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Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. It is also called Pneumonitis or Bronchopneumonia.

Pneumonia can be a serious threat to our health. Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. The lungs are made up of small sacs called alveoli, which fill with air when a healthy person breathes. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake. Although pneumonia is a special concern for older adults and those with chronic illnesses, it can also strike young, healthy people as well. It is a common illness that affects thousands of people each year in the Philippines, thus, it remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. There are many kinds of pneumonia that range in seriousness from mild to life-threatening. In infectious pneumonia, bacteria, viruses, fungi or other organisms attack your lungs, leading to inflammation that makes it hard to breathe. Pneumonia can affect one or both lungs. In the young and healthy, early treatment with antibiotics can cure bacterial pneumonia. The drugs used to fight pneumonia are determined by the germ causing the pneumonia and the judgment of the doctor. Its best to do everything we can to prevent pneumonia, but if one do get sick, recognizing and treating the disease early offers the best chance for a full recovery. A case with a diagnosis of Pneumonia may catch ones attention, though the disease is just like an ordinary cough and fever, it can lead to death especially when no intervention or care is done. Since the case is a toddler, an appropriate care has to be done to make the patients recovery faster. Treating patients with pneumonia is necessary to prevent its spread to others and make them as another victim of this illness. Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory infection that affects the lungs. The lungs are made up of small sacs called alveoli, which fill with air when a healthy person breathes. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake. Pneumonia is characterized by inflammation of the alveoli and terminal airs

paces in response to invasion by an infectious agent introduced into the lungs through hematogenous spread or inhalation. The inflammatory cascade triggers the leakage of plasma and the loss of surfactant, resulting in air loss and consolidation. This is in contrast to pneumonitis, which is caused by non infectious agents such as radiation or chemicals.An inhaled infectious organism must bypass the host's normal non immune and immune defense mechanisms in order to cause pneumonia. The non immune mechanisms include aerodynamic filtering of inhaled particles based on size, shape, and electrostatic charges; the cough reflex; mucociliary clearance; and several secreted substances (eg, lysozymes, complement, defensins). Macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils carry out the immune-mediated host defense. Conditions that allow pneumonia-causing infectious organisms to circumvent the upper airway defense mechanisms include the following: Intubation, tracheostomy, impaired cough reflex, and aspiration: These conditions provide infectious organisms with easier access to the alveoli and terminal airspaces. Ciliary dyskinesia, bronchial obstruction, viral infection, cigarette smoke, and certain chemical agents: These conditions create disruption in the mucociliary blanket. Anatomic abnormalities (eg, sequestrations), gastric fluid aspiration orother causes of non infectious inflammation, altered pulmonary blood flow, and pulmonary pneumonia. Immunodeficiency and immunesuppression: These conditions increase predisposition for pneumonia. Pneumonia is the single largest cause of death in children worldwide. Every year, it kills an estimated 1.6 million children under the age of five years, accounting for 18% of all deaths of children under five years old worldwide. Pneumonia affects children and families everywhere, but is most edema: These conditions increase the predisposition for

prevalent in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Children can be protected from pneumonia, it can be prevented with simple interventions, and treated with low-cost, low-tech medication and care. Causes Pneumonia is caused by a number of infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi. The most common are:

Streptococcus pneumoniae the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia; respiratory syncytial virus is the most common viral cause of pneumonia; in infants infected with HIV, Pneumocystis jiroveci is one of the commonest causes of pneumonia, responsible for at least one quarter of all pneumonia deaths in HIV-infected infants.

WHO response In 2009, WHO and UNICEF launched the Global action plan for the prevention and control of pneumonia (GAPP). The aim is to accelerate pneumonia control with a combination of interventions to protect, prevent, and treat pneumonia in children with actions to:

protect

children

from

pneumonia

include

promoting

exclusive

breastfeeding and hand washing, and reducing indoor air pollution;


prevent pneumonia with vaccinations; treat pneumonia are focused on making sure that every sick child has access to the right kind of care -- either from a community-based health worker, or in a health facility if the disease is severe -- and can get the antibiotics and oxygen they need to get well.

Goal: After this case study, we will be able to know what pneumonia is, cause of it, how being acquired and prevented, its prevention and

treatments of the occurrence of pneumonia and to decrease the mortality and morbidity cases of pneumonia. Objectives:

To define what pneumonia is? To know How it is being Acquired To trace the pathophysiology of pneumonia To enumerate the different signs and symptoms of pneumonia To formulate and apply nursing care plans utilizing the nursing process

To learn new clinical skills as well as sharpen our current skills required in the management of patient with pneumonia To develop our sense of unselfish love and empathy in rendering nursing care to our patient so that we may able to serve future clients with higher level of holistic understanding as well as an individualized care.