Chapter 9: Manufactured Substances in Industry

The manufacture of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 through the Contact Process Stage 1: Combustion of Sulphur In the furnace, molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide, SO2. The gas produced is purified and cooled. S(l) + O2(g)  SO2(g) Stage 2: In the converter, sulphur dioxide, SO2 and excess oxygen gas, O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium (V) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 4500C to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) About 99.5% of the sulphur dioxide, SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide, SO3 through this reversible reaction. Uses of Sulphuric Acid Stage 3: In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)  H2S2O7 The oleum, H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produced concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l)  2H2SO4(l) The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO3 directly to water. SO3(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO4(l)

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2. The NH3 is run into tanks and stored as a liquid under pressure. Gases mixed and scrubbed air with H2 gas from natural gas to form NH3. The mixture is scrubbed to get rid of impurities. It is then passed A mixture of three gases leaves the converter. Compressor 3. Converter through layers of iron catalyst with aluminium oxide as a promoter at a temperature of 4500C – 5000C 4.The manufacture of ammonia. NH3 through the Haber Process 1. It is cooled until the ammonia condenses. storage tanks – 500 atm N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) NH3 is formed and then liquefy and separated to get a better yield. Cooler Haber process combines N2 gas from the Then. it goes to the converter. Prepared by MHS 2009 . 5. The nitrogen One volume of N2 gas and three volume of and hydrogen are pumped back to the converter for H2 gas is compressed to a pressure of 200 another chance to react. The two gases are mixed.

have a better furnish and luster. metals are ductile or can be stretched. Thus. The presence of atoms of other metals that are of different sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. Alloy Bronze Composition 90% copper 10% tin - Alloys A mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major components is a metal. The orderly arrangement of atoms in metals enables the layers of atoms to slide on one another when force is applied. an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metals. resistant to corrosion.In the making of souvenirs . Thus. The aim of making alloys is to make them stronger. This reduces the layer of atoms from sliding. Uses In building of statues or - - - - - Properties Hard and strong Does not corrode easily Has shiny surface Harder than copper - monuments In the making of medals.Metals Most metals are solid Pure metals are made up of the same type of atoms and are of the same size. The arrangement of the atoms in metals gives the metals their ductile and malleable properties. In the making of musical Brass - 70% copper 30% zinc 99% iron 1% carbon - instruments and kitchenware Hard and strong In the construction of buildings and bridges In the building of the body of cars and railways tracks Steel - Stainless Steel - 74% iron 8% carbon 18% chromium 93% aluminium 3% copper 3% magnesium 1% manganese 96% tin 3% copper 1% antimony - Shiny Strong Does not rust Light Strong - In the making of cutlery In the making of surgical instruments In the building of the body of aeroplanes and bullet train Duralumin Pewter Prepared by MHS 2009 - Luster Shiny Strong . harder. swords and artistic materials.

electrical insulator. car batteries and ropes Artificial leather. and also difficult to dispose. sails and ropes Benzene-1. bottle crates. water pipes and records - - - - - Polyvinyl chloride.4-dicarboxylic acid Hexane-1. hard but brittle.Polymers Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds. wool. impermeable to liquid Prepared by MHS 2009 . Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerization. cellulose. Silk and natural rubber Synthetic polymer Polythene Polypropene Ethene Propene Monomer Synthetic Polymers Synthetic polymers are man-made polymers. PVC Perspex Terylene Chloroethene Methylmethacrylate Safety glass. carpets. A polymer may consists of thousands of monomers. heat insulator. Naturally occurring polymers: starch. Nylon Glass - The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide. The monomers used are usually obtained from petroleum after going through the refining cracking processes. nylon and terylene. reflectors. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). plastic containers and insulation for electrical wiring Piping. Examples: polythene. Uses Plastic bags. traffic signs and lens Hexane-1.6-diol Clothing.6-dioic acid Ropes. clothing and carpets. They may cause pollution. polypropene. SiO2 which found in sand. shopping bags. perspex.6-diamine Hexane-1. Properties of glass: Transparent. Synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay. chemically inert. blockage of drainage systems and flash floods. protein.

- - Fused glass (SiO2) Highly heat-resistant glass High transparency High melting point Resistant to chemical attack Uses Laboratory glassware. Ceramics are very hard. chemically inert and do not corrode.2H2O. a hydrated aluminiumsilicate. Na2O. plates. have a very high melting point.Lead crystal glassware. vase and porcelain Electrical insulators – spark plugs. art objects.Resistant to heat and chemical attack . window panes. tiles. Uses of ceramics: construction materials – bricks. insulators in electric iron and oven Superconductors Prepared by MHS 2009 . Na2O. cement and pipes Ornamental articles – bowls.High refractive index Uses .Hight melting point Uses . When the clay is heated to a very high temperature. for example kaolin.Cooking utensuls. Al2O3. Na2O. CaO) Good chemical durability High thermal expansion coefficient Easy to make into different shapes Low melting point Uses Bottles.High density . cups. they undergo a series of chemical reaction and are hardened permanently to form ceramics.2SiO2. brittle. automobile headlights - Glass - Lead crystal glass (SiO2. flat glass and all kind of glass containers Ceramics Ceramics are made from clay. The are good insulators of electricity and heat. PbO. fuses. mirrors. prisms Soda-lime glass (SiO2. CaO. laboratory glassware. electrical bulbs. B2O3) . mirrors Borosilicate glass (SiO2.Low thermal expansion coefficient . K2O. lens. lenses. Al2O3) . telescope.Soft abd easy to meltn . Al2O3.

Cheaper tensile .Stronger brittle .Does not corrode easily .Higher tensile .Reflect light ray and light waves in reflect light allow to travel along telecommunications rays the fibre .Can be moulded strength into any shape .Low material cost . The resulting material has properties that are superior than those of the original components. ceramics and polymers.Has the ability to change colour and become darker when exposed to ultraviolet light - Fibre optics Glass with low refraction index - Transparent . Composite materials are created for specific application.Reduce refraction Not sensitive of light to light .Conducts electricity without resistance when cooled by liquid nitrogen Superconductor .Can corrode .Hard but .Barium oxide Photochromic glass Glass - Magnetically levitated train Transformers Electric cable Computer parts Amplifier Information display panels Light detector devices Car windshields Optical lens - Silver chloride or silver bromide Transparent .Low tensile strength strength .Instruments for Prepared by MHS 2009 .Strong in .Transmit data using Does not .Can support very heavy loads Insulators electricity of . glass. Composite material Reinforced concrete Component Concrete Properties of component Properties of composite Uses of composites Construction of roads Rocket launching pads High-rise buildings Steel .Can withsatand very high applied forces . alloys.Control the amount of light passes Sensitive to light through it automatically .Composite Materials Composite materials is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different substance such as metal.Tttrium oxide .Copper (II) oxide .Expensive .

Tough . in the form of light along the fine glass tubes at great speeds High density .Impermeable to water .Moulded and Non-flexible shaped .Not inflammable weak .Flexible - examining internal parts of the body or inspecting the interiors of manufactured structural products Fibre glass Glass Polyester plastic - Car bodies Helmets Skies Rackets Furniture Water storage tanks Small boats Prepared by MHS 2009 .Resilient .High tensile Strong but strength brittle .Inert to chemicals Light . voice and images in a digital format.Can transmit electronic data or signals.Glass with higher refractive index .Light Flexible Inflammable .Strong Elastic but .

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