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Gujarat Refinery Units (GRU)
ATMOSPHERIC UNIT-V (AU -V)
O PE RAT I N G MAN UAL
Revised By Checked By Approved By
:A.K.ROY (DMPN) :S.KHAN (SPNM) :B.V.RAMA GOPAL (CPNM)
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD.
The unit has been revamped during August/Sept ’02 to modify the flexibility of operation by installing new preheat train and increase in the number of pumps for different products & circulating refluxes. This operating manual contains necessary guidelines for normal operation and emergency procedures such as startup, shutdown and different emergencies and is supplemented with write-ups, drawings etc. wherever necessary. The various operating parameters are indicative only. It may call for any modification or change in operating parameters based on the actual operating experience in near future. The operating manual was updated in May-05 and various changes were incorporated such as shut down & start up checklists, PSVs’ list, unit equipments list etc., for fusing the plant related information. In this revision, special attention is given for startup, shutdown and emergency handling procedures. It is thoroughly revised & step-by-step procedure is given for easy understanding. New chapters on Safety System, Control Valve Data and Advanced Process Control have been added. Control valves fail safe position and Operation and Maintenance of HSD Coalescer has been incorporated in this manual for better operation guidance. LPG Vapouriser line to MSQ and Light Naphtha from AU-V to AU-I rerun section lines were commissioned and that has been incorporated in the revised manual. GR1 Units
(Chief Production Manager)
Sl. No Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.2.A 3.6.2.B 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.5 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52
DESCRIPTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION ONSTREAM FACTOR DESIGN FEED RATE FEED & PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS FEED & PRODUCT BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS UTILITY SPECIFICATIONS EQUIPMENT DATA COLUMNS HEAT EXCHANGERS/COOLERS/CONDENSERS PUMPS FURNACE/AIR PRE-HEATER TURBO BLOWERS (ID & FD FANS) VESSELS TANKS FILTERS PSV’S TSV’S LIST OF CONTROLLERS PROCESS DESCRIPTION BASIC OPERATIONS INVOLVED CRUDE CHARGING INTO UNIT CRUDE PREHEAT TRAIN-I CRUDE DESALTING DESALTERS OPERATION DESALTER WATER SYSTEM CRUDE PREHEAT TRAIN-II FURNACE PROCESS SYSTEM FUEL SYSTEM FUEL GAS SYSTEM FUEL OIL SYSTEM AIR PRE-HEATER (APH) COMBUSTION AIR SYSTEM ID/FD FAN STARTING & STOPPING PROCEDURE ID FAN STARTING PROCEDURE ID FAN STOPPING PROCEDURE FD FAN STARTING PROCEDURE FD FAN STOPPING PROCEDURE FURNACE LIGHT UP & CUTOFF PROCEDURE
Page. No 8-17 9 9 9 10 14 15 18-29 19 19 20 21 21 22 23 23 23 25 27 30-92 31 32 33 34 35 40 41 42 42 44 45 46 47 47 48 48 48 49 50 51
Sl. No 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 3.6.6 3.7 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.12.1.A 3.12.1.B 3.12.2.A 3.12.2.B 3.12.3.A 3.12.3.B 3.13 3.13.1 3.13.2 3.13.3 3.13.4 3.13.5 3.14 3.14.1 3.14.1.A 3.14.1.B 3.14.1.C 3.14.1.D 3.14.1.E 3.14.1.F 3.14.2 3.14.3 3.14.4
DESCRIPTION FURNACE CUTOFF PROCEDURE FURNACE INTERLOCKS DECOKING SYSTEM MAIN ATMOSPHERIC COLUMN FLASH ZONE OVERHEAD SECTION MIDDLE SECTION BOTTOM SECTION (RCO CIRCUIT) CIRCULATING REFLUXES/PUMP AROUND CIRCUITS PRODUCT DRAW OFF TRAYS PRODUCT STRIPPERS HEAVY NAPHTHA STRIPPER KEROSENE/ATF STRIPPER GASOIL STRIPPER NAPHTHA STABILISER LPG-AMINE ABSORPTION SECTION PRODUCT COOLING & RUNDOWN FACILITY CAUSTIC/WATER WASH FACILITY FOR PRODUCTS LPG CAUSTIC WASH SYSTEM LPG WATER WASH SYSTEM LIGHT NAPHTHA CAUSTIC WASH SYSTEM LIGHT NAPHTHA WATER WASH SYSTEM KERO/ATF CAUSTIC WASH SYSTEM KERO/ATF WATER WASH SYSTEM CHEMICAL INJECTION FACILITIES CAUSTIC INJECTION AMMONIA SOLUTION INJECTION DEMULSIFIER INJECTION CORROSION INHIBITOR/AHURALAN SOLN. INJECTION WASH WATER SYSTEM EFFECT OF OPERATING VARIABLES DESALTER PARAMETERS WATER INJECTION & PRESSURE DROP OIL/WATER INTERPHASE LEVEL DESALTER PRESSURE DESALTER TEMPERATURE DEMULSIFIER INJECTION VOLTAGE & AMPERAGE FURNACE COIL OUTLET TEMPERATURE & OVERFLASH FLOW MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRESSURE MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN TEMPERATURE
Page. No 51 52 55 56 56 57 58 59 60 60 61 61 62 63 65 68 69 71 72 73 74 76 76 78 79 80 81 81 81 82 82 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 85 86
Sl. No 3.14.5 3.14.6 3.14.7 3.14.7.A 3.14.7.B 3.15 3.16 Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.14.1 4.14.2 4.14.3 4.15 4.15.1 4.15.2 4.15.3 4.15.4 4.15.5 4.15.6 Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 Sl. No
DESCRIPTION CIRCULATING REFLUXES FLOW PRODUCT WITHDRAWL TEMPERATURE STRIPPING STEAM STRIPPING STEAM IN FRACTIONATING COLUMN STRIPPING STEAM IN STRIPPERS NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS CRITICAL OPERATING PARAMETERS & INSTRUMENTS UTILITIES SYSTEM INTRODUCTION INSTRUMENT AIR PLANT AIR COOLING WATER SERVICE WATER DM WATER BOILER FEED WATER LP STEAM MP STEAM HP STEAM FUEL GAS FUEL OIL FLUSHING OIL ELECTRIC SYSTEM ELECTICAL POWER FOR PUMPS PLANT ILLUMINATION INSTRUMENTATION POWER SYSTEM EFFLUENT SYSTEM SLOP SYSTEM CLOSED BLOWDOWN (CBD) SYSTEM OILY WATER SEWER (OWS) SYSTEM SEWER WATER SYSTEM AMINE DRAIN SYSTEM FLARE SYSTEM NORMAL START-UP PROCEDURE INTRODUCTION BRIEF START-UP PROCEDURE DETAILED START-UP PROCEDURE (AFTER M&I SHUT DOWN) PRELIMINARY PREPARATION AIR REMOVAL FROM THE PROCESS SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Page. No 86 87 88 88 88 89 90 93-108 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 99 100 100 102 102 102 103 103 103 104 105 105 106 106 109-147 110 110 112 112 116 Page. No
5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.3.9 5.4 5.5 Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 6.3.7 6.3.8 Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Sl. No
TIGHTNESS/PRESSURE TEST FUEL GAS BACKUP COLD CIRCULATION HOT CIRCULATION COMMISSIONING OF DESALTERS NORMALIZATION OF OPERATING CONDITIONS BRINGING UP NAPHTHA STABILISER SYSTEM STEPS INVOLVED IN START UP FROM BOTTLED UP CONDITION CHECK LIST FOR UNIT NORMAL STARTUP FROM BOTTLED UP CONDITION NORMAL SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE INTRODUCTION BRIEF SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE DETAILED SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE (FOR M&I SHUT DOWN) THROUGHPUT REDUCTION DISCONTINUATION OF CHEMICAL INJECTION SHUT DOWN OF NAPHTHA STABILISER DECOMMISSIONING OF DESALTERS NORMAL SHUT DOWN SHUT DOWN OF ATMOSPHERIC SECTION FOR M&I EMPTYING OUT OF THE UNITS AND PURGING/ISOLATION CHECK LIST FOR UNIT NORMAL SHUTDOWN FOR BOTTLED UP CONDITION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES GENERAL GUIDELINES POWER FAILURE STEAM FAILURE COOLING WATER FAILURE INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE FEED FAILURE ALL UTILITIES FAILURE DESCRIPTION
124 124 127 131 137 138 140 142 145 148-158 149 149 150 150 151 151 152 153 154 155 156 159-201 160 162 173 177 181 185 185 Page. No
3 8.13 Chapter 8 8.2 Sl.9 7.2 8.1.1 18.104.22.168 Chapter 9 9.11 7. No 10.8 7.2 10.6 22.214.171.124 10.12 7.4 8.8 8.3 9.3 FAILURE OF HEATER TUBES 110V DC SUPPLY FAILURE 24V DC SUPPLY FAILURE UPS FAILURE DCS CONSOLE FAILURE FIRE IN THE PLANT PROCEDURES FOR EQUIPMENT HAND OVER TO MAINTENANCE/INSPECTION PUMPS COLD PUMP HOT PUMP VESSELS COLUMNS EXCHANGERS/COOLERS/CONDENSERS/REBOILERS TANKS FURNACE FLARE HEADER CONTROL VALVES SAFETY VALVES PROCEDURES FOR EQUIPMENT TAKING OVER FROM MAINTENANCE PUMPS/MOTORS EXCHANGERS/CONDENSERS/COOLERS/REBOILERS/ FIN COOLERS FURNACE VESSELS COLUMNS FIRE PREVENTION REGULATIONS FIRE PREVENTION ACTIVITIES SOUND ENGINEERING GOOD HOUSE KEEPING DESCRIPTION INSTRUCTION TO PERSONNEL 186 187 190 194 197 201 202-213 203 203 204 204 207 210 211 211 212 212 213 214-217 215 215 216 216 217 218-254 219 219 219 219 Page.5 8.2 9.7 8.1 10.2.1 8. No 219 Chapter 10 SAFETY 5 .4 9.10 7.5 10.1 8.2 8.
5.5.4 10.5 10.5.5.D 10.9.2 10.2 10.5.5.5 10.1.5.9.10 Sl.5.4 10.6 10.7 10.1. No 250 6 .3 10.3 10.5.1 10.1.5.3 10.9.5.2.126.96.36.199.9 10.9.E 10.5.10.5.5.G 10.1 10.2.4 10.5.5 10.A 10.6 10.1.9.4 10.5.1.B 10.5. No 10.8 10.5 10.F 10.C 10.5.5.5.12 REGULAR TRAINING OF EMPLOYEES SAFETY AUDITS/SAFETY STUDIES FIRE EMERGENCY MOCK DRILLS FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM IN REFINERY FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM IN THE UNIT WORK PERMIT SYSTEM TYPES OF WORK PERMITS HOT WORK PERMIT COLD WORK PERMIT EXCAVATION PERMIT WORK AT HEIGHT PERMIT WORK AT DEPTHS ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT VESSEL ENTRY PERMIT RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PERMITTEE RENEWAL OF THE PERMIT SURENDERING OF THE PERMIT SIGNATORIES FOR FIRE PERMITS COPIES OF PERMIT POINTS TO BE ENSURED WHILE GIVING CLEARANCE ACCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET AHURALAN AMMONIA CAUSTIC SODA DIETHANOL AMINE DEMULSIFIER CONTROL VALVE FAIL SAFE CONDITION DESCRIPTION SAFETY SYSTEM AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN THE UNIT 219 220 220 220 222 222 223 223 223 223 224 224 224 224 225 225 225 225 226 226 227 229 229 233 236 240 243 247 Page.5.5.
5 10.2 10.5.13.3 10.5.5.10.13.1 14.13 10.13.13.6 SAFETY PRECAUTION IN EQUIPMENTS HANDLING DURING OPERATION FURNACE BURNER LIGHT UP (DURING STARTUP) WARMING UP OF PUMPS PUMP CHANGE OVERS/START UP HEAT EXCHANGER COMMISSIONING MAN ENTRY IN CLOSED VESSEL/EQUIPMENT 252 252 252 253 253 254 254 255-258 259-261 262-263 264-265 265 265 266-268 269-270 271-274 275-277 278-282 283-285 286-290 291-292 293-298 FURNACE BURNER LIGHT UP (DURING NORMAL OPERATION) Chapter 11 PROCESS UPSET & CORRECTIVE ACTIONS Chapter 12 HANDING & TAKING OVER OF INFORMATION DURING SHIFT CHANGE Chapter 13 CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL INVENTORY LEVEL Chapter 14 PLANT EQUIPMENT IDLING METHOD 188.8.131.52 FOR SHORT SHUTDOWN FOR LONG SHUTDOWN Chapter 15 DCS INFORMATION Chapter 16 LABORATORY TEST SCHEDULE Chapter 17 MASTER BLIND LIST Chapter 18 AU-V CONTROL VALVE DATA Chapter 19 LIST OF INTERLOCKS Chapter 20 SKO/ATF SALT DRYER Chapter 21 HSD COALESCER Chapter 22 PROCESS DIAGRAMS (FROM P&ID) Chapter 23 EQUIPMENT HANDLING PROCEDURE 7 .5.5.1 10.4 10.5.13.
1 INTRODUCTION 8 .CHAPTER-1 GENERAL GENERAL 1.
0 MMTPA of Arab Mix Crude (50:50 by weight of Light and Heavy Arab Crude).000 Wt% 100 . Light Naphtha.2 ONSTREAM FACTOR No of onstream hours in a year considered for design is 8000 hrs. Atmospheric Distillation. Light Naphtha Caustic wash. • • This unit was commissioned in the year 1997.• The atmospheric Unit AU-V of Gujarat Refinery is designed to process 3. Sl no 1 Material Crude 9 Quantity 375. Crude Desalting. Naphtha Stabilization.3 DESIGN FEED RATE The following table provides hourly rates of feed and various products based on Arab Mix Crude feed. LPG Amine wash and Caustic wash. 1. During ATF mode of operation Kerosene will not be withdrawn and the material boiling in the range of 240-370° C will be withdrawn as Gas Oil stream. The unit comprises of Crude Preheat Train. Gas Oil and Long residue. The unit was revamped during August/Sept ’02 to increase the on stream factor and flexibility of operation by providing additional heat exchanger train and increase in the number of pumps for different products & circulating refluxes. Kerosene. 1. The main products from the unit are LPG. Provision is also there for with drawl of ATF (boiling range 140-240) during alternate mode of operation. Heavy Naphtha. and Kerosene/ATF caustic wash.
3 52. 2.8 658. 5.2 223.4 476.0 MMTPA Arab mix crude in 50:50 weight proportion with respect to flow and hydraulics alone.6 10.5 19.0 344. No.6 15.3 732. CRUDE: a) 100% Arab mix Crude consisting of Light and Heavy Arab Crude in 50:50 proportion by weight.571 57.8 C Cst o Pour Point C o RVP@38 C Kg/cm2 Salt content(max) Ppm BS&W %Vol 10 . 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B. 1.551 195.0 Specific gravity @15 oC o TBP Distillation (% C volume) o IBP C o 5 C o 10 C o 30 C o 50 C o 70 C o 90 C o 95 C o EP C o API Gravity C o Viscosity @37.1 52.9 97. b) Main Column along with overhead condensers and furnace have flexibility to process 3. 7. 4.2 30.1 2. LPG (Ex Stabilizer) Light Naphtha Heavy Naphtha Kerosene Gas Oil Long residue 4750 34350 9280 73.573 1.5 -124 0.4 FEED & PRODUCT SPECIFICATION A. PRODUCTS Specification Unit Value 0.3 709.3 9.2 3.3 1.8728 27. 6. The properties of Arab Crude mix are as follows: Sr.6 165 2.
2 0. BIS Spec 710-770 88 Prec. 711768* 88. SKO Gas Oil Long residue 7. min. 15C.5 Kg/cm2 Weathering oC MOTOR SPIRIT S. LPG Vapor pressure 6.87 Kg/cm2 95% vol to contain not more than 2% of C5+ component.7 Manf.2/0. 5.Sr. Product 1. ATF Specification TBP cut oC TBP cut oC TBP cut oC Flash Point oC Freezing point oC ASTM D-86 EP TBP cut oC Flash Point oC ASTM D-86 EP TBP cut oC Flash Point oC ASTM D-86 95% TBP cut oC Value IBP-170 oC 120-170 oC 140-240 38 (min) -50 (max) 288 oC 140-270 36 (min) 300 (max) 240/270-370 34 (min) Not to exceed 365oC Shall not contain more than 8% vol (max) of material boiling below 370 oC Not more than 16. Heavy Naphtha 3.5/1. Lower limit to take care of 3 Distillation: Recovery at 70C. 4. Characteristic No 1 Density. meeting AKI will be guiding factor in line with BIS Spec) Lower limit to take care of storage and handling impact. Upper limit to take care of addition of ethanol. %v Recovery at 10-45 Slope 11-38* 40-70 Slope 41-70 11 . 6.5 Justification/Remarks To take care of addition of 5% ethanol To take care of test margin (In case due to sensitivity of the blend MS is not in a position to meet AKI.No. Limits 0. Spec. O/H Naphtha 2. Kg/m3 2 RON.
KEROSENE S. max Flash point. mm . max RVP at 38C. Safety parameter. Based on present quality trend. For other areas BIS specs will Prevail. 1 Characteristic Smoke Point. degree C. To take care of test margin. -doTesting margin and environmental parameter Lower limit to take care of testing margin. To improve product quality further Parameters are applicable for ethanol doping areas only. ppm mass.04/0. Characteristic 1 Cetane Index.No. Limits 1/2 Manf. To take care of test margins and environmental parameter. Limits Function of density Manf Justification/ Remarks .2/5. ppm mass. Spec 47 To take care of test margin 12 . max Total Sulphur. 18 20 (Rlys) 2 Distillation: Final Boiling Point. Environmental parameter. kPa Copper Corrosion 90 215 1 3 500 1000 35-60 1 max Slope Slope 0. min BIS Spec.4 5 6 7 * 100C. min BIS Spec. To take care of storage and handling impact. Upper limit to facilitate absorption of ethanol.5 175/580 38 2400 HIGH SPEED DIESEL S. %v Recovery at 180C. Deg C. %v.03/0.2 NA 91 200 0.9 2. min Total sulphur. min FBP.18 0.84 145/467 153/495 3. Justification/ Remarks To take care of test margin 3 4 35 2500 1/1.0C max Benzene Content. 46 Prec.7 450 900 38-57* 1a storage and handling impact. Gasoline containing ethanol should be supplied with addition of metal deactivator. %v. Spec 19 20 (Rlys) 22(Def) 290 To take care of test margin. max 22(Def) 300 Slope Prec.No. To take care of test margin.
4/7. microns. degree C.and distillation 43 (Assam crude) 95 35 500 2500 460 1 Not specified 44 -doSlop 1/1.4/3.7/2.6 Slope Manf. Product can not be segregated to defense and non defense categories Lower limit to take care of transit losses. Product 5 6 3-20/1063 1. min Sulphur total. min Total sulphur.No. 5 6 7 AVIATION TURBINE FUEL S. % BIS Spec. Defense requirement. min Flash Point. max Lubricity. To improve product quality further Customer problem of filter chokage.2 96 37 450 2400 420 1a 24 To take care of test margin 2 3 4 Rec at 370C. mg/Kg. max Copper Corrosion. max Distillation. max To take care of test margin. max Particulate Matter. ps/m. Recovery higher than 95% to be ensured. To take care of test margin To take care of test margin To take care of test margin To take care of test margin and also due to customer complaints. Limits 0.5 50/175 40 2500 To take care of test margin Defense requirement. degree C.0 250440 20 13 . max Electrical Conductivity. Spec -49 290 Justification/ Remarks To take care of test margin To take care of test margin 3 4 38 3000 (Genl) 2500 (Defense) 50-450 25 1/1. Deg C.5 145/467 175/580 60/120 NA 2. -47 300 Prec. Characteristic 1 2 Freezing Point. ppm mass. final boiling point. Aromatics. ppm mass. %v. Deg C. max Flash Point.
PRODUCTS 1.5/80 (min) -/40 14 7. SKO ATF Gas Oil Kero Case ATF case 7. Heavy Naphtha 4. 2. NA 20 Defence requirement 0.0/40 -/40 Source/Destination OM&S AU2/AU3/AU4 Amine Regeneration Unit DHDS/LAB CRU/MSQ LPG Horton Sphere a) Storage/H2 feed storage b) AU-1 rerun section a) Light Naphtha r/d within the unit b) SKO r/d within the unit c) Gas Oil r/d within the unit OM&S Routed to 6”GHP r/d line outside AU-V b/l Storage for DHDS unit feed/DHDS unit Sweet Diesel Storage (During Gujarat Crude processing) Old FPU New FPU VDU Storage SRU Sl. 4.) 20 (Defense) Sulphur 30 (Genl) Mercaptan.5/30 12. Product cannot be segregated. Light Naphtha 3.5/120 6. 1.0/40 6. 6. (Defence) max Lubricity.5/120 6.No.65 (Defense) can not be segregated. Sour Water .5/35 15/38 12. 3. LPG 2.vol. 0.0/40 7. Not applicable to Haldia Refinery as it produces entire ATF thru’ hydro treatment . Long residue 8. 20 ppm mass.0/40 6.5 FEED & PRODUCT BATTERY LIMIT CONDITIONS Feed/Product Crude Sour LPG Lean Amine Wild Naphtha/ Drag Stream PressureKg/cm2 / Temp o C 9.0/40 26.85 WSD mm max (General) 0.0/40 7. max 7 8 (Genl.0/40 7. 5.65 To meet Defense requirement. FEED 1.
1 Kinematic 125 (winter) Viscosity at 50C. Manf Justification/ rqmt. Limits 0.No. 8.0/40 5.8/3. Spec Remarks 1 Kinematic 40 0.No.8 Test margin and cushion 2 HPS S.5 17(max) 6.1 Manf Justification/ Remarks .5 5 5 3 Temp oC 430 230 165 120(max) Ambient Ambient 40 90 40 Specification -15oC dew point -15oC dew point Calorific Value 9600 Kcal/Kg Calorific Value 13000 Kcal/Kg FUELOIL S.6 FLO Slop Spent Caustic Rich Amine (2. 9. 1 max %v.0/55 Routed to line from AU-3 to GHP GRE-ETP Amine Regeneration Unit UTILITY SPECIFICATIONS Sr.6 0./Customer Prec.No.24/0. cSt. Spec 120 To take care of test margin 175 148 0.5/5.9.0/3. max 180(summer) 150 Water content.8/2. Limits . 4.5 4.0 0. 1. Utilities HP Steam MP Steam LP Steam BFW Instrument Air Plant Air DM Water Fuel Oil(VR + VBLSHS) Fuel Gas PressureKg/cm2 33 11.025/0.5 1. 12. 6.80 38 Test margin 15 . max Prec. 3. Characteristic BIS Spec. 11. 10. 5. Characteristic BIS:Spec.0/40 7. 2. 1. 7.5 6.0)/40 6.
1 Characteristic Kinematic Viscosity at 100C. Limits (Repeatability/ 16 Manf .3/1.0 0. Limits Spec.025/0.5 0. %v.025/0.8 In line with LSHS flash spec Test margin and cushion LSHS S. Prec. 50 0.1 48 98 93 0. max BIS Prec.1 Man f Spec 49 98 0. Spec Justification/ Remarks . Characteristic BIS Spec. max 2 3 Flash point. C.0 100 2 1.6/2 0.No. cSt.6/2 2/3./Cust omer rqmt. max 50 100 72 1.0 0.Viscosity at 100C.No. max Water content. %v.3/1. max Water content.8 Justification/ Remarks To take care of test margin ---do--Test margin cushion and PAVING BITUMEN (S-65/S-90 grades) S. cSt.0 0.
5 1/5.4-3/6.1 Penetration.4-8 1.6 84-96 62-68 45-54 46-54 To take care of test margin To take care of test margin 2 Softening 40-55 Point.8-5. 1/10mm 80100 60-70 Reproducibility) 2.1/4. Degree (S90) C 45-55 (S65) 1/5.5 Lower limit in line with MoRT Requirement To take margins care of test 17 .8-2.
CHAPTER-2 EQUIPMENT DATA 18 .
CW CW LN CW CW CW CW Service CW CW 19 . No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Col. Naphtha.No 22 23 Exchanger No EE-01 EE-02 E03 EE-04 EE-05 EE-06A/B EE-07A/B/C EE-08A/B EE-09A/B EE-10A/B/C/D EE-12A/B/C EE-13 EE-14 EE-15 EE-16A/B/C/D/E/F EE-17A/B/C/D EE-18A/B/C/D EE-19A/B EE-20 EE-21 EE-22A/B/C/D Exchanger No EE-23A/B/C EE-24 Shell Crude Crude Crude LR Kero/ATF Kero/ATF LR Crude GO CR LR Desalter water Brine GO CR GO CR C-01 O/H C-05 O/H C-05 FEED LN HN LR LR GO ATF / KERO Service Tube Kero/ATF Top CR Gas Oil Crude Crude Crude Crude Gas Oil Crude Crude Brine CW C-05 Bottom.5 No 3 2 2 2.5 15 29.2 HEAT EXCHAGERS/COOLERS & CONDENSERS S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 S. Hy. No CC-01 CC-02 CC-03 CC-04 CC-05 CC-06 Service No Atmospheric Distillation column Heavy. Naphtha Stripper Kero Stripper Gas Oil Stripper Naphtha stabilizer LPG Amine Absorber 51 10 6 6 43 10 Tray Type Valve Valve Valve Valve Valve Valve Safety Valves Set Pr Kg/Cm2 4.EQUIPMENT DATA 2.1 COLUMNS Sl.
5 18. max DP Kg/cm2 16 22 11 20 9 15 17 10 14 15 14 17.5 7.37 KW Rated Amps 25 31 75 126 62 52 126 126 126 260 37 26 93 14 14 10 10 14 14 32 1. max 287 310 146 79 242 18 124 358 125 361 78 38 38 36 36 25 25 34 34 5 7 Lit/hr Capacity M3/hr.5 DP Kg/cm2 20 .5 7.24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 2.3 EE-28A/C EE-28B/D EE-29 EA-01A to H EE-102A/B EE-103A/B/C EE-104A/B EE-105A/B/C/D/E EE-106 A/B/C/D EE-107 A/B/C/D EE-108 A/B EE-109 EE-110 A/B EE-111 A/B PUMPS Service FO HP Steam LPG Fin Cooler Crude LR CRUDE LR CRUDE LR HGO CR KERO-I LGO LR HP Steam FO LP Steam C-01 O/H LGO CRUDE KERO-I CR CRUDE LGO CRUDE CRUDE CW CW CW Pump No PA 1A to E 2A to E 5A/B/C 6A/B/C 7A/B 8A/B 9A/B 10A/B/C 11A/B 12A/B/C 14A/B 15A/B 16A/B 17A/B 18A/B 19A/B 20A/B 23A/B 24A/B 25A/B 26A/B Pump No PA KW 240 300 45 75 37 30 75 75 75 160 22 15 55 75 75 5.5 19 11 12 9 13 18 17 20 8.1 Rated Amps Crude Feed Desalted Crude Top Reflux CC-05 Feed Top CR HN r/d Kero r/d Kero CR GO r/d GO CR LPG Reflux Desalter Water Stage-I Desalter Water Stage-II LPG NaOH Circulation LPG water wash LN caustic wash LN water wash Kero caustic wash Kero Water wash LPG Caustic / Water m-up NH3 Injection Service Capacity M3/hr.5 5.5 0.
8 5 22 16.5 6.5 15 45 18.7 20 20 26 7.2 28 75 37 9.75 11 3.5 45 180 30 90 90 90 110 1.5 11 15.8 5.5 7.5 19.3 10.6 FANS 05-KA-001A/B FD fans 05-KA-02-ID fan.up 47% caustic transfer Wash water make up LN rundown VV-2 sour water Spent caustic Kero / ATF caustic M/up IFO CBD ABD LPG booster LR Coolant Water Kero-I CR LGO product HGO CR Kero-I 0.5 8 6 6.37 0.5 AIR PREHEATER 05-FD-001-Cast Air pre-heater 05-FD-002-Glass Air pre-heater 2.8 11.6 FIRED HEATER 05-FF-001-Charge heater 2.37 0.5 3.1 1.3 15.7 5.6 75 19 50 150 150 150 183 11 Lit/hr 24 Lit/hr 410 Lit/hr 5 5 5 58 9 10 5 30 20 6 37 275 98 371 132 470 106 11 10 15.4 Demulsifier Injection Ahuralan Injection Caustic injection Caustic Circulation / m. 2.7 DRUMS/VESSELS 21 .1 9 21.1 10.1 2.7 11 15 3.27A/B 29A/B 31A/B 32A/B 33 40A/B 41A/B 42A/B 43A/B 44A/B 45A/B 46 48 50A/B 51A/B/C 52A/B 102A/B 103A/B 104A/B 101A/B 2.
7 / 40 Atm / 40 18 / 40 16.5 43 6.5 3.5 / 123.5 29.8 VV-01A VV-01B VV-02 VV-03 VV-04 VV-05 VV-06 VV-07 VV-08 VV-09 VV-10 VV-13 VV-14 VV-15 VV-16 VV-17 VV18A/B VV19A/B VV-120 VV-25 VV-26 VV-27 VV-28 VV-29 VV-30 VV-32 VV-33 VV-34 VV-35 VV37A/B VV-38 VV-301 TANKS Desalter 1st stage Desalter 2nd stage CC-01 O/H reflux Drum CC-05 O/H reflux Drum Amine settler Desalting water drum LPG caustic wash LPG water wash LPG coalescer LN caustic wash LN water wash Kero / ATF Caustic wash Kero / ATF water wash Kero / ATF Coalescer Spent caustic degasser Decoking pot NH3 solution Vessel Ahuralan soln.5 / 40 15 / 40 9.2/40 Atm / 100 Atm / 40 Atm / 40 9/40 10/40 1.0 22 .5 / 90-120 32/237 -430 2/40-80 10 / 40-80 Atm/ 80120 1.No Vessel no Service 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 2. Air vessel Coolant sump Salt Dryer HSD Coalescer Operating Pres.5 /144 Atm / 60 Atm / 45 4 / 152 7.5 / 123.5 11.5 2. 4/amb Safety valve data PSV tag 1201A/B 1202A/B 1601 / 1602 1703 / 1704 1901 / 1902 1903/1904 2001 / 2002 2003 / 2004 2201/2202 2203/2204 Set Press 16 16 4.5 15 29.5 16 16 23 23 2501 A/B 3101 / 3102 3105 3203/3204 3201/3202 14.5 / amb amb 4 / amb. Vessel LPG surge drum HN coalescer IFO surge drum HP steam condensate FG KOD LPG drum CBD Flare KOD ABD drum Brine degasser Flash condensate Inst.Sl./ Temp Kg/cm2 // 0 C 11.1 / 40 9/40 18.5 14.5 /40 8 / 40 15/40 14/40 13/40 1.5 9.0 16.
1. 2. 3. 4. 2.9 1. 2. 2.10
05-TT-001-47% Caustic Solution Tank 05-TT-002A/B-10% Caustic Dilution Tank 05-TT-005-Wash water make-up Tank 05-TT-06A/B-3.5% Caustic Dilution Tank FILTERS 05-GN-DO-001A/B IFO Pump such on strainers 05-GN-DO-002A/B IFO Pump discharge strainers LIST OF SAFETY VALVES & RELIFE VALVES
Safety valves are normally characterized by fast opening, (popping action). These are used for compressible fluids like gases. In this category come pressure safety valves (PSV). Relief valves are used for non-compressible fluids (normally liquids). Relief valves open in proportion to pressure increase over the set value or opening pressure. In this category come temperature safety valves (TSV). These pressure relief devices (safety valves as well as relief valves) are spring-loaded valves. It is important to note that relief valves provide no protection against high temperature. The pressure relief valves are actuated by inlet static pressure and designed to open during an emergency or abnormal condition, causing pressure build up. This action of relief valve prevents internal fluid pressure from rising above specified value. Depending upon type of application, safety valves are selected as closing type (auto reset) or nonclosing type.
Brief description of pressure and temp. Safety valves: a) LIST OF PSV’s
Set pressure Kg/cm2 g 16.00 16.00 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 15 15 15 15 29.5 29.5 29.5 29.5 16 16 16 16 23 23 23 23 14.5 Set pressure Kg/cm2 g 14.5 29.5 29.5 3.5 3.5 43 6.5 6.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5
Relieving Temp ° C Hold Hold 130 130 130 128 128 87 87 97 97 132 243 132 243 205 212 205 212 316 230 316 230 85 Relieving Temp ° C 85 110 110 526 526 266 173.5 173.5 96 96 60 60
Selection Basis Hold Hold Block discharge Block discharge Block discharge Fire Fire Block discharge Block discharge Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Selection Basis Fire External fire External fire External fire External fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire Fire
PSV1201A/B PSV1202A/B PSV-1501 PSV-1502 PSV-1503 PSV-1601 PSV-1602 PSV-1701 PSV-1702 PSV-1703 PSV-1704 PSV-1901 PSV-1902 PSV-1903 PSV-1904 PSV-2001 PSV-2002 PSV-2003 PSV-2004 PSV-2201 PSV-2202 PSV-2203 PSV-2204 PSV-2501A TAG NO.
H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C LPG Service
Desalter-I stage Desalter-II sta 05-CC-001 05-CC-001 05-CC-001 05-VV-002 05-VV-002 05-CC-005 05-CC-005 05-CC-003 05-CC-003 05-VV-006 05-VV-006 05-VV-007 05-VV-007 05-VV-009 05-VV-009 05-VV-0010 05-VV-0010 05-VV-013 05-VV-013 05-VV-014 05-VV-014 05-VV-020 LOCATION
PSV-2501B PSV-2601A PSV-2601B PSV-3101 PSV-3102 PSV-3105 PSV-3108 PSV-3109 PSV-3201 PSV-3202 PSV-3203 PSV-3204
LPG LPG LPG Fuel oil Fuel oil HP steam LP steam LP steam LPG LPG FG FG
05-VV-020 05-CC-006 05-CC-006 05-VV-026 05-VV-026 05-VV-027 05-VV-035 05-VV-035 05-VV-029 05-VV-029 05-VV-020 05-VV-020
PSV43002A/B PSV-4401 PSV-4402 PSV-0000 PSV-0000
Inst Air MP Steam MP Steam HC HC
05VV0037A/B 05-MD-001 05-MD-001 Salt dryer Salt dryer
9.0 15 15 16 16
186.6 285 285 Ambient Ambient
Fire C/V failure C/V failure
b) LIST OF TSV’s TAG.NO TSV-1101 TSV-1102 TSV-1103 TSV-1104 TSV-1105 TSV-1201 TSV-1202 TSV 1301 TAG.NO TSV 1302 TSV 1303 TSV 1304 TSV 1305 TSV 1307 TSV 1308 TSV 1604 TSV 1605 TSV 1606 TSV 1703 TSV 1704 TSV 1705 TSV 1801 TSV 1802 TSV 1803 TSV 1805 TSV 1806 TSV 1807 TSV 1808 TSV 1809 TSV 1810 SERVICE Crude Crude Crude Crude Crude CW CW Crude SERVICE Crude Crude Crude Crude Crude Crude CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW CW LOCATION SP kg/cm2 Relieving Temp. 35.5 150 35.5 150 35.5 150 35.5 150 35.5 150 6 65 22 65 43 215 LOCATION SP kg/cm2 Relieving Temp. 43 175 43 215 43 225 43 255 43 305 43 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 6.0 65 Selection Basis Thermal Expansion “ “ “ “ “ “ “ Selection Basis “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “
TSV 1811 TSV 1812 TSV 3101 TSV 3102 TSV 3103 TSV 3104 TSV 3105 TSV 3106 TSV 5002 TSV 5003 TSV 5004 TSV 5005 TSV 5006 TSV 5007 TSV 5008 TSV 5009 TSV 5010 TSV 5011 TSV 5012 TSV 5013 TSV 5014 TSV 5015 TAG.NO TSV 5016 TSV 5017 TSV 5018 TSV 5019 TSV 5020 TSV 5021 TSV 5022 TSV 5023 TSV 5024 TSV 5025 TSV 5026 2.12
CW CW FO FO FO FO FO FO H/C H/C H/C WATER WATER WATER WATER WATER H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C WATER SERVICE WATER WATER WATER WATER WATER WATER H/C H/C H/C H/C H/C
6.0 65 6.0 65 16.5 245 16.5 245 3.5 245 3.5 245 16.5 245 16.5 245 EE-102A/B 35.5 150 EE-103A/B 35.5 150 EE-104A/B 35.5 150 EE-13B 6.9 65 EE-12 A/B/C 2.2 130 EE-16D 6.9 65 EE-16E 6.9 65 EE-16F 6.9 65 EE-106A/B 43 210 EE-105A/B 43 250 EE-107A/B 43 310 EE-108A/B 43 310 EE-18 C/D 2.5 150 EE-17D 6.9 65 LOCATION SP kg/cm2 Relieving Temp. EE-19B 6.9 65 EE-109 6.9 65 EE-110A/B 6.9 65 6.9 65 EE-111A 6.9 65 EE-111B 6.9 65 EE-103C 35.5 150 43 210 EE105C/D 43 250 EE-105 A/B 43 250 EE-107 C/D 43 310
“ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ THER.EXPANSION “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ Selection Basis “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “
LIST OF CONTROL VALVES
TAG NO. 5LV2602 5LV3104 5LV3106 SERVICE BOILER FEED WTR RICH AMINE TO ARU STM CONDEN. TO FLASH DRM LP STM COND. FRM VV-035 SIZE(in.) 1 1 1 1
S.No. 1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 S.No. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
5FV1807 HY. NAPHTHA FOR GAS OIL 1.5 5FV2502 LPG BOOSTER PMP FLW 1.5 5LV3202 LPG TO LPG DRM VV-029 1.5 5PV1701 VENT FRM VV-003 1.5 5FV2501 LPG SURGE DRM 2 5PV3111 FO TO VV-026(BPC) 2 5FV1508 STRIPPING STM TO CC-001 BTM. 2 5FV2011 HY. NAPHTHA TO KERO R/D 2 5FV2503 LPG FRM PA-014A/B 2 5PV1415 FO TO HTR 2 5PV1504A FG TO FLARE FRM CC-001 2 5PV1504B FG TO VV-002 2 5PV1912 LPG PRODUCT R/D 2 5PV2011 HY. NAPHTHA TO STORAGE 2 5PV3203 LPG TO FG KOD VV-028 2 5PV4406 HP STM TO DESUPER HTR 2 5SDV1406 FG SUPPLY(PILOT) 2 5SDV1701 DRAIN FRM VV-003 2 5SDV1901 CAUSTIC SOL. EX VV-006 2 5SDV1902 WASH WTR EX VV-007 2 5SDV1903 WTR EX VV-008 2 5SDV1904 CAUST. WASH WTR EX VV-016 2 5SDV2001 CASTIC EX VV-009 2 TAG NO. SERVICE SIZE(in.) 5SDV2002 WASH WTR EX VV-010 2 5SDV2003 WTR FRM VV-025 2 5SDV2201 CAUSTIC EX VV-013 2 5SDV2202 WASH WTR EX-VV-014 2 5SDV2203 WASH WTR EX VV-015 2 5SDV2601 AMINE SETTLER BTM 2 5SDV2602 LPG AMINE ABSORBER BTM 2 5LV1201 BR IN FRM DSTLR TO DGASR 2 5LV3103 FO TO VV-026 3 5FV1201 2nd STAGE DESAL. WTR I/L 3 5FV1409 PLANT AIR FOR DECOCKING 3 5FV2501 LPG TO AMINE ABSORBER 3 5LV1602 SOUR WTR TO VV-005 3 5PV3202 LP STM TO LPG VAPORISER 3 5SDV1401 FO RETURN 3 5LV1202 1st STAGE DIST. WTR I/L 3 5TV1702 NAPH. STAB. BTM. SAT. EE-018A/B 4 5FV1401 CRUDE TO HTR PASS-1 4 5FV1402 CRUDE I/L PASS-2 4 5FV1403 CRUDE I/L PASS-3 4 5FV1404 CRUDE I/L PASS-4 4 5FV1804 HSD R/D 4
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 S.No. 73 74 75 76
5FV2206 KERO/ATF COALASCER O/L 4 5FV3102 HP STM TO EE-028A/B/C/D 4 5HV1701 STABISER O/H VAPOUR 4 5PDV1420 ATM STM TO HTR 4 5SDV1402 FO SUPPLY 4 5SDV1601 SOUR WTR TO SRU 4 5SDV2501 LPG TO LPG SURGE DRM 4 5PV1423 FG TO HTR 6 5FV1410 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-1 6 5FV1412 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-3 6 5FV1413 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-4 6 5FV1414 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-2 6 5FV1505 TOP RFLX TO CC-001 6 5FV1805 LR TO BL(FPU) 6 5FV1806 LR TO BL STORAGE 6 5HV2001 LN+CAUSTIC TO VV-009 6 5HV2002 LN WTR TO VV-010 6 5HV2201 KERO+ATF+CAUST. TO VV-013 6 5HV2202 KERO+ATF+WASH WTR TO VV-014 6 5SDV1801 LN TO CAUSTIC WASH 6 5FV1501 TOP CIR. RETURN TO CC-001 8 5LV1508 KERO STRIPPER FEED 8 5LV1510 GAS OIL STRIPPER FEED 8 TAG NO. SERVICE SIZE(in.) 5SDV1403 FG SUPPLY 8 5LV1206 CRUDE BOOSTER PMP D/S 8 5FV1502 ATF/KERO CR RETURNED TO CC-001 10 5TV1116 EXCH-05-EE-006 A/B BYPASS 12
CHAPTER-3 PROCESS DESCRIPTION PROCESS DESCRIPTION 29 .
Basic operation involved in AU are as follows:• • • • • • • Crude Preheating and Desalting Crude heating in Charge Heater Atmospheric Distillation Naphtha Stabilization LPG Amine and Caustic washing Light Naphtha Caustic washing Kero/ATF Caustic washing For the sake of simplicity in process description.1 BASIC OPERATIONS INVOLVED In Atmospheric Unit. Crude Oil is separated into various fractions in fractionation column based on relative volatility. boiling point and condensation temperature ranges of the various components. These fractions have different properties. Atmospheric Unit is divided into a Number of subsections as given below: • • • • • • • • • • • Crude Preheat Train I (old and new) Crude Desalter Crude Preheat Train II (old and new) Crude Charge Heater Atmospheric Distillation Column Naphtha Stabilizer Product Cooling and Run Down system LPG Amine wash system LPG Caustic wash system Light Naphtha Caustic Wash system Kero/ATF Caustic wash system 30 .PROCESS DESCRIPTION 3. Most of them are lighter then crude accepting the bottom product LR (Long Residue).
The normal discharge pressure of crude booster pump is 23. The crude booster pumps have a capacity of 261 m3/hr .87 Kg/cm2 g. Crude is received at 9.2 CRUDE CHARGING INTO UNIT Refer P&ID’s 3551-05-02-41-0111 Rev 2 Crude from crude storage tanks in GRE crude offsite area is pumped into Atmospheric Unit through a 14” header.• Chemical Injection system. Crude Booster 05-PA-001 A/B/C/D/E take suction and deliver crude to the preheat Train-I through a 12” discharge header. The following instruments are provided in the crude inlet line to the Unit within Unit battery limit. 3” slop line from CBD Pump Discharge for reprocessing the slop. 2” service water line for unit flushing. The following instruments are provided in the discharge header of crude booster pumps. From the 14” headers.5 Kg/cm2 g pressure and ambient temperature. • • • • • 1” Caustic solution line in order to maintain pH of Desalter effluent. The following connections are provided in the suction line of booster pumps inside battery limit. 10” LR circulation line for start-up purpose. • • • Local pressure gauge PG-1101 Pressure Transmitter PT-1102 with DCS indication PSL-1123 with alarm in DCS. • • • • • Local Temperature Gauge TG-1102 Temperature Indicator TI-1101 PT-1103 with DCS indication and recording Local Pressure Gauge PG-1104 PSHH-1130 with interlock to trip Crude booster pumps 31 . Provision was made at B/L to receive LAB plant Return stream along with crude. 3. 2” demulsifier solution line to break crude and water emulsion. In the battery limit of AU double block valve and a spectacle blind is provided for positive isolation. Normally two crude pumps will be in operation and one will remain standby.
thereby improving fuel economy in operation at unit. 32 .3° C LGO (Tube side) is cooled from 134. To recover heat from out going products and circulating reflux streams by heating the crude oil. Profile After HIC 5001. Crude flows through exchanges EE-102A/B shell side. After HIC 5002 Crude is passed through exchanger EE-01. New preheat Train – I • Temp.• FI-1101 with flow tantalizer and recorder at DCS and sends signals to furnace pass ratio balancing and also heat duty control PV-1206/PV-5001 is provided on common discharge line of crude booster pump for controlling the Desalter pressure through PIC-1206 by Sequential action. Crude Preheat Train–I is divided in to two parts. 1. At the outlet of EE-05 Crude oil pick up heat gain temperature to 127 ° C (Kero run) / 123 ° C (ATF run) Preheat Train –I (New) – After HIC 5001 Crude passes through exchangers EE-102A/B (shell side) then Parallel to EE-103A/B/C (tube side) & EE-104A/B (shell side) and it is heated up to 130 ° C. Preheat Train – I (New). EE-03 (shell side) and then through EE-04 and EE-05 (Tube side).3 Crude Preheat Train-I Refer P&ID’s 3551-05-02-41-0111 Rev 2 Crude preheat trains are provided to accomplish the following. 3. Crude is heated up to 74.9° C to 65° C. • • • To heat the crude oil and bring it to the required desalting temperature. To further heat the crude oil after desalting. A 2” LP steam connection is provided in the discharge Header of Crude booster pump for air removal of the system during start-up. EE-02. Preheat Train–I (Old) 2. After PV-1206/PV -5001 Crude is divided in to two parts by H/C 5001 (New train) and HIC 5002 (Old train). Then both streams are joined together and feed to desalter VV-01A via HIC-5003.
• Crude then passes through EE-103A/B/C/ and EE-104A/B in parallel. reduce it’s viscosity. MV-1201 & MV-1202 are provided just upstream of two stage desalter. metals like Arsenic. crude is routed to two stage Crude Desalter. 3551-05-02-41-0112 Rev. Hence the need of their removal is important before processing. From Crude Preheat Train-I. Magnesium etc. In exchanger EE-103A/B/C shell side LR gets cooled from 165° C to 120° C. and to help mixing desalter water thoroughly with it.3° C to 120. • In Exchanger EE-104A/B Crude passes in shell side and gets heated from 74. charge heater and Atmospheric column.8° C tube side flow is Kero – I C. Although these are present only in small amounts. All exchangers in Preheat Train-I are provided with bypasses to tackle maintenance/tube Leakage problems.7° C to 128° C. The purpose of the mixing valve is to thoroughly mix the crude and water prior to desalting. Here crude is preheated from 30° C to 127° C for normal Kero Case (for ATF case 123.R. Provision exists to add desalting water into crude upstream of 05-EE-005. particularly those of sodium. • Combined outlet from exchanger EE-104A/B and EE-103A/B/C then joins with old Pre-heat Train – I stream via H/C 5003. The purpose of heating up crude in preheat train I before Desalter is to improve oil’s Fluidity. Heat exchangers. 3. their presence can result in serious problems in down stream equipment’s viz. and it is cooled from 185. Vanadium etc. Thermal Safety Valves (TSV) are provided on each of exchanger outlets on the crude side (cold stream) to take care of pressurization due to thermal expansion of Local pressure gauges and temperature indications in DCS are provided across every exchanger for performance monitoring of the particular exchanger unit.5° C. Normally desalting water is added upstream of these mixing valves.3° C to 138.6° C). Crude flows in EE-103A/B/C tube side and further get heated from 74. and mud.4 CRUDE DESALTING Refer P&ID No. 33 .2 Crude oil brings along with it salts.
Depending upon salt contents in crude both desalter units can be operated either in series or Individually but not in parallel. 34 . Provision also Exists for injection of Demulsifier into the crude line at B/L for better mixing.5 Kg/cm2 g pressure.1 DESALTERS OPERATION Two stage crude desalter comprising of two identical desalting units.5 PTB. This ensures better function of Desalter. At high temperature salts in crude oil show a tendency to deposit along heat exchange surface of the equipment. Crude desalter operates at 12. Also. The presence of Arsenic acts as a poison to platinum catalysts if it is used in down stream process units.4. there by rapidly reducing heat transfer co-efficient. To break this tight emulsion. Any of the two desalters can be isolated and bypassed. The presence of calcium and sodium salts can cause plugging of heat exchanger and heater tubes.2% volume to less than 200 ppm at the exit of desalter. Caustic injection upstream of desalter in crude is done to neutralize acids present in crude and convert them into water solvable salts. Brine is associated with crude both as a fine suspension of droplets and more permanent emulsion. Two stage Desalter unit arrangement is provided to handle crude with widely carrying salt contents. 3.At high temperatures. The excessive coke formation results in escalation of hot spots on heater tubes which can have serious and disastrous consequences for heater tubes. corroding trays in the top section of column and tubes of overhead condensers etc. 05-VV-00-001A/B has been provided for reducing salt content in crude oil to the level of <0. In fact. Presence of these salts also promotes coke formation in heater tubes which results in increased pressure drop as well as less heat transfer rates. Demulsifier is added. These salts are then removed by desalter water in desalter. the water content of crude is brought down from 0.5 ptb. both caustic solution and Demulsifier are added into the crude before the first exchanger in the preheat train I. It is designed to bring down the salt content of the crude from 165 ppm to less than 0. Caustic injection down stream desalter is provided to neutralize any other acid traces formed at desalter operating conditions. Demulsifier is injected into crude upstream of desalter. Magnesium chloride decomposes and forms Hydrochloric acid.
Since this is a liquid discharge. Crude outlet from top of the vessel is connected to the Desalted crude pumps (05-PA-00002A/B/C) suction. For draining oily water and handling wash streams. For this de-sledging arrangements in both the desalter have been provided. amperage in desalter increases due to increased conductivity and may eventually lead to short-circuiting. desalter drain connections to CBD/OWS are provided. Also the PSV 1201A/1201B are located close to the column to reduce the discharge pipe length where two-phase flow may occur after PSV discharge. this switch trips power supply to desalter to prevent such an eventuality. and facilitates its easy exit from outlet. In case of low oil level. The material that collects at desalter bottom is a thick sludge that is corrosive and often has a tendency to choke the piping. PSV1201A & 1201 B are provided to protect 1st stage desalter from over pressurization due to blocked outlet. Panel mounted push buttons (to start PB-1201 A& to stop PB1201B) are provided to control power supply to desalter. Stage-I Desalting water Pumps 05-PA-00-015A/B discharge is associated with distributors inside both the desalter. leading to water and salt carryover to CDU.Crude and desalter water enters the Desalter (05-VV-00-001A/B) from its bottom. When desludging water is injected in the desalter through distributor. safety valve outlet line is kept free draining towards atmospheric fractionating column to avoid formation of liquid pockets. Another low–low level (oil) switch LSLL-1203 with alarm (which in effect is high inter phase level) is provided. The discharge of these safety valves is routed to flash zone of Atmospheric Column. Meticulous care should be taken during this operating as sudden jerk can upset oil water inter phase. Since desalter is liquid filled vessel. Actuation of LALL-1203 trips power supply to desalter. In addition one inter-phase level low – low switch LSLL-1207 along with alarm is provided to prevent inter phase from getting lost and resulting into oil carryover along with brine from desalter. it loosens up the muck collected at the bottom. inter phase level controller ILIC-1202 is provided to ensure smooth functioning of the unit. the pressure control is achieved by manipulating PV1206/PV5001 provided on crude pump discharge line upstream of preheat train-I. On stage-I desalter 05-VV-001A. FI-1211A and FI-1210B indicate desludging water flow to 05-VV-001A and 05VV-001B respectively. On actuation. 35 . Desludging is a batch process. This material needs to be cleaned periodically.
To ensure that the crude and water are mixed thoroughly. The selection for this is made by SS-1201/Ss-1202. PSV-1202A &1203B are provided to protect 2nd stage desalter from over pressurization due to blocked outlet.Similar instrumentation and other facilities exist for II stage desalter 05-VV-001B also. following three cases for desalter operation are considered: 1) Both Desalter Stages in operation 2) Only Stage I Desalter in operation 3) Only Stage II Desalter in operation All these cases are taken up in detail in following pages: 1) Both Desalter stages in operation in series: Crude from preheat train I is premixed with desalter water in mixing valve MV-1201 at upstream of desalter 05-VV-001A. The desalting water drawn from 05-VV-001B is pumped by 05-PA-015A/B (I stage desalting water pumps) under interphase level controller LIC-1202 of 05-VV-001B to 05-VV-001A. the pressure control is achieved by manipulating PV-1206/PV5001 provided on crude pump discharge line upstream of preheat train-I. The selection for this is made by SS1207. It can manipulate either LV. Another low-low level (oil) switch (LSLL-1204) along with alarm (which in effect is high inter-phase level) is provided. Since desalter are liquid filled vessels. Manual selection for the interphase 36 . On actuation the switch closes LV-1201 through de-energization of SOV-1201. In case of low oil level.1202 on I stage desalter water pump discharge or LV-1201 on cold brine outlet from 05-VV-001A. PIC-1206 on desalted Crude line is provided for manipulation of PV-1203/PV5001 on crude charge pump discharge line. amperage in desalter increases due to increased conductivity & may eventually lead to shortcircuiting. Local PG/TG are provided to indicate desalter pressure and temperature. Depending upon salt content in crude. On actuation this switch trips power supply to desalter. the mixing valves MV1201/1202 respectively are provided at the upstream of both the desalter. One interphase level low-low switch LSLL-1208 along with alarm is provided to prevent interphase from getting lost and resulting into oil carryover along with brine from desalter. On II stage desalter 05-VV-001B. inter-phase level controller ILIC-1202 is provided to maintain inter-phase level in the desalter unit.
Crude from 05-VV-001A overflows to 05-VV-001B for further and final desalting. Interphase level low low as indicated by LSLL-1207 is manually selected by SS-1207 to actuate SOV-1201 and close LV-1201 on outgoing brine line from 05-VV-001A. as indicated by LSLL-1207 is manually selected by SS-1207 to actuate SOV-1201 and close LV-1201 on 37 . heated in shell side of 05-EE-012A/B/C and enters through mixing valve MV-1202. This linking automatically deselects LIC-1202 of 05-VV-001B from LV-1201 operation 05-VV-001A. heated in shell side of 05-EE-012A/B/C and enters through mixing valve MV1201. Interphase of 05VV-001A is indicated by ILIC-1201 and is controlled by operating LV-1201 on outgoing brine from 05-VV-001A. desalting water and brine networks. Interphase of 05-VV-001A as indicated by ILIC-1201 is controlled by LV-1201 operation is manually done by SS-1201. Brine from 05VV-001B bottom is diverted to suction of 05-PA—015A/B and again follows a complete cycle as described earlier. Crude from preheat train I enters 05-VV-001A through MV-1201 and leaves through top to suction of 05-PA002A/B/C/D/E (desalted crude pump suction) under desalted crude outlet pressure control PIC-1206. PIC-1206 on desalted crude outlet from desalter is selected to maintain its pressure by manipulating PV-1206/PV5001 sequentially. Inter-phase level low low. This linking automatically de-select LIC-1202 of 05-VV-001 from LV-1201 operation of 05-VV-001A. Water for desalting in this unit is drawn from 05-VV-005 by 05-PA-016A/B (II stage desalting water pumps) under flow control FIC-1201. Linking of ILIC-1201 with LV-1201 operation is manually done by SS-1201. This controller manipulates the pressure of PV-1206/PV5001 provided at crude line before the preheat train I. Its flow towards MV-1201 is kept completely closed to receive adequate quantity of desalting water in 05-VV-001B. 2) Only stage II Desalter in operation In this case only 05-VV-001B is put in operation and 05-VV-001A is completely isolated/bypassed from crude. Water for desalting in this unit is drawn from 05VV-005 by 05-PA-016A/B (II stage desalting water pumps) under flow control FIC1201. This selection automatically deselects LSLL-1208 on 05VV-001B and this acts as mere interphase level low-low alarm only in 05-VV-001B.control of 05-VV-001B on outgoing brine from it is made by SS-1202.
PIC-1201 controls by manipulating PV1206/PV5001 on crude to preheat train I.outgoing brine line from 05-VV-001A. heated in shell side of 05-EE-012A/B/C and enters through mixing valve MV1201. desalting water and brine networks. This selection automatically de-links LSLL-1208 of 05-VV-001B from LV-1201 operation. 3) Only stage II Desalter in operation In this case only 05-VV-001B is put in operation and 05-VV-001A is completely isolated/bypassed from crude. Crude from preheat train I enters 05-VV-001B through MV-1202 and leaves through top to suction of 05-PA02A/B/C/D/E (desalted crude pump suction) Desalter pressure is controlled by PIC-1206 provided at desalted crude outlet line. Linking of ILIC-1202 with LV-1201 operation is manually done by SS-1202&SS-1201. Interphase of 05-VV-001B as indicated by ILIC-1201 is controlled by LV-1201. Some of the parameters that are to be closely monitored to realize operation are: • • • • • • Water Injection Rate Chemical Injection Rate Oil Water Interphase Level Mixing valve performance (Delta P) Desalter Pressure Desalter Temperature Influence of these variables on desalter operation is discussed later in a section discussing effect of operating variables. Interphase level low. It is important to be noted that actually it is outgoing brine of 05-VV001A and not from 05-VV-001B. Water for desalting in this unit is drawn from 05-VV-005 by 05-PA-016A/B (II Stage desalting water pumps) under flow control FIC1201. Finally cooled brine of 05-VV-001B. 38 . This linking automatically de-selects ILIC-1201 of 05-VV-001A from LV-1201 operation 05-VV-001A. as indicated by LSLL-1208 is manually selected by SS-1207 to actuate SOV-1201 and close LV-1201 on outgoing brine line from 05-VV-001A. still appearing as outgoing from 05-VV-001A. This section automatically de links LSLL-1207 of 05VV-001A from LV-1202 operation.
Provision of Caustic solution injection in this drum is there to neutralize acids formed in crude at elevated desalter temperatures.Sample points are provided from crude oil outlet from desalter. Sour water or DM water/service water is first collected in desalter water vessel 05-VV-005. Sample cocks are provided on each desalter at various elevations of the vessel. It is heated up to about 99 C in shell side of 05-EE-012A/B/C by exchanging heat with brine solution going out from desalter. TI-1208 is provided at the downstream of this exchanger on the desalter water line.4. Water containing dissolved salts from crude (also called brine) in 05-VV-001B is pumped out by First Stage Desalting water pump (05-PA015A/B) to 1st stage desalter. SOV-1201 39 . 3. The brine solution from 1st stage desalter 05-VV-001A is cooled in tube side of 05-EE-012A/B/C and 05-EE-013. Provision is also available for make up desalter water from Desalter drum 05-VV-001 to the first stage desalter pump 05-PA015A/B. From brine degasser it is routed into OWS Selector switches have been provide for inter-phase controllers of desalter 05-VV-001A & 05-VV-001B to manipulate LV-1201 on outgoing brine. These are used to check interphase level physically against that indicated by corresponding LIC. Desalter water drum level is maintained by LIC-1205. On very low desalter level actuated by an low level alarm.5 C.5 C to 6359. Crude oil or water from respective sample point flows through a coil in sample cooler on outside of which cooling water flows to cool the hot sample.2 Desalter Water System Water used for desalting is stripped sour water from SRU. Combined desalting water from desalter water drum 05-VV-005 is pumped by Second Stage Desalting Water Pumps 05-PA 16A/B/C to 05-VV-001B under flow control FIC1201. manipulating LV-1205 acting on incoming stripped water line/ DM water line in sequence. Sampling cock lines have been provided with a 2” LP steam flushing line to clean the line of any crude after taking sample. This brine joins the crude header upstream of crude oil mixing valve MV-1201 of Desalter 05-VV-001A. This heated water can join the crude header upstream of crude oil mixing valve MV1202 of desalter 05-VV-001B. which gets cooled from 122/118. DM/SW can also be used. As other alternative. Finally cooled brine is sent to brine degasser 05-VV034.
Crude preheat train – II can be subdivided to crude preheat train – II (old) and Crude preheat Train – II (New). 3. New Preheat Train – II Desalted crude from PA-02A/B/C/D/E is divided in to two streams. LR is cooled from 265° C to 165° C. via HIC 5005 (new preheat Train) and HIC 5006 (old preheat train – II). And feed to furnace 05-FF-01. After H/C 5005 desalted crude is divided in to two streams and flows to exchanger 05EE-106A/B/C/D shell side and exchange 05—EE-105A/B/C/D/E tube side in parallel. Major equipments at this section are shell and tube type heat exchangers. Again. LGO product is cooled from 282° C to 138° C in exchanger EE-105A/B/C/D/E crude is heated from 128° C to 228. Further. thus eliminating risk of oil carryover with brine. LR from the discharge of PA-51A/B/C is passes through 05-EE-10A/B/C/D in counter current manner with crude coming out from EE-09A/B.5 CRUDE PREHEAT TRAIN .shall close LV-1201 to stop further withdrawal of water. After HIC 5006. One 10” line from EE-108 o/l to EE-10 inlet is provided. Crude from 05-EE-10A/B/C/D combines together and combined stream is joint with the stream of new preheat train – II (i. crude is heated in 05-EE-08A/B and 05-EE-09A/B by HGO and LGO CR streams in series. Profile.II Refer P&ID’s 3551-05-02-41-0113 Rev 2 Crude preheat train–II is desalter outlet to crude charge heater (05-FF-01). Crude flow to new preheat train – II is measured by 05-PI-5028 Crude Preheat Train – II (New) – Temp. Crude passes through 05-EE07A/B/C in series and exchanges heat with LR from 05-EE-10B outlet.2° C by exchanging heat from tube side hot stream LGO product. 40 .7° C by getting heat from hot stream LR. where heat transfer takes place from LR to Crude. EE-108A/B). Crude passes through shell side of exchanger 05-EE-06A/B and exchanges heat with Kero-II CR from 05-PA-10A/B/C.e. In exchanger EE-106A/B/C/D crude is heated from 128° C to 184. TC-1116 has been provided at the inlet of Kero-II CR to adjust the crude inlet temperature to desalter at a desired value.
3 These sections are described below in detail: 3. Description of atmospheric heater is divided into following subsections: • • • • Process System Fuel System Air Preheating System Steam-Air Decoking System PROCESS SYSTEM Refer P&ID No. air pre-heaters. In exchanger EE-108A/B crude is also heated from 206. 3.6. is cooled from 360. crude flows to atmospheric column 05-CC-001. numbered as pass 1 to pass 4. Flow in each pass is regulated by individual pass flow controller FIC-1401 through FIC1404 (provided on each branch or pass). ID fan.6 FURNACE 3551-05-05-42-0114B Rev.3 Major equipment of this section is atmospheric heater. 3551-05-02-41-0114A Rev.8° C to 291° C and hot stream HGO CR is get cooled from 326° C to 275° C heated crude @ 291° C is then joins with EE-10A/B/C/D crude oil line and then fed to furnace FF-01. The heater 05-FF-001 is a box type furnace having four parallel passes of 6” size.R. Crude enters crude charge heater at the top of the convection zone. Bottom of the convection zone the coils come out and enter the radiation zone from radiation zone. The crude flow in each pass is controlled by a pass balancer in such a way that the weighted average temperature at the outlet of 41 .4° C to 265° C. In exchanger EE107A/B/C/D crude is heated from 206.8° C to 291° C and hot stream L.Combined outlet of EE-106 & EE-105 again divided in to two branches parallely and pass through exchanger EE-107A/B/C/D and EE-108A/B tube side. FD fans and Steam air decoking pot.1 Crude oil from Preheat Train–II is heated to desired vaporization temperature of 375 C in crude furnace before entering the atmospheric column 05-CC-001 for fractionation. Ratio of crude flow in a particular pass to total crude flow is maintained by a ratio controller.
controls the final crude outlet temperature of the common transfer line. which regulates the quantity of fuel to the furnace. one flow low-low alarm FAL-1401B has been provided to indicate vary low flow condition in pass 1. Pass balancing is an advanced control feature. called transfer line before entering atmospheric column. The distribution of crude through each pass should be adjusted in such a way that the heat duties and hence out let temperature of all the passes is more or less same. Through dual transmitter FT1401 from the same flow element. TIC-1416/TI-1413 indicates combined. The temperature indicator controller TIC-1416. TI-1432/PI-1308 indicates temperature/pressure of all pass flow control valves. All the four passes of 05-FF-001 join together at the outlet of the radiation zone and then enter the crude column 05-CC-001. Crude flow through each pass is automatically adjusted by individual pass flow controllers of each pass. Depending on heat duty variation pass flow will vary. FIC-1401 controls and indicates crude flow through pass 1. Pressure gauges and temperature indications are provided at all the external crossover of pass flows from convection to radiation section. Actuation of this alarm will trip the fuel supply to all burners of the heater excluding pilots. Prolonged high temperature may lead to cooking up of that particular pass. Pass balancer output is utilized by atmospheric column duty controllers on circulating refluxes also. Software signal of this TI-1409 is utilized by pass balancer also.each pass is maintained almost same. final coil outlet temperature of the crude. features of only pass 1 have been taken up. For other passes identical arrangements exist. TI-1409 indicates coil outlet temperature (COT) of crude at pass 1 outlet High temperature software alarm on the COT has been provided to alert the operator against inadequate flow or harder firing in that particular pass. Pressure drop across 42 . Inequalities of flow through each pass to the extent of 10% can be tolerated. while operating on manual mode or pass balancing is not working. Finally heated crude enters a common manifold of 28” size. PI-1428 indicates pressure at radiation zone outlet in common transfer line. To avoid repetitive description. Pass balancer receives software input signals from FIC-1101 controlling crude flow. conceived for future implementation. current values of all crude heater pass flows and temperature as indicated by FIC-1401 through FIC-1404/TI-1407 through TI-1410.
2 FUEL SYSTEM 05-FF-001 is a balanced draft furnace. 05-FF-001 is a dual fired furnace i. The convection section provided at the top of the radiation section serves to increase the thermal efficiency of the furnace by removing further heat from the flue gas. The radiation section has four identical cells & each cell has two flow passes. The furnace has 19 burners. using MP steam are provided in convection zone of the heater. Pressure drop across the heater coil is a measure of internal tube condition and increase in pressure drop indicates tube fouling due to coke formation in the tubes. Soot blower steam connections are taken from 4” MP steam header. Emergency coil steam connection are give in each pass. either fuel gas or fuel oil or both can be used as fuel. To facilitate safe approach to emergency steam even during an emergency scenario like fire in heater area. Snuffing steam (Box purging steam) connection in header boxes and radiation zone of the heater are provided to extinguish fire and provides steam blanketing LP steam is used for the above snuffing steam header. Emergency steam. Convection selection has horizontal tubes. In this section heat is primarily transferred by radiation from the flame and hot combustion products. decoking steam connections are taken from 10” MP steam header. Each burner is mounted vertically upward at furnace floor. Furnace fuel systems are discussed below.pass I measured as a difference of PI-1401 & PI-1428 readings is indicated in dc. Tubes in radiation section are arranged vertically along the walls. Soot blowers. The combustion chamber houses the radiant tubes.6. common valve on emergency steam and box purge steam has been provided at a safe distance of at least 15 meters from heater.e. Both the convection and radiation sections are used for heating crude. 3. Turn down ratio for the heater is spelt out in section 1. 43 . down stream of pass flow control valves to displace the crude from the coil to the column during any emergency or after normal shut down operation. Need of soot blowing will be indicated by poor heat pick up in convection zone and slight increase in flue gas temperature.
Fuel gas flow to the main FG burners is indicated in DCS by FI-1417.6. for actuating SDV-1406 when the alarm has come. PG-1418/PG-1425 indicates FG pressure in main and pilot gas lines in field at heater battery limit. PB-1401 has provided in the pilot line. To arrest carry over of foreign particles like rust etc a 100-mesh strainer is provided on the line. It can be cascaded with crude oil coil outlet temperature (COT) controller TIC-1416 through a selector switch SS-1415. eliminating this possibility. FG to main burners passes through a shut down valve SDV-1403 whose open or close position is indicated in control zoom by ZLH-1403 A/ZLL-1403B. accumulation of un-burnt FG in firebox and possibility of explosion/back fire through heater opening is exists. 44 .A FUEL GAS SYSTEM Fuel gas (FG) from battery limit is supplied by a 8” header. Fuel gas pressure and hence flow to burners is controlled by PIC-1423. FI-1416 is provided to measure FG flow to pilot burners. If fuel gas pressure falls below PALL-1424A set value. A 2” FG tapping upstream of shut down valve SDV-1403 has been taken for pilot burners. COT can be used to select either for fuel oil or fuel gas as the fuel-controlling COT. Minimum stop limit to PV-1423 and all valves on similar duty has also been considered to avoid extinguishment of FG burners on closure of valve due to signal from COT controller TIC-1416. A local temperature & pressure alarm PAL-1435B and a very low-pressure trip alarm PALL-1424A is provided at the inlet of fuel gas to the main burners. The FG line is steam traced to avoid condensation of heavier components in it inside the line itself and carry-over of hydrocarbon liquid droplets to the burner. Pressure in the pilot gas line is manually adjusted.3. chances of flame failure in burner. Actuation of PALL-1424A will shut the SDV-1403 on fuel gas supply to the main burners of the furnace. On the pilot fuel gas line.2. A low-pressure alarm PAL-1419B will alert the operator when pilot gas pressure falls.
When fuel oil is fired. it can get congealed despite the fact that tracing steam of the FO circuit is on. Circulation in heater area FO piping (forming a closed circuit across all passes called fuel oil ring) is maintained even when no FO burner is in use. Local PG near heater battery limit is also provided to indicate pressure the FO in the field for local burner adjustments. A fuel oil pressure low low trip alarm PALL-1427B and a pre trip alarm PAL-1426A are provide on FO (supply) line. CBD/OWS drain is provided on FO (Return) line.6. the circulation can be maintained outside heater. the net consumption of fuel oil is measured as the difference between the two by FDI-1420.2. it needs to be always maintained in circulating state. FO circulation past heater as well as each burner should be maintained. 2” flushing oil connection is provided on FO (supply) line. If it is left stagnant and unused in oil burners and piping. FO and atomizing steam lines are routed to each burner of the cell. Since FO is normally a congealable material. Pressure gauges are provided on FO and atomizing steam line of each burner. These provisions are used to flash the line within battery limit after heater shut down. Purge steam connection is provided on each oil burner. A ratio of 1:1 fuel oil consumption to return is normally maintained to obtain good control on firing and prevent congealing of the IFO system. When there is no need of FO firing in the heater. Flow indicator FI-1420 is provided on main fuel oil supply line and FI-1419B is provided on the main fuel oil return line from heater. it is atomized or sprayed as a fine mist for releasing complete combustion. The spraying of 45 . through a 2” header called ring by pass. To prevent congealing inside piping. FO is drawn by individual burners through a 3/4” header from main FO supply line and balance quantity is sent to FO return header. This return header from cells joins a common return header before leaving heater area. Shut down valves SDV-1402/SDV-1401 is provided on supply & return header of fuel oil. FO burners should be kept steam purged when idle. Since this is a closed circuit through which FO circulation is maintained.B FUEL OIL SYSTEM Fuel oil (FO) is supplied to atmospheric furnace by a 4” line under pressure control PIC1415.3. Open and close indications for these valves are available in control room.
taking pressure signals from FO supply and MP steam headers simultaneously.5-2. 05-KA-001 A/B. Air pre-heater is a shell and tube type heat exchanger. Local pressure gauge is also provided on the atomizing steam header. 3.3 AIR PRE HEATER(APH) The heat carried away by the flue gas after the convection section is utilized for preheating the air required for combustion. Combustion air from FD fan enters APH.FO is done by de-superheated MP steam in FO burners.4 COMBUSTION AIR SYSTEM Combustion air is sucked from atmosphere by the FD fans. Bypass is provided to divert cold air with the help of hand operated damper HIC-1462 & HIC-1463 in case APH outlet temp is below 176 OC to avoid corrosion. Flue gas exchanges heat with cold air in tube side of APH. Pilot burners are self inspiriting type and do not consume combustion air from FD fan discharge. It maintains the atomizing steam pressure 1. 46 . The combustion air is preheated by flue gases in pre-heaters CAPH (05-FD001) & GAPH (05-FD-002). Atomizing steam is supplied to heater through a 4” header. To arrest carry over of foreign particles like rust etc.6. Cold air from atmosphere is sucked by FD fans and forced through shell side. Atomizing steam pressure is controlled by differential pressure controller PDIC-1420. Cold flue gas from Air Pre-heater is discharged back to at D/S of stack damper and let out to the atmosphere. A pressure transmitter and thermocouple are provided on the combustion air to F-1. The hot flue gas leaving the convection section of furnace is sucked by an ID fan 05-KA-002 from up stream of stack damper and through tubes of APH. a 100-mesh strainer is provided on the line 3.0 Kg/cm2 above fuel oil pressure. The combustion air required for heater burners is supplied by two forced draft fans. Atomizing steam pressure and flow is measured by PI-1421A and FI1418.6. Atmospheric heater has independent air preheating system to cater combustion air requirement of its burners.
47 . Button is provided near DCS panel Slowly increase ID Fan suction HIC opening by operating 5PC1451.ID Fan Circulating Oil Flow Low. 3.3. Reduce HIC opening to 0%.ID fan coupling reset.ID Fan Circulating Oil Flow Low.Incremental openings of 0. At around 10-15% opening the motor gets decoupled. Stop ID fan from the field or by activating 5HS1457C ID Fan Stop Button provided on DCS panel.5.6. As soon as the motor gets coupled.1 ID FAN STARTING PROCEDURE Keep STD open by 100% Bypass following interlocks o BPS1418: .6.5. the coupling indication on panel turns from pink to red. As soon as the motor starts.ID Fan Speed Low. Open Furnace Stack Damper completely by increasing 5HC1453 opening gradually to 100%.6.2 ID FAN STOPPING PROCEDURE Bypass following interlocks o BPS1418: . Reset HS1456: .The opening of 5PC1451 to be decreased gradually. As soon as motor gets decoupled. Slowly decrease ID Fan suction HIC opening by operating 5PC1451. When ID suction temperature achieves >160 0 C fully or as per requirement close STD. the indication of motor on panel changes from red to pink.ID Fan Speed Low Start ID Fan from the field. o BPS1415: . the coupling indication on panel turns from red to pink.2 to be given.5 ID/FD FAN STARTING & STOPPING PROCEDURE The following procedures are to be followed for starting and stopping of ID & FD fans. 3. o BPS1415: .
FD1B fan flow low low interlock. Its indication on panel remains red. the indication of motor on panel changes from pink to red. Close STD. 05FSLL1453 . Open slowly 5HIC1451 (by 0.Total Air flow low low interlock. Reset SOV1451: .3 FD FAN STARTING PROCEDURE Case 1: . As soon as the motor gets coupled. Open STD by 100%. 3. the motor indication on panel turns from red to pink.2% MV in steps).6.FD 1A coupling reset SOV. Start FD.FD1A discharge damper.FD fan1A low speed interlock Reset SOV1454: .FD1A fan circulating lube oil flow low low interlock. As soon as the motor starts. 05BPS1412. Then. Case 2: .One FD Fan is Running And Other FD Fan TO Be Started Consider the case FD 1A is running and FD 1B to be started Open STD by 100% Following interlocks to be kept in bypass mode while starting FD fan: 05FSLL1454 . If it does not changes into green color I/M to be notified to attend it. Increase load as per requirement. Following interlocks to be kept in bypass mode while starting FD fan: 05FSLL1455 .Same procedure to be applied for FD-1B.FD1A fan flow low low interlock. 05FSLL1460 . As soon as it is reset the indication on motor panel has to change from red color to green color. 48 .No FD Fans Are Running And One FD Fan To Be Started: Consider the case of FD-1A.5. At around 15-20% HIC opening the fan gets coupled with motor.
49 .Simultaneously increase 5HC1452 so as to maintain same constant combustion airflow to the furnace. 05BPS1412.Total Air flow low low interlock. the motor indication on the panel changes from pink to red.FD1A fan circulating lube oil flow low low interlock. Close STD.4 FD FAN STOPPING PROCEDURE Consider the case of stopping FD-1A when both FD Fans are running.Its indication on panel remains red.FD fan1A low speed interlock Reduce 5HC1451 opening in steps of 0.6. Then slowly reduce 5HC1451 opening to 0%. At about 10-15% opening the fan gets decoupled with the motor.FD1B fan circulating lube oil flow low low interlock.2. Reset SOV1455: .FD fan1B low speed interlock. As soon as the motor gets coupled. At around 15-20% HIC opening the fan gets coupled with motor. the motor indication on panel turns from red to pink. Start FD. Following interlocks to be kept in bypass mode while starting FD fan: 05FSLL1455 . 05FSLL1463 .5.FD1A fan flow low low interlock.Total Airflow low low interlock.FD 1B coupling reset SOV .FD1B discharge damper. Open slowly 5HIC1451 (by 0. 05BPS1453. As soon as the motor gets decoupled. Then Reset SOV1452: . As soon as the motor gets decoupled. 05FSLL1453 . 05FSLL1453 . Adjust FD1 /FD2 load. As soon as it is reset the indication on panel has to change from red color to green color and airflow is obtained. close SOV1454 FD Fan 1A discharge damper. 3. Then stop FD1A by pressing HS1451C button provided on DCS panel. 05FSLL1460 .2% MV in steps).
50 .5. 6. Then slowly open the gas burner valve to the burner where pilot burner is in line and light it up.6. By operating B/V present in d/s of SOV1406 maintain pilot gas header pressure around 1.5kg/cm2. Slowly increase FG c/v opening manually such that gas pressure at the burner is around 1.5 FURNACE LIGHT UP PROCEDURE 1. To create a –ve draft inside furnace of about –5mm H2O to –3mm H2O. Check & close all FO / FG / Pilot gas burner valves. Check all igniters. 3. Take FG c/v 5PC1423 in manual mode. 11. below mentioned procedure is to be followed a. 4. This is because if airflow is very high then it is difficult for the burner to be light up. 5. Ensure all the individual gas burner valves at the furnace are closed before opening the SOV. Start box-purging steam at a rate such that slight steam is seen coming out from the stack.FG low pressure interlock.FG Shut Down Valve. Keep low pass flow interlock FALL 1401 through FALL 1404 in line. 9. Once all the pilot gas burners are lighted up. pressure gauge is present in the field and flow indication is on the panel. Pinch the primary and secondary air register of the pilot burner to be taken in line. 8. Reset pilot gas shut down valve SOV1406. If needed pinch the air registers of adjacent burners. Bypass PALL1424: . Ensure all the individual pilot gas burner valves at the furnace are closed before opening the SOV. Stop box purging steam after creating a –ve draft. Light up pilot gas burner with electrical igniter. 10. Fully open Stack damper. c. Steaming is done to serve two purposes i) ii) To purge out hydrocarbons from inside. Start FD fan. 7.2 kg/cm2. 2. For this. Now Reset SOV1403: . gas burners are to be taken in line.3.0-1. b. d.
bypassing inter lock. 5.5 kg/cm2 Take FO c/v 5PC1415 in manual mode. Get 5PC1423 & SDV 1403 closed. 3. Cut off first oil burners one by one & flush with steam. 8. Once steam flushing is over slowly take FO burner in line and light it up. Reset SOV1402: . Slowly increase FO c/v opening manually such that oil pressure at the burner is around 4 kg/cm2.6 FURNACE CUTOFF PROCEDURE gradually to 100%. Close gas burners one by one except one.IFO Return shutdown Valve i. By this FG header to furnace will be depressurized. 3. 7. 1. For taking FO burner in line f. Open the FO return valve present near Burner Number 19. After all the gas burners are off. Bypass PALL1427: . k.If this is not opened then congealing will occur. Do steam flushing of the burner by means of flushing steam line present in each burner.6. Maintain 5PC3111 around 8. Blind FG and Pilot gas lines. After putting off all pilot burners. j. then close the burner block valve. Ensure all the individual oil burner valves at the furnace are closed before opening the SOV h. 2.5. Keep IFO circulation on 6. 4. isolate individual burner valves.FO low pressure interlock g. cut off pilot gas burners by closing the main isolation valve.e.Take FO c/v 5PC1415 in manual mode.FO Shut Down Valve. Stop ID Fan as per ID Fan stopping procedure. Now Reset SOV1401: . For putting off the last burner isolate gas at main isolation valve. l. First bypass following interlock FO Low Pressure Interlock PALL1427. Open Furnace Stack Damper completely by increasing 5HC1453 opening 51 .
Fuel oil pressure at the inlet of furnace goes very low as sensed by PALL-1427 when the furnace is operating on fuel oil.Furnace cut off IFO SDV 1402 close BPS-1405—2. Actuation of emergency push button shall stop fuel oil/gas to heater.7 FURNACE INTERLOCKS Following interlocks are provided to trip the furnace: 1. 52 .5.3. 4. Crude oil flow through individual passes to the furnace goes low as sensed by any of FALL-1401 to FALL-1404. FUEL GAS PRESSURE LOW LOW: PALL-1424---BPS 1407---FUEL GAS SDV CLOSE 2. It will close SDV-1403 on fuel gas line to main burners of FF-001 only. It closes SDV-1402/SDV-1401 on fuel oil supply & return lines.IFO return SDV1401 close 3. FUEL OIL PRESSURE LOW LOW: PALL-1427---BPS-1407---FUEL OIL SDV CLOSE 3.6. It will close both fuels to heater excluding pilot FG 05-FC-1401-PASS FLOW LOW LOW—FALL 1401 05-FC-1402-PASS FLOW LOW LOW—FALL 1402 05-FC-1403-PASS FLOW LOW LOW—FALL 1403 05-FC-1404-PASS FLOW LOW LOW—FALL 1404 1. Fuel Gas pressure at the inlet of furnace goes very low as sensed by PALL-1424A when the furnace is operating on fuel gas. FG supply SDV1403 Close.
furnace will cut-off.5. 05-KA-01B (FD fan) Circulating Oil flow low low (FALL 1463) FALL-1463—BPS 1417---FD 1B TRIP 9. Very low speed of 05-KA-02 (ID Fan) ID FAN SPEED LOW---BPS 1415---ID FAN TRIP If stack damper doesn’t open with in 30 sec. Very low total combustion air flow (FALL 1453) Fuel Oil SDV 1402 close FALL-1453---BPS 1409---. furnace will cut-off. 7. CAST APH O/LET TEMP. 05-KA-02 (ID Fan) Circulating Oil flow low low (FALL 1457) FALL-1457---BPS 1418---ID FAN WILL TRIP If stack damper doesn’t open with in 30 sec. HIGH TSHH-1497----STACK DAMPER OPEN If stack damper doesn’t open with in 30 sec. 6. furnace will cut-off. Very low speed of 05-KA-01A (FD Fan) FD FAN 1A SPEED LOW---BPS 1412---FD FAN 1A TRIP 10.Fuel Gas SDV 1403 close Fuel Oil return SDV 1401 close. furnace will cut-off. Very low speed of 05-KA-01B (FD fan) FD FAN 1B SPEED LOW---BPS 1413---FD FAN 1B TRIP 12. 53 . 05-KA-01A (FD Fan) Circulating Oil flow low low (FALL 1460) FALL-1460—BPS 1416---FD 1A TRIP 8. 15. Very low suction air flow of 05-KA-01B (FD fan) FD FAN 1B SUCTION AIR FLOW LOW---BPS 1413---FD FAN 1B TRIP 13. Very low suction air flow of 05-KA-01A (FD fan) FD FAN 1A SUCTION AIR FLOW LOW---BPS 1412---FD FAN 1A TRIP 11. 14. Very high arch pressure (PAHH 1452) ARCH PRESSURE HIGH HIGH–PAHH–1452---BPS1410---STACK DAMPER OPEN If stack damper doesn’t open with in 30 sec.
Local and control room DCS mounted flow indications (FIC-1410. When no more coke is removed by spalling as indicated by relatively clear colour of effluent. Number of passes selected for spalling and coke burning is largely dependant on limitations posed by steam availability and piping network.6 DECOKING SYSTEM Steam air decoking (SAD) of atmospheric heater tubes is done to remove coke deposit from inside heater tubes with the help of steam and air. FIC-1412. These are carried to 05VV-017 after being quenched in flue gas line as well as decoking pot by service water from where it is drained out. FIC-1409 indicates total flow of plant air into MP steam lines for SAD.3. To carry out SAD. Service Water and MP Steam connections to each pass flow are provided to dislodge coke film deposit from inside the heater tubes. Sudden release of coke during spalling may result in choking of the piping handling effluent or as hot spots on 54 . It comprises of decoking pot 05-VV017 and piping for Plant Air. For this operation a dedicated arrangement called SAD arrangement is provided. FIC-1414) are provided on each steam connection. Burning of the coke is indicated by increased tube metal temperature and presence of CO/CO2 in flue gas. Heater pass flow outlets are connected to the Decoking Drum 05-VV-017. Coke is burnt by oxygen of air and thus tube cleaning is achieved.6. MP steam is introduced in heater passes and it is fired from outside. This operation is called spalling. Increased pressure drop and hard firing in furnace indicates requirement of steam air decoking of the heater tubes. Removal of coke results in clean heater tube internals & improves heater performance by better heat transfer to process field. Service water quench provision is given on 05-VV-017 as well as flue gas line to quench the contents before letting out to atmosphere. SAD also achieves low-pressure drop through heater tubes and reduces chances of hot spot on heater tubes. Thermal shock caused by flame cracks coke scales inside tube and flowing steam dislodges them. Plant air is injected to burn the remaining coke film deposit clinging inside heater tubes and achieves final cleaning of the tubes. FIC-1413. Air along with steam is introduced into pass flow to burn the coke of inside tube while firing from outside. pass flow inlet and outlet of the furnace 05-FF-001 are isolated from process network and connected by means of swinging elbows with the decoking network.
which is largely bottom product. This over flashed material is washed with gas oil coming down from below of 15th tray. Local pressure gauges and DCS mounted TI are provided to indicate pressure/temperature profile inside the column. During SAD utmost care should be taken so that heater tube temperature does not exceed the limit provided. However. 3. Certain degree of over flashing of crude is desirable for proper stabilization of LR and fractionation of gas oil components.6 at 375 C. called Long Residue. 3. this will result in less gas oil yield and higher energy consumption without any advantage. SAD of only one pass at a time should be done if limitations in steam and SAD piping are experienced. Tray 7th to 14th forms the wash zone section of atmospheric column along with LR. Over flash is achieved by setting up COT at slightly higher than actually required. Description of entire column has been taken up zone wise. Atmospheric column CC-001 contains 51 valve type trays for side stream withdrawal. Non-flashed liquid moves down ward. Flow of over flash liquid can be increased by both increasing COT and condensing more material on 7th tray gas oil draw off. The column has a stripping section at the bottom. SAD of other heaters can also be planned along with CDU heater subject to limitations in steam availability & case of monitoring. 55 .tube during burning.7 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN Please Refer P&ID 3551-05-02-41-0115 Rev. Too large flow of over flash liquid may result in drop in bottom temperature and lighter bottom product.2 The crude after final heating in furnace is fed to the Atmospheric Column for separation of products by fractionation. It has lower diameters at top and bottom sections than middle to cater to higher vapor load in middle section.1 FLASH ZONE Heated and partly vaporized crude feed coming from fired heater enters the flash zone of the column above tray no.7. LR. It strips out heavier vapor components coming up which otherwise would move-up & cause coloration of gas oil stream. Hydrocarbon vapors flash in this zone and get liberated.
5 Kg/cm2 g and 2300 C for stripping of LR. Flash zone temperature and pressure is indicated by TI-1502/PI-1525. 1000 mm piping elevation is provided between liquid entry nozzle on 6th tray and U loop bottom tangent line over which FE-1504 is mounted. Sour water flow is measured by FI-1801 & its pH is indicated by PHI-1601. One line of 3” is provided above 8 th tray to release uncondensed components from over flashed liquid.2 OVERHEAD SECTION Refer P & ID No. This elevation provides adequate liquid build up on up stream of FE and ensures un-flickering.Over flash flow and temperature is indicated by FI-1504/TI-1527. MP steam is introduced in the column below tray 1. On actuation of boot level alarm low (indicated b LAL-1603) SOV-1601 shall 56 .2 The overhead vapors of Atmospheric Column C-01 at 1120 C/1150 C passes through the overhead air condensers 05-EA-001 A-H (Fin fan cooler) and trim condenser 05-EE0016A/B/C/D/E/F. Steam flow to column is regulated based on outgoing LR quantity to FPU/Storage. Steam stripping helps to remove lighter constituents from the bottom product LR by reducing their partial pressure and vaporize without requiring addition heat. Steam flow to column is controlled by FIC-1506. 3551-05-02-41-0116 Rev. Top pressure of atmospheric column is maintained by PIC-1504. Min.7. at approximately 3. 3. Additionally it provides some back pressure which is required to prevent flashing just down stream of flow orifice due to pressure drop. Desalters PSVs are released to above 6th tray of fractionating column (CC-01). atmospheric column bottom low level. manipulating PV1504A on outgoing uncondensed gases from 05-VV-002 to flare or PV-1504B on incoming FG from fuel gas header. The condensed Naphtha & steam are accumulated in crude column overhead reflux drum 05-VV-002. Condensed hydrocarbons are allowed to settle in reflux drum where steam condensate settles in vessel boot and is pumped by P42A/B to desalter water drum 05-VV-004 or sour water stripper of SRU unit under inter phase controller LIC-1602. Hydrocarbon vapors liberated by flashing move up along with steam in the column for further mass transfer at trays in upper section.e. steady flow through orifice. SS-1501 is provided for cut-off the LR Pump 05-PA-051A/B to storage if LIC-1501 i.
Reflux drum level controller LIC-1606 can be cascaded with discharge of stabilizer feed pump flow controller. For a particular type of crude and crude through put. Ahuralan is dozed at the top of column to arrest corrosion and ammonia solution is dozed O/H vapor outlet line to maintain sour water PH level @ 6 to 6. Specific heat of CR is fixed by operator in 57 .be closed by operation and the flow has cut off.3 MIDDLE SECTION: Middle section of the column has circulating refluxes and product withdrawal network. These circulating refluxes are drawn from their respective product draw off trays and are routed to preheat recovery trains for heat recovery before entering back to the column again. Minimum flow protection controllers FI-1610B/FI-1611B are provided for discharge of reflux pumps & stabilizer feed pumps respectively. FIC-1701. This flow controller can be cascaded with atmospheric column top temperature controller TIC1501 for precise control of column top temperature. the CR under reference will have certain duty. 3. three circulating refluxes (CR) systems are provided viz. Duty controllers are provided on CR circuits to control CR flow rates to column. this arrangement prevents heating of pump due to closed discharge operation & resultant damage to pump. Kero/ATF CR. A part of accumulated hydrocarbons in 05-VV-002 is be pumped back to atmospheric column as top reflux by Column reflux pumps 05-PA-005A/B/C under flow control FIC-1505 to control top temperature. and Gas Oil CR. This will be governed by total crude flow and specific heat of CR and is called desired CR duty. Heavy Naphtha CR. Excess quantity of Naphtha in reflux drum is pumped by stabilizer feed pumps 05-PA06A/B/C to stabilizer as feed. CR temperature difference and CR flow are measured by various instruments.7. In order to maximize heat recovery and balance the column loading for maintaining proper temperature profile across the column. Actual CR duty is also computed by duty controller based on real time measurement of temperature difference between CR draw off and CR return stream. These duty controllers take corrective action based on actual CR duty & desire CR duty. CR flow rate and specific heat of CR. minimum continuous flow to each pump.5. Total crude flow. In the event of low flow in reflux or stabilizer feed lines due to throttling of control valves.
05-EE007A/B/C. Column bottom level control can be done either by manipulating LR flow to FPU/Storage during normal operation or by manipulating LR flow. 3.2 3551-05-02-41-0118 Rev. This is typical to all such duty controllers on circulating reflux lines. LR at a temperature of 365 C is pumped out from the bottom of the column by LR pumps 05-PA-051A/B/C to LR Storage (or) FPU through (i) 05-EE-010A/B/C/D. A low level switch along with alarm LSLL-LALL-1504 is also given. 05-EE-004. (ii) 05-EE-107A/B. 05-EE-021 and 05-EE-022A/B/C/D.7.2 3551-05-02-41-0111 Rev.4 BOTTOM SECTION (RCO CIRCUIT) Please Refer P&ID’s 3551-05-02-41-0115 Rev. EE-111A/B. EE-103A/B. Desired CR duty is compared with actual CR & the flow of CR is varied to achieve desired CR duty. ZLH-1501A & ZLL-1501B limit switch connected through the MOV-1501 for open (or) close indication to DCS. Bottom temperature and LR pump suction temperature are indicated by TI1522. 58 . Desired CR duty should be estimated on pro-data feed rate basis to CDU. Independent level control LIC-1501 with high & low level software alarm is provided to have redundancy of indication. MOV-1501 also provided at column bottom LR line. Difference X sp.2 3551-05-02-41-0113 Rev. Column bottom level is indicated and controlled by LIC-1501.2 Long Residue product is collected at bottom of the column.software for computation purpose and no on line measurement for this property is available. SS-1501 selector switch is also provided for cutting the LR flow to LR Storage/FPU when the atmospheric column level is low. Actual and desired CR duty is calculated in the duty controller as under: Actual CR duty = Measured CR flow X CR temp. 05-EE105A/B/C/D/E. Heat of CR stream Desired CR duty = (Desired CR duty/Desired total crude Flow) X Actual Crude flow Inputs to be manually configured by operator are specific heat of CR stream and ratio (Desired CR duty/ Desired total crude flow) for each crude.
Whereas Heavy Naphtha stripper C2 bottom temperature is controlled by FC 1507 casketed with TC 1538 situated across E15.R. CR. 3. Top CR flow is controlled by 05-FC-1501 Kero C.5 CIRCULATING REFLUXES/PUMP AROUND CIRCUITS Three circulating refluxes are described below.7. G. EE-14 (CC-05 re-boiler). Kero-I CR Pump P102A/B discharge flows through exchanger EE-104 tube side. LGO Pump PA-12A/B/C discharge flows through EE-09A/B shell side.Pushbutton PB-1501A & PB-1501B are provided to close the MOV-1501 and to trip the LR pump 05-PA-051A/B.Drawn from tray-16 to pump PA-12A/B/C (LGO Cr Pumps) and pumps 104A/B (HGO CR pumps) at temperature ~ 300° C to 315° C. 28.O. C5 bottom temperature is controlled by FC1704 casketed with TC 1707 situated across E14. HGO CR pump PA-104A/B discharge flows through exchange EE-108A/B shell side and then joins with LGO CR line at d/s of FC-1503 via flow controller FC-5010. CR .6 PRODUCT DRAW OFF TRAYS: 59 .. EE-15 (CC-02 re-boiler) and then enter back to column via flow controller FC1503 on tray-18.O. (1) Top CR (2) Kero CR (3) G. (1) Top CR – Drawn from tray – 43 to pumps PA-07A/B @ temp ~ 150° C PA-7A/B discharge to exchangers 05-EE-02 tube side EE-02 tube outlet stream returns back to column CC-01. Flow is controlled by FC-1502 situated between EE-05 shell out let to CC-01 line. Kero-I CR and Kero-II CR are joining together and enter back to CC-01 on tray No. CR flow is controlled by 05-FC-5008 located at D/S of EE-104 outlet to CC-01 line. Kero-II C/R Pumps 05-PA-10A/B/C discharge flows through EE-06A/B shell side. Kero CR temperature is controlled by temperature controller TC1116 placed across EE06A/B. EE05 shell side and ultimately to column CC-01. 3.7.Drawn from tray 25 to pumps PA-10A/B/C (Kero–II CR) and PA-102A/B Kero-I CR) @ temp 200° C to 220° C.
3. HN in 05-CC-002 bottom is re-boiled in re-boiler 05-EE-015 by HGO C/R. They are described as under: 3. Is indicated by TI-1512. Kero/ATF. Gas oil is indicated by temperature indicators TI-1526/1509/1510 respectively in DCS.1 HEAVY NAPHTHA STRIPPER Ten valve type trays are provided in HN stripper 05-CC-002. Kerosene/ATF. LP steam is used to purge the column during M&I S/D. 3551-05-02-41-0115 Rev. Kero /ATF and GO. 3000 mm elevation difference from 05-CC-001 column nozzle to upstream of each level control valve for its smooth functioning 1500 mm elevation down stream of the level control valve ensures sufficient back pressure to prevent flashing just down stream of control valve & consequent two phase flow in product draw off piping.8 PRODUCT STRIPPERS Refer P & ID No. 28th and 17th tray of the atmospheric column.8. GO strippers goes back to fractionators column are provided joining at 36th. Minimum 1500 mm elevation difference is provided between stripper entry nozzle and LV-1506 piping to provide back pressure and prevent flashing in piping. Draw off temperature of HN. TI-1503/TI-1504/TI-1505 provided on vapor return lines from HN. 26th and 15th trays of atmospheric column to respective strippers 05-CC-002/05-CC-003 and 05-CC-004 (under respective level control of strippers). Local PG and LP steam connections are also provided on this stripper. Heavy Naphtha. HN is stripped off by its hot vapors generated in re-boiler 05-EE-015. Kerosene/ATF. Vapor return lines from HN. GO strippers indicate Vapor return temperature. Mass transfer between down coming HN liquid from tray 10 to bottom and uprising HN vapors takes place on each tray. viz. Outgoing HN temp. Stripped light vapor goes back to 36th tray of atmospheric column.Heavy Naphtha. 60 . Gas oil products (are withdrawn) flow by gravity from 34th. HN to be stripped is admitted on 10th tray of 05-CC-002 under its level control LIC-1506. 2 There are three side strippers for stripping out side draw off products from atmosphere column. Kerosene/ATF. Finally stripped HN is drawn by 05-PA-008A/B and sent to product cooling section.
Mass transfer between down coming Kero/ATF liquid from tray 6 to bottom and uprising vapors takes 61 . Euro-III header of HSD. LN R/D or BS2. The other part is cooled in cooler E20.8. It regulates MP steam flow to 05-CC-003 based on per unit mass of Kero/ATF product outflow.2 KERO/ATF STRIPPER Six valve type trays are provided in Kero/ATF stripper 05-CC-003. Steam to product ratio is decided by operator and configured in software for routine control. as indicated by FY-2203. PA-8A/B ⇒05-FC-5001 ⇒EE102 (LGO) • C1⇒LC1506⇒ C2⇒ P8A/B⇒ E20 (cooler) ⇒Coalescer ⇒PC2011 ⇒LN ⇓ ⇓ ⇓⇒ FC5001 ⇒E102A/B (LGO) (BS2) ⇒FC2011 ⇒ SKO ⇒FC1807 ⇒GO (EURO3) ⇓⇒ GO 3. MP steam is used as stripping medium in this stripper. In one branch it can be routed along with LGO through EE102 A/B via FC 5001. it flows through coalescer to remove carried over water.Gas oil CR supplies heat to Heavy Naphtha Stripper Re-boiler 05-EE-015 through F/C – 1502.O / LN. F/C-1502 is cascaded with TIC-1538. Kero/ATF to be stripped is admitted on 6th tray of 05-CC-003 under its level control LIC-1508. • • PA-8A/B ⇒ EE-20 (Cooler) ⇒. Minimum 1500 mm elevation difference is provided between stripper entry nozzle and LV-1508 piping to provide back pressure and prevent flashing in piping. and it can be routed to SKO R/D. Coalescer ⇒ for injection to SKO / G. MP steam reduces partial pressure of hydrocarbon components inside stripper and helps them vaporize at relatively low temp. After that. Steam flow is regulated by FIC-1508 on steam line. PA-08A/B discharge line is divided into two branches. Local PG and LP steam out connections are also provided on this stripper. Pumps 05-PA-8A/B get suction from CC-02 bottom.
Design data: salt to load: 61 Mt. Out let of both the circuits’ joins together & flows to caustic wash system. Stripped light vapors goes to 28th tray of atmospheric column & its temperature is indicated by TI-1504. Finally lighter end stripped Kero/ATF is drawn by 05-PA-009A/B and sent to preheat train I for exchanging its heat to crude in 05-EE-001. Outlet of V13 goes to water wash vessel V14 through HIC 2002. GO to be stripped is admitted on 6th tray of 05-CC-004 under its level control LIC-1510 Minimum 1500 mm 62 . Provision is also there to route SKO to HSD or LR for which tapping is taken at upstream of salt dryer. C1⇒LC1508⇒ C3⇒ P9A/B⇒ E01 ⇒E24/E23C (cooler) ⇒HC2201⇒ ⇒V13 ⇒HC2202 ⇒V14 ⇒ V15 (coalescer) ⇒FC2206 ⇒Salt dryer⇒SKO / LABFS / ATF ⇓ ⇒FC1809 ⇒HSD/LR 3. It is then passed through a vessel containing rock salt to absorb moisture from it. Continuous water circulation is maintained in this vessel to wash out carried out caustic along with it. It is further cooled in cooler E-23 / 24 before routing to caustic wash system.place on each tray.7. It can be routed to SKO/ATF/LABFS R/D as per requirement. Outlet moisture: <200 ppm SKO/ATF R/D flow is maintained FC2206 located U/S of salt dryer. Combined kerosene flows to caustic wash vessel V13 through mixing valve HIC2001. After caustic wash the stream is passed through coalescer V15 to remove carried over water particle along with it. which discharges to cooler EE-109.3 GO STRIPPER Six valve type trays are provided in GO stripper 05-CC-004.Continuous 10% caustic solution is circulated to neutralize H2S and light mercaptans present in it. Provision is made for Pump PA101A/B getting suction from same suction header of PA-09A/B. Inlet moisture: 1300-1500 ppm. Flow of this stream is controlled by 05-FIC-5007 located on EE-109 outlet line. its flow is controlled by FC 1807.
C1⇒LC1510⇒ C4⇒ P11A/B⇒ E8A/B ⇒EE03 ⇒E23A/B/C (cooler) ⇒FC1804⇒ ⇒ ⇒** ⇓ ⇑ ⇓⇒ P103A/B ⇒E106A/B ⇒FC5009 ⇒E102A/B ⇒E110A/B⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ FC 5003 ⇒R/D ⇒** V-301 ⇒⇑ ⇒ PC 5003 ⇒ R/D Mixed HGO & LGO from E110A/B and FC 1804 together enters the gas oil coalescer V301 to remove water carried over with it. It is further cooler in cooler E23A/B/C and its flow is controlled by FC1804. Water accumulated in coalescer is controlled by 63 . Then LGO flows through exchanges 05-EE-102A/B. EE106A/B outlet flow is controlled by 05-FC-5009. It is than further cooled in coolers 05-EE-110A/B before is mixed with HGO stream at D/S of 05-PC-1804. It regulates MP flow to 05-CC-004 based on per unit mass of GO product outflow. which enters to 17th tray of atmospheric column. Steam to product ratio is decided by operator and configured in software for routine control MP steam reduces partial pressure of hydrocarbon components inside stripper and helps them vaporize at relatively low temperature. Steam flow is regulated by FIC1509 on steam line. Finally stripped GO is drawn by PA-011A/B and sent to Crude Preheat Train II for exchanging heat with crude in 05-EE-008A/B (Gas Oil/Crude Exchanger – II) and then it is sent to Crude Preheat Train I for exchanging heat with crude in 05-EE-003 (Gas Oil/crude). TI-1516 measures the outgoing GO stripped vapor temperature. LGO product pumps 05-PA-103A/B get suction from same suction header of pumps 05PA-1A/B. LGO flow passes through exchanger 05-EE-106A/B in a parallel way. These vapors move up in the stripper column Mass transfer between down coming GO liquid from tray 6 to bottom and uprising MP steam hydrocarbon vapors takes place on each tray. as indicated by FY-1804. MP steam is used as stripping medium in this stripper.elevation difference is provided between stripper entry nozzle and LV-1510 piping to provide to back pressure and prevent flashing in piping.
LC-5LV-0301 which is drained out to OWS / CBD. Gas oil from Coalescer outlet is controlled by 1010FV5003 and 1010PV5003. Fixed quantity can be routed to desired R/D tank and rest amount can be routed to other tank under PC control. HSD R/D can be routed to as follows • • • • Euro-III header BS-2 header GHC gas oil R/D header. DHDS feed tank (At FCCU area) : Outlet water <20 ppm. 3.9 NAPHTHA STABILISER
Design data for HSD Coalescer: inlet water @ 600 ppm
Refer P&ID No. 3551-05-02-41-0117 Rev.2 Naphtha obtained in atmospheric column overhead Naphtha reflux drum 05-VV-002 contains some light ends like C3 and C4, which vaporize at normal atmospheric conditions. This naphtha if stored as such in storage tanks will release lot of hydrocarbon vapors and can create unsafe conditions and pressurization of the storage. To avoid these problems, the lighter components from naphtha are removed. This process is called Naphtha stabilization. Naphtha stabilization is carried out in naphtha stabilizer 05-CC-005 where C1/C2/C3 and C4 hydrocarbons are removed from naphtha. Stabilizer column has 43 nos. of SS-410 valve type trays. The column is provided with a set of safety valves PSV-1701/1702 set at 15-kg/cm2 g. Their discharge is routed to flare header. MP steam connection is provided on 05-CC-005 for steam purging of the column during shut down. DCS mounted temperature indication of top outlet; tray 38, tray 5 and bottom outlet are provided. Local PG at tray 43, and below tray I is also provided to monitor pressure profile in the column. Un-stabilized naphtha feed to the stabilizer is first heated up to 119 0 C in feed/ Stabilizer Bottom Exchanger 05-EE-018A/B & 05-EE-018C/D parallel by exchanging heat with outgoing stabilized naphtha product stream from stabilizer bottom. Feed from 05-VV-002 enters the column on the 20th tray under flow control FIC-1701 that is normally cascaded
with 05-VV-002 level controllers LIC-1606. Local PG, TG and TI-1701/TIC-1702 are also provided on feed line to monitor feed temperature pickup. Wild naphtha from DHDS, LAB plant & MSQ plant and drag stream from CRU are fed to stabilizer along with it’s feed. DHDS Wild naphtha & CRU drag stream fed through 2” line each and joins at B/L. Wild naphtha from MSQ & LAB lines were commissioned and wild naphtha enters the B/L through 2” line each joins at D/S of feed C/V FC1701. The stabilizer overhead pressure is maintained by pressure controller PIC-1701. This PIC-1701 acts on the control valve PV-1701 on outgoing line from stabilizer reflux drum to fuel gas system. In case of increase of stabilizer pressure above set valve PV-1701 shall open and allow more fuel gas vapor to FG system. This will cause drop in stabilizer pressure. Closure of this valve will increase stabilizer pressure due to less vapor flow through condenser and resultant less condensation. One hot vapor bypass of 4” size has also been provided across 05-EE-017A/B/C/D. It can be used to maintain stabilizer pressure in case of rapid fall of stabilizer pressure. HV-1701 can be made to act for this. TI-1729 indicates 05-CC-05 overhead vapor temperatures. Overhead vapors from stabilizer go to the stabilizer overhead condenser 05-EE-017A/B/C/D. The condensed liquid at 40 C is collected in the stabilizer reflux Drum 05-VV-003. This is LPG stream, consisting of C3 and C4 hydrocarbons. It is pumped out by naphtha stabilizer reflux/LPG product pumps 05-PA-014A/B under 05-VV-003 level control of LIC-1704. Part of it is used as reflux to 05-CC-005 to control top temperature. Its flow is controlled by FIC1703, which can be cascaded with 05-CC-005 top temperatures Controller TIC-1703. Uncondensed light hydrocarbons from 05-VV-003 top (C1/C2 component) termed as fuel gas are routed to fuel gas system. FIC-1702 measures net FG flow from 05-VV-003. PIC1701 controls the pressure of 05-VV-003, acting on outgoing FG line. FI-1710 indicates LPG minimum flow to 05-PA-014A/B. LPG is run down to LPG wash section under flow control FIC-2503. Sour water collected in the boot of 05-VV-003 is sent to CBD under vessel pressure. High water level in boot may result in water carry over with LPG and can make the stabilizer upset. The level in stabilizer reflux drum boot is indicated by LG-1705. Water draining from boot is done manually. Independent low-level alarm switches are provided in the boot. On actuation of level alarm low is boot, as indicated by LAL-1709, SDV-
1701 provided on sour water outlet line shall close. This feature shall prevent escaping of LPG with sour water during water draining. PSVs 1703/1704, set at 15.0 Kg/cm2 g are provided on the stabilize reflux rum 05-VV-003, whose discharge is routed to flare header. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire. 2” line connecting flare header with upstream of PSVs has been provided to depressurize the column to flare. 2” service water connection is provided on 05-VV-003 LPG outlet line to fill the vessel and wash the atmospheric column with water during shutdown. One stabilizer re-boiler 05-EE-014 is provided at stabilizer bottom to supply necessary heat duty for boiling the un-stabilized naphtha. Heating medium for this re-boiler is Gas Oil CR from 05-EE-009A/B. FIC-1704 provided at GO CR supply line to 05-EE-014 controls GO CR flow to re-boiler. Tray 5 temperature controller TIC-1704 can be used to control re-boiler duty with the help of FV-1704. It is to be noted that only one temperature control i.e. either top vapor outlet temp. or tray 5 temp. Should be used for stabilizer operation. While operating with relatively heavier un-stabilized naphtha stocks, tray 5 temperature is normally more sensitive and results in more energy efficient operation. One Baffle of adequate height inside column is provided. Height of baffle is so selected that it ensures availability of adequate liquid head, which will be necessary to cause gravity flow of colder liquid through re-boiler. Difference in densities of lighter and colder liquid establishes circulation through re-boiler. TI-1706/TI1726 measures the temp. Of GO CR supply and return respectively. Un-stabilized naphtha from column bottom flows to re-boiler under gravity and is re-boiled in 05-EE-014. Heated and partly vaporized naphtha from re-boilers enters below chimney tray. Lighter components from un-stabilized Naphtha move up in the tray in vapor form and condense in overhead condensers. Composition of re-boiler outlet liquid and liquid collected in column bottom on either side of baffle is considered same. Stabilized naphtha overflows to other side of baffle inside the column bottom. This is cooled in tube side of 05-EE-018A/B & EE18C/D then routed to product cooling section. 05-FI-5033 shows the light naphtha flow from stabilizer bottom to feed/bottom exchanger 05-EE-018A/B & 05-EE-018C/D. The temp. control valve TV-1702 has been provided at the bottom line and it has cascaded with TIC-1702 provided at feed line to stabilizer. TI-1716 measures the outlet temp. of light naphtha.
Stabilizer column bottom level is maintained by LIC-1702, acting as master controller to FIC-2004 (Light Naphtha to storage). Independent high and low level alarm switches are provided on column bottom. On actuation of level alarm low low in column bottom, as indicated by LAL-1707, SDV-1801 provided on bottom outlet line shall close. This feature shall prevent vapor break through i.e. escaping of vapors from stabilizer to caustic wash section. To cater the requirement of higher benzene & MS production, provision is made to process AU5 Light Naphtha without caustic wash to AU1 naphtha splitter section via 5FC5106. Accordingly modification is made & tapping is taken at D/S of Light Naphtha SDV. Two separate LN R/D line from battery limit is provided to cater requirement to route light naphtha to different rundown tanks. 3.10 LPG-AMINE ABSORPTION SECTION
Please refer P&ID’s 3551-05-02-41-0126 Rev.2 LPG mixture from Naphtha Stabilizer reflux drum 05-VV-003 is sent to LPG surge drum 05-VV-020 by 05-PA-014A/B under flow control FIC-2503. Sour LPG from outside battery limit (from AU4 (or) AU-3) also joins at down stream of FV-2503. The surge drum pressure is maintained at 10.0 Kg/cm2 by PV-2501, releasing to fuel gas system i.e. upstream of FG K.O. Drum. The level of the surge drum should always be maintained at 50%. Combined streams passes through a shut down valve SDV-2501 whose open or close position is indicated in control room by XL-2501B/XL-2501A. Separate high level switch LSHH-2501/LALL-2501 is provided to trip the combined stream flow to surge drum by closing SDV-2501. A low level switch LSLL-2502 along with LALL-2502 is also provided. LIC-2504 along with LAH/LAL has been provided for level control purpose. Interlock has been provided along with LSLL-2502 to trip the pump 05-PA-050A/B. The LPG from the surge drum is pumped by the LPG booster pumps (05-PA-050A/B) to the bottom of LPG Amine absorber column (05-CC-006) under flow control of FIC-
2501. FIC-2501 is cascaded with LIC-2504 level of surge drum. FIC-2501 indicates total LPG flow from surge drum. FIC-2502 indicates minimum flow protection to 05-PA050A/B. PSVs’ 2501B set at 15 Kg/cm2 are provided on the top of surge drum 05-VV020, whose discharge is routed to flair header. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire. 2” line connecting flare header with upstream of PSV’s has been provided to depressurize the drum to flare. In this LPG absorber column LPG is brought into contact of lean amine solution counter currently under flow control FIC-2601. The lean amine is available at 35 C from the Amine regeneration unit in the existing GHP Sulphur block, which is taken to the column on flow control. LPG Amine absorber column has 10 nos. of trays. The column is provided with a set of safety valves PSV-2601A & 2601B. Their discharge is routed to flare header. Separate high pressure switch PSHH-2601 along with PAHH-2607 is provided in column top for controlling the column pressure by the way of lean amine flow cut off. A low level switch LSLL-2605, SDV-2602 (whose open/close position ZLH-2602B/ZLL2602A at DCS) provided on bottom rich amine line shell close on very low C06 level.. This feature shall prevent escaping of LPG with rich amine during low level. FI-2602 measures rich amine quantity from absorber column to ARU. The H2S in LPG is transferred to the amine and rich amine is sent back to ARU unit for regeneration through column bottom level control LIC-2602. Amine washed LPG is sent to amine settler 05-VV-004. In this settler Amine is separated in the boot and washed LPG the top is sent to caustic wash. Amine collected in the boot 05-VV-004 is drained to Amine blow down (or) OWS. The level in Amine settler boot is indicated by LI-2603 has provided with LAH/LAL software alarms. Amine draining from boot is done manually. On actuation of level alarm low in boot, as indicated by LALL2602, SDV-2601 provided on amine outlet line shall close. This feature shall prevent escaping of LPG with amine during amine draining. 3.11 PRODUCT COOLING AND RUN-DOWN SYSTEM II) 3551-05-02-41-0120 Rev.2
Refer P&ID No:I) 3551-05-02-41-0118 Rev.2
Light Naphtha product from 05-EE-018A/B/C/D) is cooled from 79 C to 40 C in cooler E19A/B. Cooler O/L temperature can be seen by. TI-1801 shows in DCS. Light Naphtha from the cooler is fed to Light Naphtha caustic wash drum VV9. SDV-1801 is provided at the outlet line of product cooler. This product line is provided with additional tapings to slops header. Heavy Naphtha from the bottom of its stripper is drawn by 05-PA-008A/B and pumped at 184 C. The product is cooled in heavy naphtha cooler 05-EE-020 up to a temp.of 40 C. From the heavy Naphtha cooler (05-EE-020) it is sent to Heavy Naphtha Coalescer. Heavy Naphtha Coalescer 05-VV-025 is provided for reducing saturated water content in Heavy Naphtha from 0.8 wt% to 100 ppm. Coalescer element is provided inside the vessel to meet the above-mentioned parameter. Retention time is 4 hours for enabling water droplets to settle in coalescer LI-2010B shows the coalescer level in DCS. FI-2010 measures net Heavy Naphtha quantity from coalescer. From the coalescer, the product is sent to Light Naphtha Storage under pressure control PIC-2100. In the common product line, 3 tapping are provided for different destinations. • • • The HN product can be sent to Gas Oil storage under flow control of FIC-1807 The HN product can be sent to Kero R/D line under flow control of FIC-2011 1” line tapping has provided from common HN product line for corrosion inhibitor drum Water collected in the boot of 05-VV-025, is sent to OWS under level control. Water draining from boot is done manually. On actuation of level alarm low in boot, as indicated by LALL-2100, SDV-2003 provided on outlet water line shall close. This feature shall prevent escaping of product during water draining. Two PSVs 2005/2006 set at 15 Kg/cm2 are provided on the coalescer 05-VV-025 whose discharge is routed to flare header. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire. A 2” line connecting flare header with upstream of PSVs has been provided to depressurize the vessel to flare. Kero-II product flows from 05-PA-09A/B to EE-01 exchanger. Then it flows through cooler EE-024. After cooler kero-II product flows through caustic wash vessel VV-13,
and EE-107A/B/C/D/E. Kero is injected to G. Product tapings for slop header and LR circulation to unit crude pump suction for unit start up is also provided.O. to GHC HSD R/D (3) G. (2) G. EE103A/B/C. Kero can be injected to RCO R/D as carter stock HN to G. G.O. can be routed to slops-header.O. (either to O. to BS2 and (4) GO to EuroIII Kero can be injected to G. After that the product has sent to LR storage under flow control FIC-1806 through FV-1806.O.O. injection ( Both Euro-II & BS2 separately) G. can be taken to FLO line for flushing purpose.M&S.O. This product line is provided with additional tapings to slops header and DHDS unit and flushing oil. Provision is made to route Hot LR to VDU as hot feed via 5FC1805 in June 2006 and a 2” line tapping is provided to route FPU-2 Heavy gas oil to cold LR rundown at battery limit as carter stock. of 40 C and sent to RD through FV-1804 under flow control of FIC-1804. Coalescer o/l is routed to R/D via salt dryer (SKO / ATF / LABFS) & FC 2206.: I) 3551-05-02-41-0120 Rev 2 70 . 05-EE-007A/B/C (LR/Crude Exchanger II). or to FCC) through FC 1809. 05-EE-004 (LR/Crude Exchanger I). • • • • • • G.6 C/113 C is further cooled in 05-EE-023A/B/C & E110A/B (Gas Oil Coolers) up to a temp. 3. The outgoing LR temperature is around 143 C/ 134 C.2 C sent to crude preheat trains II & I for exchanging heat with incoming crude through 05-EE-010A/B/C/D (LR/Crude Exchanger III). TI-1804 measures the GO outlet temp. product G. via FC-1809. Remaining LR product sent to further cooling at LR cooler 05-EE-022A/B/C/D up to the temperature of 80 C. EE-105A/B. Gas Oil from old & new circuit at 107. Long residue from 05-PA-051A/B/C at 363.O.O can be routed to three locations. to FCC units.O.9 C/364.12 CAUSTIC/WATER WASH FACILITIES Refer P&ID No.water wash vessel VV-14 and coalescer VV-15. After this the LR is cooled at LR cooler 05-EE-021 & EE-110A/B up to 120 C outlet of this cooler one portion has sent to FPU storage under flow control FIC-1805 through FV-1805.
Mixing of the two streams can be improved by throttling the mixer rotation. This is called spent caustic and is drained out through 2” line to spent Caustic water Wash drum 05-VV-006. Mixing in the static mixer results in conversion and transfer of H2S.II) 3551-05-02-41-0119 Rev 2 III) 3551-05-02-41-0122 Rev 2 Caustic wash is generally used to remove Sulphur components like hydrogen sulphide and/ or methyl & ethyl mercaptan. On repeated circulations. Spent caustic draining from the bottom of the vessel 05-VV-006 is done manually. strength of caustic goes down to less than 7.1. mercaptan & other chemicals to sodium sulphides. LPG caustic wash circulation pump 05-PA-017A/B. Kerosene and ATF are washed with 10% caustic solution to remove CS2. During this operation. H2S. 71 . Depending on efficiency of mixing in the mixer. Naphtha. Typical retention time is 90 minutes to 45 minutes. LPG is admitted in LPG Caustic wash vessel 05-VV-006 through a static mixer 05-JV-002. SDV-1901 provided on spent caustic outlet line shall close.A LPG CAUSTIC WASH SYSTEM LPG from Amine Wash Unit is routed for caustic water wash. Traces of caustic are removed by water washing of these streams. This feature shall prevent escaping of LPG with spent caustic during spent caustic draining. Hydrocarbon phase separates out from caustic in 05-VV-006 due to adequate availability of residence time. takes suction from bottom of 05-VV-006 and discharging into 05-VV-006 through mixer. phenols and mercaptan which may be present or can be generated during processing.12. Independent low-level alarm switches are provided in the vessel. Caustic solutions are hazardous wastes. 10-vol% caustic solutions is circulated by these pumps where it is mixed with LPG. Caustic solution settled in 05-VV-006 bottom is re-circulated again. caustic hydrocarbon emulsion is formed which is allowed to settle in a vessel. Equal volumes of hydrocarbon liquid & caustic solution are mixed / re-circulated. The caustic water wash systems are described below: 3. LPG overflows from top of 05-VV-006 to water wash vessel 05-VV-007 through another static mixer 05-JV-003.5% of its initial strength due to picking up of compounds mentioned above. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-1903. reduction of above chemicals shall take place.
Kero/ATF wash system. This feature shall prevent escaping of hydrocarbon vapors with spent caustic during pumping.1. LI-1901B with LAL has been provided for measuring the level of the vessel. Independent low level alarm switches are provided in the vessel. 05-VV-006 always operates with full of liquid. An inter phase of alkaline water and water washed LPG is formed in 05-VV-007. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-1906. LI-1911 with LAL/LAH has been provided for measuring level in the vessel. Light Naphtha. PSV-1901 & 1902 are provided on 05-VV-006 top. Water washed LPG floats on top of water in the vessel. whose discharge is routed to flare header. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-1914. Water entering with LPG settles down in lower portion of 05-VV-007. Vapors disengaged from caustic solution escape to flare and spent caustic is pumped out to ETP by spent caustic pumps 05-PA-043A/B. Spent Caustic degasser 05-VV-016 is a vertical vessel connected with flare. SDV-1902 provided to arrest escaping of washed 72 .During Caustic make up. LI-1904B with LAL shows the level of the vessel. Circulating water flow measures through FI-1903B in DCS. without any vapor space. Independent low level alarm switches are provided in the vessel. It receives caustic from LPG caustic wash. Water mixes with LPG in 05-JV-003 results in its water saturation. SDV1904 provided on spent caustic degasser outlet line shall close. Water saturated caustic free LPG is routed to LPG coalescer 05-EE-008. normally caustic circulation should no be stopped and strength of spent caustic solution should be increased by gradual draining and equivalent make up by 05-PA-025A/B. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire. Therefore to remove these traces of caustic solution LPG water wash vessel 05-VV-007 is provided.12. 3. LPG water circulation pump 05-PA-018A/B takes suction from 05-VV-007 bottom and discharges water back to vessel through the static mixer 05Jv-003. Quantity of caustic make up in indicated by FI-1901B.B LPG WATER WASH SYSTEM LPG carries with it fine droplets of caustic solution which can make product corrosive if stored as such. This alkaline water draining from the bottom of the vessel 05-VV-007 is done manually.
FIC1906 measures net LPG quantity from coalescer to storages. Coalescer element is provided inside the vessel to meet the abovementioned parameter. the product is sent to LPG storage under pressure control of PIC-1912 through PV-1912. is sent to OWS/CS under level control. LI-1910B shows the coalescer level in DCS. as indicated by LALL-1909. phenols mercaptan & other chemicals to caustic solution. 2” line connecting flare header with upstream of PSVs has been provided to depressurize the vessel to flare. Retention time is 4 hours for enabling water droplets to coalescer and separate efficiently from LPG. Water draining from boot is done manually. SDV-1903 provided on outlet water line shall close. From the LPG Water Wash vessel 05-VV-007 the top portion is sent to LPG Coalescer LPG Coalescer 05-VV-008 is provided for reducing saturated water content in LPG from 0.LPG with water during draining. whose discharge is routed to flare header. This feature shall prevent escaping of product with during water draining. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire.12. Water collected in the boot of 05-VV-008. Two PSVs 1905/1906 set at 15 Kg/cm2 are provided on the coalescer 05-VV-008.2 wt% to 80 ppm. 10% vol caustic solution is circulated by these pumps where it is mixed with Naphtha. taking suction from bottom of 05-VV-009 and discharging into 05-VV-009 through mixing valve HV2001 are provided. Depending on efficiency of mixing in the mixing valve. 3. reduction of above chemicals shall take place. From the Coalescer. Quantity of water make up to 05-VV-007 by 05PA025A/B is indicated by FI-1904B. PSVs 1903/1904 are provided on 05-VV-007 top to prevent it from over pressurization due to exposure of vessel in the external fire.A LIGHT NAPHTHA CAUSTIC WASH SYSTEM Light Naphtha from light naphtha cooler 05-EE-019 is routed for caustic wash. Mixing results in conversion and transfer of H2S. 05-VV-007 always operates with full of liquid.2. Light Naphtha is admitted in Light Naphtha caustic wash drum 05-VV-009 through a mixing valve HIC/HV-2001 Caustic circulation pumps 05-PA-019A/B. On actuation of level alarm low in boot. without any vapor space. In the common product line there is a product tapping for LPG Vaporizer. Mixing of the two 73 .
streams can be improved by throttling the stream valve with the help of HIC-2001. Independent low level alarm switches are provided in the vessel. LI-2004B with LAH/LAL has been provided for measuring the level of the vessel 05-VV-009 always operates with full of liquid. This feature shall prevent escaping of fresh caustic solution with spent caustic during spent caustic draining. During Caustic make up. 74 . SDV-2001 provided on spent caustic outlet line shall close. PSV 2001/2002 are provided on 05-VV-009 top. Caustic solution settled in 05-VV-009 bottom is re-circulated again on repeated circulations. normally caustic circulation should not be stopped and strength of spent caustic solution should be increased by gradual draining and equivalent make up. Spent caustic degasser 05-VV-016 is a vertical vessel connected with flare. However. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-1914. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-2003. without any vapor space. Independent low level alarm switches are provided in the vessel. Quantity of caustic make up is indicated by FI-2003B. This feature shall prevent escaping of hydrocarbon vapors with spent caustic during pumping. reduced port opening of the mixing valve increases stream velocity through the valve. Naphtha over flows from top of 05-VV-009 to water wash vessel 05-VV-010 through another mixing valve HIC-2002/HV-2002. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire. whose discharge is routed to flare header. LI-1911 with LA/LAH has been provided for measuring level in the vessel. It receives caustic from LPG caustic wash. Hydrocarbon phase separates out from caustic in 05-VV-009 due to adequate availability of residue time. hydrocarbons vapors disengaged from caustic solution escape to flare and spent caustic is pumped out to ETP by spent caustic pumps 05-PA043A/B. resulting in better energy transfer to streams for mixing. SDV-1904 provided on spent caustic degasser outlet line shall close. This is called spent caustic and is drained out through 4” line to spent Caustic water degasser 05-VV-016. impact of additional pressure drop due to mixing valve throttling on run down control valve and upstream system should be carefully evaluated and monitored. Spent caustic draining from the bottom of the vessel 05-VV-009 is done manually. strength of caustic goes down to less than 75% of its initial strength due to picking up of compounds mentioned above.
On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is Indicated by LALL-2007. which can make product corrosive if stored as such.2. Stabilizer bottom level controller LIC-1702 can also be cascaded with this flow controller to maintain level in the stabilizer bottom. An inter phase of alkaline water and water washed naphtha is formed in 05-VV-010. Quantity of water make up to 05-VV-010 is indicated by FI-2005B.3. 05-VV-010 always operates with full of liquid. This feature shall prevent escaping of washed naphtha with spent caustic during water draining. Water entering with Naphtha settles down in lower portion of 05-VV-010. For this purpose. LI-2008B with LAL/LAH shows the level of the vessel.B LIGHT NAPHTHA WATER WASH SYSTEM Caustic washed naphtha carries with it fine droplets of caustic solution. This alkaline water draining from bottom of the vessel 05-VV-010 is done manually. Naphtha water wash vessel 05-VV-010 is provided for this purpose. 3.12. Circulating water flow measure through FI-2002B in DCS. Water washed naphtha from the top of the vessel (caustic free) is routed to light naphtha storage by Light Naphtha Product pump 05-PA-041A/B under flow control of FIC-2004 through FV-2004. PSVs 2003/2004 are provided on 05-VV-010 top to prevent it from over pressurization due to exposure of vessel in the external fire. SDV-2002 provided on alkaline water line to spent caustic water degasser shall close. Water mixing with Naphtha in HV-2002 results in its water saturation. Therefore these caustic solution traces need to be removed from naphtha before sending it to storage. without any vapor space. through water wash is given to Naphtha. Independent low level alarms switches are provided in the vessel.A KERO/ATF CAUSTIC WASH SYSTEM Kero/ATF from Kero/ATF cooler 05-EE-024 / 23C is routed for caustic water wash.3. Light Naphtha water circulation pump 05-PA-020A/B takes suction from 05-VV-010 bottom and discharges water back to vessel through HV-2002. 75 .12.
On repeated circulations. whose discharge is routed to flare header. strength of caustic goes down to less than 75% of its initial strength due to picking up of compounds mentioned above. SDV-2201 provided on spot caustic outlet line shall close. During Caustic make up. Spent Caustic draining from the bottom of the vessel 05-VV-013 is done manually. Mixing in the valves results in conversion and transfer of H2S. normally caustic circulation should not be stopped and strength of spent caustic solution should be increased by gradual draining and equivalent make up. resulting in better energy transfer to streams for mixing. 05-VV-013 always operates with full of liquid without any vapor space. impact of additional pressure drop due to mixing valve throttling on rundown control valve and upstream system should be carefully evaluated and monitored. Mixing of the two streams can be improved by throttling the mixing valve with the help of HIC-2201. Hydrocarbon phase separates out from caustic in 05-VV-013 due to adequate availability of residence time. 10-vol% caustic solution is circulated by these pumps where it is mixed with Kero/ATF. LI-2202B measures the level in the Kero/ATF Caustic Wash drum 05-VV-013. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-2203. phenols. 76 . This is called spent caustic and is drained out through 2” line to spent Caustic/water degasser 05-VV-016. However. reduction of above chemical shall take place. Depending on efficiency of mixing in the mixing valve. Kero/ATF Caustic circulation pumps 05-PA-023A/B. LI-2202B with LAL has been provided for measuring the level of the vessel. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire. Quantity of caustic make up is indicated by FI-2201B. taking suction from bottom of 05-VV-013 and discharging into 05-VV-013 through mixing valve HV-2201 are provided. Kero/ATF overflows form top of 05-VV-013 to water wash vessel 05-VV-014 through another mixing valve HIC-2202/HV-2202. This feature shall prevent escaping of hydrocarbons with spent caustic during spent caustic draining.Kero/ATF is admitted in Kero/ATF caustic wash vessel 05-VV-013 through a mixing valve HIC/HV-2201. Independent low level alarm switches are provide in the vessel. Reduced port opening of the mixing valve increases stream velocity through the valve. Caustic solution settled in 05-VV-013 bottom is re-circulated again. mercaptans & other chemicals to caustic solution. PSV 2201/2202 are provided on 05-VV-013 top.
Kero/ATF vapors disengaged from caustic solution escape to flare and spent caustic is pumped out to ETP by spent caustic pumps 05-PA-043A/B. Quantity of water make up to 05-VV-014 is indicated by FI-2204 B. It receives caustic from LPG caustic wash. This feature shall prevent escaping of washed Kero/ATF with spent caustic during spent caustic draining. Water mixing with Kero/ATF in HV-2202 results in its water saturation. Water saturated with caustic free from Kero/ATF settles down in lower portion of 05-VV-014. LI-1911 with LAL/LAH has been provided for measuring level in the vessel. Light Naphtha. Therefore these caustic solution traces need to be removed from Kero/ATF water wash is given to Kero/ATF. An inter phase of alkaline water and water washed Kero/ATF is formed in 05-VV-014. Kero/ATF Caolser 05-VV-015 is provided for reducing water content in 77 . Circulating water flow measures through FI-2203 B in DCS. which can make product corrosive if stored as such. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-1914. Independent low level alarm switches are provided in the vessel.Spent Caustic degasser 05-VV-016 is a vertical vessel connected with flare. SDV-2202 provided on alkaline water line to Spent Caustic/water degasser shall close. Kero/ATF water wash vessel 05-VV-014 is provided for this purpose. From the Kero/ATF water wash vessel (05-VV-014) the top portion is sent to Kero/ATF Coalescer. Water washed Kero/ATF floats on top of water in the vessel. On actuation of level alarm low in the vessel is indicated by LALL-2206.12. PSVs 2203/2204 are provided on 05-VV-014 top to prevent it from over pressurization due to exposure of vessel in the external fire. LI-2205B with LAL shows the level of the vessel.B KERO/ATF WATER WASH SYSTEM Caustic washed Kero/ATF carries with it fine droplets of caustic solution. 3. This alkaline water draining from the bottom of the vessel 05-VV-014 is done manually. SDV-1904 provided on spent caustic degasser outlet line shall close.3. Independent low level alarm switches are provided in the vessel. Kero/ATF water circulation pump 05-PA024A/B takes suction from 05-VV-014 bottoms and discharges water back to vessel through HV-2202. 05-VV-014 always operates with full of liquid without any vapour space. This feature shall prevent escaping of hydrocarbon vapours with spent during pumping to ETP.
e. caustic solution. It prevents vessel from getting over pressurized in case of external fire.5+0. SDV-2203 provided on outlet water line shall close. The purpose of injection caustic at the outlet of desalter is to achieve better mixing of these chemicals with crude and neutralize the acids and salts. 3. whose discharge is routed to flare header. Coalescer element is provided inside the vessel to meet the above-mentioned parameter. FI-2205 measures net Kero/ATF quantity from coalescer to storage. product tapping for Kero/ATF to Gas oil rundown has provided.2 wt% to 100ppm. in the common product line.13 CHEMICAL INJECTION FACILITIES Refer P&ID No: 3551-05-020-41-0124 Rev. Two PSVs 2205/2206 set at 15 Kg/cm2 are provided on the coalescer 05-VV-015. the product has sent to Kero/ATF storage under flow control of FIC-2206 through FV-2206. Water collected in the boot of 05-VV-015. is sent to OWS under level control. mainly HCL and H2S as soon as they are formed (at a temp. From the coalescer. Measures must be taken to over come their effects. 78 . 2” line connecting flare header with upstream of PSVs has been provided to depressurize the vessel to flare.2. Retention time is 4 hours for enabling water droplets in coalescer and separate efficiently from Kero/ATF.5 Hydrochloric acid from the salt in the crude and hydrogen sulphide dissolved in the crude (or formed from the dissociation of heavy Sulphur compounds present in crude) concentrates in the overhead system. On actuation of level alarm low in boot. LI-2210 B shows the coalescer level in DCS. as indicated by LALL-2209. Both form of acid solutions. Of 120 C and above) the reaction products i. In order to protect this section. This feature shall prevent escaping of product with during water draining. The balance acids and acid gases if any will go up to the overhead system where ammonia is injected in the overhead vapor line to neutralize. ammonia solution and corrosion inhibitors are added at various points. which are corrosive.Kero/ATF 0. Water draining from boot is done manually. sodium and ammonia salts go along with reduced crude. The overhead system including condensers and reflux drum is made of carbon steel. Amount of ammonia should be controlled in such a way that pH of reflux drum water remains at 6.
Top section of the column is also benefited from the injection of corrosion inhibitors mainly in the reflux line. which cover entire metal surface of the system with a thin film.13.& two tanks. which might scale up the overhead condenser tubes. The inhibitor is also added in reflux line. It is diluted to two different strengths for use in unit. Strong Caustic solution from 05-TT-001 is pumped by caustic make up pump 05-PA-033 to 10% caustic dilution tank 05-TT-002A/B from 05-TT-002A/B is pumped by caustic make up pump 05-PA-032A/B to following destinations. This prevents contact of corrosive water with metal surface. • • To Kero/ATF caustic wash To LPG Caustic wash 79 . 05-TT-006A/B provided to store weak caustic solution with strength of 3.1 CAUSTIC INJECTION Caustic solution having strength of 47% is received from off sites through 3” header. The amount of inhibitor injected depends upon the type of inhibitor used and generally specified by the vendor. One strong tank 05-TT-001 stores strong caustic solution with strength of 47% two tanks 05-TT-002A/B provided to store weak caustic solution with strength of 10 %. which if precipitates would foul and plug the condensers.Injection of caustic at the outlet of desalter should be maintained in such a way that the salt formation should be low in the overhead circuit. Care should be taken to ensure that tanks are not pressurized due to inadequate relieving of air through tank vent. Various points of chemical injections are listed below: 3. LI”s and overflow lines are provided on each tank. Five caustic tanks are provided within battery limit. A slightly acidic condition of the overhead system is desirable to keep ammonium salts in solution.5% Each strong tank is provided with DM water connection for dilution purpose. However slight adjustment is made by operating personal depending upon iron content in the reflux drum water. These inhibitors are high boiling compounds and can perform satisfactorily at higher column top temperature also. Corrosion against slightly acidic conditions is minimized by adding corrosion inhibitors in the overhead vapor line. These inhibitors are filming organic compounds.
Water seal will blow off during excess pressure build up in the vessel. brought from out side agency. and it is diluted with heavy naphtha.13.2 Ammonia gas drawn from ammonia cylinder. 3. DM water connection is provided on ammonia vessel for preparing solution.13.4 Corrosion inhibitor (Ahuralan) is received in drums and transferred to ahuralan solution making drum 05-VV-019A/B. • • To suction of crude charge pump 05-PA-001A/B/C/D/E To upstream of desalters 05-VV-001A/B CORROSION INHIBITOR/AHURALAN SOLUTION INJECTION 3. Corrosion inhibitor chemical is unloaded into 05-VV-019A/B with the help of hand pump.• To Light Naphtha Caustic wash Dilute caustic solution from 05-TT-006A/B is pumped by Caustic injection pumps 05PA-031A/B to following destination: • • • To suction of Crude charge pumps 05-PA-001A/B/C/D/E To Caustic Mixer (05-JV-001) connected from discharge of desalter outlet to desalter crude pumps 05-PA-002A/B/C To upstream of desalters 05-VV-001A/B AMMONIA SOLUTION INJECTION 3. Diluted ahularan 80 . is injected at reduced pressure into ammonia solution vessel 05-VV-018A/B. Sample point and draining arrangements to OWS/CBD are also provided on vessel. Local level gauge. Ammonia solution vessel is a vertical vessel with a water seal on its vent to prevent escaping of ammonia while preparing solution. 05-VV-019A/B is vertical drum operates at atmospheric pressure. FI-2411 measures the net quality of ammonia to crude column overhead. Finally prepared ammonia solution is injected by ammonia solution injection pumps 05-PA026A/B to Crude column overhead line.3 DEMULSIFIER INJECTION Dissolved demulsifier chemical is pumped out by 05-PA-027A/B and is injected to the following destinations FI-2405 measures the net quality of demulsifier from 05-PA027A/B for consumption.13.
The effect of operating variables is indicative only. however the significance of only major changes caused by variation in operating parameters are discussed here.14 It is important that the operation of process units should be conducted to produce products of desired quantity. particularly for a complex operating system like fractionation.is pumped out by 05-PA-029A/B and is injected into crude column overhead lines and stabilizer overhead lines. FI-2407 measures the quantity of Ahuralan consumed at Naphtha Stabilizer overhead lines. but usually has a cascading effect on other operating variables and other aspects of operation. keeping all other parameters unchanged in real situation it may not be possible to change a variable in isolation. • • • Light Naphtha water wash vessel LPG Water wash vessel Kero/ATF water wash vessel EFFECTS OF OPERATING VARIABLES 3. From 05-TT-005 wash water is pumped by wash water makeup pumps 05-PA-040A/B to the following destinations for water wash purpose. LI-2408 with LAH/LAL and overflow lines is provided in the vessel. The effect of varying operating variables should be evaluated in totality. At the same time appropriate controls should be exercised on certain parameters to prolong the length of continuous run and life of the equipment.5 WASH WATER SYSTEM DM Water is received and stored at Wash water make up tank 05-TT-005.13. The effect of a particular operating variable may not remain limited to only those aspects as discussed below. The following general guidelines describe effect of the process variables and measures to be taken to achieve desired results: 81 . In following discussion. FI-2406 measures the quantity of Ahuralan consumed at crude column. it is assumed that operating variable under reference only is varied. 3.
1 DESALTER OPERATING VARIABLES Only operating experience with desalter can determine optimum operating conditions.1. Initially the injection rate should be limited between 2-6% of crude flow rate and point of injection should be just upstream of the mixing valve.A WATER INJECTION & PRESSURE DROP Water injection should be started only after the crude temp. The higher the total pressure drop (inclusive of mixing valve and desalter). which can be adjusted by manipulating mixing valves at desalter inlet. Once this is done. water injection should be considered upstream of preheat trains. No two crude behave alike at the same desalting conditions. the more efficient the contact between the salt in the crude and the injection water. resulting in carry over of water in the desalted crude.1.14. Optimum water injection rate and pressure drop across mixing valve should be established to get the desired desalting of crude. reaches specified desalting value and power is switched onto the grid. 3. A pressure drop between 1 to 2 Kg/cm2 is normally sufficient. if sudden pressure surge takes place.B OIL/WATER INTERPHASE LEVEL The oil-water interface level should be maintained below the centre line of the desalter vessels to avoid escaping of water and sludge along with the crude. If crude is Napthenic.14. but all are affected similarly by change in desalting conditions. The pressure drop across mixing valve should be adjusted to give the required degree of desalting. Incorrect operation of the interface level controller can result in more water in desalted crude due to less hold uptime available for oil(high interface level) and more oil carry over in brine water due to less hold uptime available for water (low water 82 . the conditions should be maintained steady and should be varied only for changes in feed rate and feed quantities.14. Too highpressure drop will result in excessive emulsification and poor separation of oil and water. 3.3.
The amount of chemicals required to break the emulsion dependents on the nature of the emulsion. Lower the temp. Demulsifier soluble in Kerosene has been considered for use in the unit.14. a voltmeter and ammeter.F VOLTAGE AND AMPERAGE The desalter electrical panel typically houses pilot lights.1.14. The voltmeter gives the voltage across the primary circuit of the transformer.1. higher the viscosity of the oil that slows down the separation rate. High pressure may result in popping of the safety valve on the desalter.14. Also too high an interface level may push battery mixture up between the electrodes and cause them to short circuit.1. tripping the electric grid and rendering the electrical system inoperable until the thermal relay is closed. Very high temp may lead to vaporization of crude in the desalter. Excessive amperage will eventually cause the circuit breaker to open. type of crude and other operating conditions like residence time. 3. range of around 127 C for Kero case and 123.14.C DESALTER VESSEL PRESSURE The normal pressure in the vessel should be maintained at about 13 Kg/cm2g or as specified by desalter vendor.level). etc. Required emulsification chemical injection rate should be established empirically for optimum operation of desalting unit.D DESALTER TEMPERATURE Desalting temperature is another important variable. 3.5 for ATF case. The ammeter 83 . As crude conductivity and solubility of crude in water increases with temperature operating beyond this range will lead to drop in grid voltage and high amperage which imposes limitation on good separation. temp.E DEMULSIFIER INJECTION Tight crude water emulsions can be broken by use of demulsifying chemicals. Most crude oils have an optimum-operating temp. which affects oil water separation in Desalter. 3.1. A low pressure may cause vaporization of crude fractions at prevailing desalting temp. 3.
Yield & quality of products drawn from upper section of the column may not be affected much. For more details about the operation of desalter the vendors operating and maintenance manual should be referred.g. This quantity is measured by FI-1504 and at normal capacity the flow is about 25/20 M3/hr (about 6 to 9% vol. 3.14. Dry operation of these trays should be avoided to minimize coke-forming tendency. leading to coke deposition and higher pressure drop. This also indicates the presence of liquid level in the trays down below the GO draw off section. Maintaining excessive over flash flow will result in more consumption of energy without any advantage & more RCO generation.3 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRESSURE 84 .e. At the same time specification of heavy products may not met and higher recovery may be experienced at a given temp. In order to achieve proper separation i. gas oils & below (by making then off spec due to carry of heavier components from LR) and lowering down recovery as well as LR will contain more lighter components. This may reduce overall run length of the unit and may force a planned shut down. 3. Higher than normal coil outlet temperature enhance crude cracking possibility inside heater tubes. the amperage will increase and the voltage will drop. These meters give an indication of the performance of the grids inside the desalter.14.gives the current flow. In case. on crude charge feed). desired recovery of distillates a little over flash is maintained by keeping the transfer temperature slightly on higher side. crude water emulsion is too tightly bound or if the interface level is too high there will be flickering of the pilot light. Take corrective action to break the emulsion or reduce the interface level. Lower heater coil outlet temperature will effect product quality more in lower section of the column e.2 HEATER COIL OUTLET TEMPERATURE (COT) AND OVER FLASH The quantity of crude oil vaporized during its passage through the atmospheric heater depends on transfer temperature and the pressure at the flash zone of the column.
Higher than normal top pressure will have reverse effects. which may increase rate of corrosion in the top section of the column. There will be more load on overhead condensers and loss of lighter components may take place from reflux drum to maintain normal operating pressure. It is important to note that column pressure is largely dependent upon equilibrium conditions in reflux drum. Column operation with lower top pressure will make all side draw products and top stream slightly heavier. IBP of HN shall also increase. Similarly reduction of top temp. CR and GO CR are controlled by respective duty 85 . will start steam condensation at the top section of the column.The effect of column top pressure is more pronounced on lighter streams. Kero. at same operating pressure will result in increase of FBP and make of light naphtha will increase. particularly lighter streams. Lower column top pressure aids in greater vaporization of all streams. During normal operation total condensation of overhead stream is expected and thus both the control valves of split range pressure controller (on FG make up side as well as flare side) shall remain shut. will reduce FBP and yield of light Naphtha. depending upon type of crude. To overcome effect of change in top temp. 3.14. The effect will be reflected in LR also (bottom most stream) which will become lighter. 3. IBP of first side draw off (Heavy maintain its draw off temp.4 MAIN FRACTIONATING COLUMN TOP TEMPERATURE The column top temperature is controlled by regulating amount of overhead reflux through FC-1505 cascaded with TIC-1501. Increase in column top pressure will increase column flash zone pressure also. The flows of the three circulating refluxes: Heavy Naphtha CR. Efforts should be made to operate the column at the intended design pressure only. Increased flash zone pressure will result in lower product yield of all side off streams.14. Increasing the top temp. HN draw off should be suitable adjusted to The circulating Reflux mainly removes heat form the column and reduces the vapour load in the particular section of the distillation column.5 CIRCULATING REFLUXES FLOW Naphtha) shall also come down. Too low top temp.
Any change in circulating reflux affects quality and quantity of its own product and those products. making GO and LR lighter. Thus GO will be lighter and Kerosene will also be lighter. The kerosene cut will be correspondingly lighter. If GO withdrawal rate is not reduced to maintain its draw off temp. When this heat removal becomes excessive. if kerosene product withdrawal rate is increased. the internal reflux in the trays below the draw off tray will be reduced. column top temp. of GO product. The effect of change of CR variation on other streams is not discussed. requiring corresponding reduction in GO draw off to maintain same FBP.14. Increase of circulating reflux flows will result in higher crude preheat temp. causing poor fractionation between overhead and HN. This will cause lower liquid transport between top tray and HN draw off. Likewise a high GO CR will tend to lower the draw off temp.controllers respectively. High GO CR flow will tend to lower the temp.6 PRODUCT WITHDRAWL TEMPERATURE The withdrawal (Draw off) temperature of the products is controlled by withdrawal rate of the streams. which are immediately above and below it. For example. 86 . as there will be less overhead product to condense. Increase in product withdrawal temperature makes it heavy. Increased kero draw off will have a tendency of lowering availability of material on GO tray. 3. these may be maintained by operating the bypass of respective exchangers also. requiring lower top reflux flow. its boiling range will shift upwards. shall also show a tendency of decline. Even through various CR return temperature will be governed by functioning of respective duty controllers. A higher than normal Heavy Naphtha CR flow will remove more heat from column in HN CR zone. It will come down. resulting in lighter product on this tray. by greater heat recovery in heat exchanger train. An increase in withdrawal rate of one side stream increases the withdrawal temperature and boiling ranges of all side streams down below in the column unless their withdrawal rates from the column are also reduced correspondingly. as it is not that much pronounced. Thus end point of kerosene is increased.
Stabilizer removes the majority of butane and lighter hydrocarbons from the naphtha stream. The stipulated bottom steam rate should be maintained by FIC-1508 & FIC-1509 for economical stripping and normally it should not be varied. the draw off of product just above it may be increased to enhance its IBP. 3. will make overhead product heavy.B STRIPPING STEAM IN STRIPPERS The flash points (IBP to some extent) of Kero/ATF and GO products can be controlled by varying the stripping steam rate to respective strippers.14. If the desired flash point could not be obtained by designed rate of stripping steam.7. C6 components may be carried into fuel gas and condensing in the distribution line after wards. kero and GO strippers as this will tend to lift some of the high boiling material into atmospheric column. attained by increasing top reflux will reduce heavier ends in fuel gas. Also it will ultimately overloads the overhead condenser system.14. Lowering the steam rate below the specified optimum value may leave some GO in the LR and this is undesirable. 3. High stabilizer top temp. HN.Similarly reverse action takes place when withdrawal temp. Exceeding the design steam rate might cause entrainment of LR into the GO because of excessive vapour velocity. 87 . is lowered by reducing the quantity of withdrawal.14. It is advisable not to exceed the steam/ vapour flow rate beyond the design value in any of product strippers viz.7. Lower top temp.A STRIPPING STEAM STRIPPING STEAM IN FRACTIONATING COLUMN Super heated MP steam is used to strip kero/ATF and GO at the bottom of the crude column. This may also be reflected in terms of flash point of the product. even C5. These are recovered as overhead fuel gas product. Use of MP steam in any of the strippers shall cause reduction of partial pressure of hydrocarbon and may result in evaporation of lighter components from the stock.7 3.
15 NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS LS NIGERIA Total N Flow 510 10500 263 365 365 141 151 150. in the column. This has got similar effect as that of higher temp. Too low bottom temp.3 113 BH FARCADOS CURDE TYPE m3/hr Tput: MT/D CIT COT COT Maintained Furnace (FF-01) FC-1401 M3/Hr FC-1402 M3/Hr FC-1403 M3/Hr FC-1404 M3/Hr Top Press Kg/Cm2 TOP Temp 0C Withdrawal Temp HN SKO GO Withdrawal Rate HN SKO GO CC-05 156 208 304 150 210 311 154 208 304 157 211 302 30 120 125 TOP 64 25 95 111 67 88 30 110 120 65 36 74 177 .3 141.3 2. Low stabilizer top pressure in the column will cause higher amount of hydrocarbon compounds (C3 and C4) to escape into overhead system. stabilizer top pressure should be lowered a bit.3 114 530 10800 263 351 370 154 151 156 147 2. may result in higher than allowable vapour pressure (RVP) of naphtha and at the same time it will reduce yields of overhead streams. To correct the situation.3 111 510 10500 264 365 360 141 153 151 141 2.3 114 HIGH SULPHUR 520 10800 274 375 375 150 161 153 144 2. 3.RVP of LPG may go up on account increased presence of C3 and lower components.
5 10. 10.16 Sl. cascaded 2)Ensure steady oil pressure. O2 analyser 1)2 to 3% excess air requirement should be maintained 2)More excess air means energy loss 3)Less than required air will lead to smoky burner & burner 89 .TEMP. which cutoff bottom draw at low level. In some column SDV is provided.3 Kg/Cm2 4 Column (CC. 0C CC-05 Top Pres. 5)Ensure healthy burner condition PC split 1)Ensure controller tuning range 2)Ensure good desalter between FG operation & Flare 3)Ensure steady top temp. 4)Ensure boot water level TC 1)Ensure controller tuning cascaded 2)Ensure normal reflux temp.5 CRITICAL OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INSTRUMENTS Critical Parameter Furnace Pass 80-140 flow m3/hr Furnace COT 365 – 3750C Equipment Instrument Provided FRC Remarks 3 Column Pressure top 2. with top 3)Ensure steady top pressure reflux 4)Ensure boot water level FI Maintain Over flash flow of 56 vol% by adjusting Gas Oil draw as per HSD recovery / pour point LI / LCV 1)Maintain 40-50% level cascaded 2)High level may colour gas oil with bottom 3)Low level may vapor lock R/D flow bottom pump.5 Kg/Cm2 3.5 10. with PC on 3)Ensure steady gas pressure oil or PC on 4)Ensure steady atomizing gas steam pressure.108-1200C 01) top Temperature Over Flash 15-20 m3/hr 5 6 Column Bottom Level 40-50% 7 Furnace O2 02-03% 1)Ensure flow above low alarm limit 2)Ensure equal pass flow through all pa passes TC 1)Ensure steady oil temp. No 1 2 10.
Sl. 2)Adjust air requirement 3)If required reduce T’put 1)Ensure furnace is not hard fired 2)Arrange for APH cleaning 1)Ensure that 30-40% level is maintained 2)At high level desalter load will increase.30 to 40% phase Level to TI 10 11 TI LDIC 12 Desalter Amps < 5 amps Ammeter 13 Desalter Pressure 11. 2)Increase demulsifier rate & reduce mixing valve pressure drop.5 14 Reflux drum 40 to 50% boot level PG / PC on pre desalter crude pump discharge line.tip coke up. 9 Furnace arch 850 temperature 9000C Furnace stack < 2500C temperature Desalter Inter.5 to 12. 2)At low-level naptha may drain along with sour water. 1)Ensure 30-40% level. 3)Open more ID suction vane 4)Reduce Excess air 5)Open STD 1)Adjust burner flame height. 1)Ensure controller tuning 2)Ensure that pressure is well below PSV set point 3)Ensure furnace pass flows are steady. resulting poor desalter operation 3)At low level chance of crude draining along with brine is there 1)Higher amps means higher desalter load. No 8 Critical Instrument Parameter Provided Furnace arch -5 to +2 PI pressure mmwc Equipment Remarks 1)Chance of back fire is there in case of high arch pressure 2)Inter lock is provided to cut off furnace in case STD does not open at high arch pressure. high water emulsion in crude oil or Due to sludge carry over with crude. May be due to high inter-phase level. LCV 90 .
4)Ensure desalter good operation 15 Caustic / 40 to 50% water wash vessel’s inter phase level LCV 1)Ensure 30-40% level 2)At low-level objective will not solve. Feed H2S may not get removed 3)At high-level caustic solution will be carried over to storage tank & wll result in failure of Cu-corrosion test.5 & Cl_ of < 3 ppm 2)For control Fe content < 2 ppm increase corrosion inhibitor dozing 16 Boot Water Chloride content Fe content High High 91 . resulting column condition upset. 3)At high-level water will carry over with reflux. 1)Increase caustic dozing & adjust ammonia to maintain boot water PH of 6-6.
CHAPTER-4 UTILITIES SYSTEM 92 .
DMW Distribution Systems 3551-05-02-41-0143 Rev. This header is provided with an isolation valve and a spectacle blind at unit battery limit.1 3551-05-02-41-0148 Rev.UTILITIES SYSTEM 4.2 INSTRUMENT AIR Refer P & ID No.2 LP steam.2 Flushing Oil Distribution Amine Drain Distribution System The utility system consists of Instrument Air (IA). Closed Blow Down (CBD).1 INTRODUCTION Please refer following P & IDs for major utility distribution description: 3551-05-02-41-0141 Rev. Various instrument air tapping are taken from this header.2 CW. Plant Air (PA). Fuel Gas & Flushing Oil. A local pressure gauge is also provided on this line.2 Flare System 3551-05-02-41-0146 Rev. PI-4306 indicates the pressure of instrument air at the battery limit. SW. Fuel Gas distribution system 3551-05-02-41-0144 Rev. Flare and Oily Water Sewer (OWS) system are provided within unit. Service Water (WS). Boiler Feed Water. HP steam. Cooling Water (WC).2 A 4” instrument air header supplies instrument air to the unit. Fuel oil. 3551-05-02-41-0143 Rev. PA System 3551-05-02-41-0142 Rev.2 CBD System 3551-05-02-41-0147 Rev. Fuel Oil. DM Water. 4. LP Steam. 93 . MP Steam.2 Instrument Air. Instrument air is used as motive force for pneumatically operated control valves.1 MP Steam/HP Steam/BFW system 3551-05-02-41-0145 Rev. in DCS. Instrument air consumption rate in unit is indicated by FI-4302 in DCS.
The CW supply line is provided with PI-4202. flow & temp.4. on the both the headers. FI-4102 indicates PA flow to unit.3 PLANT AIR Refer P & ID No. TI-4402 & PI-4207 are also provided on CW (Return) line. For decoking of crude furnace separate 4” tapping are taken from main header.3551-05-02-41-0141 Rev. Cooling water header serves following equipment in AU-5 unit: 05-EE-020 05-EE-019 05-EE-022A/B/C/D 05-EE-021 05-EE-111A/B 05-EE-023A/B/C 05-EE-024 05-EE-016A/B/C 05-EE-017A/B/C Hy.2 A 4” plant air header supplies plant air to the unit.4 COOLING WATER Refer P & ID No. Indicators are provided on CW (supply & return) lines. Column OVHD trim condensers Stabilizer OVHD condensers 94 .2 24” supply and return cooling water headers to the unit are tapped from underground headers running on the side of the unit. The pressure of the PA at the battery limit is indicated by PI-4104. 4. The header is provided with an isolation valve and a spectacle blind at the unit battery limit. Naphtha Cooler Light Naphtha Cooler LR cooler II LR cooler II LR cooler I Gas oil cooler Kero/ATF cooler Atm. Isolation valves with down stream spectacle blind have been provided at the battery limit of the unit.3551-05-02-41-0142 Rev. FI-4201 & TI-4202 to indicate pressure. at battery limit. Local pressure/temp. 1” size plant air tapping is provided to seal pot. A number of utility Hose stations are provided for plant from this 4” header.
3551-05-02-41-0141 Rev.05-VV-038 05-VV-030 05-FF-001 & APH SECTION 05-EE-019B 05-EE-016A/B/C/D/E/F 05-EE-017A/B/C/D 05-EE-110A/B 05-EE-109 05-EE-13A/B 4. These pumps are listed below: 05-PA-031A/B 05-PA-032A/B 05-PA-005A 05-PA-014A 05-VV-030 05-VV-034 05-FD-001 05-FD-002 4. temp. Service water connections have been provide for cleaning of lines through the suction of the pumps.3551-05-02-41-0142 Rev. gauge and flow indicator 95 .6 DM WATER Caustic Injection pump Caustic Circulation pump CC-01 Reflux pump CC-05 Reflux pump CBD Drum Brine Degasser For APH washing For APH washing Service water serves the following equipments in AU-5 Refer P & ID No. The service water header supplies water to various hose sections in the plans.5 SERVICE WATER Pump Coolant pump CBD Drum Furnace LN cooler CC-01 O/H Trim condensers CC-05 O/H condenser LGO coolers Kero – I cooler Brine cooler Please Refer P & ID No.1 A 4” Dm water header supplies DM water to the unit form off sites. A flow indicator FI-4103 has been provided in DCS.2 A 4” service water header supplies service water to the unit. It is provided with isolation valves and spectacle blind along with a local pressure gauge at the battery limit. a local pressure gauge. It is provided with an isolation valve & spectacle blind.
4. Seal 96 .8 LP STEAM Refer P & ID No. Boiler feed water is routed to desalted crude outlet line from desalter. It is used for pressure reduction of HP steam at Super-heater. Following major headers are branched off from the 14” main header:• • • • • • • • • • • • To 05-VV-029/05-EE-29 To 05-VV-001A To 05-VV-001B To 05-CC-001 To 05-CC-002 To 05-CC-003 To 05-CC-004 To 05-CC-005 To 05-CC-006 To 05-PA-051A/B/C To 05-PA-011A/B To 05-PA-007A/B To LP Steam heating coil Sample point purge steam Sample point purge steam Body steam for steam out Body steam for steam out Body steam for steam out Body steam for steam out Body steam for steam out Body steam for steam out As quench steam for pump mech.1 Boiler feed water (WB or BFW) is supplied to unit through a 2” line. Seal As quench steam for pump mech. 05-VV-018A/B (Ammonia Vessels).FI-4202 at the battery limit. TG-4405 indicates BFW temperature at battery limit FI-4403/PI-4405 indicates BFW flow & pressure battery limit.2 Low Pressure steam header of 14” size has been provided to the unit with isolation valves and spectacle blinds at battery limit. temperature & flow checking element is provided in the battery limit of the unit. From this header tapping have been taken to 05-EA-001 A-H (Atmospheric Overhead Condensers). 05-TT-005) and 05-VV-005 (Desalting Water Drum). Local pressure. 4. Caustic Vessels (05-TT-002A/B.3551-05-02-41-0141 Rev. 05-TT-006A/B. Seal As quench steam for pump mech.7 BOILER FEED WATER Refer P & ID No.3551-05-02-41-0144 Rev.
05-CC-003/-004/-005 as stripping steams. PI-4403. Seal As snuffing steam Refer P & ID No.2 A 12” Medium pressure steam MP steam header to the unit is provided with isolation valve. spectacle blind & local pressure temperature gauges at battery limit PI-4401.10 Emergency steam to coils Soot blowing steam Decoking steam Atomizing steam TO 05-CC-001. & flow of HP steam to unit. 6” size HP steam header serves following equipment: - 97 . TI-4403 & FI4402 are provided to indicate pressure temp. & flow of MP steam to unit. 3551-05-02-41-0144 Rev. HP STEAM Refer P & ID No. TI4401 & FI-4401 are provided to indicate pressure temp.• • • • • • • • • • 4. • To Crude charge heater 05-FF-001 as: • 4. gauges at battery limit.2 A 6” High-pressure steam MP steam header to the unit is provided with isolation valve. 16” size Mp steam header serves following equipment. spectacle blind & local pressure temp. Seal As quench steam for pump mech. Seal As quench steam for pump mech.9 To 05-PA-012A/B/C To 05-PA-010A/B/C To 05-PA-002A/B/C/D/E 05-FF-001 To Air Pre-heaters 05-VV-035 05-VV-030 05-VV-026 Steam for tracing of process line Steam for utility hose stations MP STEAM As quench steam for pump mech. 3551-05-02-41-0144 Rev.
It is also connected as purge to flare header.• 4” HP Steam to de-superheat by Boiler Feed Water injection in steam de-superheater 05-MD-001. A new line has also been laid out to cater the fuel gas requirement of MSQ plant during commissioning via 5PCV0204. It is admitted into vaporizer under level control LIC-3202. LPG can be vaporized in LPG vaporizer 05-VV-029 with the help of LP steam to produce FG. 05VV-003 stabilizer reflux drum and 05-VV-020 LPG Surge drum is admitted into fuel gas knock out drum (KOD) 05-VV-028. Local pressure & temperature gauge have been provided at battery limit. The TIC-4406 maintains MP Steam temperature at de-superheater outlet by manipulating BFW injection into de-super-heater. PSV-3201 & PSV3202 are provided to protect 05-VV-029 & PSV-3203/3204 is provided to protect 05VV-028 from over pressurization. • 4.e. Modification is made to use AU5 LPG vaporizer to cater the requirement of GR Fuel gas system. LPG vaporizer pressure is maintained by 05-PIC-3202 by manipulating PV-3202 on LP steam flow to vaporizer. FG from combined FG header is also being routed directly into 05-VV-028 for condensate de-entertainment. 3551-05-02-41-0143 Rev. FG consumption in AU-V is indicated by FI-4304. PI-4304 measures pressure of the FG header at battery limit. Independent high & low-level alarms are also provided on LPG vaporizer. Drain of 05-VV-029 & 05-VV-028 are normally routed to flare due to flashing nature of streams handled. Vaporized LPG is admitted into fuel gas KOD 05-VV-028. 98 . When no FG is being produced in unit or during first start-up LPG can be backed to the LPG vaporizer from off sites through run down line.11 To 05-EE-028A/B/C/D (HP steam/FO heat exchanger) for heating media. FUEL GAS Refer P & ID No.2 Sour fuel gas from various units i. LPG flow to 05-VV-029 is indicated by FI-3202. Fuel gas is delivered to crude charge heater (05-FF-001) as fuel and Atmospheric Column reflux drum (05-VV-002) & fuel oil surge drum (05-VV-026) to maintain pressure. Its flow is maintained by 5FCV 257A. from 05-VV-002 column over head reflux drum. FG from this KOD is taken out for distribution through a 12” header under pressure control PIC-3204.
13 FLUSHING OIL Refer P & ID No. Return line has been provided with a globe valve. Filtered fuel oil is sent to fuel oil supply header of AU-5 for distribution. 4. About 50% of the supply fuel oil allowed to return through this line. FI-3103A measures the combined stream flow to 05-VV-026. 3551-03-02-41-0143 Rev.12 FUEL OIL Refer P & ID No. Fuel oil flow to heaters is measured by flow meter on respective FO (supply) header. Flushing oil to unit is received from off sites through a 4” header.2 Flushing oil is normally light oil with boiling range & properties comparing well with diesel oil. Fuel oil return header with bypass has been provided from supply line to allow independent FO circulation for the furnace. 3551-05-02-41-0147 Rev. shut down valve & flow meters. A return fuel oil line has been provided from furnace. Provision to divert unit gas oil R/D to flushing header is also there. This circulation of fuel oil to atmospheric furnace is recorded by flow differential recorder. Fuel oil from surge drum is filtrated and is sent to FO high pressure steam heater 05EE-028A/B/C/D through 05-PA-045A/B. congealing & viscous material from equipment piping sections during unit shutdown or for other maintenance job requiring freeing of equipment from such hydrocarbons. 4” size combined flushing oil from unit & off site runs 99 . MP steam is used for heating medium in05-VV026. It is used at flushing medium for displacing heavy. Provision to divert IFO to slop header from PA 045A/B is also there. Local pressure gauge and temperature gauges have been provided near respective heaters.2 IFO from battery limit along with 2” Long Residue from 05-EE-004 is sent to fuel oil surge drum 05-VV-026 under level control of LV-3103. From heater FO is again sent to filters 05-GN-002A/B. Fuel oil is supplied to fire heater of the unit through a 4” header.4.
through out pipe rack of unit & supplies FLO to following equipment shown in P & ID’s listed below: a) 05-FF-001 b) 05-PA-051A/B/C c) 05-EE-022A/B/C/D d) 05-EE-021 e) 05-EE-010A/B/C/D f) 05-EE-009A/B g) 05-EE-007A/B/C h) 05-EE-006A/B i) 05-EE-001 j) 05-EE-002 k) 05-EE-003 l) 05-EE-004 m) 05-EE-005 n) 05-EE-028A/B/C/D o) 05-PA-002A/B/C/D/E p) 05-PA-001A/B/C/D/E q) 05-PA-045A/B r) 05-EE-102A/B s) 05-EE-103A/B t) 05-EE-103C u) 05-EE-104A/B v) 05-EE-105A/B w) 05-EE-105C/D x) 05-EE-105E y) 05-EE-106A/B z) 05-EE-106C/D aa) 05-EE-107A/B bb) 05-EE-107C/D Suction line Shell side Shell side Shell & Tube side Shell side Shell & Tube side Shell side Shell side Shell side Shell & Tube side Shell & Tube side Shell side Shell side Suction line Suction line Suction line Shell side Shell & Tube side Shell & Tube side Tube side Shell & Tube side Shell & Tube side Shell & Tube side Shell side Shell side Shell & Tube side Shell & Tube side 100 .
110 V DC control supply is provided for all HT motors & motor having rating exceeding 75 KW.cc) 05-EE-108A/B dd) CBD End cover Tube side 4. Motor start/stop push buttons and local Ammeters are provided at local control station for motors in field.14. Running status lamps for pump are provided on control room auxiliary console panels as per P & ID for critical motors with potential free contacts. 3 phase.6± 10% KV AC from Unit substation. Remaining all other motors are fed by lowtension feeder at 415± 5%V. and 230± 5%V. 4. emergency lighting fixtures are fed with 110 V DC power feeder.2 PLANT ILLUMINATION All plant lightings are provided with 230± 10% V AC power. local Ammeters are provided only for motors with rating 55 KW and above. AC power. similar to control room instruments.14 ELECTRIC SYSTEM Electrical load for AU-5 is anticipated as 3220 KW. In the event of power failure back up Emergency power supply arrangements has provided. & power motor control centre. However.6 KV switchboards. Following pump motors are fed by High Tension feeder at 6. 4.1 ELECTRICAL POWER FOR PUMPS Motors above 160 KW ratings are fed with 6. All LT motors feed through switch fuse contractor are provided with 240V AC control supply.14. Electrical system of AU-5 compromises of a Number of sub-systems. For maintaining emergency lighting. individually for each of following motors: • • • 05-PA-001A/B/C/D/E 05-PA-002A/B/C/D/E 05-PA-51A/B/C Crude charge pumps Desalted crude pumps RCO pumps Above motors are termed as HT motors. so that in the 101 . They are briefly described as under.
14. are sustained.3 • INSTRUMENTATION POWER SYSTEM Through a battery bank in main unit sub-station. sub-station escape route etc. battery back up will remain available for a period of 1 hour for UPS & other Instrument requirements. Video Hot copier. After power is resumed DCS system and supervisory computer should be booted before reverting back to normal operations. 110 V DC supply is available to all solenoid valve infield and auxiliary consoles in Control Room. Sewer Water (SWS) and Amine drain system are provided. 4. minimum light in critical areas such as control room. Supervisory Computers. Lamps & Selector Switches to PLC interlocks etc. few spare outlets of 110 V DC supply are also provided in control room to carry out miscellaneous testing jobs etc. Multipoint. If power from main feeder is still not resumed plant instrument will assume safe shut down position according to logic built in PLC. water contaminated with hydrocarbons/chemicals and such liquid streams that can not be disposed off directly are collected & treated either for recovery of hydrocarbons or to render them harmless to receiving stream or for both the purpose. Density Analyzers. Digital Temp. Printer. CBD system. For this purpose. 110 V AC supply will remain available for a maximum period of 60 min to above instrument to facilitate safe shut down of process units. • In the event of power failure. indicators (TJI). These systems are described sequentially as under: 102 . On auxiliary consoles are mounted Push Buttons. Main features of electrical instrumentation power system are described below: • 110 V AC power supply (uninterrupted) is available to all Hard Wire Alarms.event of power failure. DCS monitor (CRT) & hand indicator controllers. Running Status. 4. OWS system. Hooters.15 EFFLUENT SYSTEM All off-spec. slop system. hydrocarbon streams contaminated with water.
Hydrocarbons mixed with slight water are allowed to enter in this drum from where Hydrocarbon is pumped out by CBD pump 05-PA-046 to existing crude/slop header. care should be taken to avoid steaming of CBD header. 05-VV-030 is provided within AU-5 battery limit. if any. The hydrocarbon in the CBD vessel should be received at a temp.4. These are provided with clean out pit at header ends with Flushing oil connection to flush heavy congealing hydrocarbon material accumulated in header.15. as line is not designed for steam out conditions due to absence of expansion provisions. Well below flash point of lightest component present inside.15. CBD drum is a horizontal drum located underground in a pit. close to FLO connection to flush CBD headers with any other utility. 3551-05-02-41-0133 Rev. 4. Such Hydrocarbon streams are generated especially during shut down periods when equipment & systems are drained under gravity to clear hold up oil.2 3551-05-02-41-0146 Rev. TI-3301 & PI-3301 indicates the temp.2 CLOSED BLOW DOWN (CBD) Refer P & ID No. Two 6”line closed blow down headers run across plot AU-5. 05-VV-030.1 Those Hydrocarbon Streams that are either free of water or only slightly contaminated with water are received in closed Blow Down (CBD) vessel. 10” size slop header is provided in the unit to collect slop from AU-5 that can be routed to GRE /OMS slop tank. However. One utility connection is also provided on each CBD header end. LAH-3302 and LAL-3302 are provided to auto start and auto stop the CBD pump. Uncontaminated hydrocarbons from equipment draining is collected & routed to CBD vessel via CBD system covering entire unit equipment.1 SLOP Those off-spec. of the contents in the CBD drum & pressure inside drum. Closed Blow Down network helps reducing amount of hydrocarbon finding its way to effluent treating facility via OWS during equipment draining. The drum is provided with a coil through which cooling water or LP steam can be passed. LI-3301B indicates the level of the drum. hydrocarbon streams that are not contaminated with water and need to be disposed off are termed as dry slop. Under 103 .
One coil is provided inside CBD drum through which either cooling water can be circulated or LP steam can be introduced. A small purge of steam is provided at the vent of the drum to guard against lighting and static electricity hazards. All intermittent draining (HC bearing streams) are provided a CBD connection and connections to OWS. This may result in explosion immediately there or elsewhere in network wherever explosive mixture of Air & Hydrocarbon vapours is present is appropriate for explosion.15. of contents going out of CBD vessel. Pump base plates. Drained streams at ambient temperature received through OWS fennels etc. TSV discharges and floor washing are also routed to OWS. cleaning of spilled oils etc.normal condition.15.3 OILY WATER SEWER (OWS) This system is also called OWS system is mainly to collect water contaminated with hydrocarbon oils. are routed to ETP through a combined header. of hot material drained & accumulated inside vessel while LP steam can be introduce in the same coil after isolating cooling water to decongeal/heat-up accumulated heavy material inside vessel & bring it to pump-able viscosity.4 SEWER WATER SYSTEM 104 . Care should be taken that at no time any spark reaches vapour space of OWS fennels. TI-3302 indicates temp. All non-HC streams are connected to OWS. All equipments having CBD connections are normally provided with OWS/SWS connection on following basis: • • • All continuous draining (HC bearing streams) having CBD connections are provided an additional connection to OWS. Streams suitable for OWS are also generated as a result of floor washing. Such streams are usually generated during equipment draining & flushing during routing operation. 4. 4. it is expected to remain at atmospheric pressure. Streams suitable for OWS should never be routed to CBD as it may ultimately lead to receipt of lot of water in slop tanks. Cooling water shall be introduced to bring down temp.
3551-05-02-41-0148 Rev.15. TG-4801 and PG-4801 indicates the temp. 4. The SWS thus shares the OWS load as & when necessary. AT ETP provision to route SWS to OWS is also provided. a network of 105 . TG4802 shows the temperatures of the contents in the amine sump. Storm channel around the plant is an open channel. the hydrocarbon operating system may get pressurized.2 Drained Amine streams from amine absorber (05-CC-006) and Amine Settler (05-VV-004) that is either free of water or oil or slightly contaminated with water is received in 05-VV-033 (Amine Sump). In the event of abnormal operating conditions/emergencies. One coil is provided inside amine pump through LP steam can be introduced to boil out the contaminated water in amine.SWS are similar to OWS and are routed to ETP separately through underground piping. Elaborate arrangement exists to handle oil free effluent of unit. LI-4801 with LAL/LAH indicates the level of the sump. 4. 3551-05-02-41-0133 Rev. 3551-05-02-41-0145 Rev. Effluent finally escaping through storm sewer without any treatment must meet statutory specifications for safe disposal. Those effluent streams that contain only traces of hydrocarbon or are completely free of oil should be diverted to SWS.2.1. As streams of storm channel leave the plant without any separation or treatment. In order to prevent this pressure form shooting up and crossing design valves of respective system/equipment and causing accident and/or equipment damage.6 FLARE SYSTEM Refer P & ID No. Accumulated / drained amine is pumped out by Amine pump 05-PA-048A to Amine Regeneration unit. it may become necessary to relieve some amount of non-condensable hydrocarbon vapors to system that renders them harmless. For this purpose. and pressure of contents going out of Amine drain sump. free Hydrocarbons should not be allowed to escape in storm channel. Amine sump is provided within AU-5 battery limit.15.5 AMINE DRAIN SYSTEM Refer P & ID No.
One isolation valve with a spectacle blind in between has been provided on flare header at battery limit of the unit. A 2” fuel gas connection has been given to the flare header for purging purpose RO-4502 is provided on FG purge line to flare to maintain & control FG pressure entering flare header. The FG purge is provided in flare header to prevent vacuum formation due to condensation of condensable hydrocarbons on account of to weather temperature change. LSHH/LAHH-3308 also provided in the vessel. CBD vessel requires manual draining. & to maintain certain minimum velocity inside flare header. Following equipment PSV are connected with this flare header: • • • • • • • • • Spent Caustic degasser LPG Surge drum FO surge drum Kero/ATF water wash vessel Kero/ATF caustic wash vessel Kero/ATF Coalescer LPG Coalescer LPG water wash vessel LPG caustic wash vessel 05-VV-016 05-VV-020 05-VV-026 05-VV-014 05-VV-013 05-VV-015 05-VV-008 05-VV-007 05-VV-006 106 . One 24” flare header serves to collect the pressure relief valve discharges form the AU-5 equipment & certain piping in Hydrocarbon services. Local instrument is provided on 05-VV-032. It will open SDV-3310 on vessel bottom outlet. Similarly. Entry of steam and condensate in flare headers should be avoided as it may lead to extinguishing of main flare The combined flare header enters flare knock out drum 05-VV-032 for de-entrainment of condensate droplets. chilling etc.flare headers is provided for collection of vapors in unit to which all relevant equipments are connected. LALL-3307 will close SDV-3301 & avoid vapor break through it. LI-032 with LAH/LAL is provided on flare KOD to indicate high and low condensate level. Flare lines should be tested pneumatically because of line support considerations.
Column Reflux pumps Stabilizer feed pumps Stabilizer OVHD pumps Heavy Naphtha product pumps Light Naphtha product pump 05-EE-017A/B/C/D 05-PA-005A/B/C 05-PA-006A/B/C 05-PA-014A/B 05-PA-008A/B 05-PA-041A/B 107 . Column Reflux drum Stabilizer Reflux drum 05-VV-025 05-VV-010 05-VV-029 05-VV-028 05-VV-009 05-CC-001 05-CC-005 05-CC-006 05-VV-002 05-VV-003 Following equipments of AU-5 are also connected with same 24” flare header: • • • • • • Stabilizer OVHD Condensers Atm.• • • • • • • • • • Heavy Naphtha coalescer Light Naphtha water wash vessel LPG drum Fuel Gas KOD Light Naphtha caustic wash vessel Atm. Distillation column Naphtha stabilizer LPG Amine Absorber Atm.
CHAPTER-5 NORMAL START-UP PROCEDURE 108 .
NORMAL START – UP PROCEDURE 5. Transfer temp. vacuum and thermal/mechanical shocks. Pressure surge from unplanned mixing of water and hot oil may cause damage of equipment and/or loss of valuable production. These can result in flares. About 50% of normal flow is maintained through heater coils.6. The transfer temperature is then further raised to 2500 C at 300 C/hr. is raised insteps to 120 C at a rate of 400 C/hr. The hazards encountered most frequently in start up and shut down of units are accidental mixing of air and hydrocarbons and contacting of water with hot oil. Fires occur when oxygen and fuel vapor or mists are mixed in flammable proportions and come in contact with an ignition source.2 BRIEF START-UP PROCEDURE Start up summary for various process sections is given in following pages to develop a quick comprehension of start up strategy to be adopted. 109 . Crude Charge Heater 05-FF-001 is fired. Start up and normal operating procedures of all the units are described in this section. 5. 5. They may run out of control or touch off devastating explosive. After mechanical completion of the unit. destructive pressure surges and other damages to unit as well as injury to personal. cold crude circulation is established and water in the system is swept out. explosions. it is steam purged for expelling air and kept under fuel gas pressure.1 for specific of operation. Hot bolting of flanges and manhole covers likely to remain in hot service is carried out at this stage by holding the temperature at around 2500 C during this activity. It is then that the hazardous possibilities for fire and explosion are highest. Following are the highlights of the operation of AU-5. Suitable changes in operating conditions should be made as per operating conditions given in sec. Other hazards primarily associated with start up are excessive pressure. Extensive costly down time on process unit may result. Operating conditions given here are for AM crude case. After water draining. The COT is maintained for about four hours to remove residual water from the system by evaporation.1 INTRODUCTION Start up and shut down are the most critical periods in operation of any process unit. Fires usually follow if the explosive bursts lines or vessels.
and maintain strippers levels at about 50%. start refluxing. stabilizer column will be brought on stream by gradually cutting in the heating medium (gas oil CR) in re-boiler. Line up all product circuits up to battery limit. Water is to be drained before starting the circulating reflux pumps. Once sufficient level (about 70%) is built up in stabilizer column bottom. Profile in the column. The column top temperature and pressure are maintained constant. When the normal transfer temp. pressure will increase and level will appear in the stabilizer reflux drum. When levels appear in the crude column side stream strippers. of the column will gradually rise. As top temperature rises further. refluxing can be started after draining water. Flow and temp. reaches more than 100° C steam will escape from the column and condense in overhead naphtha condensers. Stabilized naphtha from stabilizer bottom is routed to storage tanks through naphtha coolers. Stripping steam to crude column is admitted at this stage and unit is brought out of circulation.Top temp. As temperature of the stabilizer column rises. 05-FF-001 COT is then further raised to normal value of 375 C. 05-FF001 COT is then further raised to 300 C. it can be routed to the naphtha stabilizer column or else it can be slopped. & LPG from stabilizer top is routed to Horton sphere after amine & caustic wash. LR at outlet of atmospheric column bottom is routed to slop header/ storage via product cooler. Higher pressure will help in better condensation of vapors. column pressure is slowly raised to its normal value. When the column top temp. 110 . line up circulating reflux circuits. When level appears in the stabilizer reflux drum. Start diverting un-stabilized naphtha-to-naphtha stabilizer column. of 375 C has been attained at normal crude feed rate make necessary adjustments and normalize the operating conditions in atmospheric section. Route all products to slop header initially. Start respective product pumps when level appears in the strippers. When naphtha make increases that is indicated by rising level in crude column overhead reflux drum V-02. of all CR streams are adjusted to maintain proper temp. As level starts building up in atmospheric column reflux drum.
Cold circulation for removal of water Hot circulation Bringing the unit on stream Unit start-up steps are described below: 5. it should be established that all preparatory works have been successfully completed and all instrument/equipment are ready to function. All instruments have been checked and calibrated. Each removal and insertion of a blind should be noted and installed by the in-charge. Start up of the unit involves the following consecutive phases.5. Instrument loop checking is done. Controls should be kept on manual as far as possible. flushed and ready for service. All rating equipment such as pumps. piping. 111 . equipment are pressure tested. Activities of atmospheric Unit V should be co-ordinate with off sites. It is to be ensured that: • • • • • • Blinds are installed as per master blind list. Spare valves should be kept isolated as per P & ID stipulation. have undergone functional test successfully. All safety valves are in position after setting lock open position. All vessels. • • • • • • • • Preliminary Preparation of the unit Removal of air for the process systems Tightness testing to prevent leakage Fuel gas backup to prevent air ingress Crude & RCO circuit fill up.1 PRELIMINARY PREPARATION Prior to actual commissioning of the plant. utilities and other units.3 DETAILED START-UP PROCEDURE (AFTER M&I SHUT DOWN) Preparation for start-up needs a complete review of the start-up procedure by the operating crew.3. motors etc.
Commission by the same procedure all coolers & condensers after displacing air. When dry steam starts coming from trap bypass. For subsequent start-ups the tightness test and vacuum test can be done in conjunction with the step of elimination of air. All related units are informed of the start-up plan (RSM / OMS/TPS/Water block) All pre-commissioning activities are completed. Tightness. Flare. vacuum test and heater refractory dry out will form part of pre-commissioning activities for the first start-up. Open vent of return line. Open battery limit I/L valve. closed blow down. 112 . Close trap bypass. Tracing stream flow to the lines is established. If it is there reduce steam in take. two thread Drain out all condensate. increase battery limit valve opening. close the vent. Line all steam trap & its bypass Slowly open battery limit valve. STEAM • • • • • • • • • • • • • Deblind Battery valve limit U/S flange. Check for any hammering sound. sewer and flushing oil systems are in operable condition. When total air is displaced. Fuel oil and fuel gas blinds are removed and both headers charged. Keep all the coolers & condensers isolated. amine drain.• • • • • • All utility headers are charged. Procedure of commissioning of Utilities / FO / FG / FLARE 1. Line up I/L & O/L valve fully.
(2) at P 45 A/B discharge PG (3) at furnace IFO PG point Drain. 113 . Drain condensate from all LPDs and Vent through all HPVs & Vessel vent. Drain V26 to minimum level. Back up gas in the system by opening V26 make up PIC bypass valve.2. Bypass Low pressure inter lock. Establish circulation.5 Kg/Cm2 Drain water from all LPDs of the circuit & from V26. & PIC. Blind/cap all LPDs/HPVS Stop circulation. Check for completeness of all the job. Open I/L & O/L SOV. Steam for at least 4 hr to displace air/ maintain system pressure @ 1 kg/cm2 Check for any leak & fix it. FUEL OIL • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • This is to be commissioned after FG & Flare header is commissioned. Start steaming total circuit & the surge vessel. Allow to settle water for 2 hr. Keep all the isolation & bypass valves of V26 split range pressure C/V. Commission HP steam heater & maintain temperature as required. Bring system pressure to 1. at the same time stop steam injection & close all vent & drains. Establish IFO circulation & continue for 2 hrs. Close individual FO burner valve. Provide steam hose connection at (1) V26 LG drain. Line up total IFO circuit. Commission V26 PIC. Take Gas oil in V26. Drain out water from all LPDs. Receive VR in V26.
Provide steam hose connection at LG drain of VV28 FG KOD & of VV29 LPG drum. All line connected to FG header should be kept isolated by valve. Bring system pressure to 1. from B/L valve U/S flange W/O & U/S bleeder. Reduce steaming to minimum & get the B/L valve deblinded Increase steaming rate & continue for 4 hrs. Drain & vent from all available LPDs & HPVs. & from filter drain. Stop steaming & back up gas by opening battery limit valve. FG COMMISSIONING • • • • • • • • • • • • 4.3. Start steaming through the all above points. Deblind FG In / Out line battery limit valve. Steam for 4 hr to displace air / maintain system pressure @ 1 kg/cm2 Check for any leak & fix it. drain condensate from KOD drain. Maintain pressure 0. 114 . Isolate all drains & vents and get it blinded/capped Drain water from KOD.5 Kg/Cm2 Drain water from all LPDs of the circuit & from V28/V29 Blind/cap all LPDs/HPVS FLARE COMMISSIONING • • • • • • • • • Provide steam connection if is not there at the furthest end of the system Isolate all PSV/ lines connected to flare header.5 Kg/Cm2. Back up gas in the system by opening battery limit valve at the same time stop steam injection & close all vent & drains. Check & fix if any leakage is there. Introduce steam & purge the system to flare for 2 hrs. Furnace FG should remain blinded. Provide steam hose connection at V26 PIC bleeder.
Crude Preheat Train I Circuit Before Desalter 1a) Old preheat train I before desalter consisting of PA-01 5HC5001 EE-01 EE-02 EE-03 EE-04EE-05Desalter 1b) New preheat train I section before desalter consisting of EE-103A/B/C 5HC5002 --EE-102A/B EE-104A/B 2. Electric supply to the desalter should remain cut off.3. The following basic points should be taken care during steaming of the equipment systems. FT etc. Keep instrument tapping like PT.2 AIR REMOVAL FROM THE PROCESS SYSTEM Air from various equipment piping etc. For the purpose of air removal unit is divided into following circuits for steaming: 1. Crude Preheat Train II Circuit After Desalter 2a) Old preheat train II after desalter consisting of Desalter PA-02 5HC5005 --- EE-06A/B EE-07A/B/C EE-08A/B EE09A/B E-10A/B/C/DFurnaceColumn 2b) New preheat train II after Desalter consisting of EE-108A/B Desalter EE-105A/B/C/D/E PA-025HC5006 F01 C01 115 . Keep waterside vents and drains of condensers/cooler opened. isolated from main process piping.: • • • • Cooling water to the condensers and product coolers to be isolated and water should be drained out from the condensers.5. is eliminated by steaming of various sections of the unit can be carried out simultaneously or in a convenient sequence. coolers etc.
4e) HSD CR new Circuit CC-01 - PA-104A/B -- EE-108A/B 5FC5010 CC-01 5) PRODUCT RUNDOWN AND SLOP CIRCUIT 5a) LN Product circuit EE-18A/B LN from C-5 Bottom5TC1702 EE-19A/B** EE-18C/D ↑ FC 5106 AU1 rerun Section ↓HN to LN 116 .EE-106A/B/C/D EE-107A/B/C/D 3. 4c) SKO CR New Circuit CC-01 PA-102 EE-104A/B - 5FC5008 CC-01 4d) HSD CR Old Circuit CC-01PA-12 EE-09A/B 5TC1707 (5FC1704) EE-14 5TC1538(5FC1507) EE-155FC1503 CC-01. This loop also to be steam flushed to expel air. COLUMN CR CIRCUIT 4a) Top CR Circuit CC-01 PA-07 EE-02 5FC1501CC-01 4b) SKO CR Old Circuit CC-01 PA-10 EE-06A/B EE-05A/B - 5FC1502 -- CC-01 5TC1116 is between EE-06A/B and EE-05A/B. Both TC 1538/1704 loop flushing to be ensured. CC-01 OVERHEAD CIRCUIT CC-01 EA001A-H EE16A-F V V-02 PA05- 5FC1505 CC-01 ↓PA6 -FC1701-EE18A-D-C05 4.
5c) SKO Product Circuit C1LC1508C3PA-09EE-01EE-24/23C-HC2201V13** **HC2202V14 V15 5FC2206 Salt DryerSKO/LABFS/ATF FC1809HSD LR (While steaming SKO circuit SKO drier to be by passed. 5PC2011 LN r/d. Naphtha Product Circuit 5FC2004 C1LC1506C2PA-08A/B 5FC5001 EE-102A/B GO R/D (new circuit) PA-08A/BEE-20VV-25 5FC1807 -HSD OM&S r/d. VV-09 and VV-10 bypass lines also to be steam flushed to expel air 5b) Hy. HN r/d to Slop.**SOV1701HC2001BVV-09HC2002BVV-10PA041A/B ↓ LN R/D 5TC1702 loop flushing also is to be ensured. SKO drier I/L and O/L B/V to be thoroughly closed) 5d) HSD Product Circuit HSD Product Old Circuit HN / SKO 5FC1804 C1LC1510C4PA11EE-08A/BEE-03EE-23A/B/C HSD Product new Circuit C1LC1510C4PA-103EE-106A/B 5FC5009 EE-102A/B- EE-110A/B coalescer Coalescer FC 5003 BS2 header 117 . 5FC2011 SKO r/d.
9) LPG PRODUCT CIRCUIT LPG circuit is divided into following circuits C5 top HIC 1701 E17 A-D V3 V03 top PRC 1701 FG system 118 .HSD ex FPU2 E22A/B/C/D FC1806 cold LR R/D Unit circulation 6) STABILIZER FEED CIRCUIT EE-18 A/B PA-06 ** 5FC1701 CC-05 EE-18 C/D ** CRU drag stream. DHDS / Lab / MSQ unit wild Naphtha are joining at D/S of Fc1701.DHDS feed tank GHC R/D PC 5003 Euro-III 5e) LR Product Circuit Old Circuit PA-51 EE-10 A/B/C/D EE-07A/B/C EE-04 EE-21 New Circuit PA-51EE-107A/B/C/DEE-105A/B/C/D/EEE-103A/B/C E111A/B New & old joins together FC1805 hot RCO R/D SKO / Hy.
e. LP system connections are given at appropriate places on piping & equipment to introduce LP steam in above sections. 119 .V03 bottom PA-14A/B FC1703 C5 reflux AU4 LPG V03 bottom PA-14A/B - 5FC2503 ↓ SDV2501 VV-20 V20 top PC2501 FG VV-20 Bottom PA-50 5FC2502 VV-20 (min. The condenser bypass line through HIC 1701 also to be made air-free. Once system warms up. Steaming is done till clear steam stars coming out from all vents. cooling water. Care should be exercised while using MP steam for steaming to ensure that none of equipment is subjected to operating conditions exceeding their design parameters. It may lead to frequent hammering in unit equipment. The low point drains of pipes and equipment should be kept open to remove condensate. High point vent should also be opened for air removal. water to all coolers and condensers should be isolated and drained. Before introducing steam. In such conditions. During initial steaming. Hence it is a good practice to keep a watch on steam consumption during steaming. may frequently keep coming and chocking the drains may be rather frequent. LP steam from hose stations can also be used to boost up external steam supply. Excessively high steaming rate may dislodge column internals and cause damage. Clear steam venting for at least four hours shall be an indication of fairly good air removal. This is to avoid condensation of steam in large quantity in these equipment due to flow of cooling media. less steam will condense in the system and few steam points may be pinched. i. line rust etc. LP steam supply may need augmentation of small quantity of MP steam through heater pass flows and other available points. cir) 5FC2502 CC-06 C6 top VV-04 VV-06 VV-07 VV-08 5PC1912 LPG r/d FI 3202 Vaporizer Amine to and from C06 line steaming is also steamed. Special care should be taken to ensure that none of the drain points are chocked due to accumulation of foreign material. Initially there may be condensation of steam inside unit equipment due to cold equipment internals.
Eliminate air through all exchanger vent points and drain out condensate from all exchanger low points.5 Kg/cm2 g. Kero. Flushing oil header should also be streamed out. c) A steam hose connection should be provided at the discharge of crude charge pump for steaming the preheat section up to desalter. Open vents of overhead naphtha reflux drum and crude column. Allow steam to vent from desalter top and other high point vents. Attend the leaks by depressurizing the system. Steaming should be done up to crude charge pump suction. When sufficient steam comes out from all the vents and drains reduce steam inlet to maintain positive pressure. If necessary. throttle steam purge desalter safety valve inlet lines also. However lines up to mixing valve. Vigorous steam venting from various points of the unit is described below till be continued for about 4 hours. Line up heavy naphtha. and circulating reflux 120 . Ensure water to condensers is isolated and water is drained out. systems should also be checked for leakage. During the period of steaming. Air should be completely purged out from both inlet and out let lines of each safety valve. Following major points may be followed for steaming out of the unit: a) Admit steam into the feed system by connecting temporary hoses to the crude oil feed line at the battery limit of unit. and chemical injection lines up to first isolation valve from desalter should be included for steaming.No steam condensate should be allowed to get accumulated inside unit equipment. d) Introduce steam into preheat train I/II connection using 2” LP steam downstream of crude charge pump. It is expected that oxygen will be eliminated at the end of this period. Drain condensate frequently from low points. Keep watch on desalter pressure. b) Open steam slowly into the system and allow piping and equipment to gradually warm up. and atmospheric column reflux drum with the column. Reset and purge as applicable. GO strippers and product circuit. Desalter water circuit should not be included for steaming out. which should be maintained around 0. Samples may be checked from different locations to check that 02 content is less than 1%. e) Line up atmospheric column overhead condensers.
h) Maintain 1. LP steam from hose stations can also be connected to pre-flashed crude pump discharge to augment external steam supply. g) Vigorously steam for at least 4 hours and then shut off crude column vent. Release condensates through pump suction strainer flanges. f) Slowly open some MP steam also into all the passes of atmospheric heater coils through emergency steam connections (provided at down stream of pass flow control valves) and in crude column bottom. Allow steam to vent from atmospheric column reflux drum. For steaming out heavy Naphtha and Kero side strippers. Drain condensate from low points and allow system to warm up.0-1. Keep pump suction and discharge valves closed for same reasons reason as explained above. Drain condensate from low points and allow the system to worm up. Open vent valves of stabilizer column and its reflux drum. Increasing C-001 pressure slightly if required. crude column reflux drum and side stripper vent connections.circuits up to the respective pumps. Admit steam slowly by connecting a steam hose. Continue purging till steam comes out from the top of the crude column. Too high a flow rate of steam may dislodge the column internals and damage them. Back-up steam from charge heater to preheat trains-II. j) Line up stabilizer overhead condenser and reflux drum to stabilizer column. LP steam from hose stations can also be connected in desalted crude pump discharge circuit to boost up external steam supply. De-blind utility LP steam connection at the stabilizer column bottom. and other high point vents in piping. Introduce LP steam in the circuit from permanent steam connections as well as Stripping steam at a controlled rate to warm up the system.5 Kg/cm2g pressure in column flash zone by regulating the quantity of steam being introduced into the system. Regulate the steam flow to heat up the system gradually. back-up steam form crude column and vent through 2” utility connection in these strippers. MP steam is used as augmenting stream to adequately carry out steam out. 121 . i) Back – up steam from atmospheric column to preheat train I/II. wherever applicable. Also open steam to the crude column bottom and side strippers via strippers steam lines.
Commission flare header and fuel gas header to furnace after removing battery limit blind. During stabilizer purging do steaming of wild DHDS / LAB naphtha and CRU drag stream up to battery limit by backing from the column keeping battery valve closed. Pilot burners will be lighted initially. m) Purge feed line by backing up steam stabilizer column and vent from the bleeder valve. up stream of feed control valve. Open the pressure control valve and globe valve on its by-pass line. In such cases. Steam the product circuit up to battery limit and vent through sample points or any convenient low point drains. Fire the heater at a small rate. drain condensate from the bleeder present at the D/S of battery limit valve.k) When steam comes out from stabilizer top vigorously steam for about half an hour. It may be necessary to augment steam supply at the discharge of product pump by connecting temporary hoses to vent so drain points in the lines. n) Purge stabilizer bottom outlet circuit up to battery limit. Battery limit valve flange may be wedge opened for good steaming. Keep open the vents at crude column top and crude column reflux drum. it may become necessary to fire the heater at the time of steaming itself for evaporating water. if required. Maintain firebox temp. p) Excessive condensation of steam in cold circuits and problems of removing steam condensate from heater coils. in particular may cause hammering during steaming. at about 250° C. Then shut off this vent and allow steam to come out of reflux drum vent. Steam for about half an hour then shut off the control valve and the globe valve mentioned above.5 Kg/cm2g by regulating the quantity or steam. Box up the flange under slight steam pressure. Heater is fired to avoid condensation in tubes and subsequent hammering when steam is introduced in cold tubes. o) Purge all product and pump around circulating reflux circuits by backing up steam from respective column.0-1. Main burners can be lighted afterwards. 122 . LP steam should be backed in stabilizer feed line up to NRV by connecting a temporary steam hose connection at conveniently available low point and by by-passing minimum flow control valve of stabilizer feed pump. l) Maintain stabilizer column pressure at 1. Back-up steam into the reflux line and vent from the bleeder valve up stream of flow control valve.
is high. Ensure that all piping & equipment vents and drains closed. depending on availability of manpower & ease of monitoring. r) Air elimination from product run down circuits in off sites should be done by filling water in line and displacing the same by products when the same are available except for water sensitive products like ATF whose run down temp.3 TIGHTNESS/PRESSURE TEST For leak testing. Liquid soap solution may be sprayed poured on all the joints one by one and check for any bubble formation. Tightness of other systems may be done along with steam purging & pressurizing by steam. Big leaks can also be identified by pressure drop identification. tightness test is to be done. If a bubble is formed on joint or flange.q) Steam out LR circuit and all LR product lines up to isolation valve at the battery limit. Limitations posed by design pressure design temp. pressurization by steam for tightness test proves convenient.3.3. it is suggested that only those systems should be taken up for tightness test by air which should not be subjected to steaming or are likely to get exposed to vacuum during vacuum test & normal operation.0 Kg/cm2 g with LP steam or air and check for any leak through the flanges / instruments. 5. s) Air elimination from water circuits and chemical dosing circuits need not be carried out except up to first isolation valve where these lines may be subjected to hydrocarbons. Usually for a very big system. The leakage identification is normally done visually when steam is used and by soap bubble test when air is used. In view of large number of joints requiring leak test by soap solution.4 FUEL GAS BACKUP 123 . Thus tightness test by air and steam purging tightness test by steam can be carried out almost parallel. Leaks are to be attended after depressurizing. should be strictly adhered. Pressurize the system up to 1. 5. there is an air leakage.
Preheat exchangers b. All pumps f. Drain out water from the following points: a. most of which may not be designed for such full vacuum or part vacuum conditions. II. Each drain must be closed and capped / blinded as soon as gas issues form it. stabilizer. It the absence of fuel gas.5 Kg/Cm2 IV. Fuel gas can be backed from separate headers into atmospheric column. A log should be kept for drain check showing the time of check. This helps in better monitoring of operation and excessive withdrawal of fuel gas from FG pool. cutting off steam results in condensation of steam inside unit equipment due to heat loss from bare piping and equipment surface. I. absence of condensate and initials of the person who made the final check on the drain.Fuel gas is available from off sites for start-up of the unit. Pressure surges during fuel gas backing-up should be avoided. Check list to be prepared to ensure that all drains are made free of condensate. It is advisable to back in fuel gas section wise. Purpose of fuel gas backing into the system is to drain steam condensate from unit equipment as well as replace steam with fuel gas. Steam in system is cut-off slowly and fuel gas is backed in. V. Open the low point drain one by one and drain out condensate completely. All product circuits up to battery limit e. III. All exchangers and coolers 124 . Ensure that all vents are closed and properly capped / blinded before FG back up. Back-up gas from column to all the product run down lines through internal and circulating reflux lines from the column. condensation of steam may result in vacuum formation inside unit equipment. Build up pressure in the columns @ 0. Adjust gas-backing rate in such a way that fuel gas system is not disturbed resulting in low fuel gas pressure due to excessive withdrawal during this operation. Transfer line c. Pump around and reflux lines d.
Furnace fire are cut off. Before admitting fuel gas into the system. XI. Fuel gas purge to flare header should be established. As the system cools. Repeat draining operation every half an hour till no more condensate is drained. Never leave open drains unattended. A log should be kept for the draining activities showing time of check and absence of condensate. Maintain the whole system at 0. Ensure all vents are closed and capped off. Close all drains and vents except any one vent at a convenient point to approach and operate for venting steam to maintain system pressure. Removal of water from the system is an important step for smooth start-up. all vents and drains in hydrocarbon service will be closed. Steam entering the system is throttled slowly. which is opened and checked. Cooling water circulation is started through all coolers and condensers. Cooling water is commissioned to the overhead condensers and coolers and air coolers started. water is drained from low point drains. Fuel gas into furnace fuel piping should be charged at this stage only if proper monitoring is available. X. After all the sections have been floated on fuel gas. VII. During gas backing ensure that vacuum is not formed in the system due to condensation of steam. Shut all drain points and cap off. Before backing in fuel gas into the system. furnace coils & at points receiving steam through temporary hoses. VIII. condensate will accumulate. Major steps for fuel gas backing into the systems are as under: i) Reduce steam to the various points in all the columns. Air from all the hydrocarbon system must be removed thoroughly before proceeding for fuel gas back up. Each drain must be closed as soon as gas issue out from it. Each drain. 125 . should be listed in the start-up procedure. When the draining is complete the system is ready to take crude oil. IX.VI. XII.5 Kg/cm2g fuel gas pressure. Positive pressure in the system will facilitate draining residual water. The drain at each low point is opened and the condensate is drained. flare header inside the unit should be charged and flare should be activated.
in normal mode to admit fuel gas into the system. Keep watch on the system pressure. Cold oil carries liquid water into low points of the circuit. Settling time may be reduced progressively at advanced stages of cold circulation. Throttle the drain valves to allow only condensate to flow to keep the system hot. unnecessary loss of oil to OWS should be avoided for reasons of safety and economy. During circulation drain at low points (preferably from desalter and column bottom pump) must be opened frequently to ensure that no more free water is drained. stabilize reflux drum. Open any of the pressure control valves at FG lines on atmospheric column reflux drum. v) Maintain the pressure in the system around 0. Adjust steam inlet if necessary. While draining water. All 126 . which could not be removed during water draining.5/1.5 Kg/cm2g cap off all vents properly to avoid leakage of gas through these points. in sequence of start up. The circulation rate must be sufficiently high to sweep the water and not merely flow over it.5 COLD CIRCULATION The purpose of cold circulation is further water removal from piping network and bottom of equipment. Adjust steam inlet rate to maintain system pressure about 0. 5. Normally one hour of settling time is allowed after every four hours of circulation. iii) iv) Commission flare header and flare header should now be lined up to various equipment. Excess FG pressure may be released to flare as and when required by operating the control valve to flare.3. Cold oil circulation gives further opportunity of trying out various pumps and control systems prior to going up on temp. All plugged drains must be cleared for draining during circulation.0 Kg/cm2g. Close the vent valve which was kept open to a convenient point as selected and described at point (I) above to maintain system pressure and let out non condensable.ii) Close all the vents one by one.
Water carried away by crude can be separated from crude in crude tank.5. i) Open suction & discharge valves of off sites crude transfer pumps and crude charge pumps 05-PA001A/B/C/D/E. Following major points may be followed for cold circulation in the CDU section: (a) Receiving crude in the Unit Crude tank that will feed the unit will be prepared in advance by through draining of water. iv) In subsequent start-ups this operation may not be required.instruments should be commissioned during cold crude oil circulation.3. 127 . 5. Crude will begin to flow under gravity into the line and displace gas. Crude oil flow in the equipment and piping carries away free water with it from crude as elaborated ahead. as offsite crude line up to the battery limit will always remain full. ii) iii) Slowly charge crude from the crude tanks. It will then be lined up to the unit. crude oil is used for cold oil circulation. as suggested by pump vendors. Sample will be analyzed and dips will be taken. It should be ensured that flow rate during cold circulation remains well above minimum continuous flow through various pumps involved.1 Crude Distillation Unit For atmospheric crude distillation unit. This gas is vented out from the crude pump vents and other high point vents of piping in off sites between crude tank outlet & crude pump suction. Similarly flow through control valve should be maintained above minimum flow stipulated in control valve data sheets to avoid possible chattering.
(b) Establishing Cold Circulation Once level in the crude column has been built up. and do not exceed column pressure beyond 1. establish cold circulation as per the lineup given below. Desalter shall be commissioned separately. ix) Regulate the crude flow through heater coil in such a way that crude flow to unit. start off site crude transfer pump.0 Kg/cm2g. x) Release displace fuel gas into the flare from atmospheric column reflux drum. Continue charging crude oil at a slow rate to atmospheric column bottom via atmospheric heater. viii) When flow of crude oil in off sites piping is no longer possible under gravity.v) Make sure that electrical supply to desalter is cut off. Crude Tank --->Crude Booster Pump in Offsite ---- Crude Pump in Unit PA-01 --> Crude Preheat Train Circuit Before Desalter (including both New and Old Preheat Train) 128 . Also divide the flow equally through all crude pre heat exchanger trains by operating respective FV & HV. vi) vii) Alternatively. care fully operate desalter (second stage) pressure controller PIC-1206 on manual and build up a pressure of 8 to 9 Kg/cm2g in the second stage desalter outlet line. Open the discharge valve of crude charge pump and allow the crude to flow to the desalter. desalter can be kept filled with gas and oil by passed. Operation all the pumps above their respective minimum continuous flows is essential. Fill the circuit up to crude charge heater via crude preheat trains and desalted crude pumps. Vent the trapped gas from each of the crude preheat exchangers through hose connected to the vents on the heat exchangers. xi) If desalter is included in circulation. crude charge pump and then the desalted crude pump.
Ensure that there is no flow of crude oil to LR storage.0 Kg/cm2g during cold circulation. Keeping battery limit side valve closed. By operating PIC-1504 (05-CC-001 top pressure controller) acting on incoming 129 . Stabilize the second stage desalter pressure at around 9. Observe the performance of all control valves in the circuit. Crude oil passes through crude preheat train I.5-11. iv) Keep watch on crude column level and maintain it around 50% by adjusting the LR pump discharge flow rate. Start LR pump.5 to 1. atmospheric furnaces and then to atmospheric column bottom. Crude stream flow can be controlled by manipulating flow and level control valves falling on presently selected crude circulating circuit. crude preheat train II.----> Desalter ----> Crude Preheat Train Circuit After Desalter (including both New and Old Preheat Train) -----> Furnace -----> Column -----> Column Bottom Pump PA51RCO R/D circuit Crude Pump suction i. iii) Line up LR rundown circuit up to R/D Control valve. When sufficient level is built up in the column bottom open suction and discharge valves of LR pumps. circulation should be continued for at least 6-8 hours to displace free water. Crude oil will gradually displace fuel gas and build up level in crude column. desalter. ii) Long Residue pumps take suction from material accumulated in atmospheric column bottom. v) Maintain crude column top pressure between 0. Fill up all the LR circuit exchangers by crude with gravity displacing the trapped gas from each of the LR exchangers through hose connected to the vents on the heat exchangers. line up for circulation (To P01 pump suction line).5 Kg/cm2g and put PIC-1206 on auto.
1 Atmospheric Section CDU commissioning can be accomplished by completing following steps once cold circulation has been established and units are ready for hot circulation. 5. Displaced FG will be released to flare form reflux drum. Stop all pumps in circulation service and allow settling for 2-4 hours. This operation of circulation. Restart cold crude circulation.6. 5. A check of water content of circulating crude oil is useful information.3. stopping. Carry out water draining from all the low points in the system including column and exchangers.6 HOT CIRCULATION Line up CDU for the hot circulation as per the following. After establishing and maintaining cold crude oil circulation for 4-6 hrs. vi) vii) viii) Desalter and few heat exchangers can be bypasses during initial commissioning. • • • • • (a) Firing the Heater Raising Temperature to 120 C Raising Temperature to 250 C Raising Temperature to normal COT Commissioning of Desalter Firing the Heater 130 .FG line to reflux drum and outgoing flare line from reflux drum. column top pressure can be maintained to desired valve. settling and draining will be repeated till no further water separates out.3. Repeat the operation till all the free water in the system is removed. Active exchanger by passes & control valve by passes also to displace free water trapped in these sections.
05-FF-001 firing will be done as per recommended procedure spelt out in heater operating manual Following to be ensured again which pertains primarily to commissioning of utilities and proper lining up of unit before firing the header: i) Cooling water flow is established in all product coolers. This is to avoid pressurization of the pump and its suction line to the discharge pressure of running pump. Commission fuel oil supply and return lines and establish FO circulation. it is to be ensured that suction valve of stand by pump is kept crack open or fully open.When the cold circulation has been well established and water in the atmospheric system has been thoroughly drained out. The bypassed trips should again be taken inline at earlier opportunity. However. Fuel gas purge to be augmented if required. thus attaining good warm-up of pump body. Check that level control valves remain open. as there is no level in the strippers. Charge atomizing steam header to the heater. Spare to be kept isolated as per P & ID stipulations. heater pass flow and heater body should be made operation. iv) v) vi) All safety valve isolation is kept lock opened. All safety interlocks/trips on combustion air circuits. GO strippers in auto mode. iii) Set level controllers of HN. Kerosene. 131 . Proper recording and communication should b e maintained regarding bypassed or in effective trips. Before warming up the stand-by pump of any hot service through the 3/4” warm-up line across NRV of stand-by pump. ii) Tracing steam is commissioned. This operation ensures flow of hot fluid back to pump suction. Cooling water flow to overhead condensers should be done gradually to avoid sudden condensation of fuel gas leading to subsequent depressurization of column/strippers etc. few selective trips may be bypassed appropriately for short duration only to achieve steady operating condition.
132 .vii) Exchangers subjected to hot crude shall have TSV protection. column bottom temperature shall be around 90-100 C. iii) While raising the temp. temp. At this COT. After warming up the heater. ii) Bring down column pressure to 0. Keep watch on column pressure. The rate of increase of transfer line temperature will be restricted to 30 C per hour. II is gaining heat from the LR. it is better to keep isolation valves on other heating media open to allow thermal relief to liquid still not in operation. Maintain crude column level by matching LR pump discharge rate with crude in take to the unit crude flow to be maintained at about 50% to 60% of normal through put. When the transfer line temperature reaches 120 C at heater outlet hold firing rate to maintain this temperature for four hours. and pressure readings of atmospheric column and heater. Monitor all flow. it will be observed that crude passing through preheat train I. (b) Raising Temperature to 120 C i) Fire the pilot burners of atmospheric heater one by one as per heater start up procedure. The excess pressure will be released to flare. main FO or FG burners can be lit up. Higher column pressure may interface with evaporation of hydrocarbons and water vapor.5 Kg/cm2g or less to facilitate water removal as steam hydrocarbon vapor mixture from the column overhead. iv) v) Watch performance of LR pump as its performance may become unsteady initially with rise in crude oil temp. Check for presence of water in product and circulating pumps suction and drain out according to requirement.
will be further raised at a rate of 30° C/hr to 150° C and held at this temp. instruments and controls in actually hot service and rectify the faults if any.vi) At the end of four hours. transfer temp. at 120° C for four hours. It will finally condensate in the column overhead condensers and accumulate in reflux drum. A value of about 0. Then raise COT to 250° C at a rate of 30° C/hr. carry out test for water content in circulating crude oil. Water content equal to or less than that of tank sample is indication of good water removal. put pressure controller PIC-1504 on auto to maintain this pressure. v) vi) When level appears in the reflux drum check for presence of water and drain it out. Rises further. Recalibration of few of the instruments may be necessary. c) Raising Temperature to 250° C i) Purpose of raising the temp. of water content is often obtained at this stage of hot circulation & is acceptable. After steadying out column top pressure. ii) iii) iv) Closely watch all instrument reading and check their performance. to 250° C and holding at this value is to try out all equipment. Hold crude column at about 50% bottom level. Top temp. Most of water in circulating crude shall be evaporated during this period. Local check for levels must be made. of the column will rise gradually. After holding the temp.5/2. Increase of column top 133 . for four hours with column top pressure held at 0. As top temp.2% wt. Vary LR pump discharge rate if necessary to maintain bottom level.5 Kg/cm2g. Higher pressure will help in condensation of vapor that would otherwise escape to flare. slowly raise column pressure a little at a time to its normal valve of 1. When it reaches more than 100 C steam in the atmospheric column will not condensate and will escape from column top.14 Kg/cm2g.
pressure will result in increase of top temp. due to increase in boiling point and dew point temp. of the vapors, provided all other parameters are constant. vii) Check for appearance of oil level in atmospheric column reflux drum. Start total top refluxing when oil level builds up. Watch water and oil levels in column reflux drum. Commission water and oil level controller LIC-1602 and LIC-1606 and put them on auto to hold about 50% level in vessel and boot respectively. Watch performance of these instruments closely. viii) ix) Care is to be taken so that water does not go in the top reflux stream. Refluxing will be started at a small rate. Start hot bolting in the transfer line, LR circuit, column bottom manhole and other flanges in hot service which were disturbed during S/D where normal operating temp. exceeds 200 C. x) (d) Cap off all drains securely that were used to drain water. i. When hot bolting of the portion where temp. reaches to 200° C is over, start raising the transfer temp. at 30° C/hr and continue hot bolting in other areas where temp. touches 200° C. Hold the column bottom temp. around 280° C till hot bolting in all the flanges is over. ii) Regulate top refluxing to maintain a column top temp. at 110° C. When naphtha make increases as indicated by rising oil level in reflux drum, route this product to slop till stabilizer column is commissioned. iii) See column top temp. and pressure reaches its normal value, line up all circulating reflux circuit, starting from HN to GO CR in descending order. Ensure that there is no water in any of circulating reflux circuits by draining. Start refluxing at minimum flow rate after draining water from pump drain. This operation shall gradually stream line temp. profile in the column. Raising Temperature to 300° C/Normal COT
When level appears in inside strippers, drain water from respective pump suction and line up product pump discharge (HN, Kerosene, GO) to slop header. Heating medium (GO CR) to stabilizer reboiler 05-EE-014 should not be commissioned. When sufficient level is built up in the side strippers (about 40%) start withdrawing off spec. products to slop header through respective product coolers, which is ultimately lined up to crude storage tank. When flows stabilize, all level control loops in HN, Kerosene, GO (LIC1506/1508/1510) CR’s can be put on auto.
At the time of commissioning circulating reflux flows, hot media will be flowing through the heat exchangers of crude preheat train I, II This will necessitate the flow adjustment of crude flow through preheat trains I, II to bring parity between outlet temp. of both the sections of same train.
vi) vii) viii)
Activate atmospheric column bottom stripping steam header by draining condensate from drain points provided. 100 % compliance to ensure condensate is properly drained from the stripping steam headers. When crude column bottom temp reaches 300° C admit stripping steam, about 250 Kg/hr in each step and bring unit out of circulation.
With the introduction of stripping steam, amount of vapor flowing to the upper section will go up. Adjust cooling water to overhead condenser to maintain reflux temp. at about 45° C. Introduction of stripping steam at crude column bottom will establish proper mass transfer profile. Sour water circuit from reflux drum needs to be rechecked for its heating at this point of time. Steam to product strippers can also be introduced.
LR should be finally cooled in 05-EE-021 & 05-EE-022A/B/C/D before sending to storage. Divert all other side products to slop tank through the slop header.
Watch column top pressure and temp. read just circulating refluxes and top reflux if necessary. Raise the circulating reflux by adjusting to 60-70% of its normal flow rate. Adjust return temp. of top reflux, top CR, kerosene CR, GO CR at 40,94/95,140.6/138.4 and 71.1/170.7 C respectively by manipulating respective exchanger by pass valves. Various duty controllers should not be put in operation till steady state operating conditions are established.
Start adjusting withdrawal rate of HN, Kerosene/ATF, GO by regulating FIC-1507, FIC-1508, FIC-1509 for maintain proper draw off temp. of HN, Kerosene and GO respectively.
When the coil outlet temp. reaches its normal value 375 C, put TIC-1416 on auto/cascade with fuel oil / gas firing controller and make all operating conditions steady. Commission hot medium to HN stripper re-boiler. Normalize stripping steam flow to Kero/ATF and GO stripper. Ensure that condensate is already drained before allowing steam flow to the strippers.
The HN liquid is stripped off its lighter by GO product stream as re-boiling medium and its flow is regulated by FIC-1507. Adjust cooling water, if necessary to all product coolers to maintain run-down temp. of HN, Kerosene, GO at around 40 C. Care should be taken to ensure that combined slop temp. ex CDU does not exceed 60C while leaving the unit or else it can lead to boil over in crude tank.
COMMISSIONING OF DESALTERS
Desalter can be brought into service at this stage. Stabilize desalter pressure at about 9.511.5 Kg/cm2g by PIC-1206. Control the desalter temp. at about 130 C by adjusting the all hot medium streams passing through preheat train I. Variation in Hy. Naphtha CR, Kero/ATF CR GO temp. Due to above adjustments by way of operation of exchanger bypass will be taken care of by respective product coolers.
Check oil water interface level through the try lines and check for any presence of vapour Switch on the power supply to desalters. Voltmeters and ammeters should indicate high voltage and low amperage respectively.
Line up service water/stripped water injection at desalter inlet and start injection at about 4% (by volume) of crude throughput or as per specification of desalter vendor. Also line up effluent water circuit.
Start caustic injection pumps and inject caustic solution into the crude fed to CDU, to maintain a pH of about 7 in the effluent brine from the desalters.
Start Demulsifier injection pump and inject Demulsifier at crude feed to CDU at the rate of about 1.5 to 2 ppm on crude charge. The rate of injection to be confirmed/readjusted based on actual operating data.
Commission desalter level controllers ILIC-1201 and ILIC-1202 and route desalter water to effluent treatment plant via brine coolers.
Take samples of crude before and after desalter for getting following performance: a) Salt content as NaCl at the outlet should be <0.5 ptb of salt content of raw crude whichever is greater. b) The insoluble water content in desalted crude should be less than 0.2% (max) by volume and the effluent brine should have oil content less than 200 ppm.
NORMALIZATION OF OPERATING CONDITIONS
At this stage normal operating conditions are established for atmospheric section at turn down capacity of normal throughput of the plant. All products are routed to their respective storage tanks/down stream plants.
Feed rate of the plant is to be raised to its normal capacity in steps as outlined below. i) When the atmospheric heater transfer line temp. of 375 C has been attained maintain this temp. and make further adjustments. Adjust heater firing to maintain 375 C at heater outlet at turn down operating conditions. ii) Increase stripping steam to side stream by adjusting individuals FICs to achieve designed ratio of steam to hydrocarbons. Make adjustment in the stripping steam flow to the atmospheric column bottom also. iii) Adjust draw off flows of HN, Kerosene and GO to maintain respective draw off temperatures. Raise circulating refluxes proportionately to maintain column temp. profile. iv) When conditions have become steady take all remaining controls on auto one by one. Particular care should be taken in case of heater control. Safety shutdown system for low fuel gas pressure (which was on bypass initially) should be made operative. v) Make adjustment on operating parameters to bring the products on spec. check samples of all products. Check for normal product run down temp. vi) When products are on spec. rout them to respective tank own stream units as per agreed routings with off sites section. These routings should be recoded meticulously and should be known to unit operators. If any product goes off spec. divert it to slop tank (except LPG) and make adjustments as detailed under operating variables to bring the product to specification. vii) Raise the throughput further only when all products are on spec. raise the throughput in steps in accordance with the procedure outlined. Establish steady operating
conditions in each step. Increase the throughput to normal rate, as per requirement and maintain the parameters as given in the section. Steady out transfer temp. of atmospheric furnace at 375 C check all furnace controls for proper functioning raise the feed to atmospheric furnaces by 25 M3/hr. viii) Check local temp. pressure , flow and level of different equipment and streams please keep watch on running equipment such as pumps, heaters and other equipment . Look for leaks, hot spot and any other abnormalities. ix) Record and analyses two hourly log readings and report any abnormal conditions to the next higher decisionmaking supervisor immediately. 5.3.9 BRINGING UP NAPHTHA STABILISER SYSTEM
Commission PIC-1701 (stabilizer top pressure) on auto, with set point at about 9 Kg/cm2g. PIC-1701 being controller with characteristics so selected that initially the control valve PV-1701 will remain full closed. If pressure increase still persists, PV-1701 shall also start opening and go to full open condition to relieve maximum fuel gas from stabilizer reflux drum. i) Start admitting naphtha form crude column reflux drum into Naphtha Stabilizer bottom with the help of stabilizer feed pumps. Build up about 75% level in stabilizer bottom through FIC-1701. It can be cascaded with LIC-1606 (reflux drum level controller) once steady operating conditions are achieved in stabilizer section. ii) To commission stabilizer re-boiler divert some quantity of GO CR slowly to raise the temp. gradually at the rate of 10-150 C/hr through stabilizer re-boiler 05-EE-014 by adjusting FV-1704 this shall increase stabilizer bottom temp. gradually. Do not exceed rise in temp. beyond 20 C/hr.
Necessary make up should be done through FIC-1701. at about 85 C.(Top Temperature to be maintained depending on LPG weathering). Maintain top temp. When normal stabilizer pressure (8/12 Kg/cm2g at PIC-1701) is reached. vii) Slowly divert naphtha to caustic wash and water wash vessels. Till caustic and water circulation is established properly. So increase or decrease of temp. Start total refluxing to the column keeping FIC-1703 on manual control.iii) Stabilizer pressure will tend to rise as the bottom stream gets heated by GO CR. requiring longer time to stabilize. normal working of the column will be established. iv) Raise gradually stabilizer trey temp. drain water from boot and stabilizer reflux/LPG pump’s suction. or pressure of stabilizer shall be done gradually. Receive 10% solution caustic & water up to 25 to 30 % level in respective wash vessel. stabilizer bottom level will fall if rate of heating is too fast. vi) Divert stabilizer column bottom to storage/slops via stabilizer feed/stabilizer bottom exchanger. stabilizes at around 170 C put TIC-1703 on auto. and pressure will destabilize the column making heavy fraction to go to the top. without leave in any vapor space. Care should be taken to avoid popping of the PSV on the vessel. Naphtha stream from stabilizer bottom remains routed to slop or other destinations bypassing the wash facilities. Complete filling of the vessel. Naphtha stabilizer cooler. 140 . When tray temp.. by adjusting TIC-1703/FIC1704. Sudden increase of temp. v) When level appears in stabilizer reflux drum. During the process of heating up. shall be indicated by LI-2004B followed by sharp rise in pressure. Quantity of caustic make up in the vessel should be verified with flow indication FI-2001B on make up line.Start diverting LPG when there is excess accumulation in reflux drum to caustic wash system.
Naphtha stream from light naphtha cooler is routed to 05-VV-009 and 05-VV-010 by operating HIC-2001/HIC-2002. Check & line up for close crude circulation PA-01 5HC5001 EE-01 EE-02 EE-03 EE-04EE-05Desalter EE-103A/B/C 5HC5002 --EE-102A/B EE-104A/B Desalter 141 . Quantity of water drained should be made up by running water make up pumps 05-PA-040A/B. xi) When caustic strength goes down to less than 1% spent caustic should be drained to spent caustic drum VV-16 and fresh caustic should be made up. xii) Water from water wash vessel shall also be drained to spent caustic drum VV-16. HV-2001 at vessel inlet should be kept to full open position by operating HIC2001. However draining of wash water to this vessel shall be indicated in inter-phase level LI-2008B on the water wash vessel. Streams collected in the degasser vessel after degassing shall be sent to ETP by spent caustic pumps 05-PA-043A/B. 5.viii) Caustic circulation in the vessel is established by operating caustic circulation pumps 05-PA-019A/B through FI-2001B. Inform RSM/OMS/TPS & other units about start up. ix) x) Similarly water circulation is established in water wash vessel 05VV-010. 2.4 STEPS INVOLVED IN START UP FROM BOTTLED UP CONDITION 1. Specifications of outgoing naphtha should be compared with specified stream properties to establish efficiency of washing.
16. isolate gas & purge box with steam again. Light all pilot burner one by one. 7. 12. Check for any leak / abnormality in plant. Take low pass flow inter lock in line. 11. 9. Establish IFO circulation. Raise temp. Deblind FG. If the first one does not light in first shot.DesalterPA-025HC5005EE-06A/BEE-07A/B/CEE-08A/BEE09A/BEE10A/B/C/DFF-01CC-01 PA-025HC5006 EE-105A/B/C/D EE-108A/B 01 EE-106A/B/C/D FF-01CC- EE-107A/B/C/D PA-51 EE-10 A/B/C/D EE-07A/B/C EE-04 EE-21 PA-51EE-107A/B/C/DEE-105A/B/C/D/EEE-103A/B/C E111A/B New & Old joins together FC1805 hot RCO R/D E22A/B/C/D FC1806 cold LR R/D Unit circulation 3. Purge heater box with steam & bring negative draft inside. Fully open STD. Maintain desalter pressure 8 – 9 kg/cm2 by operating PC 1206 5. 8. 142 . 15. 14. Ahuralan. to 1200C. Hold for 2 hrs to strip off water to over head reflux drum. 13. Start FD fan. light gas & FO burner as per requirement & raise COT @ 40 0C/hr. Check & isolate all FO/FG/Pilot burner valve. Ammonia) 6. Prepare/ top up chemical solution (NaOH. Establish circulation & maintain crude flow @ 6000mt/day 4. Demulsifier. 10. fix it.
Rout LPG through amine & caustic wash system to Horton sphere. Adjust RCO cooler to get required R/D temperature. 39. Commission Amine wash system.5/2. Diver V2 gasoline to stabilizer. Raise temperature to 2500C. Start product pump & rout initially to off spec. 36. Take all inter locks in line. Commission LPG / Naphtha & SKO naphtha caustic wash system. Adjust RCO cooler O/L temp to 50-600C 21. Slowly increase T’Put as per requirement. Start all chemical injection. Adjust draw temperature. 32. Maintain top temperature. When level builds up in V02. Check & get hot bolting done the leaky/smoky flanges. 31. 29. 40. With the increase of temperature column top pressure will increase. 20. 19. When it’s suction exceeds 1600C. Introduce slowly heat to Stabilizer & HN stripper Reboiler. Drain condensate & introduce stripping steam to C01/C03/C04. When certified rout to on grade R/D tank. Switch on desalter. 27. Adjust column condition. 26. Send product sample to laboratory. 23. Drain out accumulated water fro desalter. 18. Start ID fan. 33. Maintain PH 42. tank. 30. 35. Drain water & start reflux pump. 143 .17. 28. Start Stripped sour water injection to desalter. 34. close STD as required. 37. 24. 22. 38. Bring unit out of circulation by routing RCO to R/D. 25. Rout V02 sour water to SRU.14 Kg/cm2g by PIC-1504. Raise temperature to get 3000C C01 bottom. 41. Maintain top pressure 1. Start CR pumps when level appears in stripper & adjust column condition. Rout LN / SKO through caustic wash system.
Establish IFO circulation.No 1 2 3 4 5 CHECK LIST FOR UNIT NORMAL START UP FROM BOTTLED UP CONDITION Description InformRSM/OMS/TPS/Water Block/Laboratory about Start up Check & rectify all furnace igniter Check & commission all utilities. Adjust to obtain IFO required temperature.5 Sl. Panel/Field Opr Panel/Field Opr. These should tight shut. Field Opr Panel/Field Opr Panel/Field Opr Field Opr Done YES/ NO Remarks 6 7 8 9. 10. first with RCO then switch over to VR.5. S/I Panel/Field Opr Field Opr Panel/Field . Stop purging steam & start FD fan Light up all pilot burners with the help of igniter Bypass low FG pressure inter lock & Light 144 Action by S/I Field Opr Panel/Field Opr. Check all FG and FO burner valves. 11 12 13 14 Pump/Field Opr. if decommissioned. Prepare / top up chemical solution • Ahuralan • Ammonia • Ammonical caustic • Demulsifier Check all motors for power supply Establish cold circulation with BH/NIG crude at 50% T’put Purge F01 with steam for 20 minutes. Check / confirm about negative draft inside furnace Deblind furnace FG line. Bypass IFO low pressure inter lock & establish IFO circulation through furnace by opening IFO C/V & return BPC.
Start DM water injection to desalter and Field Opr. Adjust Stabilizer operating condition. as per requirement to normalize Panel/Field the unit. 145 .15 16 17 18 19 Sl.No 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 gas burner & heat up to 120 deg C @ 30 to 40 deg C / Hrs Switch on desalter Take low pass flow inter lock in line Drain water from all stagnant line LPDs. Opr. to 300 deg C @ 400 Panel/Field C /hrs Opr. Field Opr Panel Opr. Panel/ Field Opr Action by Done YES/ NO Remarks 36 Get hot bolting done on Smoky / Leaky S/I flanges. Start sour water pump. Field Opr S/I/Field Opr. inform to GRE S/I and route all products to S/I/ off grade tank to GRE Slop tanks Field Opr. Flush circulation line Field Opr. demulsifier dosing I When level build up in V2 Drain water Pump/Field completely. Start Chemical injection Field Opr. @ 50 – 600 Panel/Field C Opr. Take oil burner in line as per requirement Field Opr. completely. if any Maintain RCO cooler O/L temp. Build up level in Panel/Pump C5. Raise COT. Introduce stripping steam & take the unit out Panel/Field of circulation Opr. Pump/Field Commission inter-phase level controller Opr Start reflux pump / Maintain top temperature Pump/Panel Opr Start product & CR pump when level Pump Opr appears in stripper Establish column condition Panel Opr. Raise Coil Outlet Temp. Introduce Heating media to bottom Opr. Have a round in the unit to check for any leakage & fix it. Description Opr. Raise temperature to 250 deg C @ 40 deg C/Hrs. Opr. reboiler & bring up slowly bottom temperature up to required one. When level builds up in V03. if any. drain out water Field Opr. Divert it to SRU. Divert V2 gasoline to C5.
Panel /Field /Pump Opr. route as per RSM Take all inter locks in line 40 41 42 43 44 146 . cocoordinating with SRU shift In charge. 39 Commission Naptha caustic wash system & route Naptha to R/D ( GN tank) Commission Amine ( C6) system. S/I/Panel/Fie ld Opr. Panel Opr. If certified. Panel /Field Opr. Start ID fan & bring furnace on balanced draft mode. Panel/Pump Opr.37 38 Start reflux pump & establish stabilizer condition Commission LPG caustic wash system & route LPG to Horton sphere. Panel Opr. Pump/Panel Opr Panel /Field /Pump Opr. Adjust T’Put as per requirement Sent all product samples to Laboratory.
CHAPTER-6 NORMAL SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE NORMAL SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE 147 .
It is to be ensured that a slop tank and one crude tank having sufficient space is available to receive the slops/off spec material.NORMAL SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE 6. It is important that process unit operates involved in shut down understand the purpose and effect of each activity. While shutting down all process units simultaneously or any section of the process unit.1 GENERAL In this section. procedure for planned shut down is discussed. Adequate ullage should be ensured in off sites slop tank. Flushing oil should be made available in adequate quantity and adequate pressure. All related process units. utilities and of sites should be kept informed well in advance about the shut down plan. Rate of temperature drop in process unit equipment should not be very sharp to induce thermal stresses in piping and equipment. In particular. Closed blow down drum should be emptied out and should be kept ready to receive hydrocarbons draining/flushing from equipment. operators should make sure that their actions will not result in creation of hazardous conditions either because actions taken were wrong or these were taken at wrong time. 148 . care should be taken not to admit air into the system until all hydrocarbon vapors have been removed.
2 BRIEF SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE The throughout to CDU will be gradually reduced to about 50% of normal capacity or turn down capacity of the unit and all other flow rates shall be reduced on pro data basis wherever applicable to be suitable for operation of the unit on reduced capacity. Chemical injection will be discontinued. Plan chemical solution preparation in advance so that very little solution is drained after unit is shut down for M&I. Number of burners will be reduced in the CDU. which will be released to fuel gas system. The important steps in the shutdown procedure are summarized as below: Reduction of feed rate to all units. Desalter will be taken out of service. furnaces if necessary.3 DETAILED SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE The procedure indicated below will ensure a safe and smooth shut down of the units but is not mandatory.6. When system is sufficiently cooled. All caustic wash sections will be bypassed. empty out all equipment to slop. COT of atmospheric section will be gradually reduced to 300 C . Re-circulate LR along with other product through slop header. Steam out columns exchangers etc. Cut off fire in atmospheric heater and allow to cool down while on circulation. Back up FG when pressure tends to become low. to remove hydrocarbon vapours etc. Discontinue chemical Injection Shutdown stabilizer Decommissioning of desalters 149 . 6. Divert product to slop when they become off spec. Adjustment will be done in stabilizer column operation to stop production of LPG. if opening of the equipment in hydrocarbon service is planned. Cut off column bottom stripping steam. Flush out fuel oil system. Necessary adjustment will be done in reflux rates withdrawal rates in all the sections of the unit to keep the product on specification.
1 THROUGHPUT REDUCTION Reduce crude throughout gradually to 50% of normal feed rate step by step. LPG down stream unit will be informed about discontinuing LPG production. 6. Depressurize and drain pumps and lines including calibration pots.3. Make adjustment on all operating variables in each step so that normal operating pressure and temp. 150 . 6. Putting the CDU on circulation Shut down atmospheric section Emptying out of the units and purging/isolation All above steps are elaborated below:6. Also inform CRU to stop drag stream to AU5. Stop corrosion inhibitor injection after stopping the ammonia injection. conditions are maintained. Stop Demulsifier injection pump 05-PA-027A/B and isolate the valve near crude inlet to CDU from storage. Isolate the vessels including cylinders and drums. Inform DHDS and LAB to stop wild naphtha to AU5 unit. which contain chemicals.3.2 DISCONTINUATION OF CHEMICAL INJECTION Stop caustic injection pumps 05-PA-031A/B and isolate the following: caustic injection to desalted crude caustic injection to crude inlet line to CDU from storage.3 SHUTDOWN OF NAPHTHA STABILISER Control system of stabilizer column shall be changed from total condensation to partial condensation operation. Stop ammonia solution injection and isolate the following injection lines: • Ammonia solution injection to crude column overhead vapour lines. Manipulate all atmospheric heater pass flow controllers for this purpose.3. bypass low pass flow / low FO / FG pressure inter lock.
top pressure control valve of the column may be closed. naphtha flow and stabilizer bottom level will all indicate completion of the emptying out of the column. Care must be exercised to prevent gas break through from stabilizer column to storage tank due to sudden loss of level in stabilizer bottom while emptying out. Bypassing the caustic wash system should be done prior to shut down of the system. Bring the column to total reflux operation. Operate TIC-1704 first to lower the temp. After emptying out. which may condense afterwards in FG system. LPG-to-LPG vaporizer should remain isolated at HIC-1901 and to Amine regeneration unit. controller TIC-1703 from reflux flow controller FIC-1703. As soon as caustic wash system is bypassed both the caustic circulation pump and water circulation pump to be stopped. Throttling of FV-1704 by manual mode can be done for this operation.Reduce feed to stabilizer. Keep a watch on rundown stream. De-cascade stabilizer reflux drum level controller LIC-1704 from LPG product flow controller FIC-2503. De-cascade stabilizer column top temp. Care must be taken to reduce the pressure very slowly to avoid lifting of heavy ends to the top and sudden release of heavy components to fuel gas system. De-cascade atmospheric column reflux drum level controller from stabilizer feed flow controller. Keep receiving feed to stabilizer till atmospheric column starts operating on total reflux in source of shut down and then cut off feed to the stabilizer. Reducing heating medium flow (GO CR) to stabilizer re-boiler. Heating up bottom contents can also be done if necessary to build up pressure for this purpose. By utilizing the available pressure. by maintaining pressure such that only sufficient vapor condenses to maintain reflux flow. To facilitate emptying out. Pump out stabilizer top reflux drum liquid to stabilizer till reflux pump looses suction. empty out the stabilizer bottom to slops storage tank and maintain stabilizer bottom level. isolate the 151 . which may create problem in slop tank. Reduction in stabilizer column pressure. Close the isolation valve in the stabilizer feed line. increase top reflux to stabilizer and cut off LPG withdrawal from reflux drum. as it may contain lighter components. Reduce the column top pressure very gradually by operating PIC-1701.
5 NORMAL SHUTDOWN CDU is still running with around 50% of normal capacity with LR routed to slop and the side draw off products from atmospheric column are going to respective product tanks. 6. Divert the off spec distillate products to slop at the battery limit. of crude oil drops.3 Kg/cm2g when it is idle. there will be less of distillate product and column pressure will tend to fall. as it may flash in the way. When CDU is on hot circulation. residual liquid in column. as elaborated ahead. As column temperature start dropping. Start reducing atmospheric furnace COT by TIC-1416 at 30° C per hour. Wide open the mixing valves at desalter inlet by manual operating MV-1201 & MV-1202 the pressure control system of the desalters should to work so that steady desalted crude pump suction pressure is ensured.4 DECOMMISSIONING OF DESALTERS Switch off power to both desalters and then stop desalting water to both the units. LPG should not be drained to CBD or OWS in large quantity. desalter can be bypassed after opening PV-1206 at desalter inlet fully in manual mode. After depressurizing. As temp. Keep desalter pressure around 0. Admit fuel gas into the reflux drum through pressure controlled PV1504B if fuel gas is available from else where. 6.3. piping exchanger will be drained to CBD or OWS. Shut off desalter effluent water (brine) lines after ensuring the water level is lowered to minimum. Inform related units about the rerouting. quantity of products will go off spec. However crude flow through desalters can be maintained. Desalter can be kept filled with gas oil and be isolated after draining.column by shutting off valve on the inlet and outlet streams and then depressurize slowly by releasing to flare through depressurizing valve. Drain desalter content into close blow down (CBD) system. 152 .3.
Build up about 80% level at the bottom of the column.3.At a column bottom temperature of around 300° C cut off stripping steam to column bottom. After this. Discontinue RCO pump discharge from crude tanks and line up LR pump discharge to slop tank. starting from HN CR pump as and when they loose suction. Continue IFO circulation. Also GO CR to HN reboiler to be stopped. Stop all CR pumps one by one. When heater box temperature drops to about 200° C. Gradually stop product withdrawal and stop product pumps. ----> P1 suction. 153 . as was done during hot circulation at the time of start up. Stop withdrawing naphtha product and resort to total top refluxing. With a drop in column top temperature. Stop LR pumps also when they loose suction. LR yield will increase and its viscosity will come down. when they give unsteady performance on continuous operation. Isolate the crude feed line from the unit battery limit.6 SHUTDOWN OF ATMOSPHERIC SECTION FOR M&I Take flushing oil to the atmospheric column through RCO pump suction. Keep striping steam to side strippers also to be discontinues as and when side draw off products are diverted to slop. stop all crude pumps. Continue crude circulation till system gets cooler down sufficiently to about 100° C at the column bottom. Liquid in reflux drum will be emptied out into crude column slowly. Stop ID / FD fan 6. Purge out burners and firebox and get FG line blinded. the overhead product yield will gradually come down. Reduce CR rates. Hot circulation circuit: PA-1 -->Crude Preheat Train Circuit Before Desalter (including both New and Old Preheat Train) ----> Desalter ----> Crude Preheat Train Circuit After Desalter (including both New and Old Preheat Train) -----> Furnace -----> Column -----> PA-51 ------>RCO circuit. cut off all furnace fire. With lowering of heater COT. Line up LR R/D to pre-desalter crude pump suction and establish close circulation of LR.
• • After water flushing is over. 154 . isolate & bypass all RCO & Crude Heat Exchangers & drain all the exchangers to CBD. PA-1 -->Crude Preheat Train Circuit Before Desalter (including both New and Old Preheat Train) ----> Desalter ----> Crude Preheat Train Circuit After Desalter (including both New and Old Preheat Train) -----> Furnace -----> Column----->PA-51------>RCO circuit ------>PA-1 • • Flash out heavy stuff from all exchangers/control valve bypasses by operating them one by one. After depressurization. Open emergency steam to all the passes of the furnace to expedite the displacement (this is suggested in view of large hold up of hydrocarbon in piping which remain stagnated). Depressurize crude column to flare. When it is sufficiently thin. Care should be taken to avoid steaming beyond battery limit. stop circulation and pump out the material to slop tank. • Deblind & line up service water connection at P01 suction. • • Pump out the material collected at crude column bottom to slop tank. Continue circulation till entire circuit is flushed out check consistency of circulating stream. The flushing operation may have to be repeated more than once. Run LR pump as and when necessary. • Steam out discharge of RCO pump and route the material into slop header. close all valves releasing to flare. Start P01 & push the line material (Both new & old circuit) to column via desalter. Close cooling water B/Vs at plant battery limit and drain out water from condensers and product coolers. Continue water flushing to C01& pump out C01 to slop header through RCO circuit. When desalter interphase level raises to 100% bypass & drain desalter content to CBD & subsequently pump out CBD content to slop tank.Line up circuit again through LR circuit and crude charge pump and complete the circulation block up to column. Slowly open steam to the discharger of crude charge pumps and flush the lines and equipment into the C01 bypassing desalter. Steam crude preheat exchangers and displace the material into the column.
Ensure that column vents are opened to atmosphere to avoid vacuum formation. Start steaming crude column. Stop steaming the equipment when steam enters CBD system. Then stop steaming and let the equipment to get cooled. Ensure adequate ullage in CBD drum by pumping out CBD drum contents to slop. Blind off fuel gas line. Drain Amine settler bottom to amine drain. desalter. Carry out insertion of blinds as per the master blind list for isolating the unit for maintenance. Decommission LPG vaporizer. drain all equipment and lines to CBD one by on. Decommission FG header to flare header & purge with steam. after which it will be discontinued. Drain all the oil in the CBD. Flush out fuel oil header by taking flushing oil at unit battery limit. Drain out oil to CBD. Reverse blinds on CBD lines from various equipment to open position.• 6. 155 . Steam out the headers in hydrocarbon service till clear steam comes out from all high point vents and all hydrocarbons are eliminated. before steaming.7 Isolate fuel gas header from all the reflux drums. furnace coils and exchanger trains etc. stabilizer column. Isolate flare header at battery limit. EMPTYING OUT OF THE UNITS AND PURGING/ISOLATION After maximum quantity of hydrocarbon material has been removed from the unit.3. The step of steaming can be taken up only after shutdown of the rest of the unit so that cooling water can be isolated for effective steaming. Reverse the blind to close position of the fuel gas header in the plant battery limit. if FG is not required by ARU. Shut off steam to the lines. other high point vents and reflux drum vents etc. as detailed under the section of start up procedures. Continue steaming till all hydrocarbon vapours are removed from the system. Steam out for a period of about four hours. During steaming care should be taken so that system pressure does not exceed operating pressure. Rise in CBD drum level should be watched periodically while draining. Connect steam hoses to the utility connection point of all equipment and start steaming. Open vent at top of equipment. Isolate all inlet and outlet lines at the battery limit. Allow the system to cool down with vent valves full open.
10. EE4 to it at least 12 hours before the unit is schedule to S/D. Accordingly reduce / adjust IFO temperature.No Description 5 6 Done YES/NO Remarks 7. a) Switch over to total LS crude processing (4 Hrs before T’Put reduction) b) Reduce T’put to 8000 Mt/Day level.Opr Action by Done YES/NO Remarks InformRSM/OMS/TPS/Water Block/Laboratory about S/D 2 Ensure flushing oil availability in GHC 3 Ensure slop tank at GRE has sufficient ullage 4 Check CBD pump is in healthy condition Sl. desalter Reduce F1 COT @ 30deg C Panel/Field 8. Inform RSM / P&C/OMS for availability of S/I LS crude tank If the S/D is for longer period. Stop / divert CRU drag stream / DHDS & S/I/Field LAB wild naphtha processing. Inform CRU Opr.After positive isolation is over start again steaming followed by hot water wash by introducing water from top of the column by reflux pump. At least 4-hour hot water wash to be done followed by cold-water wash to cool down the columns. During steam purging ensure that dry steam has come out from all LPDs & HPVs & no trapped hydrocarbon is left inside. Stop water & demulsifier injection to Field Opr. Pump.3. Thru’ put reduction Panel Opr. 9. 6.No 1 Description Action by S/I S/I S/I/Panel Opr. Blind steam out point & open column manholes. 11 156 . c) Bypass low FG pressure & low FO pressure inter lock a)Route ATF / SKO to HSD pool Panel/Field b)Route LN to GN pool Opr.8 CHECK LIST FOR UNIT NORMAL SHUTDOWN FOR BOTTLED UP CONDITION Sl. stop VR Panel/Field receiving in IFO drum & Receive RCO ex Opr. / LAB plant / DHDS shift in-charge.
Panel/Field Opr Panel/Field Opr Panel/Field Opr Field Opr S/I Field Opr Panel/pum p Opr Pump Opr.12. 16 17 18 19 20 21 Sl. Continue IFO circulation.No 22 Stop all chemical injection & desalter desludging pump At 250 deg C (Column bottom temp. Panel/Field Opr Action by Done YES/NO Remarks 23 24 If the S/D is for longer period carry out Panel/Field flushing /Pump Opr. Reduce temperature to 120 deg C @ 40 deg C/Hrs by cutting off all oil burners one by one & flush it with steam. • Receive FLO at Crude pump suction. Field Opr. • Initially route C1 bottom product to RCO tank for 20 minutes. 13. • Bring down C1 level to lowest possible level by diverting it to RCO tank. 157 . Empty Panel/Field out IFO drum to slop header to lowest Opr possible level. At 120 deg C cut off furnace by closing main FG isolation valve & purge box with purging steam. Take gas oil in the vessel. Build up C1 level to 80%. Than establish close circulation • Check RCO sample at B/L. stop circulation. Flush all RCO R/D lines with FLO to Field Opr.. individual units / tanks Isolate RCO to IFO drum I/L valve. If it is light Stop circulation pump.) cut off stripping steam to column / strippers & put unit on hot circulation Adjust RCO cooler to maintain 50-60 deg cooler O/L temp. If it is light. 14 15. Switch off desalter. Check sample. Repeat this sequence for 2 to 3 times. Stop all product pump when stripper level is low Stop all reflux pumps Stop ID / FD Description Opr. if not repeat point a to d. Insert blind in FG line and stop furnace box purging.
Stop crude circulation when the column Panel/Field (CC-01) bottom temp. deg C. comes down to 100 /Pump Opr.25 26 27 28 29 Decommission LPG caustic wash system if Field Opr not in use (for other units) Decommission naphtha & ATF caustic Field Opr wash system Isolate all R/D battery limit valves. Panel/Field Opr Keep C1 /C5 floating with FG system on Panel Opr positive pressure. 158 .
CHAPTER-7 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 7.1 GENERAL GUIDELINES An emergency in the unit means a serious up set in the unit operating conditions resulting in products going off. and damage to equipment (if proper actions are not taken promptly and so warrants quick decision and quick actions. 159 .
is to be controlled by pinching water to LSHS/RCO coolers) 160 . RCO cooler rundown temperature should not exceed 50-55OC. Fuel oil BPC bypass valve is required to be opened in time. timely closing of rundown valves or diverting product rundowns should be ensured.Under emergency conditions. Crude feed line battery limit isolation valve is to be closed before establishing circulation. Inform concerned sections about stopping/diversion.0 kg/cm2. Hence. to avoid coke formation. Attempt is to be made to avoid any safety valve popping. Close the unit limit gas and unit B/V and depressurize the gas line to flare line. to avoid feed pump losing suction. since the last tubes are of stainless steel. are to be allowed. vessels etc. No off grade materials is to be allowed to go into on grade tanks. Firebox purging steam should be opened immediately after cutting off pilot gas burner. is required to keep the tips free for subsequent light up. Steam flushing of individual oil burners. If coil purging in F-1becomes necessary. since the same may be needed for passivation of F-1 coils. when coilpurging steam is opened. action is to be taken promptly as per the guidelines given below: The product inside the heater coil should not get excessively heated. Heater coil pressure must be lower than available steam pressure. The passivation solution should be prepared at the earliest. While on hot circulation. Heater coils should not run dry. (Temp. No excessive pressure surge or level build up in columns. so that BPC pressure does not exceed 10. Cut off oil firing and gas firing before putting off the pilot gas burners. no condensation of steam inside the coils is permitted.
to avoid pressure surges in the column or product backing up into steam line. Proper vigilance in the plant to be observed by operating personnel to avoid near fire or fire likes situations. The major emergencies encountered are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Power failure Steam failure Water failure Instrument air failure Crude feed failure All utilities failure Failure of heater coils Failure of heater interlocks 110V DC supply failure 24V DC supply failure UPS failure DCS failure Fire in the plant 7. Crude oil circuit must be flushed with diesel at the earliest convenient time to avoid congealing. Keep bleeders on the steam lines. mainly on 3 Ata steam line opened to avoid back up of product.2 POWER FAILURE IN UNIT: 161 . Timely closing of stripping steam isolation valves must be ensured. Timely actions like blanketing by opening steam lancers may help avoiding near fire situation to develop into a fire situation. While pumping out any material from the unit pump out temperature has to be low enough.
So. No reflux to columns. Power failure may be of 3 types 1) HT POWER FAILURE 2) LT POWER FAILURE 3) TOTAL POWER FAILURE EFFECTS OF POWER FAILURE: Following are the effects of power failure: • • • • • • All the motors will stop. If on the other hand. there is a partial/total failure of power supply to the unit. • • • No illumination in the plant and no alarm signals will work. The pumps will not be transferring liquid from one place to other because the motors have stopped. Hence there are chances of bricks falling down. Heater refractory may get a thermal shock. Exchangers will get a thermal shock. vessel safety may pop. due to malfunctioning of a transformer in the sub-station or some cable faults or power shedding etc. Since there is no material going out of the vessels. There are chances of fire in the plant due to thermal shocks and leaks. vessels will become full. Columns top temperature will start shooting up and pressure will also shoot up. For sometimes the vapors will continue to come from column overheads and condense in condensers and then go to vessels. then unit will have to be shutdown depending on the resumption of power supply to the unit. No flows through heater coils. 1) HT POWER FAILURE 162 .A power dip of eve 2/3 seconds is enough to trip a motor.
Sl. Field Opr. Furnace will cut off on Low pass flow inter lock. Pilot burners should be in line. Take low pass flow inter lock in line.In case of HT power failure only Crude pump will trip. Route ATF / SKO to HSD & Naptha to GN pool. Panel/Fie ld Opr. If power clearance is obtained from TPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 immediately Start stand by pumps & establish flow through heater coils. Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the burner oil guns with steam. Panel Opr. Panel/Fie Ensure negative draft. Close FG & FO C/V from panel. which were running. Light all pilot burners. Purge heater box with steam if pilot burners Action by S/I Panel Opr. Take all inter locks in line. Isolate main FG line B/V. Start FD fan after bypassing its inter lock. Raise temperature @ 40 deg / hr. Done YES/NO Remarks Panel/Pu mp Opr. Take ID fan in line. burner in line. ld Opr. Stabilize unit condition. Panel/Fie ld Opr. Field Opr. Panel 163 . Pump Opr. Panel/Fie ld Opr. Opr.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 JOB DESCRIPTION Inform RSM/TPS/OMS/SPNM Furnace should trip on inter lock. Close the discharge valves of the pumps. Field Opr. Panel Opr Field are off. Take FG & FO Field opr. otherwise isolate them & purge the heater with steam.
164 . Stop ID fan & switch over furnace to forced draft mode. Close CC-001/3/4 stripping steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. ld Opr. Adjust RCO cooler O/L temperature to Panel/Fie about 50-60 deg C.10 11 Check product colour. Inform RSM/SPNM/CPNM about the Opr. Panel/Fie ld Opr. 3 4 Panel Opr. Pump Opr. Panel/Fie 5 6 7 8 9 ld Opr. Bleeder of these c/vs. S/I/Panel/ Field Opr. Put unit on close circulation. to be opened. Start coil purging steam & displace the oil Panel/Fie contents of oil to column (while purging the coil with steam. Send sample to Lab. Opr. Run FD till Column cools down / Column pressure comes under control. Route product to off grade tank. Field 10 11 12 13 Stop all chemical injection pump. Stop dm water to desalter. ld Opr. mp Opr. S/I 1 2 S/I situation. Field Opr Stop all product & reflux pump when Panel/Pu stripper / vessel level comes down. of CC-01/CC03/CC-04 from the panel. Decommission Naphtha / SKO caustic wash Field Opr system. care should be taken that column operating pressures should not exceed) Cut off striping stream c/vs. Panel Opr. If power clearance is not obtained/power is not resumed within few minutes. Field Opr.
Field Opr. Fix it if so. as required. d Opr. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. 165 . Start FD fan. Opr. Introduce stripping steam to strippers. Light all pilot burners. Panel/Fie ld Opr. Isolate all product battery limit valve. Field Opr. Check the unit for any leak. Field Opr At 300 Deg C cut off feed by introducing Panel/Fie stripping steam in C01 & putting unit out of ld Opr Panel/Fie ld Opr Panel/Fie circulation. ld Opr. Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft if pilot burners are not in line. Ensure low feed pass flow in line. if other Field Opr unit LPG is not washed here. Field Opr.14 15 16 17 Decommission LPG wash system. Light gas burner. Take oil burner. ON RESUMPTION OF HT POWER Ensure coil-purging steam valves are closed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Field and establish cold circulation. Pump/Fie ( Drain water completely). Panel/Fie ld Opr. Adjust RCO cooler CW flow to have 40 –50 Panel/fiel deg O/L temperature. 12 13 14 ld Opr Start top reflux pump when level appears. if stopped. Field Opr Inform OMS to line up crude tank for S/I gravity line up. Panel Opr S/I/Field Opr. Switch off desalter. Field Opr. C/hr. Increase temp.
when level appears in stripper. Sent sample to lab. ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN: In case of LT power failure to the unit (but steam being available) following actions should be taken: Sl No 1 2 JOB DESCRIPTION Inform RSM/TPS/CGP/OMS/SPNM With the LT power failure. Adjust column condition. fuel oil pumps will also automatically stop but gas firing will continue. If certified. Start CR / Product pump. Action by S/I Done YES/NO Remarks 166 . Pump/Fie ld Opr Panel Opr Pump Opr Panel Opr Panel Opr Drain water from V3 when level appears & Pump/Fie start reflux pump& adjust column condition.15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Start sour water pump & rout to SRU. ld Opr Panel/Fie ld Opr Pump/Fie ld Opr S/I Panel/Fie ld Opr Panel Opr 2) LT POWER FAILURE: Following are the effects of LT power failure: EFFECTS: All the motors except Crude pump and Desalted crude pump will stop. Maintain required top temp. Take all inter locks in line. Route LPG & Naptha to R/D after commissioning caustic wash system. Heat up stabilizer bottom . Route all products to off grade tank. divert product to on grade tank.
On resumption of power start the unit as per normal start-up procedure. Stabilize unit condition. Panel Opr. 6 7 8 temporarily increasing FG firing. Take IFO inter lock in line. Isolate all pump discharges. which were Pump Opr. 6 7 8 9 Bleeder of these c/vs to be opened. Take oil burners in Panel/Field line. Panel Opr. 10 Panel/Field Opr. Opr. 3 4 5 Field Opr. Close all the R/D valves. Confirm if the failure is partial. 167 . Close CC-001/3/4 stripping steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. start all stand by pumps one by one & stabilize the unit by Panel Opr/ Field Opr. Cut off striping stream c/vs. Panel/Field Opr. and if power is available in standby pumps. running. of CC-01/CC03/CC-04 from the panel. Switch off desalter. Panel Opr. Isolate all FO burners & flush with steam. Pump Opr.3 4 5 Shut FO C/V from panel. 1 2 S/I Field Opr. If the failure is total & does not resume in short time Inform RSM/SPNM/CPNM/OMS/GRE/GRSPF/SRU Cut-off gas firing in the heaters by closing individual burner block valve. Establish IFO circulation. Isolate main FG isolation valve also. Panel opr. Purge the heater box with steam. Keep watch on pressures of vessel / column and release the same into flare by opening PIC or PSV bypass if required. Field Opr. Field Opr. Establish close circulation.
Take all inter lock in line.Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 JOB DESCRIPTION Inform RSM/SPNM/CPNM Purge the heater box with steam. Start reflux pump when level appears in O/H vessel & maintain top temperature. Send R/D sample to lab. Take FG & FO burner in line. Adjust unit condition. Panel Opr. Drain water from V3 when level appears & start reflux pump& adjust column condition. Ignite all pilot burner one by one. (15 to 20 minutes). 168 . Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. appears in strippers. Field Opr. Action by S/I Field Opr. Divert 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 excess naphtha to stabilizer Start CR & Product pumps when level Pump Opr. S/I/Field Opr. Check furnace draft. circulation. Panel/field Done YES/NO Remarks Opr. Field Opr. Panel Opr. S/I Panel/Field Opr. Take frequent round around the plant. Commission LPG / Naptha / SKO caustic wash system. Feed cut at 300 deg c by introducing stripping Panel/Field steam in the column & taking out of Opr. If certified divert R/D to on grade tank. Panel/Field Opr. Field opr. temperature. Slowly increase stabilizer bottom Opr. Panel Opr. Initially route products to off grade product Panel/Field tank. Increase COT as per requirement. Fix any leak / smoky flange if observed. Raise COT @ 40 deg C /hrs. Start FD fan. Pump Opr.
3) TOTAL POWER FAILURE: EFFECTS Following are the effects of Total power failure: • • • There will be no power to run Ht / LT motors. There will be no CW / Air / Steam / No illumination. There are chances of fire in the plant due to thermal shocks and leaks.
ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN: In case of power failure to the unit, following actions should be taken: Sl.No JOB DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 Inform TPS/CGP/RSM/SPNM/OMS Cut off furnace from panel by closing FG & FO C/V. Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the burner oil guns 4 5 with steam if available. Isolate main FG line B/V. Purge the heater with steam, if Field Opr. Field Opr. Action by Panel Opr. Field Opr. Done YES/NO 6 7 Cut off striping stream c/vs of CC01/CC-03/CC-04 from the panel. Close CC-001/3/4 stripping steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. Bleeder of these c/v 8 9 s to be opened. Close all discharge valves of the pumps which were running. Keep close watch on system / Pump Opr. Panel Opr. Remarks Action by S/I Panel Opr Field Opr. Done YES/NO Remarks
available. Sl.No JOB DESCRIPTION
vessels pressure. If it soot’s up release to flare by opening PSV / 10 PIC bypass. Take frequent round around of the plant. Fix any leak / smoky flange 11 if observed. Isolate all steam battery limit valve. On obtaining clearance for power / steam / CW / AIR start up 1 2 unit as follows: Inform RSM/SPNM/CPNM/OMS Commission steam: open all steam header condensate drain trap bypass. Slowly creak open battery limit valve & drain out condensate. When dry steam started coming out of trap bypass, slowly open battery limit valve. Close trap bypass. 3 Check instrument air pressure Sl.No JOB DESCRIPTION 4 5 6 7 8 Check cooling water pressure / flow Physically check total unit for possible leakage. Attend it if any Purge all FO burner with steam. Purge heater box with steam. Start IFO pump & establish circulation after bypassing inter 9 10 11 12 lock. Line up for & establish crude close circulation. Check furnace draft. Start FD fan after bypassing inter lock. Light up all pilot burners. Field Opr. Field Opr Panel/Field opr. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Action by Panel Opr. S/I/Field Opr. Field Opr. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. S/I Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. S/I/field opr.
13 14 15
Bypass FG low-pressure interlock & take FG burners in line. Raise temperature @ 40 deg C / hr. Take FO burner if required. Feed cut in at 300 deg c by introducing stripping steam in the column & taking out of circulation. Increase COT as per requirement. Take frequent round around the plant. Fix any leak / smoky flange if observed. Start reflux pump when level appears in O/H vessel & maintain top temperature. Divert excess naphtha to stabilizer. Start CR & Product pumps when level appears in strippers. Adjust unit condition. Initially route products to off grade product tank. Slowly increase stabilizer bottom
Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr.
Panel/Field Opr. S/I/Field Opr.
19 20 21 22 23
Pump Opr Panel Opr. Field Opr. Panel Opr.
temperature. Drain water from V3 when level Panel/Field/Pump appears & start reflux pump& Opr Field Opr. S/I Panel/Field Opr. Panel Opr. adjust column condition. Commission LPG / Naptha / SKO caustic wash system. Send R/D sample to lab. If certified divert R/D to on grade tank. Take all inter lock in line. STEAM FAILURE
24 25 26 27 7.3
STEAM FAILURE:Steam Failure may be of three types. 1. HP Steam
2. MP steam 3. LP Steam 1) MP STEAM FAILURE: EFFECTS: Following are the effects of MP steam failure: Atomizing steam to oil burners will not be available. Hence no atomization, and no proper combustion. Heaters will be sprayed with oil, later on burn on the surface of tubes. Stripping steam to CC-001/3/4 will not be available. Chances of product backing up into steam line are more, if b/vs are not closed immediately. So it may be observed that unit cannot run without steam and shutdown is a must. Fire fighting steam will not be available. ACTION TO BE TAKEN: Following actions are required immediately in case of MP steam failure. Sl No 1 1 2 JOB DESCRIPTION Inform TPS/CGP/RSM/SPNM/OMS Cut off furnace from panel by closing FG & FO C/V. Isolate individual oil & gas Action by S/I Panel Opr. Field Opr. Done YES/NO Remarks
burners valves and flush the burner 3 4 5 oil guns with steam if available. Isolate main FG line B/V. Purge the heater with steam, if available. Cut off striping stream c/vs of CC-01/CC-03/CC-04 6 from the Field Opr. panel Close CC-001/3/4 stripping steam control valve block valves and Field Opr. Field Opr. Panel Opr
bypass valves. Bleeder of these c/v 7 8 9 Sl No 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s to be opened. Put unit on close circulation. Adjust RCO cooler O/L Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. Action by Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. Field Opr. S/I/Panel Opr. Done YES/NO Isolate FG main isolation valve. Route product to off grade tank. Stop all chemical injection pump. Stop all product & reflux pump when stripper / vessel level looses. Decommission LPG / Naphtha / SKO caustic wash system. Switch off desalter. Inform OMS to line up crude tank for gravity line up. ON RESUMPTION OF STEAM 1 2 3 Inform RSM/SPNM/CPNM/OMS Purge oil burners. Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft. Start FD fan. Light all pilot burners. Light gas burner. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. C/hr. Ensure feed pass flow low in line. S/I Field Opr. Field Opr. Remarks
temperature to about 50-60 deg C. Cut off gas burners if gas is not available. JOB DESCRIPTION
4 5 6 7 8
Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Panel Opr.
9 Sl No 10
Check the unit for any leak. Fix it if so. JOB DESCRIPTION
S/I/Field Opr. Action by Panel/Field Opr. Done YES/NO Remarks
At 300 Deg C cut off feed and introduce stripping steam in C01 & putting unit out of circulation. Increase temperature as required. Start top reflux pump when level appears (Drain water completely). Start sour water pump & route to SRU. Maintain required top temp. Start CR / Product pump, when level appears in stripper. Adjust column condition. Heat up stabilizer bottom & adjust
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Panel/Field Opr. Pump Opr. Pump/Field Opr. Panel Opr. Panel/Pump Opr. Panel Opr. Panel Opr.
column condition. Drain water from V3 when level Panel/Field/Pump appears & start reflux pump& Opr. Field Opr. adjust column condition. Route LPG & Naphtha to R/D after commissioning caustic wash system. Route all products to off grade tank. Sent sample to lab. If certified, divert product to on grade tank. Take all interlocks in line.
20 21 22 23
Panel/Field Opr. S/I Panel/Field Opr. Panel Opr.
2) HP STEAM FAILURE
ACTION TO BE TAKEN: Sl.4 COOLING WATER FAILURE EFFECTS: No water to condensers and coolers. Monitor IFO temperature.C. Pumps glands may be burnt and lube oil temp.No 1 JOB DESCRIPTION Inform Cooling Action by S/I Done YES/NO Remarks 175 . Take RCO from D/S of EE4 in VR drum. Fire fighting steam will not be available.i) ii) iii) iv) v) 3) LP STEAM FAILURE i) ii) iii) Only IFO / VR heating system will affect. Care should be taken to the smoky flanges where steam lancers are provided. Hence in the absence of cooling medium. If HP Steam temperature is falling below 160 deg. Stop VR receiving from GHP ( inform GHP) . Adjust furnace firing. there will not be any condensation and all columns pressure will shoot up very fast. Utility steam will not be available. it can be tackled by reducing throughput and throttling water to coolers/condensers proportionally. Pumps will have to be stopped. Gland will start leaking. No water to pumps. 7. UNIT TO BE SHUT DOWN AS PER THE PROCEDURE MENTIONED FOR MP STEAM FAILURE. Hot pump seal quenching steam will not be available. will increase. If cooling water failure is only partial.
Panel/Field Opr. Adjust RCO cooler O/L temperature to about 50-60 deg 10 11 C. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. 7 CC-001/3/4 stripping Field Opr. 8 9 Put unit on close circulation. steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. 4 5 Field Opr. Field Opr. Decommission LPG / Naphtha / SKO caustic wash system. Close Panel Opr. Panel/Pump Opr. Route products to off grade tank. Stop all product & reflux pump when stripper / vessel level 14 15 looses. Switch off desalter. Stop all chemical injection pump. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr.2 3 tower/RSM/SPNM Cut off furnace from panel by closing FG & FO C/V. 176 . Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the burner oil guns with steam Isolate main FG line B/V. Field Opr. Cut off striping stream c/vs of CC-01/CC-03/CC-04 from the panel. Panel/Field Opr. Stop ID fan & switch over furnace to forced draft mode. Bleeder of these c/v s to be opened. otherwise isolate them & purge the heater with steam. Pilot burners should be in line. Run FD till Column cools down/Column pressure comes 12 13 14 under control. 6 Panel Opr.
Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Pump Opr. Take low pass flow inter lock in line. Panel/Pump Opr. Heat up stabilizer bottom . Start top reflux pump when level appears. level appears in stripper Adjust column condition. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Panel Opr. Panel Opr. Panel Opr. Light up gas burner. Start sour water pump & rout to SRU. 1 2 3 4 5 S/I Panel/Field Opr. as required. Increase temp. ON RESUMPTION OF CW Inform RSM/SPNM/CPNM/OMS Check CW flow / pressure Line up & establish cold circulation. 15 16 17 18 19 20 Pump/Field Opr. Field Opr. Field Opr. Start FD fan.( Drain water completely).16 Inform OMS to line up crude tank for gravity line up. Drain water from V3 when level Panel/Pump/Field 177 . Panel/Field Opr 12 13 14 Panel/Field Opr. At 300 Deg C cut off feed by introducing stripping steam in C01 & putting unit out of circulation. Panel Opr. Fix it if so. Introduce stripping steam to strippers. Maintain required top temp. C/hr. Light up all pilot burners. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft if pilot burners are not in line. if stopped. when S/I/Panel Opr. S/I/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Start CR / Product pump. Check the unit for any leak. 6 7 8 9 10 11 Panel/Field Opr.
Route all products to off grade tank. The PC’s of CC-001 and CC-005 will open fully leading to loss of pressure. If due to some reasons. Hence unit will have to be shutdown.7 Kg/cm2g from the compressor house.0Kg/cm2g and will decline fast. heater will trip. It is taken to an air receiver and from there it is taken to the unit. The instruments will cease to function. Air receiver in the unit can supply air for some time interval. Field Opr. Panel Opr. Take all inter locks in line. Instrument loops that are having pneumatic provision such as closed loop control valves will stop functioning. All the LC’s will open fully. Allow FD/ID fans to run as long as possible. Opr. Route LPG & Naphtha to R/D after 22 23 24 25 commissioning caustic wash system. PC on this line maintains the supply pressure at 3. Control valves will remain fully open or close depending on whether the control valve is air to close or air to open. divert product to on grade tank. On account of closure of FO / FG control valves.appears & start reflux pump& 21 adjust column condition. Panel Opr. 178 . However open loop instruments involving electronic data transmission shall remain. 7. If certified. EFFECTS Following are the effects of instrument air failure. then the supply lone header pressure will fall below 3. S/I Panel/Field Opr.0 Kg/cm2g in the header. air supply cannot be restored within this period.5 INSTRUMENT AIR FAILURE Instrument air is supplied to the unit at a pressure of about 6. Send sample to lab.
Cut off striping stream c/vs of CC-01/CC-03/CC-04 from the 6 panel. Panel/Field Opr. ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN: Sl. Action by Panel Opr. No 1 JOB DESCRIPTION If Instrument air can't be restored. Field Opr. Atomizing control valve will go to full open position. Check pilot burner. Panel/Field Opr. Bleeder of these c/v s to be 7 8 opened. Done YES/NO Remarks 179 . Field Opr. But since heater firing is substantially reduced. Adjust RCO cooler O/L temperature to about 50-60 9 10 deg C. Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the 3 4 burner oil guns with steam. With the pumps running all the flows will go up. Panel Opr. Stop ID fan & switch over furnace to forced draft mode. Level in vessel will come down. Panel Opr. Field Opr. Isolate main FG line B/V. Close CC-001/3/4 stripping steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. Field Opr. and hence columns top temperature will shoot up. Run FD till Column cools Panel/Field Opr. So shutdown is imminent. Cut off furnace from panel by closing FG & FO 2 C/V. Put unit on close circulation. Reflux pumps will lose suction. if not in line isolate them & purge the 5 heater with steam. temperature will fall down.
S/I/Panel Opr. Light gas burner. Inform OMS to line up crude tank for gravity line up. ON RESUMPTION INSTRUMENT AIR OF Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. At 300 Deg C cut off feed by 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Panel/Field Opr. Light all pilot burners. Ensure low feed pass flow in line. Isolate all product battery limit valve. Take oil burner. Field Opr. 15 16 17 Field Opr. C/hr. comes under control. 14 Field Opr. S/I/Field Opr. Panel Opr. Ensure LPG system is not used for other unit. Check the unit for any leak. Switch off desalter. Stop all product & reflux Panel/Pump Opr. 180 . Panel/Field Opr. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. Fix it if so. if stopped. Field Opr. pump when stripper / vessel level comes down. Decommission LPG / Naphtha / SKO caustic wash system. Field Opr Field Opr Panel/Field Opr.down 11 12 13 / Column pressure Panel/Field Opr. Stop all chemical injection pump. 1 2 Check battery limit IA pressure Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft if pilot burners are not in line Start FD fan. Field Opr. Route product to off grade tank.
Introduce stripping steam to strippers. Route LPG & Naphtha to R/D after commissioning caustic wash system. Panel/Field Opr.( Drain water 14 15 16 17 18 19 completely).6 FEED FAILURE: Crude oil is supplied to unit by booster pumps from crude control. condition. Pump/field Opr. Panel Opr. Route all products to off grade tank. when level appears in stripper. Start CR / Product pump. 7. Adjust column condition. 20 21 22 23 24 Field Opr. improper functioning of booster or 181 . Opr. divert product to on grade tank. Increase temp. Pump/field Opr. Start sour water pump & rout to SRU Maintain required top temp. S/I Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Send sample to lab. as required. adjust column condition. Take all inter locks in line. Drain water from V3 when Panel/Pump/field level appears & start reflux pump& adjust column Field Opr. If certified.introducing stripping steam in C01 & putting unit out of 11 12 13 circulation. Start top reflux pump when level appears. Panel Opr. Heat up stabilizer bottom & Pump/field Opr. Panel Opr. Panel Opr. Crude feed supply to the unit could get interrupted due to many reasons viz.
Interruption in feed flow calls for immediate action. 182 . which might have backed-up into steam line from columns. supply of all the utilities will stop. etc. • • • • Isolate FO / FG burners & flush with steam and the purge heater box. Tanks.e. Release the pressure from the reflux vessels to flare gas as & when required. there will be no supply of circulating water. If the interruption is for a longer period the unit should be shutdown as per the normal procedure. industrial and instrument air. Following action will have to be taken immediately: JOB DESCRIPTION • • • Close the C/V block valves and bypass valve of stripping steam to CC-001/3/4 and open bleeder to prevent backing up of crude oil/products into steam line. This is major emergency and unit is automatically shutdown.unit feed pumps. 7. Rapid drop in CC-001 bottom level JOB DESCRIPTION • Furnace will cut off on inter lock. improper lining up and chocking of strainers & or power supply failure. cut off stripping steam to columns & route the products to off spec. EFFECTS Feed pumps will lose suction No flow to the furnace. if any. Duration and cause of crude failure should be found out.7 ALL UTILITIES FAILURE: With the total power supply failure to the whole refinery. Open the bleeder on steam line to drain out the product. If the feed supply cannot be restored immediately bring the unit to circulation. and steam i.
Top and CR pumps will be stopped when they lose suction. levels etc. Stripping steam to the column CC-001 and Stripper will be stopped. JOB DESCRIPTION • Put off all the fires in the heater. Snuffing steam will be opened in radiation and convection sections. • • • • • • • Feed to the heater to be stopped. Sharp rise in stack temperature may also be observed. Smoke will start coming from the top of the stack. pressures. • • • • Isolate individual FO/ FG burners. Since instrument air supply will also fail. Flush with steam if steam pressure is available. Columns pressure will be watched for any rise due to additional amount of steam put into the heater coils.8 FAILURE OF HEATER TUBES Whenever tube rupture takes place. Stop ID/FD fans. 183 . Hence checks for temperatures. Close all battery limit R/d valves.• • • Since condensation will not take place in condensers column pressure will shoot up and so safety valves may pop. Top refluxing will continue as long as possible. Will have to be made locally. Line up for close circulation. no indication will be available in control room. Plant operating personnel and the supervisor have to assess the extent of leak/rupture and take recourse either to normal shutdown or emergency shutdown. It will become dense. as leak will increase. Keep vigil of the unit for detection of possible leakage. bridge wall temperature will start shooting up. Following steps are indicated to bring down the unit quickly in the event of a failure of heater tube. 7. as well as gas bullets immediately. Drain the flare gas knockout drum. Emergency coil steam will be opened in all the passes of the heater.
Cut off striping stream c/vs of CC01/CC-03/CC-04 from the panel.• • • LR circuit will be flushed by taking FLO.SPNM. Panel Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Stabilizer/ caustic wash section is decommissioned as per normal procedure. Put unit on close circulation. Panel/Field Opr. Close CC-001/3/4 stripping steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. In case of failure of 110V DC. Isolate main FG line B/V. Bleeder of these c/v s 8 9 10 11 to be opened. Adjust RCO cooler O/L temperature to about 50-60 deg C. Field Opr.RSM. Shutdown rest of the equipment as per normal procedure. 7. Sl. Panel/Field Opr. Panel Opr. Pilot burners should be in line.OMS Close FG & FO C/V from panel.9 110V DC SUPPLY FAILURE 110V supply is used for (i) Solenoid valves operation (ii) indication bulbs on panel (iii) limit switches for open condition. .No 1 2 3 JOB DESCRIPTION Inform I/M. Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the burner oil guns 4 5 with steam. Run FD till Column cools down / Column pressure comes under 184 Action by S/I Panel/Field Opr. fuel oil and fuel gas shutdown valves will get closed. Stop ID fan & switch over furnace to forced draft mode. otherwise isolate them & purge the 6 7 heater with steam. Field opr. Done YES/NO Remarks Field Opr.E/M. Field Opr.
Do not bypass FO / FG low pressure inter lock. Route product to off grade tank. ON RESUMPTION OF 110V DC Opr field Opr. Isolate all product battery limit valve. 1 2 3 POWER Inform RSM/SPNM/CPNM Check SOV’s / shut down valves are working. Field Opr. Start FD fan. Opr. Field Opr. Field Opr. S/I/Field so. Ensure low feed pass flow in line. Panel/Field Opr. Inform OMS to line up crude tank for gravity line up. Panel Opr. Take oil burner in line. Decommission LPG / Naphtha / SKO caustic wash system. Field Opr. Switch off desalter. Introduce stripping steam strippers. as required. Stop all chemical injection pump. Light gas burner. S/I/Panel Opr. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Panel/Field Opr. Light all pilot burners. At 300 Deg C cut off feed by Panel/Field introducing stripping steam in C01 & Opr. putting unit out of circulation. Check the unit for any leak.12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 control. Panel/Field Opr. Increase temp. Field Opr. Field Opr. C/hr. Fix it if S/I Panel Opr. Stop all product & reflux pump when Panel/Field stripper / vessel level comes down. Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft if pilot burners are not in line. Panel/Field 185 . 12 13 to Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. if stopped. Panel opr.
are on bypass mode. Panel Opr. when level appears in stripper Adjust column condition. Take all inter locks in line. 2 nos. Panel/Field appears & start reflux pump& adjust /Pump Opr. Maintain required top temp. Sl. Panel Opr. 24V Dc supplies is used for (i) Circuit relay/logic system for interlock (ii) Pressure switch signals (iii) Control valve limit switches for close condition. Opr.No 21 21 22 23 24 Action by Field Opr. keep FO/FG shutdown valves on interlock mode. on resumption of 110V DC supply shut-off valves will get automatically open. Opr. Start top reflux pump when level Pump/Field appears. Start CR / Product pump. “Trouble in Keltron Panel” will come and the other Keltron panel will take over.( Drain water completely). S/I If certified. To avoid this. CAUTION: If FO/FG SOVs. divert product to on Panel/Field grade tank. Drain water from V3 when level column condition. Heat up stabilizer bottom . Panel Opr.14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Opr. Panel/Field Done YES/NO Remarks Opr. JOB DESCRIPTION Route LPG & Naphtha to R/D after commissioning caustic wash system. Opr.10 24V DC SUPPLY FAILURE To supply 24V DC. 7. Panel/Pum p Opr. Start sour water pump & route to Pump/Field SRU. Sent sample to lab. Panel Opr. With failure of one of Keltron panel. On 186 . Route all products to off grade tank. Low fuel pressure trip will ensure that the S/D valves do not re-open automatically on restoration of 110V DC powers. of keltron panel and battery back up is provided.
Pilot burners should be in line. Cut off striping stream c/vs of CC01/CC-03/CC-04 from the panel Close CC-001/3/4 stripping steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. Action by Panel Opr.No 1 2 JOB DESCRIPTION Close FG & FO C/V from panel Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the burner oil guns 3 4 with steam. Panel/Field Opr.failure of both the panels “Battery back-up on line” signal will come. Field Opr. Bleeder of these c/v s 7 8 9 10 to be opened. Panel opr. otherwise isolate them & purge the 5 6 heater with steam. Field Opr. Field Opr. If 24V DC battery back up also fails then FO & FG SOVs will get closed and furnace shall switch over to natural draft. Done YES/No Remarks 187 . Put unit on close circulation Adjust RCO cooler O/L temperature to about 50-60 deg C Stop ID fan & switch over furnace to forced draft mode Run FD till Column cools down / Column pressure comes under Panel/Field Opr Panel/Field Opr. Isolate main FG line B/V. Field Opr. Take following actions to overcome the situation. Panel/Field Opr. ACTION TO BE TAKEN Sl .
Ensure low feed pass flow in line. Field Opr. Check the unit for any leak. Field Opr. Field Opr.11 12 13 control. 1 Field Opr. Do not bypass FO / FG low pressure inter lock. Fix it if so. Field Opr. Start FD fan. Inform Instrument / Electrical people to attend the problem. Stop all chemical injection pump. Panel Opr. Field Opr Stop all product & reflux pump Panel/Pump when stripper / vessel level comes Opr. Field Opr. if stopped. Take oil burner. 188 . Inform OMS to line up crude tank for gravity line up. Field Opr. Isolate all product battery limit 14 15 16 17 18 19 valve. Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. S/I/Panel Opr. Decommission LPG / Naptha / SKO caustic wash system Switch off desalter. Panel/Field Opr. Light all pilot burners Light gas burner. Panel Opr. S/I down. Route product to off grade tank. Panel/Field Opr. C/hr. At 300 Deg C cut off feed by introducing stripping steam in C01 & putting unit out of circulation. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. S/I/Field Opr. ON RESUMPTION OF 24 V POWER SUPPLY Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft if pilot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 burners are not in line.
Panel Opr. Heat up stabilizer bottom & adjust column condition. Opr. If certified. Increase temp. Start CR / Product pump. Adjust column condition. 7. when level appears in stripper. Take all inter locks in line. Start sour water pump & rout to Pump/Field SRU. Panel/Field Opr.11 UPS FAILURE: If UPS supply failure. US panel is to be blank. as required. the following effects will be noticed. Panel/Field Done YES/No Remarks strippers. Sent sample to lab. Route LPG & Naptha to R/D after commissioning caustic wash system. divert product to on grade tank. Panel Opr. Start top reflux pump when level Panel/Pump appears. Opr. Panel/Field Opr.Sl . Maintain required top temp. 189 .No 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 JOB DESCRIPTION Introduce stripping steam to Action by Field Opr. If battery back up system is failed. Opr. Panel Opr. Route all products to off grade tank. Panel Opr Field Opr. UPS will run through battery back up system. S/I Panel/Field Opr.( Drain water completely).
Load US panel from HM. All SOV will be closed. JOB DESCRIPTION Close FG & FO C/V from Action by Panel Opr. Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the 3 4 burner oil guns with steam. Adjust RCO cooler O/L temperature to about 50-60 deg 9 C Stop ID fan & switch over Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. Isolate main FG line B/V. Panel Opr. Cut off striping stream c/vs of CC-01/CC-03/CC-04 from the 6 panel. Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. People to energies UPS system as fast as possible.No 1 2 Call inst. Put unit on close circulation. otherwise isolate them & purge 5 the heater with steam. Furnace will be cut off totally. Remarks valve Bleeder of these c/v s to be 7 8 opened. Done YES/NO panel. 190 . Pilot burners should be in line. Field Opr. ACTION TO BE TAKEN: • • • • • Sl . Open FO & FG SOV from ladder monitor. Close CC-001/3/4 steam valves control and bypass stripping block valves. Normalize the unit. Field Opr. Light up burner in all furnaces. Field Opr.
191 . Take oil burner. Decommission Naphtha / sko Panel Opr. Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Panel opr. Light all pilot burners. Field Opr. Stop all chemical injection pump. Route product to off grade tank. S/I/Panel Opr. Field Opr. caustic wash Field Opr. Run FD till Column cools down / Column pressure comes under control. Isolate all product battery limit valve. Inform OMS to line up crude tank for gravity line up. if stopped. Start FD fan. Light gas burner. Fix it if so. 11 12 13 Field Opr. Panel/Field opr. Stop all product & reflux pump when stripper / vessel level comes down. S/I/Field Opr. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. S/I 15 16 17 18 system Switch off desalter. Panel/Pump. Inform i/m & e/m people to attend the problem. Ensure low feed pass flow in line. C/hr. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Panel/Field Opr. Field Opr. Opr 14 LPG / Field Opr. At 300 Deg C cut off feed by 1 Field Opr. ON RESUMPTION Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft if pilot burners are not in line. Check the unit for any leak.10 furnace to forced draft mode. Field opr.
Start CR / Product pump. Start top reflux pump when level appears. the following effects will be seen: All screens will be turned to blank. divert product to on grade tank. Maintain required top temp. If certified. (Drain water 13 14 15 16 17 Sl . Panel Opr. S/I Panel/Field Opr. Take all inter locks in line Field Opr. Start sour water pump & rout to SRU. Introduce stripping steam to strippers. Panel Opr. Panel/Pump Opr.introducing stripping steam in C01 & putting unit out of 10 11 12 circulation. Panel opr. JOB DESCRIPTION Pump/Field Opr. as required. 192 . Panel/Pump Opr. 7. Remarks Panel/Field Opr. Panel/Field Opr. Route LPG & Naphtha to R/D after commissioning caustic 20 21 22 23 wash system. Action by Done YES/NO Drain water from V3 when Field/Pump/Panel level appears & start reflux pump& 19 adjust column Field Opr. Sent sample to lab. Route all products to off grade tank.No 18 completely. when level appears in stripper. Panel Opr. but UPS is running. Increase temp. Heat up stabilizer bottom & adjust column condition.12 DCS CONSOLE FAILURE If DDCS CONSOLE is failed. opr. condition. Adjust column condition.
Sl . 193 .No 1 JOB DESCRIPTION Isolate individual oil & gas burners valves and flush the 2 Sl . Field opr. required.No 3 burner oil guns with steam Isolate main FG line B/V JOB DESCRIPTION Pilot burners should be in line. Adjust RCO Field Opr. Bleeder of 5 these c/v s to be opened. Unit cannot be run long time with this problem. otherwise isolate them & purge 4 the heater with steam Close CC-001/3/4 stripping Field Opr. Open 6 pass flow bypass if O/L Field Opr. People to load it from History module as early as possible. cooler temperature to about 50-60 deg 7 8 9 C. Normalize the unit if anything found wrong. Panel Opr. Done YES/NO Remarks steam control valve block valves and bypass valves. Monitor desalter pressure from field Stop ID fan & switch over furnace to forced draft mode Run FD till Column cools down / Column pressure comes under control. Remarks Field Opr. ACTION TO BE TAKEN Call Inst. Unit is running but there is no control on unit. Field Opr. Put unit on close circulation. Field Opr. Action by Field Opr. It is to be shut down.
Inform Instrument / Electrical people to attend the problem Field Opr 11 12 13 Field Opr.10 Open Column / Vessel PIC bypass to maintain pressure if required. Start FD fan. Pressure to be seen from field. Fix it if so. Field Opr. Ensure low feed pass flow in line. Isolate all product battery limit valve. Light gas burner. Decommission LPG / Naptha / SKO caustic wash system Switch off desalter. Panel/Field Opr Panel opr. Increase temperature @ 40 deg. C/hr . Field Opr. Stop all chemical injection pump Stop all product & reflux pump when stripper / vessel level comes down. Panel/Field Opr. 3 4 5 6 7 8 Panel/Field Opr. Field opr. Field Opr. Route product to off grade tank. Inform OMS to line up crude tank for gravity line up. Field Opr. if stopped Light all pilot burners. S/I Field Opr. S/I/Field Opr. S/I ON RESUMPTION OF 24 V POWER SUPPLY 1 2 Establish crude circulation Purge heater box with steam & establish negative draft if pilot burners are not in line. Pump/Field Opr 14 15 16 17 18 Field Opr. Level to be seen from the field. 194 . Check the unit for any leak.
Route all products to off grade tank. Field /Pump Opr. adjust column condition. when Field Opr. Start CR / Product pump. level appears in stripper Adjust column condition. Start top reflux pump when level appears. as required. Panel Opr. Field opr. Route LPG & Naphtha to R/D after commissioning caustic Field Opr.( Drain water completely). 20 21 22 23 24 7. Heat up stabilizer bottom. Panel Opr. Panel/Field Opr.13 FIRE IN THE PLANT EFFECTS 195 . divert product to on grade tank. Increase temp. S/I Panel/Field Opr. If certified. Introduce stripping steam to strippers. Pump/Panel Opr. Sent sample to lab. wash system. 11 12 13 Panel/Field Opr. Panel Opr. Panel Opr. Start sour water pump & rout to SRU. Take all inter locks in line. Panel/Field Opr. Maintain required top temp.9 10 Take oil burner. At 300 Deg C cut off feed by introducing stripping steam in C01 & putting unit out of circulation. Drain water from V3 when level Field/Pump/Panel appears & start reflux pump& Opr. 14 15 16 17 18 19 Pump/Field Opr.
The equipment where fire has taken place due to hydrocarbon leakages will definitely affect the normal running of plant. Isolate the equipment or hydrocarbon to the equipment if fire is not being controlled. T’put reduction to be started so that unit can be taken on circulation (Hot or cold) or shut down in short duration depending on situation. Immediately call the fire people at 7333 or 6333 for help. If anything abnormal is observed. ACTION TO BE TAKEN: • • • • • • In no way get panic as it may result in some inappropriate decisions. Action will depend on the judicious observation & action to be taken depending on the situation. 196 . Initial fire fighting is to be started by plant personnel with available fire extinguisher & water hydrants. • • Product colour to be observed continuously If fire gets extinguished immediately unit conditions to be normalized. Damage by the fire to be immediately observed & its effect to normal running of plant.
CHAPTER-8 PROCEDURES FOR EQUIPMENT HAND OVER TO MAINTENANCE/INSPECTION 197 .
1 8. 198 . 8. If pump service for Caustic. If pump service is for heavy product. close cooling water line value. take FLO and drain into OWS (for flushing the pump casing). Close first discharge value then suction vale. Procedures given below should be followed to ensure their safe release and safe maintenance work. If mech.1 PUMP COLD PUMP De-pressuring the pump: Following steps are to be followed for pump de-pressuring. If Mech. Seal flush line is their.1. Anti-oxidant or other chemical drain pump casing liquid into chemical drum and then flush with water two or three times. (Close MOV & MOV bypass value). Amine. When draining liquid from the casing keep the vent valve on the pump d/s open to ensure complete draining.EQUIPMENT HAND OVER TO MAINTANANCE/INSPECTION PROCEDURES FOR PREPARATION OF EQUIPMENT HANDLING OVER Equipments are required to be handed over during shutdown/normal operations for maintenance purposes. close seal flush line value. Drain pumps casing liquid in to OWS (for LPG & high RVP product service pump casing liquid to be vented into flare and after de-pressuring the pump vent to flare value to be closed). Seal and pump bearing cooling water line is there.
Seal flush line is there. In case of high pour point material like RCO flush casing material with FLO. the following procedures should be followed: 199 . close seal flush line value. If quench steam line is there. Now pump is already for handing over to maintenance.2 HOT PUMP De-pressuring the pump. stop oil pump after cooling the main pump below 70° C. Pump motor & its auxiliary motors power supply isolate from sub-station. Seal and pump bearing cooling water line is there. MEN AT WORK" board is put on switch.2 VESSELS The vessels used in oil refineries are mainly for light/heavy hydrocarbons and some chemicals. 8.1. NOTE: • • • • Ensure pump casing liquid free by checking drain line and setting pump pressure gauge. When the necessity arises for a person to enter into the vessel. Drain pump casing liquid into OWS. Keep the water hose running while draining. If Mech. 8. Following steps are to be followed for pump de-pressuring: Close first discharge valve and warm-up value then suction valve Cool pump below 200° C. close quench steam value. close cooling water line value. Now pump is already for handling over to maintenance. Ensure that "DO NOT OPERATE.. If mech. Isolate pump motor and its auxiliary power supply from sub-station. If auxiliary oil pump is there.
Open saturated steam drain B/V for condensate draining. Caustic should be drained / pumped to GRE CETP Amine should be pumped out to SRU Vessel to be disconnected/blinded/wedged open Ensure complete draining. in order to ensure that there should be no change in the work environment. It should be ensured that electrical switches are locked out and properly tagged duly signed with date and time. Keep some pressure 0. Watch the level and pressure of CBD during draining. 200 .P. De-pressurization to be done by opening flare line B/V. Vessel to be drained in closed blow down. Equipment to be isolated/closed disconnected. Vessel under pressure should be depressurized after isolation.P. Equipment is to be properly depressurized/drained. Inlet/outlet any injection is there to be blinded/ Wedged opened and/or disconnected.D.D) of connected pippins. Vessels containing liquid/ light hydrocarbons should be drained completely by opening all low point drains (L. by unplugging the L. Vessel should be completely isolated from other equipments.5 Kg/cm2 if vessel has heavy hydrocarbon for proper draining. De-pressurize completely to flare if there was some pressure.W. 1) Vessel to be properly steamed/purged. Vent and utility system lines to be de-blinded. Vessel having sour water and hydrocarbon the sour water to be drained O. If vessel contains hot material (>200° C) then drain after sufficient cooling.S To ensure the complete draining open OW&S line. Equipment is to be electrically isolated and tagged wherever necessary. level gauges and stand pipes etc.
Vessels metallurgy must be considered before using water for washing. Stop the steam. Ensure complete hydrocarbon/chemical washed out. if not opened fully. stand pipes and other pipes. Hot water washing to be done by using steam and water.V. Vessel containing only gas purging can be done with inert gas. Open all high point vent and drain points. 3) Gas/Oxygen deficiency test to be done: 201 . Check the condensate for oil containments Ensure complete removal of hydrocarbon by condensate checking. nitrogen. Start again water & steam and repeat 3/4 times till the clear condensate is not coming. Open top and side man-ways. Open drain (vessel) to O.D. Stop water after sufficient cooling. of level gauges. Put exhaust fan on top/side man ways (if required). Observe for any abnormal sound (steam hammering) in the vessel Reduce water and open drains sufficiently. Open steam B/V as per requirement.S. 2) Vessel is to be water flushed: Water flushing is an effective means of cleaning and cooling. Vessel containing liquid hydrocarbon.P. as L. Utility steam line & N2 to be blinded. If necessary stop steaming for sometime and re-charge the steam.W. Water hose to be disconnected.P. Stop the water drains the condensate and watch for any oil or small of gas etc. Charge steam to the vessel minimum and watch the pressure. hot water washing to be done. Ensure venting/draining of steam from all H. Ensure proper draining of the vessel.
carbon monoxide.5 vol% and the concentration of toxic gases below the threshold limit Proper ventilation and lighting provisions: Where natural (sufficient) ventilation is not available. fans/ air eductor. Check the vessel material. Only approved reduced voltage extension (24 volts) lights are to be provided for work inside vessels. test to be done by special techniques. at safe location. Do gas (hydrocarbons) test by explosive meter. Vessel to be kept wet with water. Iron sulphide to be removed/Kept wet: The vessel containing light hydrocarbon and sour water may contain pyrophoric substance. To prevent any unwarranted entry in the work area precautionary tags/boards are to be provided such as “No Entry” or “Caution-mean at the work Inside” on the manhole of the vessel. air hose to be provided. hydrocarbon or mud at the bottom. The oxygen level should be at least 19. 4) Precautionary tags/boards are to be provided. Sludge to be removed along with water and kept wet until they are removed from the site. Oxygen deficiency by oxygen meter. 202 . Vessel entry where no hot job is to be carried out may be permitted if combustible gases are up to 5% of lower explosive limit (LEL) Vessel entry with an air-supplied mask may be permitted with LEL of 50%. Proper means of exit to be provided: Proper means of exit to be provided if an alternate route of escape not existing. Toxic gases like hydrocarbon sulphite. No hot work shall be permitted unless the explosive meter reading is zero. Flood light to be provided outside of the vessels. and chlorine etc.
1) Steps for column de-pressurization/draining: Column under pressure to be de-pressurized to flare after isolation.S. This is entirely avoidable if safe procedures for column handover are followed.V) as pipelines. All the above activities to be competed and vessel are cleaned with proper precautions then man entry can be given for inspection and maintenance purposes.P. If these pyrophoric iron sulfide (PIS) deposits are not removed properly before the columns are opened up. this equipment is more prone to deposit pyrophoric substance.B. The steps to be followed are Column to be isolated/closed/disconnected: Column should be completely isolated from other equipments piping etc. 8. in order to ensure that there should be no change in the work environment.D if provision is not there then in O.S.D) and high point vents (H. De-blind the drain line to closed blow down (C. level gauges.P. Drain the pumps suction headers of draw-off products to C. line. to remove all the combustibles Second.D or O.D. Ensure complete draining by opening O.B.D). De-cap the low point drain(L.B. Stand by person to be provided outside the vessel (minimum-2) near the man way. to remove or neutralize pyrophoric iron sulfide deposits.W.W.S. coke. pump around zones and structured packing. stand pipes and other tappings connected. and drain the other connected pipelines at L. leading to fires and explosions inside the equipment. if any increase then again draining to be done. Close all drain B/V and watch the column pressure and level. The trapped combustible hydrocarbons.D. there is a greater likelihood of PIS spontaneous ignition. etc.P. Deposits of iron sulfide are formed from corrosion products that most readily accumulate at the trays.B. Drain the column material to C.W. The targets of these procedures should be two fold: First. through hose connections to C. These fires not only result in equipment damage but can also prove fatal for the personnel who are performing inspection and maintenance work inside the columns.3 COLUMNS In petroleum refineries. that do not get adequately removed during steaming / washing often get ignited. 203 .
Steam is introduce from utility connection provided at bottom of the column. Keep them open. from all product / CR draw pump suction (via respective strippers) & associated piping etc. Column to be disconnected/blinded/wedged open: Ensure complete draining. Water flow should be stopped for 2-3 hrs and then resumed. 204 . d) After blinding is over. 2) Proper steaming and water flushing (hot water flushing and cold water flushing) of column.D. The column vent and pump strainers in the side draw piping are deblinded. b) Hot Water Washing: When clear steam is observed exiting the column vents. De-blind top vent and utility steam.M. With steaming is on. water is pumped to the column. etc. Columns metallurgy must be considered before using water types (cooling water/ D.e.. This cycle of steaming and washing should be repeated several times for a total of about 15 to 20 hours. c) Blinding: When clear water is observed at side draw pump strainers. The objective of steaming is to make the column and associated piping free of residual hydrocarbons. water) for washing. Columns containing chemicals like caustic amine etc. B. steaming is done for about 20 to 24 hrs.) vessel only. The water flow rate should be adjusted so that steam still comes from the vent (i. Venting to be done from column top vent & condensate draining to be done at bottom product pump suction. Generally. water washing of the column should be started. water should not result in condensing of all steam before it reaches the column top). steam the column for 8 hr. and it is drained through the column bottom. a) Steaming: The steaming is done after all liquid hydrocarbons have been drained from the column and associated piping. stop hot water washing & get blind inserted in all associated piping as per master blind list. usually via reflux line. ensuring the column top temperature remains more than 100 °C throughout the operation. Observe any abnormal sound (hammering) in the column. to be drained in chemical blow down (C.
If above activities are completed. the man way. e) Column entry where no hot job is to be carried out may be permitted if combustible gases are up to 5% of lower explosive limit.5% by volume and the concentration of toxic gases below the threshold limit. h) No hot job shall be permitted unless the explosive meter reading is zero.manta work inside” on the manhole of the column. h) Blind steam out point / water 3) Gas/Oxygen deficiency test is to be done a) Check inside through man ways e. f) Entry with an air mask may be permitted LEL of 50% g) The oxygen level should be at least 1. safety torch for any foreign material/hydrocarbon/coke etc. j) Open all the man ways. and chlorine etc.g. d) Toxic gases like hydrocarbon sulphide. k) Make arrangement inside column of rope ladder etc. carbon monoxide. then column may be handed over for 205 . test to be done by special techniques. c) Oxygen deficiency test by oxygen meter.: f) Open all manholes. i) After man entry get open the trays man ways for inspection.e) Stop steaming & start cold Water Washing for 4 hr. 6) Stand by persons are to be provided outside the column (minimum-2) near inspection and maintenance work. (LEL). 5) Proper means of exit to be provided: a) To prevent any unwanted entry in the work area precautionary tags/boards to be provided such as “No Entry” or “Caution. b) Do gas (hydrocarbon) test by explosive meter. g) Install exhaust fan/evacuator on top of the column. 4) Proper ventilation and lighting to be provided a) Where natural (sufficient) ventilation is not available fan/air ejector/air hose to be provided.
hydrocarbons are to be pumped out. Get sky light cover and manhole opened. then repeat the overflowing by water more. Water flush the coolers and condensers. Open the damper and air registers fully 206 . which were handling light hydrocarbons. As far as possible.4 EXCHANGERS/COOLERS/CONDENSERS/REBOILERS Isolate and bypass the exchangers/coolers/condenser/reboiler Drain the content in CBD Flush the equipment handling heavy material with FLO to CBD. Get tank’s inlet/outlet and other connected lines (except drain) blinded. 8. Check for explosives. Take further water inside the tank for over flowing of rest hydrocarbon through manhole. If explosivity is not OK. Get Water hose connection from drain or through dip hatch and build up level for pumping out more hydrocarbons.5 TANKS Pump out tank material to OM&S respective tank till losses suction. Drain tank content to OWS. hand over the tank for cleaning M & I job. then water to be drained out. Overflowing to be continued till all hydrocarbon remove. Leave tank for air circulation.6 FURNACE Shut down the furnace as per procedure and blind fuel gas lines. 8. Check by explosive mater. Clearance is to be given to hand over for cleaning/maintenance job. Open the OWS valve to ensure complete draining. If OK.8. Give steam connection to the top vent. Steam flushing to OWS opening to be done till the equipment is hydrocarbon free. Provide blinds towards the exchanger on both the tube & shell side. If OK.
Give clearance for maintenance jobs. Stop steaming Check hydrocarbon content with explosive meter. Give clearance for "MAN ENTRY" and maintenance jobs. Increase steaming rate & continue for 8 hrs. emergency steam. 8. If man entry in KOD is involved carry out water washing after steaming. Provide steam connection if not there at the furthest end of the system Isolate all PSV/ lines connected to flare header. Open U/S bleeder of battery limit valve. Blind its I/L & O/L flange. Introduce steam & purge the system to flare for 4-hrs. C. Isolate and flush fuel oil circuit first with FLO and then with hydrocarbon free and blind fuel oil lines (I/L & O/L). & drain condensate from KOD drain.7 FLARE HEADER Ensure that all equipments connected with flare system are depressurized after shut down.. soot blowing steam & Decoking steam) When the box cools down to around 50 Deg. steam till it is Blind all steam as per blind list (box purging steam. 207 . Open all manholes/ inspection holes of furnace. atomizing steam. Check for hydrocarbon & oxygen content inside furnace.. De-energize ID / FDs. Reduce steaming to minimum & close flare header battery limit valve. Give clearance to provide blinds /wedge opening at U/S Open the drains and vents of all instruments and of knockout drum.
Ensure isolation valves are holding. End blind the open flanges 8. 8.8 CONTROL VALVES Bypass the control valve Close up-stream and down-stream b/vs. 208 . Isolate the safety valve. The muck coming out from flare system should be separately disposed off. Drain c/v loop.9 SAFTEY VALVES Take spare safety valve in line if provided. Ensure that isolation valves are holding by depressurizing the loop through LPD. as it is likely to contain pyrophoric iron. Give clearance to open the safety valve. Give clearance for removing the c/v. End blind the open flanges.
CHAPTER-9 PROCEDURES FOR EQUIPMENT TAKING OVER FROM MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT TAKING OVER FROM MAINTENANCE 210 .
2 EXCHANGERS / CONDENSERS / COOLERS / FIN COOLERS /REBOILERS Ensure the following: Tube and shell cleaning is proper. Check all vents / drains are closed and capped / blinded.If equipments are not properly checked while taking over from maintenance it may result in accidents or give troubles during start-ups. 9. thermo wells. PSV/TSV's are in position. quenching steam and flushing oil lines are clear. pressure gauge assemblies. 9. All flanges gasket that were opened during maintenance are replaced by new gaskets. Ensure that shafts is free to rotate.3 FURNACE 211 . Check that lines are blinded / deblinded as required for normal run. Insulation is complete. Pressure gauges should be in position. Fan belts and covers are in position. All flanges are deblinded. Check the following items while taking over any equipment from maintenance. Leaky tubes are plugged / replaced. Ensure mechanical completion.1 PUMPS/MOTORS: Check that electrical cable and earthing connections are complete. in case of Fin coolers. Exchanger is properly as per inspection. Check for short bolting. Shell is painted as per inspection. Electrical /earthing connections are complete. See that coupling guard is in position. Bull plugs. 9. Ensure cooling water.
Connect the blinds as per master blind list. Vessel's internals including instrument are in their respective positions and properly secured. Line-up all safety valves. Stack damper operation is smooth and damper's open / close position indicators are correct. Burner alignment is correct.Ensure the following: Heater tubes are cleaned All foreign material is removed from the fire box. Vessel is ready for service. If all the above things are satisfactory give clearance to box up the manhole. Remove the blinds as per master blind list. All tubes ( convection / radiation) are properly cleaned.4 VESSELS While taking over vessel from maintenance check and ensure the following: Vessel is thoroughly cleaned. Operation of all burner valves is satisfactory. Take clearance from 212 . Steam and oil connections to the individual burner gun are correct. peep holes. explosion doors. Man ways. Blinding / de-blinding is done as per the master blind list. 9. Manhole should be boxed up on four bolts in presence of production staff. Demister pads are in position. Area around the furnace is cleaned. No foreign material is left inside. Vessels is coated /painted as per inspection report. Skin thermocouples / oxygen analyser and other instrument are in position. Drain points and instrument tap are clear. header box covers are boxed up. inspection.
etc are in position.5 COLUMNS Check the following: Inspect tray man-way box up and properly bolted The tray decks below the manhole are clean and free of foreign material. All man way covers are boxed up as above with new gasket. 213 . 9. Safety valve are installed and lined up. The instruments are in their respective position. All inside fittings like distributors. NRV's are installed in their proper direction Column bottom drains are connected properly & are clear. All instrument tapings drain points. The column is ready for service. inlet and outlet nozzles are clear. Tray man way covers are boxed up. Cap / blind drain / vents. thermo wells. flats of level indicator. down-comers. All internals as fitted properly. Manholes are boxed up on 4 bolts while ensuring that nobody is left inside Tray man way and manholes should be boxed up in presence of production staff. Blinding /de-blinding is complete as per master blind list. Temporary connections are removed. distributors.
CHAPTER-10 SAFETY 214 .
2) General precautions: 215 . ban on lighting fires in battery area. Ban on smoking.1 FIRE PREVENTION ACTIVITIES: Regulation for the prevention of fire: 1) Ban on carrying of a potential source of ignition. use of spark arrestors. Ban on carrying lamps.SAFETY 10.
Refresh course. 10. hazan. anticipate the hazards during vessel cleaning and take preventive step in advance. Sampling and draining of hydrocarbon should be done under strict supervision. such as poor housekeeping improper storage of 216 . 10.4 REGULAR TRAINING OF EMPLOYEES Induction training program. Risk analysis hazop.5 SAFETY AUDITS 1) INTERNAL 2) EXTERNAL VARIOUDS SAFETY STUDIES: Ex.2.Maintain good house keeping. etc. 10.2.2 GOOD HOUSE KEEPING: Cleanliness of the plant.2. Follow the laid down procedure strictly. Safe practices. methods of storage. Special listed training programmes.1 SOUND ENGINEERING: Design of the plant materials used for construction means of escape etc. Good habits: observation of fire prevention rules etc.2. Knowledge of fire extinguishers etc. Do not operate equipment unauthorized. Action in case of fire. COMPLIANCE OF STAUTORY REQUIREMENTS: INSPECTIONS: To check for proper placement and operation of fire protection equipment and seek correction of common fire causes. Common sense: No smoking near inflammable material etc.3 INSTRUCTION TO PERSONNEL Knowledge of job. 10. prior to commissioning of any plant or equipments.2.2 FIRE PREVENTION ACTIVITIES Fire prevention can be best achieved with the application of: 10. 10. Use only approved type of tools.
Sirens 11 nos.2. & at GHS-53 nos. 10. Plant drills (mock drills in plant area). COMMUNICATION: Ex-telephones: Fire call numbers 7333 & 63333.approx. Mutual aid drills.3 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM IN REFINERY FIRE STATION: Our refinery has two fire stations. at various locations.A. Hot lines for communicating mutual aid member. paging. Fire water pumps – 8300 M3/hr. On-site/off site drills etc. Exit drills. Hydrants (around 1000) Monitor around (400) 217 . P.6 FIRE EMERGENCY MOCK DRILLS An emergency manual can be prepared to outline procedures and drills and detail responsibilities of each individual involved. FIRE PROTECTION: Following fire protection facilities provided depending upon/risk of the installation: FIRE WATER SYSTEM: Fire water storage – 22. Distribution piping network.. 50 Km.flammable materials. walkie-talkie system fire alarm: By breaking the glass of any of the alarm located in the refinery area: At GR-62 nos. Training Valuable check on the adequacy and condition of exits and alarm system. Equipped with all modern equipments & trained man power. Instills a sense of security among the occupiers if careful plans are made. smoking violations and excessive accumulation of dust of flammable material. 10.400 M3.
25 Kg Trolley mounted: 100 Nos.) 10. CO2.(10 kg DCP) 20 NOS. & foam nurser:1 5 1 1 1 MOBILE FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS: CARBONDIOXIDE PROTECTION SYSTEM: Turbines and generators in power plants FIRST AID FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT: First team comprising of operation/maintenance staff at site & any other refinery person available at site this persons will handle the situation till the arrival of trained fire fighter with the help of.. BMC etc. fire fighting crew from external sources (like neighboring industries . 200 NOS.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM IN THE UNIT A. Water type. D. 218 . halon 10 Kg: 2000 Nos.Water spray system (Oil tanks & hydrocarbon pump houses) LPG area as per OISD-116. Fire extinguisher: Fire glass: Fire water monitors: and hydrants Tower platform monitors: 3 NOS. foam. DCP Trolley mounted 75 Kg.6 Foam tenders 5 Nos. CISF staff(reserve as well as on duty except for gate staff). Second main team: Fire operators (Re-enforcement). Foam type Trolley mounted 45 lts : 30 Nos. Railway gantry no. B. FIRE FIGHTING TEAM: First main team comprising of shift in-charger of fire stations & fire operators on duty with fire fighting equipments and officers from fire and safety & CISF personnel. FOAM SYSTEM: Semi fixed: Mobile: Foam tender: DCP tender: Emergency tender: Foam nurser: Provided an oil storage tanks. 175 Nos.(25 kg DCP) from all four sides. C. PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS: Dry chemical powder.
Serves as a media of information. F. PA. if any. G. 219 .P-6A/B. Its location. P-50A/B.7(2a) SSW OISD-105 Rule 172 of petroleum rules. Hydrocarbons gas detector. 1976 OBJECTIVE: To make the procedure of the work foolproof.5 • • • • • • • • • WORK PERMIT SYSTEM The task. Instills a sense of security from accident. Work permit is a written document that categorically spells out Work permit system is required in the refinery as per. Water sprinkler system: in pump house and at Caustic/water vessels and on fin coolers. near P-5A/B.E. (Near caustic tank. Time limitation Precautionary measure to be taken together with likely hazard to be encountered. P-14A/B. Sec. Personnel involved. Act as a predetermined checklist for various safety precautions. Equipment involved & its condition. H.07A/B Safety shower and eye washer: Riser hydrant: 2 No. 10. near furnace) A) at vessel platform B) all columns.
1. 10.5.D WORK AT HEIGHT PERMIT 220 .5.e.B COLD WORK PERMIT Cold work is an activity. 10. gas. No job is permitted in a pit after sun set.1. which may produce enough heat to ignite a flammable substance i. which does not produce sufficient heat to ignite a flammable air hydrocarbon mixture or a flammable substance. Adequate number of persons should be made available outside the pit for rescue purpose in case of any emergency. To guarantee against accidental starting of machinery or entry of any hazardous liquid or gas into a vessel whose jobs are proposed. 10.A TYPES OF WORK PERMITS: HOT WORK PERMIT Hot work permit is issued for an activity.5. Every excavation shall have a safe access way.e.1. electrical. Instrumentation & civil. If the depth of excavation is more than 1. 10.5.5 meters.5.C EXCAVATION PERMIT For Excavation Permit clearance is required from other departments i. welding.1. one ladder shall be provided for every 20 meters of length.1 10. No one is permitted to excavate if any equipment is working next to the edge of expected excavated area. cutting etc.
Vessel entry. fire and difficulty in escaping etc and also to make sure that all concerned are well informed of the job in progress so that they can avoid hazardous operations connecting to the proposed work site.D WORK AT DEPTHS For entry into confined spaces permit is a must. 10.5 vol% and the concentration of toxic gases below the threshold limit. may be permitted if combustible gases are up to 5% of lower explosive limit.5. The oxygen level should be at least 19. he shall be provided with a safety belts equipped with life-lines. which are secured with a minimum of stakes to a fixed structure of anyother effective means. the shift in charge of the production department must ensure that electrical isolation has been obtained from the concerned electrical supervisor. hazardous gases.G VESSEL ENTRY PERMIT No hot work shall be permitted unless the explosive meter shows zero.1. Helmet shall also be used. 10.5. 10.F ELECTRICAL WORK PERMIT Before issuing any permit to the Maintenance or Engineering personnel for any maintenance work on any equipment.5. high temperatures. The intent of an entry permit is that all necessary measures are taken to protect entering personnel against such hazardous as oxygen deficiency. where not hot work is to be carried out. (LEL). No permit for the work will be issued unless the electrical isolation has been obtained.1. contamination.1. 221 . Entry with an air-supplied mask may be permitted with LEL upto 50%.Whenever any worker is engaged on work at a place from which he is liable to fall more than 2 meters.
the permittee should fill up the permit and handover the same to the permit issuing authority (issuer) as taken of having completed the job and surrender the permit.5. tackles & safety and fire fighting equipment are removed from the site and the area cleaned to avoid accidents. 10.5. 10.3 RENEWAL OF THE PERMIT: Normally the permit is issued for seven days only.4 SURENDERING OF THE PERMIT: After the maintenance job is over. 222 . if the removal is required to be taken if should be distinctly understood that renewal or revalidation has to be done by the authority who is competent to issue of permit after ensuring all necessary checks as for a fresh permit.6 COPIES OF PERMIT: 1) Following persons / department shall keep a copy of work permit.5.5. 10.5 SIGNATORIES FOR FIRE PERMITS: For any Hot work / Vessel Entry or Excavation permit on any holiday / Sunday and extended hours working. However. required for the job. approval / clearance of Manger / Sectional head is essential.2 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PERMITTEE: A permittee is a supervisor in charge for the particular maintenance of the equipment or a system requiring such maintenance. 10.5.10. fire and safety equipment etc. For Tank Dyke cutting approval / clearance of HOD is essential. The renewal is to be recorded on all the copies of the permit. For any cold work on Holiday / Sunday and for extended hours working. Permittee must also ensure that all the tools. approval / clearance of HOD of that area along with clearance from RSM in each shift is essential. He is required to ensure scruples compliance of the instructions mentioned in the permit and make available to his person’s.
a) Person doing the job and shall make the permit available at site. 10) Equipment water flushed. 10. Manholes. b) Area in-charge c) Fire Station. 8) Equipment properly drained / depressurized. 13) Proper ventilation and lighting provided. 18) Iron sulfide removal / kept wet. 5) Equipment electrically isolated and tagged. 15) Precautionary tags / boards provided. removal of temporary electrical installations etc and then sign the work permit and return it to the issuer who in turn will keep it stored for future reference. 6) Running water hose/ portable extinguisher provided. 17) Standby personnel provided for fire watch from process / maintenance / contractor / fire and safety department. the person to whom the permit was issued. should throughout by check the area for clearing of debris.5. 11) Gas / oxygen deficiency test done and found OK. 2) Surrounding area checked / cleaned. 7) Equipment blinded / disconnected / closed / isolated wedged open. 14) Proper means of exit provided. 12) Shield against sparks provided. 16) Portable equipment / Hose nozzles properly grounded. 2) After completion or stoppage of the job. 223 .7 POINTS TO BE ENSURED WHILE GIVING CLEARANCE: 1) Equipment / Area inspected. CBD etc and hot surfaces covered. 9) Firewater system checked for readiness. 3) Sewers. steamed / purged. 19) Area cordoned off. 4) Consider & ensure no hazard from other routine / non-routine operation and alters surrounding / concerned persons.
224 .8 ACCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURE: With a view to timely transmission of the information or submission of the notice of the accident to the inspector of Factories within the stipulated time prescribed under rule 103 of Gujarat Factories Rule. The medical officer indicated the probable days of rest required by the injured person. The original copy of the form is sent along with the injured to hospital. however. 21) Clearance obtained for excavation / road cutting from technical / fire / concerned departments. if the nature of the injury is such that the injured person requires rest for more then 48 hours. 23) Checked spark arrestors on mobile equipment. A-1 in triplicate. Any accident. The supervisor also fills the accident from no. 25) Check for hot tapping. Note: For further details refer Refinery safety manual kept in Control room. When the injured is not in a position to report himself. 22) Clearance obtained for dyke cutting. As soon as the supervisor gets the information. A lost time accident report is prepared by the medical officer in the form A-II and sent the same to fire and safety department.20) Precautions against public traffic taken.5. 1963 the following procedure has been followed by Gujarat Refinery. 24) Checked for oil / gas trapped behind lining in equipment. The medical officer on duty examines the injured employee. he arranges for the ambulance from the hospital and also informs the following : • • • • Fire station Hospital Sectional/department head Refinery shift Manager. 10. small to an employee is reported to HOD supervisor/ shift-incharge. such reports are made by anybody present at the site of the accident.
personal Department. shall take action for the payment of leave wages and compensation if due by issuing necessary memos to the Account Department. Medical Fitness Certificates : Form No. or more he shall be marked as on “Accident leave” and is allowed to join duty on production of fitness certificates form A-III to Fire & Safety section. personal department and the concerned department. In case the injured person is likely to become disabled for 24 hrs. FATAL INJURIES: In case of fatal injury. One copy is sent to fire and safety section and third is retain by the personal department. Police and Inspector of factories: 225 . The Personal Department. on receipt of the joining report of the injured person the recommendation of the Department Head and the report of the Medical Department of form A-IV. with the exemption of removing the casualty from the scene of accident this requirement is strictly observed and following persons are immediately informed: • • • • General Manager/Executive Director Chief Medical Officer Manager (Fire & Safety) Chief Human Resources Manager Personal department immediately informs them relatives of the injured. After receiving form A-II from the fire and safety section in form no. A-II In a case the injured person is fit to resume duty immediately after first aid or after taking rest for some time (before the end of the shift) he will be allowed to resume the duty accordingly.On receipt of the Medical officer report. the statutory obligation says that the situation when the accident occurred should remain as far as possible undisturbed till arrival of police. the personal department informs the factory inspector as required under the provisions of factories act 1948 and Gujarat factory rules 1963. The medical officer concerned shall send the copies of form A-III to the fire & safety department. In case the employee has developed any permanent disability the medical office assess the disablement of the injured person on the form A-IV and sends the report to Personal Department. Fire & Safety Section.21. Therefore. Time office and the concerned section. Accounts Department and the concerned section.
No. No.a. Hazardous ingredients ESK 5285-60-9 2) PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Boiling Point/ 150 . No. 10.5.INVESTIGATION REPORT: In case of any accident. Yellowish brown Pungent Solubility in others .A.S. whether minor or of lost time nature. mm @ 68oF o C Hg Vapour Density (Air = 1) Solubility in Insoluble water @ 30 oC 226 Viscous.9 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS) 10.1 AHURALAN AHURALAN ESK 50 1) CHEMICAL IDENTITY Chemical Name Synonyms Formula Regulated Identification Hazardous ingredients Ahuralan 50 Corrosion Inhibitor Corrosion Inhibitor R1NHR2NHR3RH 4 Chemical Classification Trade Name C. the supervisor will arrange to send an investigation report to the fire and safety department and the concerned department head on form number A-V within 48 hours of the accident. 5285-60-9 Long chain fatty amine derivative Ahuralan ESK 50 UN NO.D.s. NO.a.Physical State Liquid Appearance o Range C 300 Melting/ Vapour pressure < 1 mmHg Odour Freezing Point <10 @ 35 oC.s.9. Shipping Name: Codes/Label Hazardous waste: I. Ahuralan ESK 50 C. Hazchem Code C.5.
Specific Gravity (Water = 1) 0. CO2 Hazardous Polymerization Combustible Yes Explosive Liquid Material Flammable Yes Oxidiser Material Pyrophoric No Organic Peroxide Material 4) REACTIVITY DATA Chemical Stability Stable Incompatibility with other None material Reactivity Hazardous Reaction Products 5) HEALTH HAZARD DATA Routes of Entry Effects of Exposure/ Inhalation Symptoms Ingestion Contact Emergency Treatment No No No Corrosive Material Others No Inhalation. 227 .83 pH Not applicable 3) FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA Flammability Moderate LEL (%V) 0.7 5. (CC) oC 37 – 66 TDG 3 UEL (%V) Flammability Auto ignition Temperature oC 228 Explosion Sensitivity to Impact Explosion Sensitivity to Static Electricity Hazardous Combustion products CO.0 Flash Point (OC) oC Flash Point. ingestion. contact Obtain immediate medical attention.
Store out of direct sunlight. then was the skin with a mild soap. on and around the affected area. dry chemical powder. Follow all MSDS/label precautions even after container is emptied because it may retain product residue. CO2 Use water to cool fire exposed components. 228 . Skin Contact : Apply a generous amount of waterless hand cleaner (such of GOOP. which becomes wet with product should be removed immediately and laundered before reuse.Inhalation Ingestion Contact LD50 mg/kg Permissible Exposure Limit TLV ppm (Oral-Rat). mg/kg Odor Threshold. Never use a welding or cutting torch on or near a drum (even empty) because vapours from the material (even residue) can ignite explosively. Rub briskly onto the skin. coveralls. mg/kg ppm (ACGIH) mg/kg Remove affected person to fresh air. LD50 . ppm mg/kg Special NFPA Hazard Signals Health Flammability Reactivity/Stabilit y 6) PREVENTIVE MEASURES Personal Equipment Protective Gloves. well Precautions ventilated area away from all ignition sources. ppm mg/kg STEL. Remove the mixture of cleanerproduct with paper towels or clean dry rags. Eye Contact: Flush with water for at least 15 mins. Handling and Storage Store in tightly closed. Gojo or similar product) to the affected area. If respiratory problems develop. and/or apron as necessary to prevent repeated or prolonged skin contact. Avoid inhalation of product vapors or mist. footwear. Do not induce vomiting. If irritation occurs. Repeat the entire procedure. 7) EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES FIRE Fire Extinguishing Media Special Use water fog. rinsing with warm water. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment. properly labeled containers in a cool. Chemical goggles or face shield as necessary to prevent eye contact. Any clothing. foam.
Standard hydrocarbon spill procedures apply to this product. Prevent the release of this product into the waterway Waste Disposal or sewer. Antidotes/ Dosage SPILLS Steps to be taken those persons properly protected. Isolate the Confirne entry into the affected area to affected area. If respiratory problems develop. Stop leak at the source. Absorb spilled product using a commercial oil absorbent soaking up as much product as possible. Gojo or similar product) to the affected area. 10. Rub briskly onto the skin. Cut off and redirect surface runoff by trenching of diking. To prevent further losses. Remove the mixture of cleaner-product with paper towels or clean dry rags. reposition. Remove all sources of ignition. Wear protective equipment. Measures Inhalation : Remove affected person to fresh air. sand or sawdust may be more expedient to limit the extent of the spill.2 AMMONIA 229 .EXPOSUR E Procedure Unusual Hazards First Aid Obtain immediate medical attention. on and around the affected area. but other materials such as earth. rinsing with warm water.9. Skin Contact : Apply a generous amount of waterless hand cleaner (such of GOOP. then was the skin with a mild soap. Ingestion : Do not induce vomiting. Repeat the entire procedure. plug or Method place the leaking container into an oversized recovery drum/container. Eye Contact : Flush with water for at least 15 mins. Spills should be contained through the use of commercial oil adsorbent.5. If irritation occurs.
NO: 7664-41-7 Shipping Name : Ammonia Synonyms: Liquid Ammonia. 230 . Class 2 Hazardous waste I. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS C. 11.0 % Flash Point oC 651.FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA Flammability No LEL TDG Flammability NA UEL Auto ignition Temperature oC Explosion Sensitivity to Impact Explosion Sensitivity to Static Electricity Hazardous Combustion products Hazardous Polymerization 16. 3.Gas o Appearance : Colourless Vapour pressure @ 35 C 7600 mm Hg at 25. Formula: NH3 UN NO.D.S.60 Solubility in water @ 30oC Others (Air = 1) Very soluble Moderately soluble in Alcohol Specific Gravity (Water = 1) 0. No: 17 Hazchem Code : 2 PE HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS C.NO.NO. 1.PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Boiling Point/Range -33.A.0 Stable Not available Not Pertinent (OC) Not Pertinent (CC) Emits toxic fumes of NH3 & NOx Does not occur.AMMONIA 1) CHEMICAL IDENTITY Chemical Name: AMMONIA Chemical Classification : Inorganic Compound Trade Name: Ammonia C. 1005 Regulated Identification Codes/Label: Non Flammable Gas.4oC Physical State : Liquefied Compr. Sol.771 @ 0oC pH: I N aq.S.77oC Point ___________________________________________ Vapour Density 0.7oC Odour : Strong Pungent Odour Melting / Freezing -77.6 7664-41-7 2. Ammonia Gas. Ammonia Anhydrous.A.S.0 % Flash Point oC 25.A. Ammonia 2.
gas mask and protective clothing in case of liquid ammonia. Calcium hypochlorite. 5. Other material Acetaldehyde. Skin or Eyes Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms: . Mercury.700 ppm causes eye irritation and permanent injury may result if prompt medical remedial measures are not taken. Acrolein. Silver Azide and Silver Oxide Products form explosive silver nitride. bromine. self-contained breathing apparatus.Combustible Liquid Flammable Material Pyrophoric Material 4. Incandescent reaction when heated with Calcium. 7. Reacts with Silver chloride.Avoid contact with liquid or vapors Provide rubber boots. Silver azide.REACTIVITY DATA Chemical Stability Yes No No Explosive Material Oxidiser Organic Peroxide No Corrosive Material No No Others No Stable eactivity azardous Reaction Incompatibility with Strong Oxidisers. Store in well ventilated flame resistant locations.EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES 231 .D50 (Oral-Rat) 350 mg/kg TLV (ACGIH) 25 ppm 18 mg/m3 STEL 35 ppm 27 mg/m3 NFPA Hazard Signals Health Flammability Reactivity Special 2 1 0 6.PREVENTIVE MEASURES Personal Protective Equipment: . Silver nitrate.8 ppm 32. Silver.Remove the victim to fresh air and provide artificial respiration or oxygen. or edema of the larynx. iodine. Seek Medical Aid.53 mg3 L.HEALTH HAZARD DATA Routes of Entry Inhalation. Skin and Eyes : Wash the affected area with plenty of water for 15 mins. Handling and Storage Precautions: -Avoid storing along with oxidizing materials and away from all possible sources of ignition. safety goggles. chlorine. Emergency Treatment Inhalation:. Reacts with Silver chloride. Contact of the liquid with skin freezes the tissues and causes the caustic burns. Silver nitrate. Halogens. Permissible Exposure Limit 25 ppm 18 mg/m3 Odour Threshold 46. heavy metals and their compounds. 5000 ppm may cause death from spum inflammation. if needed. Gold.
SPILLS :.5. Seek medical aid. Use water spray or fog. Difficult to ignite.ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/REFERENCES A human poison by an unspecified route.3 CAUSTIC SODA CAUSTIC SODA 232 . Antidotes/Dosages Not available. Potentially violent or explosive reactions on contact with interhalogens.FIRE Fire Extinguishing Media Stop flow of gas. 10. Dilute the vapors with plenty of water. if needed.9.Put into a large vessel containing water. Forms sensitive explosive mixture with air and hydrocarbons.Steps to be taken Contain leaking liquid on sand or earth. Gas is suffocating. Those affected with eye and pulmonary diseases should avoid exposure to Ammonia. by spraying water Special Procedure Unusual Hazards EXPOSURE First Aid Measures Inhalation : Remove the victim to fresh air area. allow to evaporate. Eyes : Flush with plenty of water for 15 mins. Keep the containers cool if exposed to heat or flame. Skin : Remove the contaminated clothes and wash the affected area with plenty of water and soap. can detonate. neutralize with HCl And discharge into sewer with sufficient water. provide artificial respiration or oxygen. 8. NH3 and air in a fire. Waste Disposal Method :.
1823 / Synonyms: Caustic Soda.S. No: 16 Hazchem Code : 2 R HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS INGREDIENTS C. No. Sodium Hydroxide C. Solid / Solution Codes/Label : Corrosive.A. HAZARDOUS 1310-73-2 2.NO. 1. Class-8 Hazardous Waste I. Lye.12 at 24oC/4 oC 3.PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Boiling Point/Range White Flakes / Pellets Melting / Freezing Odourless Point o C 1390 .A. Soda Lye.14 Others: and Vapour Density Not Pertinent Soluble in Alcohol.NO. Sodium Hydrate Formula 1824 NaOH C.A.NO.CHEMICAL IDENTITY Chemical Name: SODIUM HYDROXIDE Inorganic Compound Chemical Classification : Alkaline Trade Name : Caustic soda UN. Specific Gravity (Water = 1) 2.1557 Physical State : Solid o Appearance : Odour: C 318.S.FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA Flammability (OC) No LEL Not pertinent Flash Point oC 233 . 1310-73-2 Regulated Identification Shipping Name : Sodium Hydroxide.322 Vapour pressure @ 35oC 1 mm Hg at 730 oC Solubility in water @ 30 oC Soluble pH 13 .1.S.4 . Methanol (Air = 1) Glycerol.D.
Organic halides. Skin: Causes severe burns. Ingestion : Causes severe damage to mucous membrane. Not Pertinent Stable Stable Emits toxic fumes of Na2O. scaring or perforation may occur. Sn. Zn. Nitromethane other material. Reactivity Compounds. Will not occur Explosive Material No Oxidiser Organic Peroxide No No Corrosive Others Stable Water. Hazardous Reaction Products 5. Metals. 234 . mild nose Symptoms Severe Emergency Treatment respiration. and Nitro Compounds. Ingestion: Give water or milk followed by dilute vinegar or Do not Induce vomiting.TDG Flammability (CC) N. Flammable Liquids. Inhalation: Remove the victim from exposure.REACTIVITY DATA Chemical Stability Incompatibility with A1. If necessary.HEALTH HAZARD DATA Routes of Entry Effects of Exposure/ & lungs. Eyes: Severe damage.A. metals. Acids. fruit juice. Ingestion & Eyes. Nitro Not available.` Skin: Wash the affected area with plenty of water and soap. Vigorous reaction with Organic Halides. Skin. Inhalation. Support give oxygen. Inhalation : Causes small burns to upper respiratory tract irritation. UEL Not pertinent Flash Point oC Auto ignition Temperature oC Explosion Sensitivity to Impact Explosion Sensitivity to Static Electricity Hazardous Combustion products Hazardous Polymerization Combustible Liquid No Material Yes Flammable Material No Pyrophoric Material No 4.
remove the victim to fresh air area. Not listed mg/Kg L. Antidotes/Dosages Not available. 4. SPILLS: Steps to be taken : Sweep and collect without making dust. Skin: Remove contaminated clothes & shoes. type respirator.L. Waste Disposal Method :Put into a large vessel. 2. Keep in a cool. Vigorous reaction with 1. 8. Provide side covered safety goggles. Handling and Storage Precautions 7.D50 (Oral-Rat) Permissible ppm Odourless mg/m3 Exposure Limit TLV (ACGIH) ppm Not listed mg/m3 Eyes: Wash with plenty of water for 15 mins. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES FIRE Fire Extinguishing Media Not Flammable Special Procedure Keep the containers cool by spraying water if exposed to heat or flame.D50 3 ppm 2 (Ceiling) mg/m Odour Threshold Odourless ppm 2 (Ceiling) mg/m3 Health 3 STEL Not listed NFPA Hazard Signals Reactivity/Stability Special 6. filter or dust-. 7. If inhaled. Seek medical aid immediately. dry and well ventilated place. rubber shoes and rubber hand gloves. . face shield. EXPOSURE First Aid Measures If eyes are affected.Wash the affected area with plenty of water. 8 – Tetra-chloro-di-benzodioxin. Equipment. 235 . Wash the surface with plenty of water and soap. Unusual Hazards Toxic gases are produced .PREVENTIVE MEASURES Flammability 0 Personal Protective Avoid contact with solid or liquid.ADDITIONAL INFORMATION/REFERENCES A strong base. neutralise with HCl and drain into sewer with abundant water. 5-Tetrachlorobenzene has caused many industrial explosions & forms extremely toxic 2. Seek medical aid immediately for all types of exposures. 3. flush with plenty of water for 15 mins. Support respiration.
Acrylonitrile. it can react or ignite violently with Acetic Acid. Allyl Alcohol. 236 . pressure and state of dilution. Acrolein.Under proper conditions of temperature. Acetaldehyde. Allyl Chloride. Acetic Anhydride.
A.4 DIETHANOL AMINE DIETHANOL AMINE 1. DEA Regulated Identification Shipping Name Codes/Label Hazardous waste I. HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS 1.5.10.S. Trade Name 111-42-2 UN NO. 2. NO.2-Iminodiethanol H(NCH2 CH2 OH)2 C. NO.CHEMICAL IDENTITY Chemical Name Di-ethanol amine Chemical Classificatio n Organic compound.S.S.PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA Boiling 269. 111-42-2 2.A.D. amine Synonyms Formula DEA.A. mm Hg Liquid Appearance Odour Ammonia Fainlty coloured 237 . NO.1(dec Point/ Range omposes) o C 28 Melting/ Physical State Vapour pressure @ 35 oC.9. Hazchem Code Di-ethanol amine 17 2T HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS C. Diethanolamine C. No.
Does not occur. Explosive No Material Oxidiser No Organic Peroxide No Corrrosive Material Others No REACTIVITY DATA Chemical Stability Stable Incompatibility with other Oxidising materials material Reactivity Hazardous Reaction Products 3.0919 pH Gravity (Water = 1) FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA Flammability Slight LEL (%V) Flash Point (OC) oC Flash Point.65 Solubility in water @ 30 oC Solubility in others 1.89 151.Freezing Point oC Vapour Density (Air = 1) 3.HEALTH HAZARD DATA Routes of Entry Effects of Exposure/ Symptoms Inhalation/ingestion/contac Diethanol amine has been characterized as being of low 238 . Specific 1. (CC) oC 148.6 TDG UEL (%V) Flammability Auto ignition Temperature oC 662 Explosion Sensitivity to Impact Explosion Sensitivity to Static Electricity Hazardous Combustion products Hazardous Polymerization Combustible Yes Liquid Flammable Yes Material Pyrophoric No Material 2.
DEA is an irritant to the Emergency Treatment eyes and has caused liver and kidney damages in animals. ppm mg/kg STEL. IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION REQUIRED.toxicity. Water or foam may cause frothing. (IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION REQUIRED) CONTACT : Remove victim to fresh air. INGESTION : Give plenty of water to conscious victim to drink and induce vomiting. 2. 5. Flammability 1 ppm mg/kg Special LD50 mg/kg Permissible Exposure Limit TLV (ACGIH) ppm mg/kg NFPA Hazard Signals Health 1 Reactivity/Stabilit y 0 4. Acute toxicity shows that direct contact may impair vision and denature skin. Remove contaminated clothing Wash affected part with plenty of water for at least 30 mins. dry chemical. rubber gloves and rubber boots. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from exposure.83 LD50 . foam or carbondioxide. DCP. Give plenty of water to conscious victim to drink and induce vomiting EXPOSUR E Unusual Hazards First Aid Measures SPILLS Antidotes/ Dosage Steps to be taken 239 .PREVENTIVE MEASURES Personal Protective Handling and Storage Precautions Splash proof goggles.EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES FIRE Fire Extinguishing Foam. mg/kg mg/kg ppm 3 Odor Threshold. Remove contaminated clothing Wash affected part with plenty of water for atleast 30 mins. Use water to keep fire exposed containers cool. Water spray Media Special Procedure Use water spray. (Oral-Rat). CO2. Remove victim to fresh air.
S.5. Petroleum solvent 2.D.Waste Method Disposal 10.S. Shipping Name Codes/Label Hazardous waste I. NO. NO. Demulsifier Formula Regulated Identification Demulsifier HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS 1.A. No.A. UN NO. 2. Hazchem Code C. NO. Trade Name Resin.A.PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA 240 .S.5 DEMULSIFIER DEMULSIFIER 1. Wetting Agent and Surfactant in Aromatic Solvent C.9. Aromatics HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS C.CHEMICAL IDENTITY Chemical Name Demulsifier Chemical Classificatio n Mixture of organic compounds Synonyms Blend of Ethoxylated Block Co-Polymer.
kerosene 3. Explosive No Material Oxidiser No Organic Peroxide No Stable 241 . (CC) oC >93 TDG 3 Flammability Auto ignition Temperature oC Explosion Sensitivity to Impact Explosion Sensitivity to Static Electricity Hazardous Combustion products Hazardous Polymerization Combustible Yes Liquid Flammable Yes Material Pyrophoric No Material 4. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA Flammability Yes LEL (%V) UEL (%V) Flash Point (OC) oC Flash Point.02 at 25oC pH 6.Boiling Point/ Range o C Melting/ Freezing Point oC Vapour Density (Air = 1) Specific Gravity (Water = 1) Physical State Vapour pressure @ 35 oC.0 to 7.REACTIVITY DATA Chemical Stability Incompatibility with other CO. CO2 Corrosive Material Others No Does not occur.0 Solubility in Aromatic others solvent. mm Hg Liquid Appearance Odour Dark Brown Solubility in water Dispersible @ 30 oC 0.92 ± 0.
material Reactivity Hazardous Reaction Products 5. mg/kg 50 mg/m3 ppm 10 (ACGIH) mg/kg NFPA Hazard Signals Health Flammability Reactivity/Stabilit y 242 . Eyes : Irritation Emergency Treatment Inhalation Ingestion Contact Medical attention is required. mg/kg Odor Threshold. ppm mg/kg STEL. contact May cause headache and nausea. LD50 . Move to fresh air. Skin : Flush with large amount of water for 15 minutes. If breathing is difficult give oxygen and call for physician. Eyes : Immediately flush eyes with large quantities of water for at least 15 minutes.HEALTH HAZARD DATA Routes of Entry Effects of Exposure/ Inhalation Symptoms Ingestion Contact Inhalation. If retained leads to symptoms of central nervous system depression. Skin : Dermatitis. Nausea. vomiting. ppm mg/kg 15 75 mg/m3 Special LD50 mg/kg Permissible Exposure Limit TLV ppm (Oral-Rat).
6. If breathing is difficult give oxygen and call for physician. suitability for a particular application or results to be obtained from them. Eyes : Immediately flush eyes with large quantities of water for at least 15 minutes. Antidotes/ Dosage SPILLS Steps to be taken Waste Disposal vermiculite. soil or Fire fighters must use SCBA. DISCLAIMER Information contained in this material safety data sheet is believed to be reliable but no representation. CO2 Media Special Procedure Unusual Hazards EXPOSUR E First Aid Measures Medical attention is required. chemical safety goggles. Store between 5 oC and 49oC.PREVENTIVE MEASURES Personal Protective Equipment Handling and Storage Precautions Rubber or plastic gloves. solvent resistant. 243 . Skin : Flush with large amount of water for 15 minutes. guarantee or warranties of any kind are made as to its accuracy. Absorb with an inert material such as sand. Method 8.EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID MEASURES FIRE Fire Extinguishing DCP. May be stored in unlined Mild Steel Tanks 7. Move to fresh air.
10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 CONTROL VALVE FAIL SAFE CONDITION TAG NO. NAPHTHA FOR GAS OIL LPG BOOSTER PMP FLW LPG TO LPG DRM VV-029 VENT FRM VV-003 LPG SURGE DRM FO TO VV-026(BPC) STRIPPING STM TO CC-001 BTM. SERVICE BOILER FEED WTR RICH AMINE TO ARU STM CONDEN. FRM VV-035 HY.10 S.No. TO FLASH DRM LP STM COND. NAPHTHA TO KERO R/D LPG FRM PA-014A/B FO TO HTR FG TO FLARE FRM CC-001 FG TO VV-002 LPG PRODUCT R/D HY. NAPHTHA TO STORAGE LPG TO FG KOD VV-028 HP STM TO DESUPER HTR FG SUPPLY(PILOT) DRAIN FRM VV-003 CAUSTIC SOL. EX VV-006 WASH WTR EX VV-007 ACTION/ FAIL SAFE CONDITION A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) 5LV2602 5LV3104 5LV3106 5FV1807 5FV2502 5LV3202 5PV1701 5FV2501 5PV3111 5FV1508 5FV2011 5FV2503 5PV1415 5PV1504A 5PV1504B 5PV1912 5PV2011 5PV3203 5PV4406 5SDV1406 5SDV1701 5SDV1901 5SDV1902 244 .5. HY.
WASH WTR EX VV-016 CASTIC EX VV-009 WASH WTR EX VV-010 WTR FRM VV-025 CAUSTIC EX VV-013 WASH WTR EX-VV-014 WASH WTR EX VV-015 AMINE SETTLER BTM LPG AMINE ABSORBER BTM BR IN FRM DSTLR TO DGASR FO TO VV-026 2nd STAGE DESAL. WTR I/L NAPH. TO VV-013 A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) ACTION/ FAIL SAFE CONDITION A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) LOCK (FC) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) 245 . 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 5SDV1903 5SDV1904 5SDV2001 5SDV2002 5SDV2003 5SDV2201 5SDV2202 5SDV2203 5SDV2601 5SDV2602 5LV1201 5LV3103 5FV1201 5FV1409 5FV2501 5LV1602 TAG NO. BTM. EE-018A/B CRUDE TO HTR PASS-1 CRUDE I/L PASS-2 CRUDE I/L PASS-3 CRUDE I/L PASS-4 HSD R/D KERO/ATF COALASCER O/L HP STM TO EE-028A/B/C/D STABISER O/H VAPOUR ATM STM TO HTR FO SUPPLY SOUR WTR TO SRU LPG TO LPG SURGE DRM FG TO HTR DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-1 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-3 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-4 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-2 TOP RFLX TO CC-001 LR TO BL(FPU) LR TO BL STORAGE LN+CAUSTIC TO VV-009 LN WTR TO VV-010 KERO+ATF+CAUST. SAT. 5PV3202 5SDV1401 5LV1202 5TV1702 5FV1401 5FV1402 5FV1403 5FV1404 5FV1804 5FV2206 5FV3102 5HV1701 5PDV1420 5SDV1402 5SDV1601 5SDV2501 5PV1423 5FV1410 5FV1412 5FV1413 5FV1414 5FV1505 5FV1805 5FV1806 5HV2001 5HV2002 5HV2201 WTR EX VV-008 CAUST.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 S. WTR I/L PLANT AIR FOR DECOCKING LPG TO AMINE ABSORBER SOUR WTR TO VV-005 SERVICE LP STM TO LPG VAPORISER FO RETURN 1st STAGE DIST.No. STAB.
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 5HV2202 5SDV1801 5FV1501 5LV1508 5LV1510 5SDV1403 5LV1206 5FV1502 5TV1116 KERO+ATF+WASH WTR TO VV-014 LN TO CAUSTIC WASH TOP CIR. If required shutdown totally. Depressurize Keep steam Lancer Inform RSM / CPNM Cut off furnace if H/C vapor travels towards furnace SITUATION FROM ESCALATING HAZARDOUS SITUATION Severe hydrocarbon leakage Furnace Coil Rupture Severe Exchanger Leakage 246 . RETURN TO CC-001 KERO STRIPPER FEED GAS OIL STRIPPER FEED FG SUPPLY CRUDE BOOSTER PMP D/S ATF/KERO CR RETURNED TO CC-001 EXCH-05-EE-006 A/B BYPASS A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/O (FC) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) A/C (FO) Note: a) A/O stands for AIR TO CLOSE b) A/C stands for AIR TO OPEN c) FC stands for FAIL TO CLOSE d) FO stands for FAIL TO OPEN 10. Take emergency S/D of entire plant Inform RSM / CPNM Bypass exchanger-using PPE & isolate it. Block adjacent roads Inform F&S Isolate leaky section using PPEs & depressurize to flare. Inform RSM/CPNM Open STD Cut off fuel to furnace Cut off feed Put coil purging steam.5.11 CORRECTIVE ACTION TO BE TAKEN TO PREVENT HAZADOUS ACTION Cut off all furnace Take unit on circulation.
Fire water sprinkler system 5.12 SAFETY SYSTEM AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Following safety systems are available in our unit 1. PPEs 1. PSVs 2.5. Liquid which is carried along 247 . compressor discharge and positive displacement pump discharge.Pump Seal Leakage Start stand by pump Isolate the leaky pump Depressurize Keep fire Engine standby. pipe line etc by relieving excess pressure to flare / atmosphere when there is abnormal pressurization due to CW failure or fire etc. vessels. Where Situated: Normally it is situated at column top vessel top. Hydro-carbon leak detectors 4. Relieve Where: Normally to flare system. Interlocks 3. Flare Knock Out Drum: All PSV discharge is routed to flare connected to a header which is routed to flare KOD located at AU5 battery limit. Inform RSM / CPNM 10. PSVs Purpose: PSVs are provided to protect the equipments like columns.
Fire water Sprinkler: Firewater Sprinkler is provided on all black hot hydrocarbon pump for cooling purpose. During pump seal leak & subsequent fire. Interlocks Purpose: Meant for protecting of equipment in case of extreme deviation in parameter from operating limit. rubber / canvas hand gloves. sprinkler system is activated to cool the pump to avoid damage to piping & structure. will give signal to DCS control room through alarm. It is provided with a level indication (with alarm). In normal condition once in a shift draining is done. FD fan failure ID fan failure (STD does not open with in 30 sec) 3. 4. 248 . Location: Furnaces What all interlocks: (Furnace fuel will cut off if there is) Low Combined pass flow Low FG pressure Low Fuel Oil pressure. 2. PPEs: Safety helmet. Hydrocarbon Leak detectors: Facility: The unit is provided with 05 numbers of hydrocarbon detectors located at vulnerable points where chances for leak is more. 5. BA set is kept in DCS control room.with gas is settled in this vessel are drained out to CBD. for any leakage. safety shoe. It senses the leak & if concentration is more than the specified limit. gas mask/ canister for use in different gas atmosphere etc are provided for safe operation and emergency handling in case of abnormal condition. After getting the alarm. Only gas from it’s top is send to flare. before it reaches the equipment design limit. Panel operator instructs the field operator to check physically the area. This system will be provided to all hot pump in near future. Level indication is transmitted to DCS CR. Breathing apparatus. apron.
6. Slowly establish IFO circulation in IFO ring. 3. 4.Safety helmet & safety shoes have been provided to all operating personnel. 6. 5.5. Flush all FO burners with steam. 7.13 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN EQUIPMENTS HANDLING DURING OPERATION 10. Light up the pilot burners Deblind IFO in and out lines. NO 1. High Velocity Long Range monitor has been provided for spraying water jet at top of high column during fire fighting 10. HVLR. Deblind the fuel gas main header and pilot gas lines.13. Other PPEs are available in Check & Change room of operators. Confirm negative draft inside furnace.5. 249 .1 FURNACE BURNER LIGHT UP: (DURING START UP) SR. DESCRIPTION Inform Panel operator Fully open STD Purge the box with steam and allow steam come out from stack. 1 2.
8. 10 Observe the furnace arch pressure. 4. WARMING UP OF PUMPS: SR. Light up main gas burners one by one as per requirement.2. DESCRIPTION Inform PNE / Panel operator Check for electrical supply if it is back from maintenance. PUMP CHANGE OVER/START UP: SR. Ensure that shaft is free. NO 1. Cooling water system/ flow.5. Light up the IFO burner one after another. Check up the casing & In let line drain bleeders and ensure these are closed and capped / end blinded. 10. Ensure pump is energized. Open suction valve 2-3 thread and slowly remove air through vent line by filling the line with liquid. If OK fully open suction valve. Ensure that liquid comes from the vent are cooled in cooler before draining Check for leakage. 10. 3. 5. Check up the coupling. As per requirement. NO 1.13.13. Slowly open warm up valve and gradually warn up pump. 2. 9. 1 2.3.5. 7. DESCRIPTION Inform PNE / Panel operator Check up the pump assembles whether these are properly fixed or not. Coupling guard. 6. Check lube Oil level. 250 . temperature & flame pattern .
9. Gradually open the discharge valve. 3.(If hot pump) Inform panel operator before change over. Check leaks if any by pressurizing with steam. 10 Check pump load. 4. 12 Check for any abnormality. Check all blinds are removed at inlet and outlet lines. drain point. gradually close the discharge valve of former (running) pump. vibration. Provide hose connection in both shell side & tube side vents. Check CBD & OWS line valves are closed Check all the disturbed flanges are boxed up with new gasket and there is no short bolt. Before this. Confirm discharge flow . 10. 4. Make sure that oil has comes out from vents.4 HEAT EXCHANGER COMMISSIONING: SR. . Close & cap all vents. Ensure Bull plug fixing. 11 Whenever discharge valve of previous running pump is fully closed.13. requirement is fulfilled. 13 Inform panel operator that C/O is completed.3. Take FLO in shell and tube sides & displace air through the vent. Stop steaming. stop the . 7. pump and open the warm up valves (If hot pump). and lube oil in the bearing. Be sure that pressure does not cross the design test pressure. NO 1. if no leak is there. C/W to bearing and casing.5. 251 . Check & Open suction valve. 6. DESCRIPTION Inform shift in charge and panel operator for commissioning of exchanger. Do steaming of exchanger of both sides (tube / shell) by keeping drain and vent open through hose connections. 1 2. 7. Warm up the pump slowly and let it hot at pumping material temperature. Check up the pump coupling guard. . 5. Close the warm up valve (If hot pump) Start the pump. If the AMP is increased. 6. Check up the Amp (Load). close partially the vents / drain bleeders. if required open more discharge. abnormal sound etc. 8. 5. freeness of the shaft.
Check steam to Burner. drain water (if any) from shell & tube side. 5. Flush the oil burner with the flushing steam during that time ensures that Burner Oil B/V is in closed position. Simultaneously makeup with fresh FLO. After thorough steaming is over. Slowly Light up oil burner adjusting oil and steam flow. 05. Check any leakage during steam flushing. If OK & O2 is more than 19%. Ensure that other burner does not disturb. SR. Take sufficient time to close bypass valves.8. Slowly open both side inlet & outlet valves. 6. 06 07 DESCRIPTION Isolate the equipment and depressurize first to flare & then CBD. Start steaming & drain condensate through drain line. Provide light & air hose connection inside vessel & give clearance for man-entry. 02 03 -4 05. 9. Check for O2 content inside vessel & other gases by respective instrument. 10 Blind CBD. After settling for half an hour. Drain water when water washing is over. 06. Provide steam hose connection or Deblind steam out point . Observe the flame pattern and if required adjust steam/oil flow or air. NO 01. Slowly close the bypass valves. . depressurize the vessel & give clearance for positive blind as per master blind list. Slowly open the vent after isolating flare valve. 02. DESCRIPTION Inform Panel operator Ensure that Burner is properly boxed up & gasket is provided. MAN ENTRY IN CLOSED VESSEL/ EQUIPMENT: VESSEL IS CONSIDERED. 04. Open manhole. through which provide firewater hose connection & do thorough water washing. 03. NO 01. 252 . OWS & FLO. Check the burner valve and ensure that it is in closed position. FURNACE BURNER LIGHT UP: (DURING NORMAL OPERATION) SR.
Observe the Furnace condition and ensure that there is no flame impingement. CHAPTER-11 PROCESS UPSET & CORRECTIVE ACTIONS 253 . If required burner oil and steam flow can be adjusted.07.
of side stream Draw more product Check over flash & pull more HSD 254 .PROCESS UPSET & CORRECTIVE ACTIONS Sl.No 1 Equpt No Column Measured parameter Top Pressure Deviation High Action to be taken Check top pressure C/V Reduce bottom firing /COT Reflux drum level High if required Check the reflux pump Check R/D flow for any blockage Maintain Differential pressure High required top temperature Check withdrawal temp.
Increase pass flow Reduce furnace firing Increase pass flow to that pass Adjust furnace firing to check any impingement on that pass Adjust furnace firing Adjust excess air Open STD a little Skin temperature High Arch temperature High 255 .2 Vessel Level High Increase R/D flow Optimize Check inflow-keeping for any R/D specification on grade. blockage Check PCV opening Check for any blockage Maintain vessel level as required Maintain vessel Pressure High Temperature High temperature as required Increase CW flow in Cooler / Condenser Reduce temperature Maintain product draw CW supply 3 Furnace COT of any pass High temperature as required.
4 VV02 VV-02 Boot water PH High Low Increase ammonia / caustic injection Reduce ammonia / caustic injection 5 VV-02 CL content High Increase caustic injection Check strength Reduce ammonia as per PH requirement Check operation of Corrosion inhibitor pump & increase dozing Replenish spent caustic with 10% strength fresh caustic Replace water of water wash vessel caustic solution Fe content 6 High LPG & H2S slippage by Pb. If above does not solve.+ve Naphtha acetate test caustic / water wash 256 .Stack temperature High Adjust furnace firing Adjust excess air Do shoot blowing. decommission APH & do water wash.
CHAPTER-12 HANDING & TAKING OVER OF INFORMATION DURING SHIFT CHANGE 257 .
2.Shift PNE: Out going PNE Should inform Incoming PNE About any equipment problem existing Any quality deviation & corrective action taken Any hazardous condition existing in plant Any instruction yet to be implemented About any follow-up action to be taken for equipment under maintenance.HANDING & TAKING OVER OF INFORMATION DURING SHIFT CHANGE 1. About any additional manpower requirement if any About any Interlocks bypassed & reason. Panel Operator: Out going Panel Operator Should inform Incoming Panel Operator 258 .
Field Operator Out going Field Operator Should inform incoming Field Operator About any equipment under maintenance. 4. About change of product routing About health of burners. Pump Operator: Out going Pump Operator Should inform Incoming Pump Operator About any pump running in unsafe condition About any problem which needs immediate attention. About Critical alarm if any. About any unsafe condition About any instruction yet to be implemented. About any prevailing instrument problem About Any instruction yet to be followed About Deviations from normal operating parameter Corrective actions taken for deviation of quality. About Inter lock remaining bypassed if any. 3. About follow up action for maintenance. H/O or T/O. About equipment under maintenance About equipment run in the shift & observation About any equipment ready for trial run. About any equipment problem. 259 . About instruction yet to be implemented. yet to be given to maintenance. About follow up action with maintenance. About Follow-up actions for quality deviation to be taken About Any instrument under maintenance.
CHAPTER-13 CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL INVENTORY LEVEL CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL INVENTORY LEVEL In atmospheric distillation unit main hazardous chemical. Caustic solution is dozed at pre-desalter inlet to neutralize Naphthenic acid & at post desalter exchanger train to neutralize HCL generated by hydrolysis of salts of MgCl2. NH3 is 261 . are ammonia & NaOH.
Caustic is also used for removing H2S from naphtha & LPG streams in naphtha & LPG Caustic & water wash system. Caustic is received from OMS & diluted to required strength with DM water. where caustic of 10% strength is used.injected in the over head of column to neutralize any HCL vapour which has remained un-neutralized by caustic. Inventory of this chemical is maintained for about 15 days of average daily consumption. NH3 is procured in cylinders of 40 Kg weight.5 Mt 4 Mt 75 Kg cylinder 120 / cylinder 150 / Cylinder Inventory level (requirement+ 10%) 12 Mt 2.4 Mt 2 3 cylinders 2 4 Cylinders 4 5 cylinders / 262 . NH3 is injected in some units as ammonia solution of 2-3% strength diluted with DM water & in some units as ammonical caustic solution where NH3 remains in solution with dilute caustic for neutralization purpose. Chemical Unit Average consumption NaOH AU1 AU2 AU5 Ammonia AU1 AU2 AU5 715 Kg 189 Kg 280 Kg 5 Kg 8 kg 10 daily Requirement for 15 days 10 Mt 2.75 MT 4.
CHAPTER-14 PLANT EQUIPMENT IDLING METHOD 263 .
Close quenching steam Line up TSVs Pinch CW out let valve to cooler / condenser Isolate To be kept on Keep it charged within Unit Maintain circulation through ring Atmospheric column reflux drum (VV-02) Stabilizer column reflux drum (VV-03) Desalter 264 .2 FOR LONG IDLING: Make unit hydrocarbon free and follow Preservation procedure as per OISD-STD-171. Drain water to lowest level & block the valve Drain caustic to sour water system to lowest level & block the valve Isolate discharge valve Close warm-up valve Heat Exchanger Battery Limit valves on product lines Tracing steam / Electric tracers for RCO line Steam IFO 14.PLANT EQUIPMENT IDLING METHOD 14.1 FOR SHORT SHUTDOWN: EQUIPMENT Atmospheric column stabilizer column / ACTION Float with Fuel gas Stop all chemical injection Maintain positive pressure Float with FG Float with FG Float with FG Float with Flare Switch off transformer Stop water & demulsifier injection Water wash vessel Caustic wash vessel Pumps Drain brine to low level & block the valve.
CHAPTER-15 DCS INFORMATION 265 .
2HARDWARE PLATFORM HICS:HP 9000WORKSTATION FCS & ICS: YBL PROPRIETARY STATIONS 5.PLC (FOR SHUTDOWN SYSTEM) 5.1 MODEL NO 6.1 MODEL NO 184.108.40.206 Ver.DCS INFORMATION 1.CONTROLLER SUB SYSTEM 6. Plant data 3.20 ICS: AT&T UNIX HICS: HP UNIX Gujarat Refinery AU.2 SCAN TIME CP 334D 1 ms to 500 ms (configurable) N/A ABB-AUGUST SYSTEMS CS – 300E TMR 266 .3 ARCHITECTURE 6.Refinery name and location 2.2 MODEL 5.1.1MULTI LOOP 6.2 MODEL CENTUM-CS 4.2.2 SCAN TIME 6.1 MAKE YOKOGAWA BLUE STAR 3.2. DCS OPERATING SYSTEM 4.2 SINGLE LOOP 6.1 SOFTWARE TYPE/ VERSION FCS: CENTUM CS HP UNIX Ver.1 MAKE 5.10.20 4. DCS 3.
NET) 8.7.2 SET POINT 10.1. TO BE ENCLOSED) 267 .2 LAN 11.3 OTHERS (PLEASE SPECIFY) 11.3 DIGITAL 91 421 239 10.1 FIELD BUS 11.4 OTHERS (PLEASE SPECIFY) 12.1.1 BUS/ HIGHWAY TYPE 7.1.1 DMC 10.2 OPEN 9. NO OF LOOPS 9.APPROX.2 SPEED OF COMMUNICATION MULTIDROP/TOKEN PASSING 10 MBPS (V. CONNECTIVITY/ NETWORK TO OTHER EQUIPMENT/ SYSTEM 11. CENTRAL/DISTRIBUTED ETC) DISTRIBUTED DATABASE 9.1.1.HIGHWAY DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 7.3 ETHERNET (IEEE802. DATABASE ARCHITECTURE (viz.3) 11.1 CLOSED 9.DCS ARCHITECTURE (DRG.INTERFACE WITH ADVANCE CONTROL NOT IMPLIMENTED 10.3 IEE802.
CHAPTER-16 LABORATORY TEST SCHEDULE 268 .
7. 2. STREAM LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA TEST COPPER CORROSION H2S &CAUSTIC WASH DENSITY DISTILATION RVP COPPER CORROSION DENSITY DISTILATION DENSITY FLASH DISTILATION DENSITY.FLASH POURPOINT. DISTILATION PH CHLORIDE FE STRENGTH DENSITY FREQUENCY 1/D 1/D 2/D 1/D 2/D Once in an alternate day 2/D 1/D 2/D 2/D 2/D 2/D 2/D 2/D 1/D 1/D 1/D 1/D 1/W TEST PERFORMED SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT SHIFT. 5.SUN 3.N0.LABORATORY TEST SCHEDULE S. 8. HEAVY NAPHTHA SKO GASOIL SOUR WATER EX. 4. 6.V2 V-6/9/13 CAUSTIC DESALTER 269 . 1.
12. 14.O/L DESALTER BRINE WATER V-7/10/14 WATER FLUE GAS CAUSTIC/ AMMONIA RCO TK-2A/B & TK-6A/B SALT BS&W PH OIL CONTENT % OF CAUSTIC ORSAT STRENGTH RECOVERY AT 360°C CAUSTIC SOLUTION STRENGTH 1/W 1/W 1/W 1/W 1/W ON REQ ON REQ 1/W ON REQ SHIFT. 11. 13. 10.9. CRUDE I/L.SUN G/S -WED SHIFT SHIFT G/S SHIFT CHAPTER-17 MASTER BLIND LIST 270 .
No 1. 9. 6. 271 . 8.BLIND LIST BLIND LIST S. 3. 5. 7. DESCRIPTION CW inlet Rich Amine To SRU Lean Amine from SRU LPG fron AU5 Crude to Unit LR to Storage HSD to FCC LP steam to unit MP steam to Unit SIZE 24” 2” 2” 2” 14” 10” 6” 14” 12” 6” RUNNI NG Out Out Out out Out Out Out Out Out Out S/D In In In In In In In In In In TYPE Tail Spect Spect Spect Tail Tail Spect Tail Spect Spect 10 HP steam to Unit . 4. 1 2.
19 Instrument Air . 12 HSD to DHDS . 21 Service Water . 24 Light Naphtha to OMS . 2” 6” 6” 4” 4” 2” 3” 4” 4” 4” 4” 4” 4” 4” 3” Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out In In In In In In In In In In In In In In In Tail Spect Spect Spect Spect Spect Spect Spect Tail Spect Spect Spect Spect Spect Spect 272 . 16 Spent caustic to ETP . 23 LPG Rundown . 20 Plant Air .11 Amine Ex Sump to CRU . 25 Caustic Ex OMS to Unit . 15 Stripped ex SRU . 18 FLO . 22 DM water . 17 BFW to Unit . 14 SOUR water to SRU . 13 HSD to OMS .
37 CW return . 38 Flare KOD to Flare line . 36 Light Naphtha new line . 4” 6” 6” 8” 10” 12” 10” 8” 2” 3” 6” 24” 24” out Out Out In Out Out Out Out Out Out In Out Out In In In In In In In In In In In In In Spect Spect Spect Spect Tail Tail Tail Spect Spect Tail Tail Tail Tail SrNo DESCRIPTION CC01. 27 ATF R/D . 35 Light Naphtha from Unit . 30 Slop to GRE/OMS .COLUMN SIZE RUNNI NG S/D TYPE 273 . 29 FG to DHDS . 34 Wild Naphtha ex OMS/UNIT . 28 SKO R/D . 31 FG ex GHC .26 LPG ex AU3 . 33 IFO ex GHC . 32 Hot RCO to GHC .
1 2 . 1 2 . 7 . 9 . 8 . 1 0 . 3 . 1 4 Feed Entry Desalter PSV-1 Desalter PSV-1 Bottom O/L Top O/L Gas Oil CR Return Kero CR Return Top CR return Top Reflux Top CR Draw Off 30” 10” 10” 14” 30” 14” 14’ 12” 8’ 16” Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out Out In In In In In In In In In In Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Side Draw Off 8” Out In Tail Kero (to Stripper) Draw Off 16” Out In Tail Kero CR Draw Off 16” Out In Tail Gas Oil draw Off 16” Out In Tail 274 . 6 . 1 3 .1 . 4 . 5 . 1 1 .
1 8 . 2 1 . 1 9 . 2 4 . 2 3 . 1 6 . 2 2 . 1 7 . 2 0 . 2 5 . Gas Oil CR Draw Off 16” Out In Tail Vapour Return from HN Stripper 10” Out In Tail Vapour Return from Kero Stripper 12” Out In Tail Vapour Return from Gas OIL Stripper 14” Out In Tail Stripping Steam to Column 10” Out In Tail Column Top Vent 3” In Out Tail 2 Nos of Over Flash Draw Off 8” Out In Tail Over Flash Return 8” Out In Tail Steam Out (Utility) to Column In In Tail Ahuralan Injection 1” Out In Tail Ammonia Injection 1” Out In Tail 275 .1 5 .
2 7 . 3 2 . 3 1 .COLLUMN SIZE 12” 2” 8” RUNNI NG Out In Out S/D In Out In TYPE Tail Tail Tail 276 . 2 8 . Top Vent 10” Out In Tail 2” In Out Tail Pump Minimum circulation Return 2” Out In Tail Reboiler Feed 6” Out In Tail Reboiler Return 10” Out In Tail Bottom Outlet 6” Out In Tail Steam Out point 2” In Out Tail SrNo DESCRIPTION 1 2 3 Vapour Outlet Top Vent Stripping Steam I/L CC03.C2-Collumn 2 Vapour Outlet 6 . 3 0 . 2 9 .
4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Reboiler Feed Reboiler Return Bottom Outlet Steam Out point Vapour Outlet Top Vent Stripping Steam I/L Reboiler Feed Reboiler Return Bottom Outlet Steam Out point Vapour Outlet Top Vent Reflux Nozzle Reboiler Feed Reboiler Return Bottom Outlet Steam Out Point 2 Nos Feed Inlet PSVs 12” 12” 2” CC04-COLUMN 12” 3” 10” 14” 12” 3” CC05.COLUMN 1 Vapour Outlet 2 Top Vent 3 Sour LPG Feed Inlet 4 Lean Amine Feed Inlet 5 Rich Amine outlet 6 Utility Connection 7 PSVs 277 .COLUMN 14” 2” 4” 14” 18” 10” 2” 8” 6” 4” 2” 4” 2” 2” 2” 4” Out Out Out In Out In Out Out Out Out In Out In Out Out Out Out In Out Out Out In Out Out Out In Out In In In Out In Out In In In In out In Out In In In In Out In In In Out In In In Out In Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail Tail CC06.
No. FRM VV-035 278 SIZE(in.8 7.5 MAKE MIL PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE . 5F 5LV2602 5LV3104 5LV3106 SERVICE BOILER FEED WTR RICH AMINE TO ARU STM CONDEN.5 6 7.CHAPTER-18 CONTROL VALVES DATA CONTROL VALVES DATA S. 1 2 3 4 TAG NO. TO FLASH DRM LP STM COND.) RATING 1 300 1 300 1 600 1 150 CV 3.
BTM.5 300 5FV2501 LPG SURGE DRM 2 300 5PV3111 FO TO VV-026(BPC) 2 300 5FV1508 STRIPPING STM TO CC-001 BTM. MOTOYAMA PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE MAKE UCH PIG.5 300 5LV3202 LPG TO LPG DRM VV-029 1. SAT. NAPHTHA TO STORAGE 2 300 5PV3203 LPG TO FG KOD VV-028 2 300 5PV4406 HP STM TO DESUPER HTR 2 600 5SDV1406 FG SUPPLY(PILOT) 2 150 5SDV1701 DRAIN FRM VV-003 2 300 5SDV1901 CAUSTIC SOL. NAPHTHA TO KERO R/D 2 300 5FV2503 LPG FRM PA-014A/B 2 300 5PV1415 FO TO HTR 2 300 5PV1504A FG TO FLARE FRM CC-001 2 150 5PV1504B FG TO VV-002 2 150 5PV1912 LPG PRODUCT R/D 2 300 5PV2011 HY. 2 300 5FV2011 HY.63 60 27 22 22 12 49 49 49 22 43 43 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 43 150 88 49 49 49 88 108 CV 88 117 140 140 140 140 PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE ARCA MOTOYAMA PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE UCH PIG. STAB. WTR I/L 3 300 5TV1702 NAPH. EX VV-006 2 300 5SDV1902 WASH WTR EX VV-007 2 300 5SDV1903 WTR EX VV-008 2 300 5SDV1904 CAUST.No.) RATING 5LV1202 1st STAGE DIST. EE-018A/B 4 300 5FV1401 CRUDE TO HTR PASS-1 4 600 5FV1402 CRUDE I/L PASS-2 4 600 5FV1403 CRUDE I/L PASS-3 4 600 5FV1404 CRUDE I/L PASS-4 4 600 22 7. WTR I/L 3 300 5FV1409 PLANT AIR FOR DECOCKING 3 150 5FV2501 LPG TO AMINE ABSORBER 3 300 5LV1602 SOUR WTR TO VV-005 3 150 5PV3202 LP STM TO LPG VAPORISER 3 150 5SDV1401 FO RETURN 3 300 TAG NO.5 300 5FV2502 LPG BOOSTER PMP FLW 1.5 300 5PV1701 VENT FRM VV-003 1.5 22 12 45. ARCA MIL MIL MIL MIL 279 .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 S. 43 44 45 46 47 48 5FV1807 HY. NAPHTHA FOR GAS OIL 1. SERVICE SIZE(in. WASH WTR EX VV-016 2 150 5SDV2001 CASTIC EX VV-009 2 150 5SDV2002 WASH WTR EX VV-010 2 150 5SDV2003 WTR FRM VV-025 2 150 5SDV2201 CAUSTIC EX VV-013 2 300 5SDV2202 WASH WTR EX-VV-014 2 300 5SDV2203 WASH WTR EX VV-015 2 300 5SDV2601 AMINE SETTLER BTM 2 300 5SDV2602 LPG AMINE ABSORBER BTM 2 300 5LV1201 BR IN FRM DSTLR TO DGASR 2 300 5LV3103 FO TO VV-026 3 300 5FV1201 2nd STAGE DESAL.
6 359 359 359 359 250 440 440 250 250 359 359 341 475 475 475 680 475 900 1521 PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE ARCA PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE PIGNONE UCH PIG. ARCA ARCA 280 . TO VV-013 5HV2202 KERO+ATF+WASH WTR TO VV-014 5SDV1801 LN TO CAUSTIC WASH 5FV1501 TOP CIR. RETURN TO CC-001 5LV1508 KERO STRIPPER FEED 5LV1510 GAS OIL STRIPPER FEED 5SDV1403 FG SUPPLY 5LV1206 CRUDE BOOSTER PMP D/S 5FV1502 ATF/KERO CR RETURNED TO CC-001 5TV1116 EXCH-05-EE-006 A/B BYPASS 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 10 12 300 300 600 300 300 300 150 300 150 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 195 95 115 195 195 195 195 195 444.49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 5FV1804 HSD R/D 5FV2206 KERO/ATF COALASCER O/L 5FV3102 HP STM TO EE-028A/B/C/D 5HV1701 STABISER O/H VAPOUR 5PDV1420 ATM STM TO HTR 5SDV1402 FO SUPPLY 5SDV1601 SOUR WTR TO SRU 5SDV2501 LPG TO LPG SURGE DRM 5PV1423 FG TO HTR 5FV1410 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-1 5FV1412 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-3 5FV1413 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-4 5FV1414 DECOCKING STM TO HTR PASS-2 5FV1505 TOP RFLX TO CC-001 5FV1805 LR TO BL(FPU) 5FV1806 LR TO BL STORAGE 5HV2001 LN+CAUSTIC TO VV-009 5HV2002 LN WTR TO VV-010 5HV2201 KERO+ATF+CAUST.
CHAPTER-19 LIST OF INTERLOCKS LIST OF ALARMS & INTER LOCKS 281 .
75 m3/hr 53. Second category of alarms consists of those.8 Kg/cm2 TRIP VALUE 30000NM3/hr 10 mm WC RANGE 0-215M3/hr 0-215M3/hr 0-215M3/hr 0-215M3/hr RANGE 0-164KNM3/hr -20.75 m3/hr 3 Kg/cm2 0. In first category. Alarms emanating from independent switches can be brought either to DCS panel (CR to or on panel of control room. but appearing on DCS only are also called software alarms.9 Kg/cm2 7.8 Kg/cm2 20 Kg/cm2 53. or control panel through a converter. High P45A/B low Discharge pressure LR to SLOP Low Flow in pass 1 Low Flow in pass 2 Low Flow in pass 3 Low Flow in pass 4 Very low pressure in fuel oil Very low pressure in fuel gas Fuel gas to FF-01 DESCRIPTION Very low flow in combustion Air High pressure in Furnace Arch TRIP VALUE 35 Kg/cm2 18. The alarms appearing on DCS are called software alarms while alarms on panel of control room (console panel) are called Hard Wired alarms.+20mm WC -20. which are associated with various controllers/indicators.In AU-V two types of alarms are in service.+20mm WC -20. Alarm setting can be provided to all DCS open loop or closed loop measurements and can be taken to DCS panel. High pressure in Furnace 10 mm WC Arch 05PSHH1452C V. High pressure in Furnace 10 mm WC 282 . Pressure CC-06 Top Pressure V.75 m3/hr 53. The alarms emanating from switches.+20mm WC A 05PSHH1452B V. alarms are associated with independent switches mounted on various circuits.5 Kg/cm2 0. Settings of software alarms can be wired to any value if the output from field is coming through a transmitter. while hardwired alarms originating from switches have more or less prefixed settings and are normally not varied AU-5 TRIP SETTINGS TAG NO 05PSHH1130 05PSHH2607 05PSL3102 05PSH1810 05FSL1401B 05FSL1402B 05FSL1403B 05FSL1404B 05PSLL1427 05PSLL1424 05PSL1435 TAG NO 05FSLL1453 05PSHH1452 DESCRIPTION P01A/B/Cv.75 m3/hr 53. High Dis.
low flow cir. low flow cir. low flow cir. Oil in ID fan 60 lts/min A PROCESS INTERLOCK LOGIC: A 05-FC-1401-PASS FLOW LOWFAL 1401 05-FC-1402-PASS FLOW LOW ---FAL1402 BPS 1405 05-FC-1403-PASS FLOW LOW ---FAL1403 05-FC-1404-PASS FLOW LOW ---FAL1404 F-01 cut off IFO SDV 1402 close IFO Return SDV 1401 close FG supply SDV 1403 close 283 .05SSLL1483 05SSLL1484 05FSL1455 05FSL1454 05SSLL1485 05TSHH1497 05FSLL1460 05FSLL1463 05FSLL1457 Arch Very low speed of FD fan A Very low speed of FD fan B Low flow in FD Fan A suction Low flow in FD Fan B suction Very low speed of ID Very high temp in CAPH V. Oil in FD fan 60 lts/min B V. Oil in FD fan 200 rpm 200 rpm 15000 NM3/hr 15000 NM3/hr 200 rpm 245° C 60 lts/min 1000 rpm 1000 rpm 82000 NM3/hr 82000 NM3/hr 1000rpm A V.
ID fan will trip and furnace J K L M N O will cut off I. 05-KA-01B CIRCUL OF OIL FSLL-1463 ---BPS. WILL TRIP 1418 BPS 1412 BPS 1413 FD FAN 1A TRIP FD FAN 1B TRIP 05 PM-01A/B/C TRIP SDV-2501 CLOSE (LPG INLET TO VV-20) TRIP 05-PM-50A/B (LPG BOSTER PUMPS) P 05-CC-06 HIGH PRESSURES PAHH-2607 CLOSE FC-2601 (AMINE TO C-06) 284 . PRESS HIGH 05-VV-20 LEVEL HIGH 05-VV-20 LEVEL LOW LAHH-2501 LALL-2502 OIL FSLL-1457 --. HIGH 1417 OF OIL FSLL-1460 -.FAN CIRCULATING FLOW LOW FD FAN 1A SPEED LOW FD FAN 1B SPEED LOW 05-PM-01A/B/C DISCH.FD – 1B TRIP FLOW LOW 05-KA-01A CIRCUL.FD – 1A TRIP 1416 BPS 1415 TSHH-1497 ID TRIP STACK DAMPER OPEN STACK DAMPER OPEN F G H I NOTE: In case stack damper will not open automatically.. FLOW LOW LOW SPEED ID FAN CAST APH O/L TEMP. Furnace will CUT-OFF.-. VERY LOW COMBUSTION AIR FALL-1453 -. HIGH PSLL-1427- BPS FUEL OIL SDV CLOSE 1407 PSLL-1424 -.D.BPS STACK DAMPER OPEN E 1410 NOTE: .B C D FUEL OIL PRESS LOW FUEL GAS PRESS LOW ARCH PRESS.BPS I.BPS FUEL GAS SDV CLOSE 1407 PAHH-1452--.If stack Damper does not open within 30 sec.D.BPS.BPS FUEL OIL SDV CLOSE FLOW 1409 FUEL GAS SDV CLOSE STD OPEN.
06.“OFF” push button of stand by pump must not be in lock condition. 05-CC-06 BOTTOM LEVEL LALL-2605 LOW CLOSE SDV 2602 05-PM-45A CLOSE SDV 2602 05-PM-45B If pump (B) is running then selection switch [SS 3110] should be on (A). After attaining normal Q R condition FC-2601 will work as normal flow controller. FC-2601 will shut off. so that in case at pressure low [PAL 3102B] pump (A) will start. NOTE: . CHAPTER-20 SKO/ATF SALT DRYER 285 .NOTE: .In case of high pressure in C.
SKO/ATF SALT DRYER A Salt dryer is additionally provided in the SKO/ATF run down after coalescer to reduce haziness in SKO/ATF due to fine mist of moisture. Field operator drain out water twice in a shift. The dense brine droplets settle at the bottom. PG’s provided at the inlet and outlet to enable monitoring the pressure drop across the salt bed. A drain line is provided at the bottom. Two numbers of PSV are installed at the top of the vessel. 286 . The salt dryer is loaded with 50MT of rock salt. Wet ATF/SKO enters the vessel through a Johnson Screen. which are drain out easily. which is release to CBD & OWS. the salt absorbs water droplets and its density increases. It is provided with inlet at the bottom and outlet at the top. A bypass valve is also provided between inlet & outlet lines to bypass the dryer. which is connected with OWS & CBD. As feed enters at the bottom. which slips through coalescer.
Shut down: Bypass drier Close inlet valve Close outlet valve Check that top pressure is below PSV set value Drain out residual water at the bottom Trouble shooting: High-pressure drop. High moisture in the bed due to unsatisfactory coalescer performance Insufficient salt in the drier High pressure in the vessel Outlet valve partially closed Rundown line restriction Correct the problem by opening the valve 287 . Inlet moisture: 1300-1500 ppm.Design data: Salt to load: 61 Mt. Check that delta P across drier bed is healthy. Outlet moisture: <200 ppm Start up: Ensure PSV are lined up Line up outlet valve Line up inlet valve slowly Check that vessel top pressure is healthy. Johnson screen is chocked Above calls for unloading of salts and inspection of Johnson screen Moisture Slippage Bed channeling due to high flow/partial chockage of Johnson screen.
CHAPTER-21 288 HSD COALESCER .
HSD COALESCER OPERATION AND MANTENANCE M ANNUAL: CLIENT PROJECT ITEM TAG NO : : : : M/S INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED IOCL GUJARAT REFINERY (UNIT-AU3) M/S LRIS DIESEL COALESCER 05-VV-301 / ONE INSPECTION : DESCRIPTION: 289 .
The water droplets coalesced through the element gets collected in the horizontal sump provided below main vessel and thereafter drained through the drain nozzle provided at its bottom. The coalescer should be fitted in position taking care of the orientation of nozzles etc. the coalescer should be rigidly hooked upto various piping connection and base to avoid any vibration due to flow. METHOD OF WORKING The Diesel Coalescer housing is provided with the inlet and outlet nozzles of suitable sizes at the front end on dish and at far end on dish of housing respectively.MULTITEX DIESEL COALESCER is a compactly made mechanical device manufactured to a high degree of accuracy. If complete instructions regarding installation. 290 . fitting and installation. IMPORTANT: To avoid damage to the element by any leftover material in the piping system. INSTALLATION: The Coalescer is a precision product and requires extremely careful handling during transportation. Ensure sufficient empty space on the front of the Manhole opening to facilitate the element removal without tilting. the coalescer should give trouble free service for a very long period. THE DIESEL COALESCER in its simplest form. It consists of a horizontal shell having dished end at its both ends and one manhole connection at the middle to facilitate the easy removal of coalescer and separator elements for cleaning and replacement. It should be unpacked just before installation only and the whole coalescer may be checked for any damage. The coalescer is thus normally despatched in wellpacked installation. up-stream of the element should be flushed thoroughly before the fitment of coalescer/separator element in the housing. I. designed and manufactured as per ASME Section VIII Div. Connection for safety relief valve has been provided. operation and maintenance of these units are observed carefully.
In addition liquid droplets do not wet the fibers but remain attached to them as beads of liquid. they are readily stripped out in the horizontal sump through downcomers. the coalescer along with the up-stream and downstream piping should be subjected to hydrostatic testing.Horizontal sump with dished end on its both end has been provided. OPERATION The coalescer has been thoroughly subjected to inspection and testing at their works before dispatch. Open air vent. outlet and drain plug. The Diesel coalescer consists: 1st stage: Coalescer element to coalesce fine mist of water and to retain dust particle 2nd Stage: Separator element to separate out water droplets (At outlet < 20 ppm) All the solid particles 10 microns (98%) are trapped in the element. but to check the leak proofness of matching flanged connections. Due to their size. more they agglomerated and coalesced into large drops due to their surface attraction to each other. As more liquid droplets are separated. the force of gravity and frictional drag of the fluid causes them to drain out the element and they are carried into sump of the vessel. 291 . After satisfying that there is no leaking joint causing spillage and wastage of service fluid. Connections for Level Transmitter and Level Gauge have also been provided to mount instruments on the horizontal sump. When the coalesced liquid drops attains a sufficient size from 100 to 200 times their initial size. the coalescer should be put to the operation as follows : Supply of stream (at required temperature) should be started before putting the coalescer into operating Provide all instrument / isolation valves at per drawing P&ID Close all valves including inlet. Open inlet valves slowly so that coalescer is in operation.
Revolve the element and take out from housing through manhole. Open drain plug and flush out any debris. The element can be taken out by opening Manhole cover. 292 . After replacement of element. Close drain plug. Allow coalescer to fill in with liquid and when the liquid starts coming out of the air vent. remove the spider plate and then pull the element on the tie road. unscrew the tie rod nuts. MAINTENANCE AND CLEANING / REPLACEMENT The element of the coalescer supplied has been designed for the following pressure drop: Pressure Drop (clean): . In the process of passing through the elements. the system can be now put into operation. close the air vent again. Close inlet and outlet valves and open the drain plug and flush out the fluid in the housing. If there is a by-pass valve. The fluid enters through the inlet to the coalescer. The following procedure should be adopted for replacement of the element: Whenever the pressure drop reaches the maximum permissible pressure drop the element should be replaced by new element.75 kg/cm2 MULTITEX coalescer will give satisfactory service if it is ensured that the element is replaced on attaining the maximum permissible pressure drop as indicated above.0. Open coalescer outlet valve. Take out the dirty element from the shell and replace it. Enter into the housing. the entrained particles (Liquid+Dust) are caught through the depth of the element and clean fluid passes out through the outlet. close it slowly.
CHAPTER-22 PROCESS 293 DIAGRAMS (FROM P&ID) .
PROCESS DIAGRAMS NOTE: DRAWINGS ARE AVAILABLE IN HARD COPY FORM. 294 .
PUMPS Pump is used to transfer liquids from one place to other. Pumps are of three types: (A) (B) (C) Centrifugal pump Reciprocating pump Rotary/Gear pump.CHAPTER-23 EQUIPMENT HANDLING PROCEDURE EQUIPMENT HANDLING PROCEDURE : 1. 296 .
• • (B) • • Ensure that pump is in warm-up condition Close the warm-up valve (across NRV of discharge line). A centrifugal pump consists of following parts: Motor. if required in consultation with Panel Operator. mechanical seal/gland packing. 1. bearing housing. Shut down procedure Close the discharge block valve fully. Adjust pressure. Open suction valve and fill the casing with liquid. flushing and quenching systems. Adjust the load. coupling. Bleed/Vent if necessary. Check the quality and level of lube oil. cooling. (A) • • • • • • • • • • • • Start-Up Procedure Check the mechanical/electrical completion. if required. impeller and shaft. leakage.1.A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP These are most widely used. Check the amperage of the motor. bearing temperature etc. Change/top up lube oil. Check the discharge pressure and wait till amperage comes down Open discharge valve gradually. Stop the motor. Rotate the shaft by hand to ensure that it is free. abnormal sound. COLD PUMP 2. pump casing. Check for any abnormal conditions like vibrations. 297 . Commission cooling water if provided. Energize the motor. Commission quenching/flushing medium to seal /gland packing. Press/start button and check direction of rotation. HOT PUMP The procedure is same as that for cold pump except for the following additional points.
1. Switch off the originally running pump. Adjust the stroke length in case of dosing pumps. stroke adjuster. (A) • • • Start Up Procedure Check mechanical/electrical completion. Rotate the shaft by hand to ensure that it is free. suction/discharge valves. Change over of the pumps Start the stand-by pump as per standard procedure. pump cylinder.B RECIPROCATING PUMP This is positive displacement pump. In reciprocating pump liquid is displaced from suction to discharge by the reciprocating movement of the piston or plunger in a cylinder. The pump consists of following parts: Motor. Start the motor by push-button.• (C) • • • • • Open warm up b/v for hot pump to keep it hot. 298 . Ensure that the pump is not rotating. Consult the Panel Operator for any variation in flow Open warm up b/v of hot pump to keep it warm up. Simultaneously close the discharge valve of running pump and keep a watch on the discharge pressure gauge/flow-meter. safety valves. Check the quality and level of lube oil. piston/plunger. hence an outlet must be available for the liquid displaced otherwise the system will get over-pressurized and leads to equipment damage. Open the discharge valve gradually. • • • Check the minimum flow circuit and discharge relief valve in line. gear-box coupling.
and rise in bearing temperatures of motors and pumps. vanes/gears/lobes. Check for unusual noise. Do not close suction/discharge valve unless it is to be handed over to maintenance. If pressure continues to increase beyond normal pressure. Immediately switch off originally running pump as soon as the pressure starts increasing. bearing housing. vibrations. 1. It consists of following parts: Motor.• • Watch the discharge pressure. The start-up. stop pump immediately and check the line-up.C ROTARY/GEAR PUMP In this pump rotary vanes/gears/lobes displace liquid from suction to discharge. pump casing. Change-Over Of The Pumps Start the stand-by pump as per standard procedure. Pump and motor bearing temperatures. This is also a positive displacement pump. • • • • Quality and level of lube oil. Note: Discharge valve of reciprocating pump should never be closed/throttled while the motor is running. Routine Checks Following checks should be carried out regularly. shut-down and change-over procedures are identical to those of reciprocating pump. Abnormal sound and vibrations Leakage 299 . coupling. (B) • • (C) • • Shut-Down Procedure Stop the motor. safety valve.
Start fan motor. Open discharge damper. Line up air duct/flue gas duct. Bypass FD/ID fan interlocks for furnaces. Ensure free rotation of shaft. suction vanes. bearing housing. Start-Up Procedure Close the discharge damper. impeller. as per requirement. Slowly open suction vanes of FD and ID fans and adjust air flow/furnace pressure respectively. Close suction vanes. Pre-Start-Up Checks • • • • • • • • • • • • • Check mechanical completion. Check the direction of rotation and any abnormality. coupling. ID/FD FANS FD fan supplies combustion air to the furnace and ID fan maintains the furnace pressure. Energize the motor. rotor. discharge dampers etc. Main parts of ID/FD fans are: Motor.• Pressure gauges 2. Close suction vanes and discharge dampers. Routine Checks 300 . Shut Down Procedure • • Switch off motor. Ensure free movement of suction vanes. Check the quality and level of lube oil in the bearing housing.
flow. vibrations or any other abnormal condition. 301 . Check lube oil quality and level.• • • Record pressure. current and bearing temperature. Check for abnormal sound.
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