

0€but€he€has€had€5€absences.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 71 .€if ollowing€ conclusions?€ A. D.€ B:€Possible.0€G C.€calls€into€question€the€validity€of€the€ argument?” “Whic ly€undermines€the€conclusion?” Correct€Answer€Choices To€be€considered€for€this€year’s€merit€scholarship€award. E.€students€need€to€ have€perfect€at he€only€person€in€the€class€ who€has€a€4. Does€this€answer€choice€break€down€causality?€Does€it€give€an€ alternate€cause.0€GPA.€show€that€t hip€is€non‐ existent€or€reversed?€ Answer€choice€should€break€down€structure€of€stimulus€(A Could€be€in€relation€to€a€gross€generalization. No€student€at€this€school€has€perfect€attendance€for€the€year€ Some€students€at€this€school ve€ perfect€attendance€ Alex€is€the€only€student€who€could€be€considered€for€the€award No€s fies€for€the€award€this€year Many€students€have€achieved€perfect€attendance€but€never€4.€Correct€choice.€ E: Out€of€scope€answer.A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 13 15 Weaken “Which€of€the€following.€a€wrong€conclusion€ or€incorrect€hypothesi ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 14 16 A:€Exaggeration. B.€ D:€This€is€true.0€and€he€doesn’t€ ool€is€barred€from€ qualifying€for€the€award.€if€true.€ The€claims€above.€If€Alex€is€the€only€one€who€has€a€€ 4.€but€not€necessary C:€The€stimulus€clearly€says€that€you€need ance€and€4.

Does€this€answer€choice€reinforce€the€conclusion€directly?€Does€it€ validate€an€assumption€ cy?€Does€it€help€establish€ causality?€ Answer€choice€should€strengthen€structure€of€stimul to€be€true) Needs€to€directly€strengthen€conclusion€by€bridging€logical€gaps.€move€on!€Don’t€try€to€m E.€ validating€r ions€or€finding€missing€links.€Does€this€affect€profit€margins€for€the€ store€if€they€were€to€increase€inve t€the€store€already€has€the€brands€ that€sell€the€most.€If€it’s€not€a€ direct€strengthening.€But€“less”€is€a€relative€term. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 18 20 A:€Irrelevant.€ Which€o jor€flaw€in€the€plan€above? A.€Hence€incorrect.€strengthens€the€argument€the€most?” “Which€of€the€followi cantly€help€prove€the€ scientist’s€hypothesis?” Correct€Answer€Choices There€are€350€brands€of€cell€phones€in€the€market€today.€However.€ D:€This€tells€you€that€the€le esser€profit.€ Less€popular€brands tore€because€they€have€to€ be€discounted€to€be€sold The€leading€brands€are€now€losing€sales fer€ similar€features€for€a€lower€cost€ B. The€capabilities€of€the€top€five€cell€phones€are€almost€the€same.€Increasing€inventory€will€have€ lit s.€our€store€ only€stocks€th se€our€sales.€we€plan€to€ increase€the€size€of€our€inventory€to€the€top€50€brands.€with€no€ brand€having€con spects.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 . D.€ E: This€almost voring€ an€increase€in€inventory.€ C:€This€almost€strengthens€the€argument. C.€if€true.€Correct€Answer.€This€is€an€ unclear€statement. The€top€8€brands€account€for€almost€all€the€cell€phones€sold€ As€users€get€more€sop t€the€lesser€known€ brands€which€might€offer€some€other€value€to€them.A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 17 19 Strengthen “Which€of€the€following.

72 .

€because€the€ editoria ne€had€decided€to€change€the€image€that€the€magazine€ portrays€from€one€of€family€values€to olence.€if€true.€Don’t€make€unnecessary€ connections!€ C:€Once€again. E)€A€survey€of€the€readership€of€Magazine€X€suggested€that€the€majority€of€the€readership e€magazine s€contents€had€failed€since€its€transformation.€ Assumption€Negation€Technique: e€final€ answer€choices€and€then€negate€them€– the€main€modifier€or€a€ verb€(such€that€the€ )€and€if€the€ negated€choice€weakens€the€conclusion.€Hence€correct.€ VERBAL VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 22 24 A:€This€is€irrelevant€to€the€question€of€moral€ propriety.€no€correlation€to€what€we’re€tal . D)€The€advertisers€all€placed€new€advertisements€with€other€publications€that€emphasised .€then€it€shows€that€the€agencies€ care€about€where€their€ads€go.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 73 ¡ .€would€stren on?€ A)€The€advertisers€regularly€review€the€placement€of€their€advertisements.€the€answer€is€right.€ Which€of€the€following.A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 21 23 Assumption “The€author€assumes€which€of€the€following€in€saying€that€…”€ “The€argument€cannot€be€true€ ts€are€assumed?” Correct€Answer€Choices Recently.€ E: This€i ertisers.€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ Question€from€GMAT€Club€(95810) ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Supporter:€Links€unrelated€elements€in€the€stimulus€and€fills€in€ logical€gaps Defender:€El rnatives€and€any€choices€that€might€ weaken€the€conclusion. B)€It€is€a€ vertisers€to€withdraw€all€their€advertisements€ simultaneously€from€a€publication.€Surely€ this€indicates€that€the€decision‐makers€in€advertising€agencies€do€still€ha riety€that€occasionally€drives€their€actions.€admitted€that€their€clients€would€lose€revenue€as€a€ result€of€the€advertis n. C)€The€a hen€questioned.€ B:€This€doesn’t€necessarily€poi ctly.€several€companies€have€withdrawn€their€ads€from€Magazine€A.

C. D.€helps€explain€the€paradox€above?” “Which€of€the€following rent€ discrepancy€in€the€argument?” Correct€Answer€Choices In€theory.€It€fails€to€consider€whether€al ld€have€arisen€from€ transported€Martian€bacteria.€ Does€the€answe nswer€choice€ MUST€conform€to€the€stimulus The€answer€should€address€BOTH€sides€of€the€para ouldn’t€strengthen€the€paradox. E.€they€ must€have€died€ nerable€to€which€of€the€following€criticisms? A.€th ope!€ C:€Again. B.€It€fails€to€establish€whether€bacteria€actually€developed€on€Mars.€it’s€possible€that€bacteria€developed€on€Mars€early€in€its€history€and€some€ wer .€the ificant€difference€between€the€strains€found€on€ Earth.€strains€of€bacteria€from€different€ planets€would€probably€have€substantial€diff n€structure€that€would€ persist€over€time.€It€fails€to€consider€whether€there€were€means€o hich€ Martian€bacteria€could€have€been€carried€to€Earth.€take€it€as€a€ given.€It€fails€to€consider€whether€there€co f€bacteria€that€ originated€on€Earth€and€later€died€out.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 74 .A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 25 27 Resolve€the€Paradox “Which€of€the€following.€It€fails€to€establ tian€bacteria€were€transported€to€Earth.€since€they€all€originated€from€Mars ned€about€this.€this€doesn’t€talk€about€bacteria€strains€dying€ out D:€If€this€is€true.€ Question€from€GMAT€Club€(80726)€€€€€€€€€€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 26 28 A:€This€is€irrelevant€to€the€argument€that€states€that€ even€if€bacteria€came€from€Mars.€even€if€bacteria€did€arrive€on€Earth€from€Mars.€So.€and€no€two€bacterial€strains€on€Earth€are€differ ifferent€planets.€However.€if€true.€€€€€€€€€€€€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Active€Resolution:€Don’t€try€to€disprove€the€stimulus.

€if€true.€the€government€raised€the€target€price€for€crops€in€order€to€ bt€loads.€We€are€not€asked€to€evaluate€the€ logic€of€the€stimulus. Due€to€the€drought€of€1983. Despite€the€drought€of€1983. E.€United€Sta ler€crops€in€1984€ than€they€had€in€1983. C.€which€of€the€following.€ The€drought€of€1983.€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 30 32 A:€Strengthens€the€paradox.€T dox€because€target€– market€will€ become€lesser€if€market€becomes€higher D:€Size€of€crops€i en€1982‐1983?€Retail€price?€Out€of€Scope!€ VERBAL VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 75 .€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€Questio B.€ not€the€content€of€the€ar e€a€description€of€the€author’s€logic!€ Answer€choice€should€not€be€inconsistent€with€the€s s€has€flawed€logic.€ Due€to€the€drought€of€1983.A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 29 31 Reasoning “Which€of€the€following€most€accurately€describes€the€author’s€ method€of€defending€the€cas st€parallel€to€the€argument€in€logical€ structure?” Correct€Answer€Choices A€severe€drought€can€lessen€the€total€amount€of€government€aid€that€US€farmers€receive€ as€ rmers€the€amount.€ Amount€Paid€=€Target€– Market.€if€any.€retail€prices€for€fo ntly€between€ 1982€and€1983.€ C:€This€talks€about€the€higher€market€prices. Should€follow€the€same€pattern€of€reasoning.€best€explains€why€the€ drought€of€1983€r m‐program€payments? A.€Focus€on€the€logic.€United€States€farmers€had€smaller€harvests€and€thus€received€ a€h rop€than€for€the€larger€crop€of€the€preceding€year.€United€States€farmers€exported€less€food€in€1983€than e€to€the€drought€of€1983.€by€which€the€market€price€at€ which€crops€are€actually€sold€falls ushel€for€the€crops. Prior€to€the€drought€of€1983.€We€can’t€say€ anything€unless€w et€price.€caused€farm‐program€payments€to€dro nformation€above.€ B:€Exports€are€irrelevant€here.€for€example.€we€are€merely€ he€same€pattern€– right€or€not. D.

.

€However.€Smith€is€the€only€member€of€the€twenty‐strong€English€department€who€thinks€that€Byron€ ats.€ B: This€is€true circular€argument€that€says€A€proves€B€and€then€ uses€B€to€prove€A.€ D:€Shell€game€answer.€but€has€implicated€Brown.€Not€true.€ The€presence€of€enlarged€white€corpuscles€in€the€blood€would€ind e€ suffering€from€disease€X.€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 34 36 A:€This€calls€for€making€a€judgment€based€on€ someone’s€opinion.€€ E: Some€kind€of€contradictory€reasoning.€ Blair€denies€having€committed€the€robbery.€Might€seem€like€circular€logic.€Not€relevant.€O ave€been€sent€ to€prison.€his€blood€sample€contains€no€enlarged€white€corpuscle ring€from€disease€X. Should€address€both€the€boldfaced€portions.€ Will€be€true€to€the€stimulus€and imulus!€ Answer€choice€should€not€be€inconsistent€with€the€ stimulus.€ I€b tar€sauce€helps€to€accentuate€the€flavour€of€the€other€ ingredients.€The€fact€that€he€wrote€the€greatest€plays€in€the€world€only€goes€to€prove€that€he€is€th ich€of€the€following€statements€best€matches€the€argument€shown€above?€ A.€and€it€should€follow€ n€in€ order€to€arrive€at€the€argument€of€the€stimulus.€ laims€that€he€was€elsewhere€at€the€time.€not€just€one.A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 33 35 Bold€Faced€Questions “The€two€bold€faced€sentences€play€which€of€the€following€ roles?” Correct€Answer€Choices Shakespeare€was€the€world s€greatest€playwright.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 ¡ . D.€Therefore€ the€dish€is€much€less€spicy€than€pure€tartar€sauce€wo 2697)€ B.€and€points€the€finger€squarely€back€at€Blair.€ A€miscarriage€of€justice€occurs€ ison.€but€they€in€turn€relea utralise€the€tartar€sauce.€ r€sequence€of€events.€A€similar€pattern€exist t€in€the€reasoning. E.€Therefore€Byron€was€not€as€good€a€poet€as€Keats€was.€However.€there€are€no€ miscarriages€of€justice€because€people€in€prison€are€guilty.€which€means€that€he€must€have€written€the€ ys.€Not€ relevant. Dr.€. C.

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C.€t ry€that€ has€been€used€to€support€a€position€that€the€argument€opposes. 5% of 100 > 10% of 50.€the€text€of€these€earliest€surviving€Greek€inscriptions€sometimes€runs€ from€righ es€from€left€to€right.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 77 .€the€second€pr he€argument€relies. For example. B.€The€fi hat€is€used€in€support€of€the€position€that€the€argument€seeks€to€ establish.€the€two€port f€the€following€roles? A.€ D:€The€first€boldfaced€portion€doesn’t€object€to€any€ statement.€the€Greeks€learned€alphabetic€writing€from€ the€Phoenicians. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 38 40 A:€The€second€boldfaced€portion€doesn’t€represent€a€ discovery.€The€first€is€the€position€that€the€argument€seeks€to€establish.A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 37 39 Numbers€&€Percents Although€the€earliest€surviving€Greek€inscriptions€written€in€an€alphabet€date€from€the€eig rong€case€can€be€made€that€the€Greeks€actually€adopted€alphabetic€writing€at€least€two€ cen ficantly.€The€first€is€an€objection€raised€against€a€position€that€the€argumen e€ position€that€the€argument€seeks€to€establish.€ E: The€first€bol ject€to€any€ statement.€The€first€is€an€objection€raised€again ment€opposes. This could merely be the result of a chang e in the group size. In€the€argument€given.€Now.€The€first€is€the ks€to€establish. Originally.C.€an urely€have€adopted€whatever€convention€the€ Phoenicians€were€then€using€with€respect€to€the .€the€second€presents€an€assumption€ on€which€the€argument€relies. For example. E.€but€by€the€eighth€century€B. D. Increase in percentage is not the same as saying ther e is an increase in absolute numbers.€i ly€written€from€right€to€ left€for€about€two€centuries.€Phoenician€writing€ ran€in€either€direction.€it’s€an€assumption B: This€ ause€the€stimulus€ wants€to€prove€and€the€second€is€an€assumption€ C:€The€first€boldfaced€p tement. Question Larger numbers doesn’t mean larger percentage and smaller number doesn’t mean smalle r percentage.€the€second€is€ evidence€that€has€been€used€to€support€that€position.

€of€the€severely€inj ssengers.€ Global€Questions Main€Point€/€Primary€Purpose Passage€Organization Author’s€Perspective€/€Passage€Tone Local€Questions€€€ Specific€Reference Function Strengthen€and€Weaken Parallel€Reasoning€Question ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 . Reading€Comprehension Of€all€the€drivers€and€front‐seat€passengers€in€the€survey.€but€not€about€the€number€of€people€who€were€injured.€ Question€from€GMAT€Club€(88036)€ B.€more€than€20€percent€were€weari ccidents.€80€didn’t€wear€seat€belts.€ C:€This€doesn’t€even€give€us€a€relative€indication.€This€indi elts. Considerably€more€than€20€percent€of€drivers€and€front‐seat€passengers€in€Dole€Co t€belts€when€travelling€by€car. D. More€than€half€of€the€drivers€and€front‐seat€passengers€in€the€survey s€ at€the€time€of€their€accidents. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 42 44 Contents A:€This€is€a€tricky€question. E.A€€€€€€€€€€B€€€€€€€€€€C€€€€€€€€€€D€€€€€€€€€€E 41 A€recent€survey€of€all€auto€accident€victims€in€Dole€County€found€that.€ Probability€of€a€person€not€wearin ability€of€a€person€wearing€seat€belt€to€get€injured€=€€ B:€Doesn’t€establish€the€correlati incorrect.€drivers€and€front‐seat€passengers€can€greatly€ reduce€their€risk€of€being€severely€in cident.€ D:€This€tells€u o€were€not€wearing€seat€ belts.€80€percent€were€not€wearing€seat€belts€at€the€time€of€their€ accidents.€ E: Co ope€of€the€discussion. Most€of€the€auto€accidents€reported€to€police€in€Dole€Co njury. The€conclusion€above€is€not€properly€drawn€unless€which€of€the€following€is€true? A.€Incorrect.€Our€aim€is€to€prove€a€correlation. More€drivers€and€front‐seat€passengers€in€the€survey€than€r ry€severely€ injured.€Let’s€say€100€ people€were f€the€100€ severely€injured. C.

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€Phrases€&€Concepts CONTINUATION€OF€OLD€IDEAS INTRODUCTION OF€NEW€IDEAS Continues elaborating€on€an€idea€that’s€ Introduces€another€new€idea.€ Furthermore For€Instance For€Example Additionally Similarly€ Indeed In€fact€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Very€Common€Distraction Don’t€focus€on€the€difficulty€of€the€words€or€ terminologies Instea he€underlying€ meaning€of€what€it’s€saying€ VERBAL However But Nevertheless Yet In€Contrast€ Although Still .€not€your€read lowing€questions.€ How?€Structure€of€the€passage€– Introdu nter‐Example.€And€so€on. perhaps€ already€been ontrast€something€presented.€Change€your€reading€ strategy.€ Why?€Main€Point€of€the€passage.€ Very€Common€Question€Type Primary€goal€of€reading€passage€– Find€the€main€ point!€ What?€What€is€being€said?€(Main€Point€of€Individual€Paragraphs) What€Tone?€Make€sure€answer ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL New€vs.Four€Questions€for€RC 45 47 Common€Indicators€ Main Point€or€Strong€Purpose€ Read€from€general€to€specific€at€three€levels.€Existing€Ideas€ 46 48 Common€Indicators€ Difficult€Words.

VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 79 .

€the€answer€choice€might€draw€on€ the€same€idea€mentioned€elsewhere.€or€another€ part€of€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 .Common€Indicators€ 49 51 Common€Indicators€ Dates€and€Numbers€ List€of€Things/Enumerations€ Pay€close€attention! Don’t€memorize!€ Match€the€correct€dates€with€the€events€ mentioned Perhaps.€and€very€easy€to€misinterpret! VERBAL Ideas€that€are€mentioned€more€than€once€in€the€ passage.€ Very€common€question€indicator.€make€a€note€of€the€dates€and€a€ t€on€your€notepad.€ Even€if€the€question€cites€a€line s.€very€important.€so€you€can€re VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Common€Indicators€ 50 52 Common€Indicators€ Hidden€References Reference with€Authority€ If€authorities€are€mentioned.€think€about€how€and€why€ this€authoritative€remark€is€necessa t€conflicting€view€points€or€ideas.€ Make€note€of€what€each€authority€says€and€why€their€ a .€Make€a€mental€ note€of€where€the€list€occurs.

80 .

Common€Indicators€ 53 55 Basic€Question€Types€ Contrasting Views€ If€several€view€points€are€presented€in€the€passage.€ make€note€of€each€point€and€who’s€say standing€of€these€counter‐examples€or€views€ are€very€important!€They€will€be€indicated€by€ ast” VERBAL Type Global Local VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Common€Indicators€ 54 56 Question€Types€ Global€– Broad€Questions€ Definitions Common€when€the€passage€is€of€scientific€nature Make€a€note€of€the€definition€and€expect€to derstanding€of€the€ definition Main€Point/Primary€Purpose Passage€Organization Author’s€Perspective/Passage€Tone VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 81 .

€and€what€it€seeks These€questions€ask€you€to€reflect€on€an€author’s€ perspective€ Understand€what€the€author€ r€she€stands€with€respect€to€the€views€ presented.€the€structure€might€be€somethi Introduction Example Counter‐Example€ Specific€Reference Function Strengthen€and€Weaken Parallel€Reasoning€Question VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 82 .€ Is€the€author€aggressive?€Or€is€the€aut e€message€conveyed?€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Broad€Questions 58 60 Question€Types€ Local€– Specific€Questions€(Four€Types)€ Passage Organization€ This€will€ask€about€the€structure€of€a€passage For€instance.Broad€Questions 57 59 Broad€Questions Author’s€Perspective/Tone€of€Passage€ Main€Point/Primary Purpose€ Represents€Core€Ideas Will€ask€about€the€broader€meaning€of€the€ passage.

.

€the€main€point€ Assume€the€answer€choices€gi VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Local€Questions 62 64 Local€Questions Parallel Reasoning€ Function€ Questions€about€what€a€piece€of€the€passage€– either€a€paragraph.€or€ a€view€point€that€mimics€the€reasoning€that€the€ author€follows.€ Identifying€the€str structure€of€a€line€within€a€passage€as€necessary€ would€greatly€help!€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 83 .€a€line€or€even€a€word€is€ he€broader€scope€ of€the€passage Try€to€infer€something€about€the€context€and€tone€ of€the€ ourself€– “What€does€this€line€do?” VERBAL Again.€ The€required€answer€will€either sive€view€point€presented€by€the€author.€similar€to€Critical€Reasoning€Question€of€the€ same€type€ Will€ask€to€identify€an€ac .€ i.Local€Questions 61 63 Local€Questions Strengthen/Weaken€ Specific€Reference€ Will€refer€to€a€specific€line€or€paragraph€in€the€ passage€and€ask€for€a€question€relating€ erencing€with€other€ relevant€information€presented€elsewhere€in€the€ passage€ Similar€to€Critical€Reasoning€Questions€of€the€ same€type.e.

.

€social€sciences€or€sciences.€ VERBAL Subject€Verb€Agreement Verb€Tense€Errors Noun€Agreement€ Pronouns Modifiers Comparisons Par llelism€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 84 .€ ne€kind€or€get€ excited€about€another Reading€Pattern:€General€to€Specific VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning RC€in€a€Nutshell 66 68 Contents Understand€question€types:€€Global€or€Local Pre‐phrase:€Frame€a€rough€answer€before€you€ pi ocess€of€Elimination:€Don’t€keep€an€answer€ that€you€have€to€make€connections€for.€Get€used€to€it! Sentence€Correction€ Awareness€of€content:€The€passages€might€be€ from€humanities.RC€in€a€Nutshell 65 The€right€mentality€:€The€passage€WILL€be€ intentionally€confusing.

€Eliminate€the€group€ and€re‐split€the€next€group.€ Step€2:€Read€the€answer€choice€and€split€it€into€two€groups€based€on€ overall€structur ntain€an€error.€are€tested.€For€ ex Plural€Verbs€must€use€plural€verbs. o€have€a€relevant€ meaning€and€convey€it€properly Concision€– If€what€is€being€said€can€be€ hen€the€former€is€preferred€ (Active€vs.€Semi‐colons.Deconstructing€SC€ 69 71 And€what’s€not? Three€Question€Types€You€Won’t€See€ Step€1:€Read€the€question€stem€and€think€of€possible€errors€in€the€ sentence.€ VERBAL ¡ .€for€example) VERBAL This€deals€with€the€issue€of€plurality.€ Don t€try€to€make€them€fit!€ Step€5:€Make€sure€the€answer€choice€makes€sense!€ Spelling€– The€GMAT€will€not€test€you€on€your€ knowledge€of€spellings€ Punctuation€– Adding milar€things€will€not€be€tested.€ Singular€subjects€must€use€singular€verbs.€For€example:€ The€elephants€were walking.€ Capitalization€– The€G nowledge€of€capitalization€either.€ Step€4:€Use€process€of€e er€choices.€Passive€voice.€subject‐verb€ tc.€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning What’s€Tested? 70 72 Errors€Tested€ Subject‐Verb€Agreement Three€Question€Types€You€Will€See€ Grammar€– The€sentence€has€to€adhere€to€the€rules€ of€grammar€followed€by€Standard€English.€ however.

©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 85 .

€any.€somebody.€an€illiterate€peasant€girl€ from€the€French€co h‐ old€seize€of€Orleans€in€nine€days. Barely€seventeen€and ch€army€wearing€ a€man’s€armor.€Joan€of€Arc.€NOR)€– Always€SINGULAR Usage€of€EACH€or€EVERY€– Always€SINGULAR ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Trap€2: 74 Subject€Follows Verb€ 76 Trap€4: Indefinite Pronouns If€there€are€expletives.€broke€the€seven€month‐old€ seize€of€Orleans€ VERBAL If€there€is€more€than€one€noun€or€the€usage€of€a€ pronoun€in€a€sentence.€€ Reading€the€sentence€without€that€part€we€have:€ Ba ench€army€wearing€ a€man’s€armor.€then€check€for€subject‐verb€ agreement.€by€rearranging€the€sentenc tives: There Here It Or Pronouns€like€all.€most.€ Plurality€is€based€on€wha referring€to!€(This€is€the€antecedent) Exceptions: .€nobody€ and€so€on.Trap€1: 73 Phrases€between€subject and€verb 75 Trap€3: Multiple€Nouns€or€Pronouns Remove€the€additional€information€and€read€the€ sentence€without€them.€more.€then€the€subject‐v wo€Exceptions: Conjunctions€(OR.€Joan€of€Arc.

€Every.Each.€Number€– Always€singular€ of € irrespective€of€what€follows! Example:€A€number€of€reasons€–Plural!€The€number cars€– Singular!€("the" is singular and "a" is plural) ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 86 .€Either.€Neither.

VERBAL VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Errors€Tested€ 78 80 Errors€Tested€ Use€of€Pronouns Verb€Tense€– Sub€Types€€ Incorrect€Verb€Tense Shift€in€Verb€Tense Verb€Voice€ Pronoun‐Antecedent€Disagreement Incorrect€Use€of€Relative€Pronouns Ambiguous€and€Implied€Pr ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 87 .€ Incorrect: Matt€an eir€hard€ work€in€their€engineering€class€will€help€them€realize€ their€dream€of€becoming€a t:€Matt€and€Dave€believed€that€their€hard€work€ in€their€engineering€class€will€help€them€r ng€great€engineers.Errors€Tested€ 77 79 Errors€Tested€ Noun Agreement€ Verb€Tense€ Tense Forms Past Present€ Future Simple Perfect Progressive Perfect€Progressive€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning The€number€of€nouns€must€be€consistent€with€what€ they€are€referencing.

€few.€ For€example.€ Incorrect: Each€of€the€women€selected€for€the€ scholarship€were€asked€to€ .€ both. VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Trap 1: 82 Distance€btw.€It€might€be€a€group€of€people€in€a€ family.€ VERBAL Antecedents€that€SOUNDS€plural€but€actual€are€ singular€or€vice€versa.€family ns€is€ singular€too. Incorrect:€Many€of€the learn€that€his€or€her€exam€was€unfairly€graded.€require€a€special€membership.Pronoun€Error€Sub€Types 81 83 Trap 2: Indefinite Pronouns Pronoun€Antecedent€Disagreement The€pronoun€MUST€refer€to€it’s€antecedent.€every€and€so€on.€ The€pronoun‐antecedent€relationship€should€be€ ut€the€sentence.€wit tabases.€ Correct: The€library. Correct: Each€of€the€women€selected€for€the€ scholarship€was€asked€to€submit€an€applicati VERBAL These€are€very€general€pronouns€– many.€ Correct:€Incorrect:€Many€of€the€students€w t€their€exams€was€unfairly€ graded.€with€it’s€many€books€and€ dat ecial€membership.€pronoun€&€antecedent 84 Trap 3: Misleading Antecedents€ This€happens€when€there€is€additional€information€ between€the€pronoun€and€antecedent€makin k€of€the€relationship€between€pronouns€ and€their€antecedents.€but€being€a€collective€nou VERBAL .€ Incorrect:€The€library.

©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 88 .

€where€and€why. .€whom.€ Incorrect€Pronoun€Choice€for€People€and€Things Difference€between€who€and€whom He€– Who Him€– Whom The€substitution€that€makes€sense€will€correspond€with€ the€correct€word€in€that€context.€Whom?€ Incorrect€use€of€relative€pronouns Very€simple€trick! Make€the€following€substitutions: They€relate€groups€of€words€to€a€noun€or€pronoun€– which.€ The€doctor€that performed€the€surgery€was€honored€ – should€be€“who”€ Misplacement€of€adjectives€(describes€nouns€‐ serene)€and€adverbs€(describe€verbs€‐ serenel he€new€BMW€model€is€designed€to€ drive€faster€and€more€efficient€than€the€previous€ model.€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Trap 1: 86 Pronoun€Choice€ 88 Errors€Tested€ Modifiers Who€and€Whom€will€always€relate€to€people.€ essary€to€rearrange€the€ sentence€for€it€to€make€sense.Pronoun€Error€Sub€Types 85 87 Trap 2: Who€vs.€whomsoever.

€i.€ The€machine€who performed€the€surgery€was€ showcased€in€the€exhibit€– should€be€“that”€ VERBAL The€usage€of€the€word€“efficient”€is€wrong€here€since€it’s€ modifying€the€verb.That€and€Which€will€always€relate€to€things.€ inanimate€objects.e.€The€correct VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 89 .

€billions).€and€some€can€be€used€for€ both.€ Incorrect€use€of€comparative€degree€ Illogical€Comparisons Dangling€Modifiers€are€those€where€the€referent€is€ completely€absent.€Quantifiers€ Some€modifiers€like€all.€b ple€and€so€on.€liquid).€ Correct:€Short€on he€ best€one€she€could€find.€ bottles.€ Correct:€Walking€to€the€univers .€ Correct:€According€to€the€report.€the€cat€had€to€stop.€ VERBAL Misplaced€modifiers€with€relative€clauses€(like€ that€or€which) Incorrect:€According€to€the€report.€bicycles€that€have€ not€been€registered€with€the€university€will€be€ confiscated.€ Incorrect:€Short€on€money.€bicycles€will€be€ confiscated€that€have€not€been€registered€with€the€ university.€the€car€was€the€best€one€Tanya€ could€find. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Trap€2: 90 Placement 92 Errors€Tested€ Comparisons Misplaced€modifiers€are€modifiers€that€are€placed€in€ the€wrong€position€on€a€sentence.€ Incorrect: Walking€to€the€university.Trap€1: 89 Quantifiers 91 Trap€2: Placement Errors€in€Count€Nouns€(can€be€counted€– trees.€Quantifiers€are€many.€ Errors€in€Non‐Count€Nouns€(cannot€be€counted€– water.

€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 90 .se€ of€his€cat.

Correct:€Though€the€reporters€felt€that€ nnessee’s€loss€to€Minnesota.€you€have€to€use€a€superlative€ word.Comparison€Sub€Type 93 95 Errors€Tested€ Parallelism Degree of€Comparison When€there€are€two€objects€being€compared.€vomiting€and€drinking€less€water€t Correct: .€ Incorrect:€Though€the€reporters€felt€that€injury€played€a€part€ in€Tennessee’s€loss€to€Minn id€ that€Minnesota€had€the€best team€that€night.€ Correct: Though€the€recent€Lays€food€poisoni ome€buyers€to€question€its€quality.€Tennessee’s€coach€said€ that€Minnesota€had€the€better€team€tha Parallel€Verbs€and€Verb€Form€Errors Parallel€Noun€Errors Parallel€Prepositions€and€Articles njunctions Parallel€Comparisons VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Comparison€Sub€Type 94 96 Parallelism€Sub€Type Verb€Errors Illogical Comparison Only€similar€objects€can€be€compared.€ Incorrect: ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Though€the€recent€Lays€food€poisoning€ incident€has€caused€some€buyers€to€question€its€qual ld€more€often€than€any€other€food€ company.€But€when€they€are€in€ the€form€with€an€–ing€at€the€end€(gerun Incorrect: The€common€symptoms€of€the€stomach€flu€ are€indigestion.€You€cannot€ compare€a€human€to€a€dog.€you€have€ to€use€a€comparative€word.€When€more€t .€the€Lays€ chips€are€sold€more€often€than€those€produced Nouns€are€naturally€parallel.

VERBAL The€common€symptoms€of€the€stomach€flue€ are€indigestion.€vomiting€and€decreased€water€inta ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 91 .

Parallelism€Sub€Type 97 99 Parallelism€Sub€Type Parallel€Conjunctions€ Noun€Errors When€a€sentence€has€two€or€more€similar€parts€ linked€by€a€conjunction.€that€can€ amount to€an€error€as€well.€ Some€examples: Neither …€nor€ Not€only …€but€also Whether …€or€ The€new€exam€pattern€requires€students€to€ enter€their€student€IDs€and€signing€their€names€ The€new€exam€pattern€requires€students€to€ enter€their€student€IDs€and€sign€their€names€on ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Either€…€or€ Both€…€and€ As€…€as€ VERBAL Incorrect: The€restaurant€not€only€hired€a€new€chef.€the€author€mentions€that€he€ found€editing€pictures€much€more€arduo han€when€he€had€to€take€the€actual€pictures.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning GMAT Club 2011 Correct: Incorrect: In the€book.€the€author€mentions€tha s much€more€arduous€and€ difficult€than€taking€pictures.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Parallelism€Sub€Type 98 100 Parallelism€Sub€Type Parallel€Comparisons Prepositional/Article Errors A€preposition€and€an€article€must€either€be€used€by€ all€parts€of€a€sentence€or€by€just€the Incorrect: When€comparisons are€left€unparallel.€ VERBAL .€ By€doing€each€assignment.€and€attending€all€the€classes.€but€also€ expanded€its€seating€capacity.€one ighest€grade€in€the€class.€each€part€has€to€be Incorrect: The€conjunctions€used€must€be€parallel€in€structure.€ Correct: In€the€book.€but€it€ also expanded€its€seating€capa The€restaurant€not€only€hired€a€new€chef.€ he€highest€grade€in€the€ class.€turning€in€ homeworks€on€time€and€by attending€all€the€classes.€turning€in€ homeworks€on€time. By€doing€each€assignment.

VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning 92 .

ot€purchase€the€car€because€it€ was€too€expensive. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Wordiness€and€Redundancy€€ The€GMAT€will€prefer€usage€of€the€most€concise€ sentences€possible. Incorrect: He€decided€to€not€purchase€the€car€due€to€the€ fact€that it€was€too€expensive.€a€ rodent€that€belongs€to€the€Caviidae family.€ A€phrase€that€is€commonly€accepted€as€correct€ even€though nsistent€ An€idiom€error€will€misrepresent€the€idiom. Example: He was the best among three candidates.€rather.€b ngs€to€the€Caviidae family.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 93 Correct: In€add .€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Very.€ Correct: The€guinea€pig€is€not€a€true€pig. Between: Used when two items are in questio n Example: He was the best between the two of them.€ Idioms€are€provided€with€right€and€w at€follow.€Between Among: Used when more than two items are in question.€Rob€also plays€ the€viola.€Rob€plays€the€ viola.€ Incorrect: In€addition€to€playing€the€guitar.€it’s€a€rodent€ tha ily.€very€common€error€tested.€ VERBAL VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Errors€Tested€ 102 104 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idiom€Rules Among€vs. Correct: The€guinea€pig€is€not€a€true€pig.€ e€guitar.Errors€Tested€ 101 103 Errors€Tested€ Idioms Semi€Colons Usage€of€fragments€or€dependent€clauses€on€ either€side€of€a€semi‐colon Incorrect:€The€guinea€pig€is€not€a€true€pig.

are used for comparison Example: The Toyot a was twice as fast as the Honda.Errors€Tested€€€€€Idiom€Rules 105 107 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idiom€Rules Each€Other€vs.€Whether If: Twice€vs. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Example: They loved Example: The Both€vs. Each: Used to point out differences/dissimilarities. three brothers loved one another dearly. One another: Used to compare more than two things.€Each Both: Used to point out similarities. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 94 . (Always singul ar) Example: Each girl had her own niche. Whether: Used more frequently as a comparison. Example: If this is true. Double: Used as a verb only. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Primarily used only in “If … else” sentences. Example: Both of them were good at swimming. ch other dearly.€Double Twice: Twice/Thrice etc. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idiom€Rules 106 108 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idiom€Rules If€vs. it will be okay tomorrow. Else. Example: He more than doubled his wealth by investing in stocks. the market wil l collapse. Example: Whether or not he choose s to accept the prize is up to him.€One€Another€ Each Other: Used to compare two things.

©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct:€We€agreed€to€share€our€room.€Such€As€ Like: Used when indicating similarities between things.€ Allow€for Correct: One€must€always€allow€for€a€margin€of€error€ while€calculating€axial€l ust€always€allow€to€have€a€margin€of€ error€while€calculating€axial€loads.€ Incorrect:€The€giant ing€from€deforestation. white tigers and so on. € € Correct:€He€was€acting€like€a€child. Such as: Used to list examples.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Ability€To Correct:€Dolphins€have€the€ability€to€emit€low€frequency€ whistles Incorrect bility€of€emitting€low€ frequency€whistles.€ Incorrect:€We€agreed€upon€sharing€our€room. Incorrect:€I€appealed€for€his€se r€of Correct:€The€giant€panda€bears€are€in€danger€of€ extinction.€ Incorrect:€He€was€acting€as€a€child. Example: Like John. Example: There ar e different kinds of tigers such as the Bengal Tigers.Errors€Tested€€€€€Idiom€Rules 109 111 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Agree€upon/to Correct: We€agreed€upon€the€date€of€the€meeting Incorrect:€We€agreed€to€t Like€vs. Amy was a violinist too.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 95 .€ Act€as/like Correct:€A€signature€can€act€as€ ncorrect:€A€signature€can€act€like€a€legal€attetato.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 110 112 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Appeal€to Correct:€I€appealed€to€his€sense€of€justice.

€I€am€ finally€begi orrect:€After€working€on€the€project€all€night.€ Incorrect:€I€had€to€choose€between€ch VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Associate€with ls.€I€am€ finally€beginning€to€view€the€dayligh ct:€I€had€to€choose€between€chocolates€and€ cakes.€ Incorrect:€I€always€associate Correct:€I€have€to€attend€to€some€duties Incorrect:€I€have€to€attend€for ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 96 .Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 113 115 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Attribute€to€ Correct:€I€attribute€my€success€to€hard€work.€ Attend€to Correct:€I€associate€spring€with€flowers.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 114 116 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Begin€to€see€daylight Correct:€After€working€on€the€project€all€night.€he€suffered€from€ attention€disorder. le€ criteria. As€good€as Correct:€It’s€as€good€as€new.€€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Incorrect:€I€attribute€my€ Incorrect:€The€decision€w As€an€adolescent Correct: As€an€adolescent.€ n Correct:€The€decision€was€made€based€on€multiple€ criteria.€he€suffered€from€attention€ disorder Incorr lescence.

€ Incorr Come€to€a€dead€end Correct:€He€came€to€a€dead€end€after€researching€topics.€this€one€is€better he€previous€report. Correct:€I€never€claimed€that€I€possessed€remarkable€ talent.€ Incorrect: ching€topics.€ Correct:€Let’s€compare€the€pros€of€the€situation€with€the€ cons.€ Incorrect:€I€never€claimed€that nging€talent.Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 117 119 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Consider€(as) Correct:€I€don’t€consider€him€a€serious€contender€ Incorrect:€I€don’t€con nder Conform€to Correct:€You€must€conform€to€the€standards Incorrect:€You€must€conform€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Care€for/about Correct:€I€don’t€care€much€for€sweets Correct:€I€care€about€her€a€lot. Incorrect:€Let’s€compare€t e€ cons.€ Compare€to/with Correct:€I€never€compared€myself€to€her.€ Count€on Correct:€I€knew€that€I€could€count€on€you.€ VERBAL Correct:€The€red€background€contrasts€nicely€with€the€blue€ flowers Incorrect:€The€red€back s€nicely€to€the€blue€ flowers.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 97 Incorrect:€I€knew€that€I€could€cou .€this€one€is€ better.€ Incorrect:€I€n r€her.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 118 120 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Contrast€to/with Correct:€In€contrast€to€the€previous€report.€ :€I€never€claimed€to€possess€remarkable€singing€ talent.

€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 98 .€ Incorrect:€I€credit€my€success€for€my€hard€w h€the€discovery€of€penicillin.€ Incorrect:€This€s th€the€others.€ Incorrect:€He€is€credited€for/to€the€discovery€of€penicilli VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 122 124 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Delighted€to Correct:€I€am€delighted€to€accept€this€prize.€ Define€as€ Correct:€Light€is€defined€as€radiation.€ Incorrect:€You€sh Correct:€I€credit€my€success€to€my€hard€work.€ Debate€about Correct:€There€was€a€raging€debate€about€standards. Incorrect:€I€am€delighted€fo Different€from€ Correct:€This€sandwich€is€different€from€the€others.€ Correct:€You€should€take€credit€for€what€you€did. Decide€on Correct:€I€am€yet€to€decide€on€a€color€for€the€wall.€ Incorrect:€I€am€ .Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 121 123 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Declared€<> Correct:€The€teacher€declared€all€exams€worthy.€ Incorrect:€Light€is€defined€fo Credit€for/to/with u€did. Incorrect:€There€was€a dards.€ Incorrect:€The€teacher€dec hy.

€ Incorrect:€We€had€to€draw€on€the€reserves€to€keep€the€ car€running ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct:€He€was€elected€as€an€officer.€ Incorrect:€It’s€always VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Distinguish€between/from h€from€good€and€bad.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 99 Incorrect:€It’s€alwa .Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 125 127 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Draw€to€ Correct:€He€was€drawn€to€her€from€the€moment€he€ met€her.€ Easier€said€than€done Correct:€It’s€always€easier€said€than€done.€ Incorrect:€I€had€to€distinguish€good€with€bad Draw€a€line Correct:€We€had€to€draw€a€line€somewhere.€ Draw€upon€ Cor eep€the€ car€running. Incorrect:€He€was€elected€as€office.€ Incorrect:€He€was€d sier€said€than€done Correct:€It’s€always€easier€said€than€done. Incorrect:€He€was€elected€to€officer.€ Incorrect Correct:€I€had€to€distinguish€good€from€bad. Correct:€I€had€to€distinguish€between€good€and€bad.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 126 128 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Elect€as/to Correct:€He€was€elected€to€office.€ Incorrect:€We€had€to€draw€the€li Draw€attention€to Correct:€I€hate€to€draw€attention€to€the€fact€that€the€ quality€of€food e€to€draw€attention€for€the€fact€that€the€ quality€of€food€has€gone€down.

€so€ was€Mia. s€indicate€about€stress€being€a€common€ cause€of€heart€attacks.€ Known€to Correct:€Even€as€a€student differently.€ Mistaken€for€ Correct:€The€twins€were€often€mistaken€for€one€ another.€ idered€for€the€scholarship.€Rick€was€known€as€wanting€to€ do€things€diffe ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 100 .Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 129 131 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Left.€Rick€was€known Incorrect:€Even€as€a€student.€ Known€to Correct:€Even€as€a€student.€ Incorrect:€Even€as€a€student.€right€and€ center ft€right€and€center.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Just€as€<>. In€order€to Correct:€She€ t€a€good€grade€ in€the€class.€so€<> Correct:€Just€as€Tyra€was€considered€for€the€scholarship.€ Incorrect:€She€began€studying€in€order€that€she€got€a€ goo ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 130 132 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms A€means€to€ Correct:€She€only€viewed€it€as€a€means€to€the€end.€Rick€was€known€as€wanting€to€ do€things€differently.€ Mia€as€also€considered.€ Incorrect:€For€some€peo f€an€end.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Indicate€that Correct:€Studies€indicate€that€stress€is€a€common€cause€ of€heart€attacks.€sending€emails.€right€and€center Correct:€She€was€shooting€emails€to€people€left.€ Inco taken€as€one€ another.

€ Incorrect:€The€Bengal€Tiger€is€native€of€Ind ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 134 136 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Seem€to€ Correct:€He€seemed€to€be€hiding€something€in€his€pocket.€ Incorrect:€Only€when€we€prohibit€people€to€buy€drinks€for€ minors.€ Range€from Correct:€The€quality€of€these€products€range€from€good€to€ e t:€The€quality€of€these€products€range€between€ good€to€excellent.€will€ derage€ drinking.€ ge€for€all€the€opportunities€he€ had.€ VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning More€than€ever€ Correct:€I€regret€not€going€to€Europe.€ Native€of/to Correct:€She€is€a€native€of€Vienna.€wil derage€drinking.€ Incorrect:€He€seemed ocket.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Prohibit€from Correct:€Only€when€we€prohibit€people€from€buying€drinks€ for€minors.Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms 133 135 Errors€Tested€€€€€Idioms Reluctant€to Correct:€She€was€reluctant€to€take€on€such€a€huge€task.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 101 .€ Require€of€ Correct:€It€is€required€of€all€candidates€to€report€here€ da rom€all€candidates€to€report€ here€daily.€now€more€than€ever.€ Incorrect:€ e€than€ never.€ Take€advantage€of€ Correct:€He€took€advantage€of€all€the€opportunities€he€had.€ Incorrect:€She€is€a€n Correct:€The€Bengal€Tiger€is€native€to€India.€ Incorrect:€She€wa h€a€ huge€task.

C. The€market€has€confidence€in the€firm s€ability€to€ add€back le e€profits. C. Will€Ferrell s€cameo€scenes€are€as€funny€that anything€he s€ever€done. C. The€market€has€confidence€that the€firm€will€add€ back leverage€to€incre B. B. B. The€market€has€confidence€in the€firm€to€add€ back leverage€to€increase€profi Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Will€Ferrell s€cameo€scenes€ar g€he s€ever€done. The€market€has€confidence€that the€firm€will€ad age€to€increase€profits.Idioms 137 139 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Will€Ferr nes€are€as€funny€as anything€he s€ever€done. Will€Ferrell s€cameo€scenes€are€so€funny€as any one. s€cameo€scenes€are€as€funny€that anything€he s€ever€done. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 102 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Idioms 138 140 Idioms Correct€answer: A. B. Will€Ferrell s€cameo€scenes€are€so€funny€as anything€he s€ever€done. Correct€answer: A. The€market€has€confidence€in the€firm s€ability€to€ add€back leverage€to€increase€profit t€has€confidence€in the€firm€to€add€ back leverage€to€increase€profits.

B. W ll€us€is€that€some€schools€ lack€of rigor. The€city€industrialists€have€demanded the€state ent€to€meet the€promises€made€by€chief€ minister€Ashok€Chavan. What€these€scores€tell€us€is€that€rigor€is€lacking€in some€schools. B. The€city€industrialists€have€demanded the€state€ government€to€meet the€ de€by€chief€ minister€Ashok€Chavan.Idioms 141 143 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. The€city€industrialists€h the€ state€government€meet the€promises€made€by€ chief€minister€Ashok€Chavan. What€these€scores€tell€us€is€that€there s€a€l ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 103 ¡ . The€city€ s€have€demanded€that the€ state€government€met the€promises€made€by€ chief€minister€Ashok€C ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 142 144 Idioms Correct€answer: A. What€these€scores€tell€us€is€that€rigor€is€lack . B. The€city€industrialists€have€deman tate€government€met the€promises€made€by€ chief€minister€Ashok€Chavan. B. What€these€scores€tell€us€is€that€some€schools€ lack€of rigor. The€city€industrialists€have€demanded€that the€ stat et the€promises€made€by€ chief€minister€Ashok€Chavan. C. C. C. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. C. What€these€scores€te k€of rigor€in€some€schools.

€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. B. Tensi ed€in€some€parts€of€the€country€ among blacks€and Hispanics.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 146 148 Idioms Correct€answer: A. Tensions€have€flared€in€some€parts€of€the€country€ between blacks€and Hispanics.Idioms 145 147 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Tensions€have€flared€in€some€parts€of€the€count cks€with Hispanics. Tensions€have€flared€in€some€parts€of€the€country€ among blacks€and Hispanics. The€problem€is€Disney s€ability€to€take control st‐known€characters€quickly€is€very€ limited. The€problem€is€Disney s€ability€for€t ome€of€the€best‐known€characters€quickly€is€ very€limited. B. The€problem€is€Disney s€ability€to€take control€of€ some€of€the€best‐kno ly€is€very€ limited. The€problem€is€Disney s€ability€for€taking control€ of€some€of€t ers€quickly€is€ very€limited. The€problem€is€Disney s€ability€of€taking he€best‐known€characters€quickly€is€ very€limited. B. Tensions€have€flared€in€some€parts€of€the€country€ between blacks€an . The€problem€is€Disney s€ability€of€taking control€ of€some€of€the€b ickly€is€ very€limited. C. C. C.€ ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 104 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Tensions€have€flared€in€some€parts€of€the€country€ between blacks€with H . C.

In€contrast€to the€first€two€options€centralizing decision€making. C. In€contrast€to the€first€two€options. C. In€contrast€to the€first€two€options.€a€ centralize decision€ making. As€contrasted€with the€first€two€options. Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. A€reading€above€50€percent€indicates€that the€ manufacturing€economy€is general ing.€a€Cap€ and€Trade€system€will€dece making.€a€Cap€and€Trade€system€will€not.Idioms 149 151 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. B. Correct€answer: A. As€contrasted€with the€first€two€options.€a€Cap em€will€not. A€reading€above€50€percent€indicates the€ manufacturing€econ nerally€expanding.€a€Cap€and€ Trade€syst alize decision€making.€a€Cap€and€ Trade€system€will€decentralize . In€contrast€to the€first€two€options€centralizi on€making. A€reading€above€50€percent€indicates the€ manuf onomy€to€be generally€ expanding. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Idioms 150 152 Idioms Correct€answer: A. B. C. B. C. A€reading€above€50€percent€indicates the€ manufacturing€economy€is generally€expand ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 105 . A€reading€above€50€percent€indicates€that the€ manufac omy€is generally€expanding. B. A€reading€above€50€percent€indicates the€ manufacturing€economy€to€be ge panding.

C. This€report€has€been€issued€by€the€association€ since€1 on€of a€four‐year€ interruption€during€World€War€II. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 106 .€but€its€ operating€margin€fell€from 7%€till 4%.€but€its€ operating€margin€fell€from 7%€ti Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A.€excepting a€ ption€ during€World€War€II.€but€its€ operating€margin€fell . This€report€has€been€issue ince€1931. Its€gross€margin€rose€from 22%€up€to 25%. This€report€has€been€issued€by€the€association€ pting a€four‐year€interruption€ during€World€War€II. B. Correct€answer: A. Its€gross€margin€rose€from 22%€until 25%. This€report€has€been€issued€by€the€ 31. Its€gross€margin€rose€from 22%€to 25%. B. B. C n€rose€from 22%€until 25%.€but€its€ operating€margin€fell€from 7%€to 4%.€except€for a€four‐year€interruption€ during€World€War€II. B. This€report€has€been€issued€by€the€association€ since€1931.€but€i gin€fell€from 7%€down€to 4%. This€report€has€been€issued€by€the€association€ since€1931. Its€gross€margin€rose€from 22%€to 25%.€with€the€exception€of a€four‐year€ interruption€during€World€War€II.€ terruption€ during€World€War€II.Idioms 153 155 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. C. Its€gross€margin€rose€from 22%€up€to 25%. C.€but€its€ operating€m 4%. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Idioms 154 156 Idioms Correct€answer: A.

Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A.€not€ an€end€in€itself". B. "I€believe€that€ n€end€in€itself". Correct€answer: A. The€ancient€Chinese€Taoists€distinguished inter e€and orgasm. The€ancient€Chinese€Taoists inguished€ between intercourse€and orgasm. The€ancient€Chinese€Taoists€distinguished intercourse€from orgasm. B. "I€believe€that€wealth€is€a€means€to an€end ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 107 .€not€ an€end€in€itself". ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Idioms 158 160 Idioms Correct€answer: A. The€ ient€Chinese€Taoists€distinguished€ between intercourse€and orgasm. The cient€Chinese€Taoists€distinguished intercourse€from orgasm. C. "I€believe€that€wealth€is€a€means€for an€end. The€ancient€Chinese€Taoists€distinguished intercourse€and orgasm. s€a€means€of an€end. "I€believe€that€wealth€is€a€means€of an€end. C.Idioms 157 159 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. B. "I€believe€that€wealth€is€a€means€for an€end.€n B.€not€ an€end€in€itself". C. C.

It€would€have€been€easy€enough€so€tha nch‐style€house€that€she€could€easily€and€logically€ decorate€with€Scandinavian‐style€furni ave€been€easy€enough€as€to€buy a€ranch‐ style€house€that€she€could€easily€and€logically€ de yle€furniture. iPhone€users€download€two€to€four€times€as€ many games.€and€ other€smartphone€users. iPhone€users€download€two€to€four€times€as€ many€more games. It€would€have€been€easy€enough€for her€to€buy a€ ranch‐style€house€that€ cally€ decorate€with€Scandinavian‐style€furniture.Idioms 161 163 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. B.€vid a€as other€ smartphone€users. B. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 108 . ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 162 164 Idioms Correct€answer: A.€and€other€Web€data€as other€ smartphone€users. iPhone€users€download€two€to€four€times€as€ many€more games.€and€other€Web€data€ than other€smartphone€users. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. B. iPhone€users€download€two€to€f mes.€vid a€as other€smartphone€users. B. It€would€have€been€easy€enough€for her€to€buy a hat€she€could€easily€and€logically€ decorate€with€Scandinavian‐style€furniture.€video.€video. iPhone€users€download€two€to€four€t mes. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. C. C. C.€and€other€Web€data€as other€smartphone€users. It€would ugh€so€that she€bought a€ranch‐style€house€that€she€could€easily€and€logically€ decorate€wi urniture. It€would€have€been€easy€enough€as€to€buy a€ranch‐ style€house€that€she€could€e rate€with€Scandinavian‐style€furniture. iPhone€users€download€two€to€four€times€as€ man eo.€video.

©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. C. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 109 . We€have€one€chance€in€a€million€for winning€the€ World€Cup. Our€economic€well‐being€is€generally€determined€ t€of€goods€and€services€that€ we€consume. We€have€on win€the€ World€Cup. Our€economic€well‐being€is€generally€determined ount€of€goods€and€services€that€we€ consume. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. We€have€one€chance€in€a€million€of winning€the€ World€Cup. Our€economic€well‐being€is€generally€determined€ through the€amount€of€goods€and e€consume. We€have€one€chance€in€a€million€of winning€the€ ave€one€in€a€million€chances€to win€the€ World€Cup. B. We€have€one€chance€in€a€million€for ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 166 168 Idioms Correct€answer: A. Our€economic€well‐being€is€generally€determined€ by the€amount€of€goods€ onsume. B. B. C. Our€economic€well‐being€is€generally€determ f€goods€and€services€that€we€ consume. C. C.Idioms 165 167 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Our€economic€well‐being€is€generally€determined€ from the€amount€of€good at€we€ consume.

Idioms 169 171 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Why€hasn t€Congress€a€mandate€for the€total€ premium€cost€to€be shown b€but€not€taxed? C. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 110 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . Why€hasn t€Congress€mandated€that the€total€ premium€cost€be shown€as€wa tub€but€not€taxed? B. Why€hasn t€Congress€mandated€that the€to hown€as€wages€on€every€pay€ stub€but€not€taxed? VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Why€hasn t€Congress€mandated€that the€total€ pr shown€as€wages€on€every€pay€ stub€but€not€taxed? B. She€is€credited€for solving€numerous€cases. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Idioms 170 172 Idioms Correct€answer: A. B. C. She€is€credited€as€being a€great€detective. Why€hasn t€Congress€mandated€that the€total€ premium€cost€are shown€as€ b€but€not€taxed? VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. ited€with solving€numerous€cases. Why€hasn t€Congress€a€mandate€for the€ hown€as€wages€on€every€pay€ stub€but€not€taxed? C. B. C. She€is€credited€with solv ous€cases. She€is€credited€as€being a€great€detective. She€is€credited€for solving€numerous€cases.

©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. A€13‐year‐old€girl€was€mistakenly€abducted€in€March€ 2008€by€traffickers€who€ aken her€to the€niece€of€a€suspected€drug€dealer. A€13‐year‐old€girl€was€mistakenly€abducted€in€March€ 2008€by€traffickers e€ mistaken her€as the€niece€of€a€suspected€drug€dealer. B. But€both€consider the€problems€necessary€ inconveniences€ e€their€conferences€and€ programs. But€both€consider the€problems€to€be necessary€ inconveniences€to eir€conferences€and€ programs. C. But€both€consider the€problems€as necessary€ inconveniences€to€feature€t erences€and€ programs.Idioms 173 175 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. C. B. A€ enly€abducted€in€March€ 2008€by€traffickers€who€were€believed€to€have€ mistaken her€for the g€ dealer. A€13‐year‐old€girl€was€mistakenly€abducted€in€M kers€who€were€believed€to€have€ mistaken her€as the€niece€of€a€suspected€drug€dealer. A€13‐year‐old€girl€was€mistaken 8€by€traffickers€who€were€believed€to€have€ mistaken her€for the€niece€of€a€suspected€drug€ irl€was€mistakenly€abducted€in€March€ 2008€by€traffickers€who€were€believed€to€have€ mistak spected€drug€dealer. But€both€consider the€problems€n nconveniences€to€feature€their€conferences€and€ programs. C. B. B. But€both€consider the€problems€to€be n onveniences€to€feature€their€conferences€and€ programs. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 111 . ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 174 176 Idioms Correct€answer: A. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. But€both€consider the€problems€as necessary€ in ences€to€feature€their€conferences€and€ programs.

The€drug€maker€proposed€that the€litigatio d€in€the€US€District€Court€for€the€ Northern€District€of€Ohio. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. The€drug€maker€proposed€that th centralized€in€the€US€District€Court€for€the€ Northern€District€of€Ohio. The€drug€maker€proposed€that the€litigation€is€to€ be centrali ict€Court€for€the€ Northern€District€of€Ohio. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 178 180 Idioms Correct€answer: A. The€drug€maker€proposed the€litigation€be centralized€in€the€US€District orthern€District€of€Ohio. C. The€astronauts€would€probably€best€use€their€ remaining€time€liv rs€rather dying€at€home. B. C. The€drug€maker€proposed the€litigation€be centr he€US€District€Court€for€the€ Northern€District€of€Ohio. C. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 112 . The€astronauts€would€probably€best€use€their€ r iving€and€working€on€Mars€ instead€of dying€at€home. B. The€astronauts€would€probably€be ng€time€living€and€working€on€Mars€rather€ than dying€at€home.Idioms 177 179 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. C. The€astronauts€would€probably€best€use€their€ remaining€time€living€and€ stead€of dying€at€home. B. The€astronauts€would€probably€best€use€their€ remaining€time€li ars€rather€ than dying€at€home. The€astronauts€would€probably€best€ g€time€living€and€working€on€Mars€rather dying€at€home. B. The€drug€maker€ igation€be centralized€in€the€US€District€Court€for€the€ Northern€District€of€Ohio.

€four€times€ alary€of€ $1.1€million.1€million.€four€times€his€annual€base€salary€ of€$1. B.€Cuba€ impoverished.1€million. The€company€requires him€hold stock€valued€at€ n. C. C. The€company€requires him€hol ed€ at€$4.1€million.Idioms 181 183 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Resulting€from the€American€embargo. B.€four€times€his€annual€base€salary€of€ $1. B. C. The€company€requires him€to€hold illion. Resulting€from the€American€ . ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Idioms 182 184 Idioms Correct€answer: A.4€million. The€result€ an€embargo€was Cuba€ impoverished.1€million. C.4€ es€his€annual€base€salary€ of€$1. The€company€requires him€holding stock€valued€ at€$4.1€million.4€million. The€company€requires him€to€hold stock€valued€ at€$4.€Cuba€ impoverish Correct€answer: A. The€company€requires him€hold stock€valued€at€ $4. Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A.4€million. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 113 .€ al€base€salary€ of€$1.€four€times€his€annual€base€salary€ of€$1. Cuban€poverty€is€a€result€of the€American€trade€ embargo. Cuban€poverty€is€a€result€of the€American€trade The€result€of the€American€embargo€was Cuba€ impoverished.

6€billion€zlotys.6€billion€zlotys. A€raise€in electr e€18€percent€ year‐on‐year€jump€in€the€company s€revenues€to€ 3. The€company€seems€as€if€it€is slowly€running€out€ of€new€features€to€add. A€rising€of electricity€prices€fuelled€the€18€percent€ year‐on‐year€jump enues€to€ 3. B.6€billion€zlotys.6€billion€zlotys.6€billion€zlotys. eems€as€if€it€is slowly€running€out€ of€new€features€to€add. A€rising€of electricity€prices€fuelled€the€18€p ear€jump€in€the€company s€revenues€to€ 3. It€seems€as€if the€company€ eatures€to€add.6€billion€zlotys. C. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 114 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ . It€seems€like the€company€is slowly€running€out€ of€new€features€to€add. slowly€running€out€ of€new€features€to€add. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL Idioms 186 188 Idioms Correct€answer: A. Correct€answer: A. A€raise€in electricity€prices€fuelled€the€18€perce n€the€company s€revenues€to€ 3. It€seems€like the€company€is slowly€running€out es€to€add. A€rise€in electricity€prices€fuelled€the€18€percent€ year‐ ny s€revenues€to€ 3. A€rise€in electricity€prices€ t€ year‐on‐year€jump€in€the€company s€revenues€to€ 3. C. B. C.Idioms 185 187 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. C. Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. B.

€non€toxic€glues€and€inks.€non€toxic€glues€and€inks.€in€addition€to€ lead‐free€paints.€in€addition€to€ le on€toxic€glues€and€inks. All€p ecycled€papers. Sweet€potatoes€are€native€to ca€and€ Peru. B.€non€toxic ach€product use€similar recycled€papers. Every€product use€similar recycled€papers. All€products use€similar recycled€ ard€and€other€materials.€in€addition€to€ lead‐free€paints.€ cardboard€and€other€materials.€in€addition€to€ lead‐free€paints. Sweet€potatoes€are€native€in Central€America€an Sweet€potatoes€are€native€from Central€America€ and€Peru.€ cardboard€and€other€materials.€ cardboard€and€other€materials.€non€tox ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A.€ cardboard€and€other€material ition€to€ lead‐free€paints. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 190 192 Idioms Correct€answer: A.Idioms 189 191 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Sweet€potatoe e€from Central€America€ and€Peru.€ car d€and€other€materials. C.€non€toxic€glues€and€inks. B.€in€addition€to€ lead‐free€paints. Eac recycled€papers. C. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. C. Sweet€potatoes€are€native€to Central€America€and€ Peru ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 115 . Sweet€potatoes€are€native€in Central€America€and€ Peru. Every€product use€similar recycled€papers. B.

The€average€price€has€risen€at€least€1€cent€per t€consecutive€days€to€ $2. The€lead‐in€from€ Dancing€With€the€Stars €will€ he€expectations.952.€10€cents€as€much€as a€week€ago. B. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. B.€and€so€too the€e he€lead‐in€from€ Dancing€With€the€Stars €will€be high. The€le h€the€Stars €will€be high. The€lead‐in€from€ Dancing€With€the€Stars €will€be high.€and€also the€ex The€lead‐in€from€ Dancing€With€the€Stars €will€be high.€and€also the€expectations.€10€cents€more€from a€we ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A.€and€so€too€will€be the€expectations ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 194 196 Idioms Correct€answer: A.Idioms 193 195 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. The€average€price€has€risen€at€least€1€cent€per€ gal ays€to€ $2. The€lead‐in€from€ Dancing€With€the€Stars €will€be high. The€average€price€has€ris r€day€for€eight€consecutive€days€to€ $2. The€average€price€has€risen€at€least€1€cent€per€ gallon€per€day€for€eigh 52. C. C. B. The€average€price€has€risen€at€le ght€consecutive€days€to€ $2.€and€so€too€will€be the€expectations.952. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 116 ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ .€10€cents€more€than that€of€a€week€ago. The€ t€1€cent€per€ gallon€per€day€for€eight€consecutive€days€to€ $2. C.952.952.€10€cents€as€much€as a€week€ago.952.€10€cents€more€than that€of€a€week€ago.€10€cents€more€from a€week€ago.

Idioms 197 199 Idioms Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. B. B. Sponsors€increasingly€use€the€Internet€like€a d hannel€to€customers. C. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Which€sentence€is€idiomatically€correct? A. Haz€had€a€way€for€speaking that€was€less€like€ giving€information€and€more€like€war Haz€had€a€way€to€speak that€was€less€like€giving€ information€and€more€like€warnings€and€om ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning Correct€answer: A. Haz€had€a€way€to€speak that€was€less€like€giving€ information€and€mo s. Spons gly€use€the€Internet€as€a direct€ media€channel€to€customers. Haz€had€a€way€for€speaking that€was€less€like€ giving€ arnings€and€ omens. Haz€had€a€way€of€speaking that€was€less€like€ giving€information€and€mor ens. Haz€had€a€way€of€speaking that€was€less€like€ g nd€more€like€warnings€and€ omens. B. Sponsors€increasingly€use€the€Internet€to€be€a direct€media€channel C. Sponsors€increasingly€use€the€Internet€like€a direct€media€channel€to€cu Sponsors€increasingly€use€the€Internet€to€be€a direct€media€channel€to€customers. Sponsors€increasingly€use€the€Internet€as€a direct€ media€channel€to€customers. ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL GMAT Club 2011 117 . ©€GMAT€Club€– contributing€to€each€other’s€learning VERBAL VERBAL Idioms 198 200 Idioms Correct€answer: A. C.

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Bunuel.About GMAT Flashcards Thank you for downloading GMAT Club’s GMAT Flashcards.com/flashcards for the latest version of the GMAT F lashcards If you have any suggestions how to improve these flashcards. These flashcards have been put together by a number of GMAT Club members ( Walker. Dzyub am.com/flashcards GMAT Club 2011 120 © GMAT Club – contributing to each other’s learning . and others) Please visit http://gmatclub. Shrouded1. please visit the sa me page to leave your feedback: http://gmatclub. Whiplash2411.

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