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Physics Notes 2011

Laura White

Physics Notes - Electrical Energy in the Home

How main sources of domestic energy have changed over time 1.5 million to 5000 years ago Fire, Wind in sails, Water wheels 18th C Industrial Revolution Coal: Steam engines, home fires 1831 Electromagnetic Induction (mechanical to electrical energy) Present more electricity gained from burning of fossil fuels causing global warming, acid rain etc. Impacts of changes in sources, and access to energy for a community No longer have to be nomadic as energy is not just provided by animals and wood creation of cities Steam engines allowed mass production, causing rural urban migration for work Improved communication and standard of living Better Health care and medical diagnosis Damage to environment from burning of fossil fuels o Global warming, Acid rain o Depletion of non renewable resources How electricity can be provided in remote locations Portable electricity generators o Convert mechanical (petrol, gas, diesel etc.) into electrical energy o Substance operates a internal combustion engine, turning a small alternator Solar Cells o Convert solar to electrical energy o Over time have reduced in price and become a viable alternative to other sources Volta and Galvani Voltas contributions to science include o Created first form of sustained electrical current - basis for all modern batteries and storage of electricity o Showed that electricity is caused by the potential difference of two metals Galvanis observations were extremely important to biomedical science o Led to the creation of the fields of neurophysiology and neurology o Knowledge and understanding of nerve impulses, which exist within the body Electric Charge, q The property of matter that results in it repelling a like charge and attracting an opposite one Measured in Coulombs, C (6.25 x 1018 electrons electron is -1.6 x 1019) Either positive or negative Charge can occur by o Friction rubbing two different materials together electrons transfer from one to the other o Induction 1 charged rod brought close to neutral, like charges a forced away and opposite drawn near (polaristion), if earthed it will remain charged as electrons flow down to earth, if not it is only temporary. o Induction 2 charged rod brought close to two touching metal objects polarisation occurs. If draw away while rod is still nearby, permanent charges occur Electric Field, E The region of influence surrounding an electric charge Equal to the force per unit charge (Newtons/Coulomb) Like Charges Any charge placed in that region will feel its force The field can be described with electric lines of force (show the path a positive charge would take) o Arrow heads indicate direction of the field o Closer spacing between lines indicates a stronger field

Electric flow/current is a flow of charge o A +1 charge has a force in the same direction as E o A -1 charge has a force in the opposite direction as E


Physics Notes 2011 Laura White Electrical Potential Difference, V Voltage: how much work it takes to move 1 Coulomb between two points (hence Joules/Coloumb)

V = Joules/Coulomb Potential drop: voltage decreases as we move through a resistor

Conductors and Insulators In conductors, electrons are loosely held and can therefore flow from atom to atom through the material o Good conductor requires little voltage applied to move charges In insulators, all electrons are held tightly to/between atoms and therefore do not conduct electricity Law of conservation of charge: in a closed system, the amount of charge is constant Current, I The rate at which charge flows -1 Measured in Amps (A) (C.s ) Current flow is always + to Conventional current is the direction of the flow of positive to negative Electrical Current is the direction of flow from negative to positive Current can be o AC (alternate current) reverses the direction of flow regularly (Australia is 50x 50 Hertz) o DC (direct current) goes only in one direction Resistance, Defined as a conductors opposition to the flow of movement through it The ratio of voltage to current for a particular conductor the line of a voltage-current graph Causes electrical potential energy to be converted into heat In households, copper is the most common form of resistor

Factors Affecting Resistance Length the resistance of a conductor is proportional to its length (less length = less resistance) Cross section area resistance inversely proportional to cross section area (wide cross section = less resistance) Temperature Temperature is proportional to resistance (less temp = less resistance) Material materials will influence resistance depending on how tightly electrons are held Series Circuits Where all components of the circuit are connected in one loop Current is the same at each point The sum of voltage through each component is equal to the supply voltage Parallel Circuits Where each component in the circuit is connected in a separate loop Voltage is the same at each point The sum of current through each component is equal to the supply current All Circuits Include Power Source Load Conductor

Kirchoffs Current and Voltage Laws

Ammeters and Voltmeters Ammeters o Used to measure current through a circuit o Since ammeters measure current flow they need to put in series with a circuit so that all of the current flowing through the circuit also flows through the ammeter. Voltmeters o Used to measure voltage between two points in a circuit o Voltmeters are used to measure the potential difference between two different points in an electrical circuit; therefore each end of the voltmeter must be connected between those two separate locations.

Physics Notes 2011 Laura White Electricity in Households Households have at least three different circuits one for lights, one for normal power, one for larger currents Separate circuits are used in households because o If they were in series all would have to be on at the same time o Separate circuits allow more appliances to run at once without blowing Kilowatt-hours are used to measure electrical consumption because it simplifies calculations of energy use/cost

1kwh = energy used by a one kW appliance over 1 hour

The Australian household voltage is 240V. The resultant current can cause fatal electrocution from o Ventricular fibrillation (the heart doesnt pump properly) at just around 100mA o Violent muscular spasms and failure of respiratory system o Burning of skin and internal tissues Circuit breakers parts of circuits that, if activated, will disrupt flow of current without needing replacement after Fuses a short piece of metal the melts when too much current passes through, breaking the circuit Earthing part of a plug that is in contact with the ground so, in a fault, current flows to the earth not a person Double insulation Insulators (e.g. plastic around a wire) that are put in place to avoid contact with a wire

Power, P The rate at which energy is transformed from one form to another (work) Measured in Watts

Total amount of energy used depends on the length of time current is flowing for

Magnetism Poles are the regions magnetism is concentrated Each magnet has a north seeking and a south seeking pole opposite poles attract, same poles repel Magnetic Field: the area around a magnet where a compass needle would experience a force Direction of a magnetic field at a point is the direction a north pole would point if placed in the field at that point Outside a magnet, the magnetic field lines are directed away from the north and towards the south pole Magnetic lines of force directed into the page are represented by crosses Magnetic lines of force directed out of the page are represented by dots Electromagnetism and the RH Rule Is when an electric current produces a magnetic field around it Proved by Oersteds experiment where a compass was placed next to a straight wire with an electric current passing through. The compass deflected at right angles to the wire when a current was flowing, suggesting electric currents produced magnetic fields proof electricity linked to magnetism Right hand rule o Thumb points in direction of conventional current o Fingers point in direction of field A solenoid is a coil of wire through which current can be passed Magnetic field is similar to bar magnet uniform throughout most of the interior Magnetic field is only present when current flows through it (in bar magnets theyre always present) North South Rule o If current is moving clockwise, the end you are looking at is south o If current is moving anti clockwise, the end is north RH grip rule is used in reverse o Thumb in direction of field o Fingers in direction of current

Main Topic Equations