NASA SUPPORT MANUAL

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PUBLISHED UNDER AUTHORlTY O F THE NATIONAL AERONAUTlCS AND SPACE ADMl NlSTRATlON

F i g u r e 7-2.

Block I B o i l e r p l a t e Vehicle S y s t e m s Configuration f o r S p a c e c r a f t Development

Figure 7-3.

Block I S p a c e c r a f t Vehicle S y s t e m s Configuration f o r S p a c e c r a f t Development

SYSTEMS CONFIGURATION LEGEND

kJOR GROUND TEST VfHlCLlS

COVERY TEST I

t
IESTS

STATIC

A N N O MI U M U I H r n RIGHTS (

Figure 7-4.

Block 11 Spacecraft Vehicle S y s t e m s Configuration f o r Spacecraft Development

NOTE Block I1 information i s based on preliminary data only. 7 1 1. Block I encompasses the e n t i r e boilerplate p r o g r a m , and spacecraft 001, 00 1A, 002, 002A, 004, 004A, 006, 007, 008, 009, 010, 011, 012, 014, 017, and 020. 7-12. The boilerplate portion of Block I provides: a. E a r l y support of s y s t e m s development for land impact, water impact, and p a r a chute recovery prequalification t e s t s b. Systems qualification to support spacecraft p r o g r a m s including pad abort, highaltitude abort, and house spacecraft No. 1 (boilerplate 14) which contains a l l systems c . M a r s h a l l Space Flight Center support including Saturn I development and m i c r o m e t e o r o i d detection d. Space-flight capabilities development and coordination of manufacturing, testing operations, engineering, and NASA functions.

-

7- 13. The s p a c e c r a f t portion of Block I provides: a. Command module and s e r v i c e module development f o r manned e a r t h orbital
missions b. Demonstration of operational capabilities of systems including a l l types of a b o r t s , land r e c o v e r y , water recovery, Saturn IB and V operatior. (and compatibility), and operation during e a r t h o r b i t s (unmanned) C. Qualified teams development for checkout, launch, manned s p a c e flight network, r e c o v e r y , and flight analysis. NOTE S / C 001 will be refurbished and designated 2s-1A f o r Block I1 propulsion tests. 7-14. Block I1 encompasses s p a c e c r a f t 2H-1, 2s-1, 2 s - l A , 2s-2, 2TV-1, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, and 112, and provides: a. Incorporation of lunar excursion module provisions b. Reduction of weight in command module c. Improvement of center-of- gravity in command module d. Evaluation and incorporation of system changes with r e s p e c t to lunar m i s s i o n and reliability impact e. Cost reduction. 7 - 15 . BOILERPLATE MISSIONS.

7 - 16. The boilerplate m i s s i o n s a r e primarily r e s e a r c h and development t e s t s to evaluate the s t r u c t u r a l integrity of the spacecraft and confirm basic engineering concepts relative to s y s t e m performance and compatibility. A number of m i s s i o n s will be conducted during this phase of the t e s t p r o g r a m . The missions a r e scheduled to follow a pattern of developm e n t s t a r t i n g with b a s i c s t r u c t u r e evaluation, followed by s y s t e m s performance and compatibility confirmation. 7- 17. Each mission i s dependent upon the previous mission in developing the s y s t e m s and operations requisite f o r lunar exploration. P r i o r to the s t a r t of any mission, the b o i l e r plate to be tested i s thoroughly checked at the manufacturer t e s t preparation a r e a under the direction of NASA inspectors. After system and s t r u c t u r a l checkout has been approved, the boilerplate i s shipped to the t e s t site f o r f u r t h e r checkout and mating. A launch countdown i s s t a r t e d only a f t e r the second checkout and mating have been approved. F i g u r e 7-5 depicts a water impact test.

A PENDULUM FOR APOLLO-An

impact test facility, from which NASA's unmanned

Apollo test command modules are swung and dropped on land w water, is seen i n operation at Downey, Calif. The Apollo command module i s suspended below the steel platform and

the huge "arm" swings the capsule, releasing i t at controlled angles and speeds to simulate impact which later manned Apollo

spacecraft will undergo upon return to earth.

F i g u r e 7 - 5.

Structural Reliability Te s t

7- 18. BLOCK I BOILERPLATE TEST PROGRAM. The following i s a l i s t of each boiler plate and relative m i s s i o n data. Boilerplates and their m i s s i o n s a r e p a r t of the Block I portion of the Apollo p r o g r a m . The l i s t i s intended a s a c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e for boilerplate objectives. Chronological o r d e r of missions and test grouping i s not intended o r r e f l e c t e d i n the a r r a n g e m e n t of the l i s t . Boiler plate No. BPI

-

I
Te s t Site Downey, Calif.

I
Purpose Development and evaluation of c r e w shock absorption s y s t e m ; evaluation of C / M on land and water, duringand a f t e r impact. Mission

Launch Vehicle

Drop t e s t s utilizing None Downey, California, d r o p t e s t towers.

BP2

Downey, Calif.

Sane a s BPI.

Same a s B P I .

None

...continued

Block I Boilerplate T e s t P r o g r a m (Cont) Boiler plate No.
C

T e s t Site El Centro, Calif. White Sands Missile Range (WSlMR), New Mexico Calif. Mar shall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Alabama Purpose To evaluate parachute recovery s y s t e m in the a i r (destroyed) Mission

Launch Vehicle

BP3

via a i r drop.

(drop)

Launch T o determine aerodynamic stability, P a d abort m i s s i o n successfully comple- e s c a p e tower vibration, and s p a c e c r a f t ( ted 7 November ]system dynamics during a pad a b o r t ; to d e m o n s t r a t e capability of LES to p r o p e l C / M to a safe distance f r o m launch a r e a during a pad abort. B P 6 refurbished for parachute r e c o v e r y s y s t e m t e s t in the a i r , Dynamic t e s t to be determined by National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

I

1 via a i r drop. ;

I

I

None Determination of dynamic s t r u c t u r a l compatibility of t e s t S / C with Saturn I.

BP9A

Cape Kennedy, Florida WSMR, New Mexico

To be utilized for launch vehicle qualification and m i c r o m e t e o r i d experiment. To b e d e t e r m i n e aerodynamic stability c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Apollo e s c a p e configuration during t r a n sonic a b o r t f r o m Little J o e 11. To d e m o n s t r a t e capability of LES to p r o p e l C / M to safe distance f r o m launch vehicle during a n a b o r t a t high-dynamic p r e s s u r e . To d e m o n s t r a t e s t r u c t u r a l integrity of launch escape tower and operational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s during a transonic a b o r t , and demonstrate s p a c e c r a f t L i t t l e J o e I1 compatibility. BP12 refurbished to evaluate C / M during h a r d rollover w a t e r landing condition. To qualify Saturn I launch vehicle, d e m o n s t r a t e physical compatibility of launch vehicle and s p a c e c r a f t under preflight and flight conditions, and determine launch and exit environmental p a r a m e t e r s to verify design c r i t e r i a .

Micrometeoroid experiment using NASA -installed experiment.

Saturn I

Little Transonic a b o r t m i s s i o n successfully J o e I1 completed 13 May

BP12A Downey, Calif. BPI3 Cape Kennedy, Florida

Launch environment Saturn I m i s s i o n successfully completed 2 8 May 1964 to 31 May 1964.

I

SM2A-02

Block I B o i l e r p l a t e T e s t P r o g r a m (Cont) Boilerplate No. BP14

T e s t Site Downey, Calif.

Purpose Developmental tool f o r u s e in developing s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s and p r e l i m i n a r y checks in integrated s y s t e m s compatibility. Second boilerplate flown for environmental data. The purpose of this vehicle and BP13 a r e similar.

Mission R e s e a r c h and developmental tool f o r s y s t e m s evaluation ( s t a t i c vehicle). Launch exit environment ( o r b i t a l flight trajectory) mission successfully completed 18 S e p t e m b e r 1964 to 22 S e p t e m b e r 1964. Micrometeorid experiment. Launched into o r b i t s u c c e s s fully 16 F e b r u a r y 1965. Parachute recovery s y s t e m evaluation through m e a n s of command module a i r drop. Qualify LES, E L S sequence timing during abort.

Launch Vehicle None

BP15

Cape Kennedy, Florida

BP16

Cape Kennedy, Florida

To be utilized f o r launch vehicle qualification and m i c r o m e t e o r o i d experiment.

Saturn I

~

~

E l Centro, 1 9 Calif.

To evaluate p a r a c h u t e recovery s y s t e m in the a i r .

Aircraft (drop)

BP22

WSMK, New Mexico WSMR, New Mexico

To verify LES, ELS, and c a n a r d s y s t e m during high-altitude a b o r t .

Little J o e I1

BP23

Verification of LES, ELS l u r i n g high-Q a b o r t .

Little Demonstration of launch e s c a p e vehicle J o e I1 structural integrity and r e c o v e r y of C / M following high-Q abort. Successfully completed m i s s i o n 8 December 1964.

BP23A WSMR, New Mexico

To qualify LES, E L S sequence timing, c a n a r d s y s t e m , dual drogue chutes, and boost p r o t e c tive cover during pad a b o r t test. BP23 C / M refurbished for pad a b o r t test.

C / M for pad a b o r t evaluation.

Launch escape system motor.

I

...continued
7-9

Block I Boilerplate T e s t P r o g r a m (Cont) Boilerplate No. BP25 Launch Vehicle

T e s t Site Houston, Texas

Purpose To demonstrate pickup and handling techniques a r e r e q u i r e d by National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Mission

None Demonstration of equipment and handling capability for command module a t a site (simulated) recovery a s a design for pickup equipment. Micrometeoroid experiment using NASA -installed equipment. Determination of dynamic s t r u c t u r a l compatibility of t e s t S / C with Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles Saturn I

BP26

Cape Kennedy, Florida MSFC, Alabama

To be utilized f o r launch vehicle qualification and micrometeoroid experiment. Second dynamic test. Objectives for this ground t e s t will be d e t e r mined by National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

BP27

Saturn IB and Saturn V (captive test firing)

BP28

Downey, Calif.

T e s t vehicle will be impacted a numberoftimesinordertoevaluate loads imposed on s t r u c t u r e due to landing impact and a c c e l eration, accelerations and onset r a t e s imposed on c r e w by the c r e w couch attenuation s y s t e m , stability, and dynamics of the vehicle.

BP29

MSC Houston, Texas Cape Kennedy, Florida

To determine flotation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of command module.

Definition of landing None problemsbydetermination and evaluation of loads imposed on s t r u c t u r e due to landing impact, and acceleration and onset r a t e s imposed on c r e w by c r e w couch attenuation system. None Full- scale flotation and recovery t e s t s for simulated entry and a b o r t conditions. Elliptical o r b i t a l flight f o r CSM and LEM operation. Saturn IB

BP30

An unmanned flight to evaluate S / C and LEM propulsion performance.

7-19.

SPACECRAFT MISSIONS.

7-20. Spacecraft m i s s i o n s , conducted with production spacecraft, a r e of a multipurpose nature. The initial m i s s i o n s will be conducted to verify production s p a c e c r a f t s t r u c t u r a l integrity, and s y s t e m s operation and compatibility. After the s p a c e c r a f t s t r u c t u r e and s y s t e m s t e s t m i s s i o n s a r e completed, a s e r i e s of unmanned m i s s i o n s will be conducted to confirm spacecraft-launch vehicle compatibility and evaluate prelaunch, launch, m i s sion, and postmission operations. Manned s p a c e c r a f t m i s s i o n s will be conducted to i m p r o v e performance and confirm capability between man and spacecraft.

7-21. E a c h s p a c e c r a f t m i s s i o n i s dependent upon t h e s u c c e s s of the previous m i s s i o n , a s a n o v e r a l l p r o g r a m of p r o g r e s s i v e , manned, s p a c e p e n e t r a t i o n i s planned to a f f o r d the flight c r e w m a x i m u m f a m i l i a r i t y with production s p a c e c r a f t ~ n a n e u v e r s and docking t e c h niques with the L E M . Manned m i s s i o n s will p e n e t r a t e d e e p e r into space a s t h e p r o g r a m p r o g r e s s e s . Manned space-flight network techniques will be employed during a l l e a r t h orbit, t r a n s l u n a r , and l u n a r o r b i t m i s s i o n s . The s y s t e m compatibility with Apollo s p a c e c r a f t will be d e t e r m i n e d d u r i n g this p h a s e of the t e s t p r o g r a m . The knowledge gained by the flight c r e w and engineering p.ersonne1 d u r i n g t h i s p h a s e will b e analyzed f o r u s e d u r i n g manned l u n a r s u r f a c e exploration.

7 - 2 2 . BLOCK I SPACECRAFT TEST PROGRAM. T h e following i s a complete l i s t of Apollo s p a c e c r a f t , t h e i r m i s s i o n s , and r e l a t i v e d a t a r e q u i r e d to complete the Block I portion of the Apollo p r o g r a m . The l i s t i s s i m i l a r in intent to that of p a r a g r a p h 7-18; the chronological o r d e r of s p a c e c r a f t m i s s i o n s i s not intended o r r e f l e c t e d in the a r r a n g e m e n t of the l i s t . Spacecraft No. 001

Test Site Propulsion System Development Facility (PSDF), White S a n d s , Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico

Purpose To verify compatibility of s p a c e c r a f t S / M propulsion s y s t e m ; e v a l u a t e S / M service propulsion system and reaction control system during m a l function, n o r m a l , a n d m i s s i o n p r o f i l e conditions. T o evaluate i n t e r f a c e compatibility between a l l onboard s y s t e m s d u r i n g i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m s t e s t ; evaluate p e r f o r m a n c e and compatibility p e r t a i n i n g to ground s u p p o r t equipment, s a f e t y r u l e s , o p e r a t i n g techniques, a n d checkout of applicable s y s t e m s . S / C 001 r e f u r b i s h e d f o r Block 1 1 propulsion s y s t e m t e s t s .

Mission Determine spacecraft structural vibration a n d acoustic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s during a l l p h a s e s of SPS o p e r a tion, and p e r f o r m a n c e of e l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m a n d cryogenic storage subsystem during s e r v i c e propulsion and reaction control s y s t e m s operation. Block I1 propulsion tests.

Launch Vehicle None (see figure 7-6. )

OOlA

WSMR, New Mexico WSMR, New Mexico

None

002

To d e m o n s t r a t e s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of production C / M u n d e r high dynamic p r e s s u r e a t transonic speed. To determine operational charact e r i s t i c s d u r i n g power on tumbling abort. Earth recovery and impact t e s t s .

Abort a t high dynamic p r e s s u r e s i n transonic s p e e d range.

Little J o e I1

OOZA

Downey, Calif. Downey, Calif.

C / M f o r land i m p a c t tests.
S t a t i c and t h e r m a l structural tests.

None

004

S / C f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l integrity and i n t r a m o d u l a r c o m patibility of combined module s t r u c t u r e s under c r i t i c a l loadings.

None

...continued
7-11

Block I S p a c e c r a f t T e s t P r o g r a m (Cont) Space c raft No.
004A

T e s t Site Downey, Calif. Purpose V e r i f i c a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l integrity a n d i n t r a m o d u l a r compatibility of combined module s t r u c t u r e s u n d e r c r i t i c a l loading. House s p a c e c r a f t No. 2 f o r h a r d w a r e development tool. Mission Static tests. Launch Vehicle None

006

Downey, Calif.

Research and developmental tool f o r s y s t e m s evaluation (static vehicle).

None

007

Pacific Ocean T e s t Site

Acoustic, w a t e r T h i s s p a c e c r a f t will s e r v e a dual impact, and postpurpose: module t r a n s m i s s i b i l i t y landing t e s t s . a n d w a t e r i m p a c t and flotation t e s t s . Module t r a n s m i s s i b i l i t y t e s t will d e t e r m i n e f r e e - f a l l l a t e r a l bending m o d e s and longitudinal and s h e l l m o d e s , utilizing two s p a c e c r a f t configurations. Configuration A will i n c o r p o r a t e launch e s c a p e tower a n d C / M ; configuration B will i n c o r p o r a t e C / M and S / M . W a t e r i m p a c t a n d flotation t e s t s will i n c o r p o r a t e C / M only. P u r p o s e of w a t e r i m p a c t t e s t i s to verify s t r u c t u r a l integrity of C / M and c r e w support systems dynamics u n d e r s h o c k conditions a t w a t e r i m p a c t , a n d d e t e r m i n e ELS p e r f o r m a n c e . Flotation t e s t s will d e m o n s t r a t e C / M flotation and w a t e r - t i g h t integrity in varying s e a conditions a s well a s c r e w s u r v i v a l in a c l o s e d module, and c r e w e g r e s s i n varying s e a conditions. S p a c e c r a f t 008 will undergo both T h e r m a l vacuum tests. m a n n e d and unmanned d e e p - s p a c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t r o l t e s t s . The f i r s t of t h e s e t e s t s will b e conducted a t S p a c e and Information S y s t e m s Division, NAA t e s t facility, Downey, C a l i f o r n i a . After operational checkout of i n s t a l l e d s y s t e m s , s p a c e c r a f t will b e shipped to MSC facility a t Houstin, T e x a s , for evaluation

None

008

MSC,. HOUS ton, T e x a s and Downey, Calif.

None

r

B l o c k I S p a c e c r a f t T e s t P r o g r a m (Cont) Space craft No.

T e s t Site

Purpose and v e r i f i c a t i o n of complete s p a c e c r a f t design under launch simulation, o r b i t a l m i s s i o n simulation, t h e r m a l investigation, s y s t e m f a i l u r e i n c r e m e n t s , e m e r g e n c y o p e r a t i o n s , module 1 separation, entry separation, and recovery aids checkou~.

M~sslon

Launch Vehicle

009

Cape Kennedy, Florida

r

Saturn To e v a l u a t e h e a t shield p e r f o r m a n c e , S u p e r - c i r c u l a r RCS and SPS o p e r a t i o n s , SCS o p e r a - h i g h - h e a t r a t e e n t r y IB tion, open loop EDS and p a r t i a l E P S flight. o p e r a t i o n . To d e t e r m i n e loading s e p a r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and communications p e r f o r m a n c e . T O d e m o n s t r a t e o p e r a t i o n of r e c o v e r y s y s t e m , launch vehicle and s p a c e c r a f t compatibility, and c r y o g e n i c g a s s t o r a g e s y s t e m operation. A m i s s i o n p r o g r a m m e r , Model M1, will c o n t r o l S / C in-flight o p e r a t i o n s . A f t e r s t a t i c t e s t s a s S / C 004A, this C / M will undergo a n a b o r t t e s t and will b e u s e d a s a backup vehicle for f o r S / C 002. Qualification of launch e s c a p e configuration of p r o duction s p a c e c r a f t . Little J o e 11

010

WSMR, New Mexico Cape Kennedy, Florida

011

A supercircular An unmanned flight to evaluate high-heat load h e a t shield p e r f o r m a n c e , EDS p e r e n t r y flight. f o r m a n c e , and S P S propellant r e t e n t i o n device. D e t e r m i n e S L A s t r u c t u r a l loading, s e p a r a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p e r f o r m a n c e of G&N, SCS, ECS, EPS, RCS, and t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . T o demons t r a t e launch v e h i c l e and S I C compatibility, s t r u c t u r a l integrity, C'/M e n t r y , multiple SPS r e s t a r t s , and r e c o v e r y . S / C will be c o n t r o l led by m o d e l M3 m i s s i o n p r o g r a m e r . A manned flight to evaluate c r e w S / C compatibility, c r e w t a s k s and and s u b s y s t e m s p e r f o r m a n c e , m a n u a l , and backup m o d e s of s u b s y s t e m s e p a r a t i o n s . To d e m o n s t r a t e closed loop EDS. A long-duration o r b i t a l flight f o r CSM s u b s y s t e m performance.

Saturn IB

0 12

Cape Kennedy, Florida

Saturn IB

.. .continued
7- 13

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