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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Understand theories, hypotheses, and where research questions come from. Understand the fundamental research distinctions of qualitative vs. quantitative, basic vs. applied, and traditional vs. action research. Understand the elements and importance of a research proposal.

Think!
You want to imbue discipline to your child. Someone says spanking is effective. Will you apply it directly? If you wont, what will you do first? You want to know which is more effective to grow roses in your garden, fertilizer A or fertilizer B. What should you do to make sure?

Research Process
research process involves starting with a theory, generating hypotheses, testing the hypotheses, and interpreting your results. The research process is cyclical, not linear; the results of one study feed back into the system and inform future research.

Research Process

Theories, Research Questions, and Hypothesis


Theories are sets of organizing principles that help researchers describe and predict events. Some theories come from reading the existing literature in an area of interest, some others come from ones intuitions and observations. A research question is a clearly articulated statement about the topic of interest. Some research questions come from theory. Some come from observation and some others come from intuition. A research question rests in the middle between a theory, which is very broad, and a hypothesis, which is very precise.

Types of Research: Quantitative and Qualitative


Features Quantitative Research Qualitative Research
Multiple; it can only be studied holistically. The researcher and what is researched are interdependent. His role is to become part of what is being studied. The researcher does not intervene to contextualize and to interpret. arrived inductively. The researcher observes and formulates questions.

Assumptions about Single; can be broken down reality and parts studied. Role of researcher The researcher and object are separated (to look at reality objectively). His role is to observe and measure. The researcher controls the variables. Purpose of to generalize, to predict, and research to posit causal relationships Research questions arrived deductively. The researcher starts with a hypothesis.

Types of Research: Quantitative and Qualitative

Qualitative or Quantitative Research


For each of the settings listed below, describe in one or two sentences two interesting research topics that could be performed at that site. Select one research topic that could be studied using qualitative methods and one that could be studied using quantitative methods. Explain why a qualitative or quantitative study is appropriate for that problem. The sites are: 1. School playground 2. Hospital 3. Supermarket

RESEARCH PROPOSALS
A research proposal is the document that describes a planned research process. In general, a research proposal has three components: 1. Compelling reason why the study should be conducted 2. Specification of the methodology 3. Convincing argument for the reader that the outcomes of the study will be important
To see more information about a research proposal, visit http://parlindunganpardede.wordpress.com/2011/09/16/2-research-proposalguidelines/