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# Session 1

Review of Basics

## Power Factor Improvement Concept

Reactive Power flow analogy Power Triangle analogy Resonance analogy

Voltage Current

+
V Pi

Active power
Reactive power

Capacitor
Reactive power

QC S(kVA) S(kVA)

1
P(kW)

Q(kVAr)

1 2

P(kW) -QC

## kVA=(kW)2 + (kVAr)2 PF = kW/kVA = Cos 1 Q = P .Tan 1 Uncompensated Load

QC = P (Tan 1 - Tan 2) Cos 1 = Initial Power Factor Cos 2 = Final Power Factor Partially compensated Load

Resonance Analogy-1
Definition:Resonance is defined as a condition where Capacitive Reactance becomes equal to Inductive Reactance in magnitude. The frequency at which this occurs is called the Resonance Frequency.
| XL| = |XC |

Inductor
=

Inductor
|Z| = 0

| XL|

|XC |

Zeq = Z1 + Z2

## |Z| = Zeq = Z1Z2 / (Z1+ Z2)

Series Resonance

Parallel Resonance

Resonance Analogy-2

If you make |XL| of Load = |XC| of Capacitor at Fundamental Frequency, then the PF will be Unity due to Parallel resonance b/w capacitor & load inductor.

Inductor

Inductor

Resistor

Resistor

Resistor

Induction Motor 0.8 P.F Arc Furnace 0.8 P.F

Floursent Lamp 0.5 P.F. Induction Furnace 0.8 P.F Welding Transformer 0.5 P.F.

Session 2
Benefits of Power factor improvement

## Methods of Improving Power Factor

Fixed Compensation

Variable Compensation

Selection of Capacitor
1. Individual Compensation 2. Group Compensation 3. Central Compensation

Central Compensation Providing compensation at the main incomer of the installation is called central compensation (pos. No. 1). This is suitable for installations where the loads are few and situated close to the main supply. (Refer Fig. 3.1) Supply Bus

## Central,Group and Individual Compensation

Providing compensation at main incomer bus central compensation. (pos. No 1) At power distribution boards group compensation (pos. No. 2). At individual load terminals individual compensation. (pos. No. 3) This is suitable for installations consisting of main receiving station, substations, several load feeders and a wide variety of loads. (refer fig 3.3)

## Supply Bus Transformer Circuit Breaker

No 1 No 2 No 3 M No 3 M No 2 No 3 M No 3 M

Fig. 3.3

Session 6
Selection of capacitors

## TYPES OF CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES

MPP - METALLISED POLYPROPYLENE MD - MIXED DIELECTRIC FF/ALL PP - FILM - FOIL OR ALL POLY PROPELENE MD -XL - MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS

## PRESSURE SENSITIVE DEVICE

SELF HEALING PRODUCES GASES, WHICH WILL INCREASE THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE CAN. THIS WILL CAUSE THE BELLOWS TO EXPAND. BEYOND A POINT POWER SUPPLY WILL BE CUT-OFF. THUS BURSTING OF CAPACITOR IS PREVENTED.

## MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS

MD-XL - MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS
DOUBLE SIDE METALLISED PAPER

PP FILM

## SIDED METALISED FILM ARE USED TO FORM CAPACITOR WINDING

Comparison of Technologies
MPP-S Rating MPP-H Long life Rating MD Long life Rating MD-XL Long life Rating FF Long life Rating

Optimum

10

10

10

Up to 10 %

Up to 15 %

Up to 25 %

10

Up to 25 %

10

Up to 25 %

10

Initial cost

Lowest

10

Medium

Highest

High

Highest

Operating cost

Lowest

10

Lowest

10

Highest

Lowest

10

high

Total

24

25

22

31

25

## Cylindrical verses stand-alone type

Cylindrical Type Stand-alone Type

Compact Size Better heat dissipation Discharge resistor in Minimal internal wires Suitable only for panels MPP-S,MPP-H,MDXL Not repairable

Bulky Inferior heat dissipation Two resistor configuration More Internal wires Robust construction Available in all types Elements can be replaced

## Competitive edge of MEHER

Comprehensive test facility in Meher works. Raw materials imported from premium source. Automatic element winding machine. Robot spraying machine. Only Indian capacitor company to transfer technology to Germany. Joint Venture in Capacitor manufacturing in Germany through MKS Technologies ISO revalidated by BVQI from 2004 to 2007. On the verge of getting UL certification for marketing internationally.

## Peak current measurement capability at Meher Works

Session 13
Harmonics & Effect of Adding Capacitors in the System

## What Are Harmonics ?

Distorted sine wave cause harmonics. Distorted current wave cause current harmonics. Distorted voltage wave cause voltage harmonics. Fourier expansion result in integral multiples of fundamental frequency components. Nth order harmonics is of n.Fs frequency. Generally odd harmonics are prevalent because of half wave symmetry.

## How Harmonics Are Generated ?

Non-linear loads generate current harmonics. Harmonic currents flow largely through capacitors. Harmonic currents also flows through network. The flow of harmonic currents cause voltage harmonics. Harmonics are thus injected to other linear loads connected in the same bus. Harmonics injected into the network flow towards other users connected to the network.

Equipment using switched mode power supply - Television - Computers, other IT loads Equipment using power electronic devices - AC & DC drives - Frequency converters - Rectifiers - Arc & induction furnaces - UPS - Compact fluorescent & other discharge lamps

Type of Harmonics
Characteristic harmonics
- Related to circuit configuration. - Fairly predictable frequency spectrum. - Frequency spectrum given by k*p+1 ; k = 1,2,3. - For ex. 5&7 for 6 pulse, 11 & 13 for 12 pulse. - Magnitude inversely proportional to order.

Non-characteristic harmonics
- Caused by frequency converters. - System imbalance (voltage & impedance)

Triplen harmonics
- 3.(2n+1) order n = 0,1,2 i.E 3,9,15,21.. Etc. - Zero sequence in nature. - Accumulates as neutral current.

## Harmonic Order & Phase Sequence

Each harmonic order has a particular phase sequence relationship with respect to fundamental. By convention the fundamental is assumed to have positive phase sequence. All higher order harmonics have either positive,negative or zero phase sequence with respect to fundamental.

## How to Determine the Phase Sequence of Each Harmonics ?

R

Phase Sequence of RYB (+ Seq.) For Fundamental Component R Fundamental +120o Second Harmonic +240o -120o Y 0o 0o 0o B -120o -240o +120o

Positive Sequence
Y

B B

Negative Sequence
Y

R

## How to determine the phase sequence of each harmonics ?

Fundamental Third Harmonic Fundamental
R

R Y +1200 00

B -1200

+3600 00

## 00 -3600 00 00 Third Harmonics

Zero Sequence
R Y B

Positive Sequence
Y

## Accumulation of 3rd harmonic current in the neutral

Three phase system

Time.
R - phase.

Time.
Y - phase.

Time.
B - phase.

## B-Phase current with its third harmonic component.

Time. Addition of third harmonics in Neutral conductor

Time.

Third harmonic currents of R,Y&B phases are in phase with each other and hence adds up, without cancellation in the neutral conductor.

## How to Determine the Phase Sequence of Harmonics ?

Harmonic order Phase Sequence

1 +

2 -

3 0

4 +

5 -

6 0

7 +

8 -

9 0

Positive Sequence Fundamental 4th Harmonic 7th Harmonic 10th Harmonic 3n+1 Div. by 3 Rem. 1

Negative Sequence 2nd Harmonic 5th Harmonic 8th Harmonic 11th Harmonic 3n+2 Div. by 3 Rem. 2

Zero Sequence 3rd Harmonic 6th Harmonic 9th Harmonic 12th Harmonic 3n+3 Divisible by 3

Characteristics of Harmonics
Positive Sequence
Causes over heating due to Skin effect Aids the fundamental Moderate heating Relatively less harmful

Negative Sequence
Causes over heating due to Skin effect Opposes the fundamental Excessive heating Most harmful

Zero Sequence
Causes over heating due to Skin effect Accumulates in the neutral Creates hot neutral Responsible for neutral to earth voltage and open neutral condition.

Skin effect
Cross-section of current carrying conductor

DC current flow

## High frequency AC current flow

The effective area of the conductor, available for current flow, reduces as the frequency of the AC current increases. Hence, the resistance of the conductor increases, at higher frequencies, as it is inversely proportional to its area of cross-section.

R =

L A

## Skin effect explanation

Magnified view of current carrying conductor
Enhanced impedance due to high mutual inductance. Hence least current flow. Moderate impedance due to medium mutual inductance. Hence moderate current flow. Least impedance due to low mutual inductance. Hence max. current flow.

Effect of Harmonics
Type of equipment Rotating machines Effect of harmonics Increased losses, over heating due to skin effect. Pulsating torque Over heating, increased power consumption Mal-operation, nuisance tripping Mal-operation, failure Erratic operation High currents & failure due to overload

Transformer, switch-gear, power cables Protective relays Power electronics Control & automation Power capacitors

Drive Fundamentals

## Circuit configuration of six pulse drive

Current spectrum of six pulse drive for star-star & star-delta configuration

## Network Without Capacitors

GRID

Harmonic currents flow towards Grid. Min. Import of Harmonics from Grid. No Resonance at harmonic frequencies.

BUS

## Network With Capacitors

GRID ZN ZT BUS

Harmonic currents flow towards Capacitors , due to parallel resonance with load ZL Import of Harmonics from Grid towards Capacitors , due to series resonance with network & transformer impedances ZN &ZT Increase of THD(V) in the Bus Harmonic overloading of Capacitors, leading to its failure Improvement in Power Factor With Harmonic overload

M

lh

XC

XL

Session 14
Harmonic Filters

## Network With Harmonic Filters

GRID ZN ZT BUS L

No resonance at harmonic frequencies as filter is inductive at such frequencies Harmonic currents flow towards Grid , as it offers least impedance compared to filter

M

Predominantly fundamental current flows through Capacitors Moderate THD(V) in the Bus No harmonic overloading of Capacitors Improvement in Power Factor without Harmonic overload

Harmonic Filter
Harmonic filter comprises of a reactor (L) in series with a capacitor (C) Such a filter has a unique self series resonance frequency fR at which inductive reactance of reactor equals capacitive reactance of capacitor. Fr = 1/(2LC) Below fR the filter is capacitive Above fR the filter is inductive

Capacitive
Impedance

Inductive

fR= Resonant

Frequency

## f < fR - Capacitive f > fR - Inductive

Harmonic filters are classified based upon how close fR is to a Harmonic frequency

fR

Frequency

## Classification of Harmonic Filters

Detuned or harmonic suppression filters
Resonance frequency fR< 90% of lowest dominant harmonic frequency.

## Tuned or harmonic absorption filters

Resonance frequency fR within 10% of the frequency of the harmonic to be absorbed.

Harmonic Filters

Detuned Filters

Tuned Filters

7%

14 %

## Standard Detuned Filters-1

Standard detuned filters have a fixed percentage tuning factor p Percentage tuning factor is defined as Reactor reactance at system frequency p = Capacitor reactance at system frequency X 100 % Standard detuned filters are available for 7% tuning factor The resonant frequency of the filter fR is related to tuning factor p by Fr = Fs/ (p/100) = 189 Hz for 7% filter

## Standard Detuned Filters-2

Standard 7% detuned filters are suitable for use in majority of installations where the dominant harmonics are higher than 189 Hz like 5th and higher. 7% detuned filters should not be used in installations where predominant 3rd harmonics are present like IT based industries. For IT based industries 14% detuned filters (fR=134 Hz) should be used.

## Note on Capacitor for Detuned Filter Application

It is seen that the voltage rating of the capacitor has to be higher than the system voltage. Hence normal capacitor of 415/440 volts rating should never be used in series with reactor. Any such attempt would be hazardous to the capacitor and the installation.

CY

CY

## Limitations of Passive filters

Sensitive to system frequency change. Sensitive to change in network parameters. Has location limitation when Drives exist in system. Mixing of filters having different tuning factor generally not possible due to risk of resonance. Not immune from harmonic overloading. Generally cannot handle wide harmonic spectrum. kVAr. output of filter variable only in steps.

Session 15
Active Compensation

## Active Compensation Benefits

Filtering upto the 50th HARMONIC including Inter-Harmonics Unsymmetrical Compensation of Reactive Power Real time response < 2 msec Independent of network characteristics, voltage & frequency behavior INFINITE CONTROL Compatibility with conventional compensation installations

## Active Compensation - BENEFITS

Total PF Control No risk of Resonance

Voltage Stabilty

Extremely Flexible

## Active filter schematic diagram

Load Current with Harm onics Sinusoidal Supply Current Supply System

## Compensating Current Active Filter

+
(Time Domain)

+
(Frequency Domain)

## Cost-Technology Pyramid of Harmonic Filters

Active filters Top end solution for wide spectrum of current harmonics & suitable for installations having sensitive equipment

Suitable for installations having high harmonic distortion (cement, sugar & steel plants, etc.)

Hybrid Filters

Tuned Filters

14% Detuned Filters Suitable for installations having 3rd harmonics and above (IT parks, corporate banks & establishments) 7% Detuned Filters Most common, Base end product suitable for majority of industries having 5th and above harmonics