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+V +M +V +M

-M -V -V -M

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Ax A B Bx

Ay

Pinned LEFT End: Reaction force, Ax is unknown. Reaction force, Ay is unknown. V (shear force) = Ay (reaction force) M = 0 (unless there is an applied moment at this point) Deflection, y = 0 Slope, θ is unknown

By

Pinned Right End: Reaction force, Bx is unknown. Reaction force, By is unknown. V (shear force) = -By (reaction force) M = 0 (unless there is an applied moment at this point) Deflection, y = 0 Slope, θ is unknown

Ax

A

B Bx

Ay By

Pinned LEFT End: Reaction force, Ax is unknown. Reaction force, Ay is unknown. V (shear force) = Ay (reaction force) M = 0 (unless there is an applied moment at this point) Deflection, y = 0 Slope, θ is unknown Roller Support at Right End: Reaction force, Bx =0. Reaction force, By is unknown. V (shear force) = -By (reaction force) M = 0 (unless there is an applied moment at this point) Deflection, y = 0 Slope, θ is unknown

MA Ax

A

B

Ay

Clamped End: Reaction force, Ax is unknown. Reaction force, Ay is unknown. Reaction moment, MA is unknown V (internal shear force) = Ay (reaction force) M (internal bending moment) = MA Deflection, y = 0 Slope, θ = 0 Free End: V (shear force) = 0 (unless there is an applied point force at this end) M = 0 (unless there is an applied moment at this point) Deflection, y is unknown Slope, θ is unknown

**Example: Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for the following beam:
**

20 kips A B 6 ft 8 ft C 10 ft 8 ft 12 kips D E

Ax Ay A B C Dy

1.5 kips/ft

20 kips

12 kips D

1.5 kips/ft

E

Step 1: Find the reaction forces at A and D. Draw F.B.D.: ∑ Fx = 0, Ax = 0 ∑ MA = 0, (20 kips)(6 ft) + (12 kips)(14 ft) + (1.5 kips/ft)(8 ft)(28ft) – (Dy)(24 ft) = 0 Dy = 26 kips ∑ Fy = 0, Ay + Dy – 20 kips – 12 kips – (1.5 kips/ft)(8 ft) = 0, Ay = 18 kips Construction of the shear force diagram

20 kips A B C 12 kips D E 1.5 kips/ft

6 ft 18 kips V 18 kips

8 ft

10 ft

8 ft 26 kips

12 kips x -2 kips -14 kips

V = Ay = 18 kips at point A. The shear force is constant until there is another load applied at B. The shear force decreases by 20 kips to –2 kips at B because of the applied 20 kip force in the negative y direction. The shear force is constant until there is another load applied at C. The shear force decreases by 12 kips to –14 kips at C because of the applied 12 kip force in the negative y direction. The shear force is constant until there is another load applied at D. The shear force increases by 26 kips to 12 kips at D because of the 26 kip reaction force in the positive y direction. The shear force decreases linearly from D to E because there is a constant applied load in the negative y-direction. The change in shear force from D to E is equal to the area under the load curve between D and E, -12 kips, [ADE = (-1.5 kips/ft)(8 ft) = -12 kips] j) The shear force at E = 0 as expected by inspection of the boundary conditions.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

Construction of the Bending Moment diagram

V 18 kips

6 ft

B

8 ft

C

10 ft

8 ft

E

12 kips x -2 kips -14 kips

M 108 kip-ft 92 kip-ft

x

-48 kip-ft

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

M = 0 at point A because it is a pinned end with no applied bending moment. MB = Ma + (the area under the shear force diagram between A and B.) MB = 0 + (18 kips)(6 ft) = 108 kip-ft MC = MB + (the area under the shear force diagram between B and C.) MC = 108 kip-ft - (2 kips)(8 ft) = 92 kip-ft MD = MC + (the area under the shear force diagram between C and D.) MD = 92 kip-ft - (14 kips)(10 ft) = -48 kip-ft ME = MD + (the area under the shear force diagram between D and E.) ME = -48 kip-ft + 1/2 (12 kips)(8 ft) = 0 kip-ft (as expected)

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