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People A) Woodrow Wilson 1) Professor 2) Governor of New Jersey 3) Was Democratic nominee and won election of 1912 4) Disliked “dollar diplomacy”, had a non-aggressive foreign policy, favored small enterprise, and was against the “triple wall of privilege”: the tariff, banks, and trusts 5) Won election of 1916 6.) attempted to avoid war and maintain profitable neutrality 7.) finally had to ask Congress to declare war on April 2, 1917, breaking the long period of American isolationism 8.)"a war to end all wars" and "to make the world safe for democracy" 9.) President's ideals rallied citizens to strong support for war 10.) Fourteen Points Address on January 8, 1918 11.) October 1918- wanted peace based on the Fourteen Points to disarm Germany 12.) popular until started making extreme fumbles, which frustrated the Republican party 13.) attended Paris Conference a. pushed for the League of Nations b. helped conduct the Treaty of Versailles B) Theodore Roosevelt 1) Progressive Party nominee for presidency in the election of 1912 2) Was for woman suffrage, social welfare, minimum wage laws, and “socialistic” social insurance 3) Favored an aggressive foreign policy 4) Was known as the “bull moose” C) William Taft 1) Republican nominee for election of 1912 2) Strong on “dollar diplomacy” D) General Victoriano Huerta 1) Gained Mexican presidency in 1913 by murdering original 2) Regime filled with chaos and bloodshed 3) Regime ended in July 1914 E) Venustiano Carranzo 1) Took over Mexican presidency after rival General Victoriano Huerta 2) Was reluctantly supported by Wilson F) “Pancho” Villa 1) Rival to Carranzo 2) Bandit who killed 19 Americans in Northern America and 19 in New Mexico 3) Was trying to get the Americans to attack Carranzo
G) Charles Evans Hughes 1.) Supreme Court Justice 2) Republican presidential nominee for election of 1916 3.) Harding’s brilliant Secretary of the State who led the Disarmament Conference II. Events A) Election of 1912: The “Bull Moose Campaign” 1. Democratic nominee: Woodrow Wilson 2. Progressive nominee: Theodore Roosevelt 3. Republican nominee: William Taft 4. Called “Bull Moose Campaign” due to the fact that Roosevelt likened himself to a “bull moose” 5. Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican vote; Wilson won B) Disruption with Mexico 1. 1913 Mexican president killed and replaced by General Victoriano Huerta 2. In April, 1914, American soldiers captured in Tampico, but are quickly released 3. Wilson demands 21 gun salute that they will not give, causing Wilson to ask Congress the ability to use force against Mexico 4. Ordered navy to seize Vera Cruz, but due to the ABC powers (Argentina, Brazil, Chile) intervening, no real fighting broke out 5. Huerta’s regime collapsed in July 1914 6. Venustiano Carranzo gained control 7. Soon “Pancho” Villa began killing Americans, hoping the US government would go after Carranzo 8. General John J. Pershing sent in, but all troops removed in January of 1917 when a war with Germany became evident C) Beginnings of WWI 1. 1914, Serb killed heir to Austrian-Hungarian throne 2. Due to alliances, soon most of Europe’s major powers involved 3. Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Turkey and Bulgaria 4. Allied Powers: France, Britain, Russia, and later Japan, and Italy D) British Blockade and German U-Boats 1. Britain formed a blockade around ports forcing the United States to trade with Britain 2. To retaliate against blockade, Germany announced sub-marine war around the British Isles in February1915, but agreed not to attack neural ships 3. Lusitania, a passenger liner, was sunk on May 7, 1915 4. After British liner Arabic was sunk in 1915, Germans agreed to no longer attack such shiips without warning 5. When Sussex was sunk, Germans once more agreed not to attack such ships without warning on the condition that the Americans would try to get the Allies to lessen the blockade E) Presidential Campaign of 1916 1. Progressives nominate Theodore Roosevelt, but he declines, crippling the party
2. Republicans nominate Charles Evans Hughes 3. Democrats nominate Woodrow Wilson 4. Democratic platform focused on the fact that Wilson kept America out of the war while the Republican campaign centered on a dislike for the assaults on trusts and how Wilson was handling Mexico 5. Wilson won by a small margin F. January 31, 1917 1. Germany begins unrestricted submarine warfare, which entailed all ships were sunk if in the war zone G. Zimmerman Note 1. March 1, 1917 2. German forces trying to make deal with Mexico 3. If Germans were victorious, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona would go to Mexico 4. Outraged America and pushed towards war. H. April 6, 1917 1. War declaration on Germany I. Steel Strike 1. Biggest strike in American history 2. More than twelve dead 3. African-American strikebreakers J. Women's Suffrage 1. state level in New York, Michigan, Oklahoma, and South Dakota in 1917 2. 19th Amendment in 1920 K. Rationing and Sacrifice for War Effort 1. Ration cards 2. wheatless Wednesday and meatless Tuesday 3. "victory gardens" 4. restricting use of food for production of alcohol 5. "lightless night", "heatless Mondays", "gasless Sundays" 6. efforts collected$21 billion for the war L. Conscription 1. passed six weeks after war declaration 2. ages 18-45 3. no "draft dodging" 4. four million men assembled in months 5. lessened length of training due to short time available III. Legislation/laws passed A. Underwood Tariff Bill of 1913 1. Reduced import fees and rates 2. Made to tackle the tariff 3. Enacted a graduated income tax B. Federal Reserve Act 1. Passed June 1913 to reform the banking system
2. Appointed new Federal Reserve Board 3. Created nationwide system of 12 districts, each with their own central bank 4. Each able to issue money (“Federal Reserve Notes”) C. Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 1. Allowed presidential appointed commission to investigate industries involved in interstate commerce D. Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 1. Lengthened Sherman Act’s list of objectionable business practices 2. benefits on labor; exempted labor and agricultural organizations E. Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 1. Made credit available to farmers at low rates of interest
Chapter 31 I. People A. George Creel 1. young journalist 2. in charge of Committee on Public Information 3. "words as weapons" and "four minute men" to travel and make speeches to influence American opinion on war B. Eugene V. Debs 1. socialist, anti-war 2. convicted under Espionage Act in 1918 3. ran for president in 1920 while still in prison C. General John J. Pershing “Black Jack” 1. depended on the Allies more than they depended on him 2. nearly all his Army artillery and aircrafts were made in European countries D. Vittorio Orlando 1. Premier of Italy 2. went to Paris Conference as one of the Big Four E. David Lloyd George 1. Prime Minister of Britain 2. went to Paris Conference as one of the Big Four F. Georges Clemenceau 1. Premier of France 2. known as “organizer of victory” & “the Tiger” 3. went to Paris Conference as one of the Big Four G. Henry Cabot Lodge 1. new chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations 2. him and Wilson loathed each other both personally and politically H. Calvin Coolidge 1. Vice President nominee for Republicans 2. Governor of Massachusetts 3. Vice president and successor of Harding who was elected 30th president in 1924 4. was extremely frugal and uncompromising I. Warren G. Harding 1. Senator of Ohio 2. President nominee for Republicans 3. won 1920 election 4. Inaugurated in 1921; appeared to be an ideal president. 5. Appointed 4 Supreme Court justices during his presidency. 6. Weak-willed and did not detect corruption among his associates (Ohio Gang) J. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1. ran for 1920 election as Democratic nominee for Vice President K. James M. Cox 1. ran for 1920 election as Dem. nominee for President; lost
2. Governor of Ohio 3. strongly supported the League of Nations L. A. Mitchell Palmer 1. Attorney General who “saw red” too easily 2. known as the “Fighting Quaker” due to his excess in rounding up suspect Communists, which became a total of about 6000 M. Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti 1. convicted of the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard in 1921. 2. were discriminated against by jury and the judge 3. electrocuted in 1927 N. Ku Klux Klan 1. rebirth in 1920s 2. anti-foreign, anti-Catholic, antiblack, anit-Jewish, antipacifist, antiCommunist, anti-internationalist, antievolutionist, antibootlegger, antigambling, antiadultery, and anti-birth control. 3. pro-Anglo-Saxon, pro-“native” American, and pro-Protestant II. Events A. Women and African-Americans in the military 1. first time that women are admitted 2. 11,000 women in the navy and 269 in the marines 3. segregated forces B. Russian collapse to Bolshevik forces in 1917 C. Battle at Chateau Thierry 1. France in May 1918 2. first big battle for U.S. troops D. Second Battle of Marne 1. July 1918 2. Start of German withdrawal E. Meuse-Argonne offensive 1. September 26-November 11, 1918 2. German railroad lines 3. 1.2 million American soldiers involved 4. 120,000 killed and injured, 10% of American troops fighting F. Germany disarmament 1. laid down arms at 11 o’clock on the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918 2. the prospect of endless U.S. troops reserves, not U.S.’s actual military performance, demoralized the Germans G. Paris Conference 1. the 4 Big Powers met in Paris and other small countries 2. opened on January 18, 1919 3. Wilson’s ultimate goal was a world parliament (League of Nations) H. Wilson’s presidential tour 1. September 1919 2. Midwest accepted him lukewarmly 3. Pacific and Midwest accepted him
I. Defeat of League treaty 1. November 19, 1919 a. 55 to 39 votes 2. Senate forced to act another time a. March 1920- treaty was brought up again. J. 1920 Presidential campaign 1. Democrats chose Warren G. Harding of Ohio and Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts 2. Harding won K. Red Scare 1. after the Boshevik revolution of 1917 2. caused strikes 3. 1919-1920 III. Legislature/Laws passed A. Warehouse Act of 1916 1. Allowed loans on the security of staple crops B. La Follete Seamen’s Act of 1915 1. Gave decent treatment and living wage to merchant ship workers C. Adamson Act of 1916 1. Assisted federal civil-service employees during periods of disability D. Jones Act of 1916 1. Gave Philippines right of territorial status 2. Promised them independence when a stable government was established E. Neutrality Proclamation 1. Wilson declared that America would remain neutral regarding the war in Europe
Chapter 32 I. People A.) Al Capone “Scarface” 1. famous gangster 2. caught for tax evasion B.) Charles Lindberg 1. son kidnapped by gangsters 2. first to fly across Atlantic Ocean in his plane The Spirit of St. Louis C.) Jon Dewey 1. “Learning by doing” 2. professor at Colombia University D.) Henry Ford 1. assembly line production 2. Rouge River Plant: finished an automobile every ten seconds E.) Bruce Barton 1. “The Man Nobody Knows” (1925) 2. claimed that Jesus was perfect salesman F.) Sports people: George Herman (“Babe”) Ruth, Jack Dempsey, and George Carpentier G.) Orville and Wilbur Wright-flew first airplane H.) Guglielmo Marconi-invented wireless telegraphy I.) D.W. Griffith 1. First full length movie 2. “The Birth Of A Nation”-glorified KKK during reconstruction era J.) Margaret Sanger-led birth control movement K.) Sigmund Freud-said sexual repression was responsible for society ills L.) Langston Hughes- The Weary Blues (1926) M.) Marcus Garvey-founder of United Negro Improvement Association N.) Andrew Mellon 1. Secretary of the Treasury under Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover 2. He and his followers, the Mellonites, had a theory that taxes inherited from the war forced the rich to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than factories that provided prosperous payrolls and that high taxes actually brought a smaller net return in the Treasury as well as discouraging business. 3. Lowered national debt from $26 billion to $10 billion 4. Shifted tax burden from the wealthy to the middle class. O.) Herbert Hoover 1. Secretary of Commerce 2. Was a Wartime Food Administrator 3. Elected 31st president in 1928 II. Events A. Gang Wars of Chicago 1. during 1920s 2. 500 people murdered 3. few criminals captured or convicted
Y. Scopes trial 1. John T. Scopes charged with teaching evolution 2. William Jennings Bryan opposed him and he sounded childish during trial by attorney Clarence Darrow 3. Trial was inconclusive B. Cars 1.Increased sales due to assembly line 2.Became the major form of transportation 3.By 1951 1,000,000 people dies due to the car a) First Transcontinental airmail route established in 1920 from New York to San Francisco b) November 1920 first voice-carrying radio station broad casting President Harding’s victory c) Hollywood, CA became the hot spot for movie production d) Fundamentalisms lost to Modernists who thought Cod was the “good guy” C. Disarmament Conference (1921-1922) 1. declared a 10-year “holiday” on construction of battleships 2. parity on battleships and aircraft carries between USA, Britain, and Japan at a ratio of 5:5:3, to which the Japanese disagreed. 2. Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922 a. The ship ratio from the Disarmament Conference is agreed upon. b. Japan is compensated. 3. Four-Power Treaty a. The USA, Britain, Japan, and France form an alliance. 4. Kellogg-Briand Pact a. 62 nations signed. b. Only defense wars are permitted. D. Nine-Power Treaty 1. Open Door policy enforced in China III. Legislature/Laws passed A. Fourteen Points 1. inspired by Wilson 2. no secret treaties 3. freedom of the seas 4. no economic barriers 5. reducing of armament costs 6. change in colonial claims for the native peoples 7. League of Nations B. Espionage and Sedition Act 1. 1917 and 1918 2. antiwar Americans and Germany 3. 1,900 persecutions C. League Covenant 1. world diplomats agreed to make it on Feb. 1919 D. Emergency Quota Act of 1921
1. newcomers from Europe were restricted in any given year to a definite quota 2. quota changed from 3 to 2% E. Immigration Act of 1924 1. quota still 2%, rather than for 3% th F.18 Amendment 1. authorized in 1919
Chapter 33 I. People A.) Albert B. Fall 1. Anticonservationist Secretary of the Interior 2. Involved in Teapot Dome Scandal B.) Harry M. Daugherty 1. Part of the “Ohio Gang” 2. Became Attorney General under Harding C.) Frank B. Kellogg 1. Coolidge’s Secretary of State 2. Kellogg-Briand Pact 3. Won Nobel Peace Prize D.) Harry Sinclair and Edward Doheny 1. Oilmen who bribed Albert Fall in the Teapot Dome Scandal E.) John W. Davis 1. Wealthy, conservative lawyer who ran against Coolidge in the Election of 1924 F.) Senator La Follette 1. Presidential nominee supported by farmers and the Socialist party in Election of 1924 G.) Alfred E. Smith 1. Democratic nominee in Election of 1928; lost to Hoover II. Events A. Teapot Dome Scandal 1. Harding signed a secret order to transfer valuable oil reserves to the Interior Department 2. Albert Fall leased the lands to Sinclair and Doheny after receiving their bribe money. B. Harding dies in San Francisco on August 2, 1923 while still in office. C. Calvin Coolidge becomes president. D. Election of 1924 1. Coolidge wins. E. By 1922, America rises from being in debt to loaning $10 billion to foreign countries in aid. F. America demands that they get their money back from European countries and the Allies pressure Germany to give more money in reparations G. Election of 1928 1. Hoover beat Al Smith by a landslide. A large number of Republicans were back in the House of Representatives. H. Creation of the Grain Stabilization Corporation and the Cotton stabilization Corporation 1. goal was to boost sagging prices by buying up surpluses. didn’t work though, as farm production increased and prices for crops such as wheat and cotton dropped. I. Black Tuesday
1. On October 29, 1929 the stock market crashed, sending America into a deep and dark depression. J. Great Depression 1. unhappiness and despair. Millions lost their jobs by 1930. People lost their homes, and could no longer make enough money, if any, to support their families. Fathers felt horrible for not being able to take care of their wives and children. 2. caused by the overproduction of both farm and factory, overexpansion of credit through installment-plan buying which overstimulated production, as well as the financial collapse in Europe as a result of upheaval still left from World War I. K. Established Reconstruction Finance Corporation 1. It was an agency that became a government-lending bank. It was designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and even state and local governments. This agency was too late for maximum usefulness, although it did benefit giant corporations. L. Established Bonus Expeditionary Force 1. Made up of thousands of impoverished veterans, both of war and of unemployment, that prepared to move on to Washington to demand of Congress the immediate payment of their entire bonus. They set up camps to intimidate Congress, while also creating a menace to public health. The bonus bill failed in congress, but Hoover managed to pay the return fare of about six thousand of the marchers. M. Difficulties Abroad 1. Japanese imperialists, knowing that the Western world was weak from the Depression made their move and overran the Chinese province of Manchuria. This violated the League of Nations covenant and many other international agreements. It was hard for the League of Nations to do something about Japan, as the United States was not a member. Instead of cooperating with the League of Nations, Washington and Henry L. Stimson created a socalled Stimson doctrine in 1932, which declared that the United Sates would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force. 2. This doctrine did not stop the Japanese, and they bombed Shanghai in 1932. In response to bombing, Americans boycotted Japanese goods. III. Laws/ Legislature A. Lindberg Law 1. Led by Charles Lindberg after the kidnapping of his baby son 2. Allowed death penalty to certain cases of interstate abduction B. Equal Rights Amendment-led by National Woman’s Party in 1923 C. Merchant Marine Act of 1920 1. Authorized Shipping Board to dispose of many of the hastily built wartime ships.
D. Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 1. World War I veterans are given a paid insurance policy due in 20 years. E. Adkins v. Children’s Hospital 1. 1923- Supreme Court ruled that a minimum wage made especially for women was unconstitutional F. Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law of 1922 1. Raised tariff and boosted sales by 38.5% 2. Was in response to fear that cheap European goods with threaten sales. G. Capper-Volstead Act 1. Exempted farmers’ marketing companies from antitrust prosecution H. The Agricultural Marketing Act 1. It was passed by Congress in June 1929 and designed to help the farmers help themselves through producers’ cooperatives. It set up the Federal Farm Board. I. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930 1. It turned out to be the highest protective tariff of the nation’s peacetime history. The average duty on nonfree goods was raised from 38.5 perfect, to nearly 60 percent. J. Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act 1. Signed in 1932 by Hoover, it outlawed “yellow-dog” contracts and forbade the federal courts to issue injunctions to restrain strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing.
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