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Session 1

Review of Basics

Power Factor Improvement Concept


Reactive Power flow analogy Power Triangle analogy Resonance analogy

Reactive Power Flow Analogy


Voltage Current

+
V Pi

Active power
Reactive power

Inductive Load

Inductive Load

Reactive Power Flow Analogy


Inductive Load Active power

Capacitor
Reactive power

Inductive Load

Power Triangle Analogy


QC S(kVA) S(kVA)

1
P(kW)

Q(kVAr)

1 2

P(kW) -QC

kVA=(kW)2 + (kVAr)2 PF = kW/kVA = Cos 1 Q = P .Tan 1 Uncompensated Load

QC = P (Tan 1 - Tan 2) Cos 1 = Initial Power Factor Cos 2 = Final Power Factor Partially compensated Load

Resonance Analogy-1
Definition:Resonance is defined as a condition where Capacitive Reactance becomes equal to Inductive Reactance in magnitude. The frequency at which this occurs is called the Resonance Frequency.
| XL| = |XC |

Inductor
=

Inductor
|Z| = 0

| XL|

|XC |

Zeq = Z1 + Z2

|Z| = Zeq = Z1Z2 / (Z1+ Z2)

Series Resonance

Parallel Resonance

Resonance Analogy-2
Uncompensated load
Inductive Load

Compensated Load
If you make |XL| of Load = |XC| of Capacitor at Fundamental Frequency, then the PF will be Unity due to Parallel resonance b/w capacitor & load inductor.
Inductive Load

Inductor

Inductor

Resistor

Resistor

Resistor

Inductive Loads
Induction Motor 0.8 P.F Arc Furnace 0.8 P.F

Floursent Lamp 0.5 P.F. Induction Furnace 0.8 P.F Welding Transformer 0.5 P.F.

Session 2
Benefits of Power factor improvement

Advantages of P.F Correction

Reduction in KVAR Demand

Reduction in Switchgear Rating

Reduction in KVA Demand

Reduction in Transformer Rating

Reduction in Cable / Bus-bar size

Reduction in Line Current

Reduction in Line loss

Session 5 Methods of improving power factor

Methods of Improving Power Factor


Fixed Compensation
For Steady Loads No load compensation of Motors No load compensation of Transformers

Variable Compensation
For Varying Loads

Selection of Capacitor
1. Individual Compensation 2. Group Compensation 3. Central Compensation

Central Compensation Providing compensation at the main incomer of the installation is called central compensation (pos. No. 1). This is suitable for installations where the loads are few and situated close to the main supply. (Refer Fig. 3.1) Supply Bus

Transformer Circuit Breaker No 1 M M M Fig. 3.1 M

Central,Group and Individual Compensation


Providing compensation at main incomer bus central compensation. (pos. No 1) At power distribution boards group compensation (pos. No. 2). At individual load terminals individual compensation. (pos. No. 3) This is suitable for installations consisting of main receiving station, substations, several load feeders and a wide variety of loads. (refer fig 3.3)

Supply Bus Transformer Circuit Breaker


No 1 No 2 No 3 M No 3 M No 2 No 3 M No 3 M

Fig. 3.3

Session 6
Selection of capacitors

TYPES OF CAPACITOR TECHNOLOGIES


MPP - METALLISED POLYPROPYLENE MD - MIXED DIELECTRIC FF/ALL PP - FILM - FOIL OR ALL POLY PROPELENE MD -XL - MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS

PRESSURE SENSITIVE DEVICE


SELF HEALING PRODUCES GASES, WHICH WILL INCREASE THE PRESSURE INSIDE THE CAN. THIS WILL CAUSE THE BELLOWS TO EXPAND. BEYOND A POINT POWER SUPPLY WILL BE CUT-OFF. THUS BURSTING OF CAPACITOR IS PREVENTED.

MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS


MD-XL - MIXED DIELECTRIC LOW LOSS
DOUBLE SIDE METALLISED PAPER

PP FILM AND DOUBLE


PP FILM

SIDED METALISED FILM ARE USED TO FORM CAPACITOR WINDING

Comparison of Technologies
MPP-S Rating MPP-H Long life Rating MD Long life Rating MD-XL Long life Rating FF Long life Rating

Life Non-linear loads Capability

Optimum

10

10

10

Up to 10 %

Up to 15 %

Up to 25 %

10

Up to 25 %

10

Up to 25 %

10

Initial cost

Lowest

10

Medium

Highest

High

Highest

Operating cost

Lowest

10

Lowest

10

Highest

Lowest

10

high

Total

24

25

22

31

25

Cylindrical verses stand-alone type


Cylindrical Type Stand-alone Type

Compact Size Better heat dissipation Discharge resistor in Minimal internal wires Suitable only for panels MPP-S,MPP-H,MDXL Not repairable

Bulky Inferior heat dissipation Two resistor configuration More Internal wires Robust construction Available in all types Elements can be replaced

Competitive edge of MEHER


Comprehensive test facility in Meher works. Raw materials imported from premium source. Automatic element winding machine. Robot spraying machine. Only Indian capacitor company to transfer technology to Germany. Joint Venture in Capacitor manufacturing in Germany through MKS Technologies ISO revalidated by BVQI from 2004 to 2007. On the verge of getting UL certification for marketing internationally.

Peak current measurement capability at Meher Works

Session 13
Harmonics & Effect of Adding Capacitors in the System

What Are Harmonics ?


Distorted sine wave cause harmonics. Distorted current wave cause current harmonics. Distorted voltage wave cause voltage harmonics. Fourier expansion result in integral multiples of fundamental frequency components. Nth order harmonics is of n.Fs frequency. Generally odd harmonics are prevalent because of half wave symmetry.

How Harmonics Are Generated ?


Non-linear loads generate current harmonics. Harmonic currents flow largely through capacitors. Harmonic currents also flows through network. The flow of harmonic currents cause voltage harmonics. Harmonics are thus injected to other linear loads connected in the same bus. Harmonics injected into the network flow towards other users connected to the network.

What Loads Generate Harmonics


Equipment using switched mode power supply - Television - Computers, other IT loads Equipment using power electronic devices - AC & DC drives - Frequency converters - Rectifiers - Arc & induction furnaces - UPS - Compact fluorescent & other discharge lamps

Type of Harmonics
Characteristic harmonics
- Related to circuit configuration. - Fairly predictable frequency spectrum. - Frequency spectrum given by k*p+1 ; k = 1,2,3. - For ex. 5&7 for 6 pulse, 11 & 13 for 12 pulse. - Magnitude inversely proportional to order.

Non-characteristic harmonics
- Caused by frequency converters. - System imbalance (voltage & impedance)

Triplen harmonics
- 3.(2n+1) order n = 0,1,2 i.E 3,9,15,21.. Etc. - Zero sequence in nature. - Accumulates as neutral current.

Harmonic Order & Phase Sequence


Each harmonic order has a particular phase sequence relationship with respect to fundamental. By convention the fundamental is assumed to have positive phase sequence. All higher order harmonics have either positive,negative or zero phase sequence with respect to fundamental.

How to Determine the Phase Sequence of Each Harmonics ?


R

Phase Sequence of RYB (+ Seq.) For Fundamental Component R Fundamental +120o Second Harmonic +240o -120o Y 0o 0o 0o B -120o -240o +120o

Positive Sequence
Y

B B

Negative Sequence
Y

Thus Second Harmonic Behaves As a Negative Sequence Component.


R

How to determine the phase sequence of each harmonics ?


Fundamental Third Harmonic Fundamental
R

R Y +1200 00

B -1200

+3600 00

00 -3600 00 00 Third Harmonics


Zero Sequence
R Y B

Positive Sequence
Y

Thus third harmonic behaves as a zero sequence component.

Accumulation of 3rd harmonic current in the neutral


Three phase system

Wave forms of balanced three phase fundamental currents.


Time.
R - phase.

R-Phase current with its third harmonic component.


Time.
Y - phase.

Y-Phase current with its third harmonic component.


Time.
B - phase.

B-Phase current with its third harmonic component.


Time. Addition of third harmonics in Neutral conductor

Time.

Third harmonic currents of R,Y&B phases are in phase with each other and hence adds up, without cancellation in the neutral conductor.

How to Determine the Phase Sequence of Harmonics ?


Harmonic order Phase Sequence

1 +

2 -

3 0

4 +

5 -

6 0

7 +

8 -

9 0

Positive Sequence Fundamental 4th Harmonic 7th Harmonic 10th Harmonic 3n+1 Div. by 3 Rem. 1

Negative Sequence 2nd Harmonic 5th Harmonic 8th Harmonic 11th Harmonic 3n+2 Div. by 3 Rem. 2

Zero Sequence 3rd Harmonic 6th Harmonic 9th Harmonic 12th Harmonic 3n+3 Divisible by 3

Characteristics of Harmonics
Positive Sequence
Causes over heating due to Skin effect Aids the fundamental Moderate heating Relatively less harmful

Negative Sequence
Causes over heating due to Skin effect Opposes the fundamental Excessive heating Most harmful

Zero Sequence
Causes over heating due to Skin effect Accumulates in the neutral Creates hot neutral Responsible for neutral to earth voltage and open neutral condition.

Skin effect
Cross-section of current carrying conductor

DC current flow

Low frequency AC current flow

High frequency AC current flow

The effective area of the conductor, available for current flow, reduces as the frequency of the AC current increases. Hence, the resistance of the conductor increases, at higher frequencies, as it is inversely proportional to its area of cross-section.

R =

L A

Skin effect explanation


Magnified view of current carrying conductor
Enhanced impedance due to high mutual inductance. Hence least current flow. Moderate impedance due to medium mutual inductance. Hence moderate current flow. Least impedance due to low mutual inductance. Hence max. current flow.

Effect of Harmonics
Type of equipment Rotating machines Effect of harmonics Increased losses, over heating due to skin effect. Pulsating torque Over heating, increased power consumption Mal-operation, nuisance tripping Mal-operation, failure Erratic operation High currents & failure due to overload

Transformer, switch-gear, power cables Protective relays Power electronics Control & automation Power capacitors

Drive Fundamentals

Circuit configuration of six pulse drive

Current spectrum of six pulse drive for star-star & star-delta configuration

Twelve pulse drive configuration

Current spectrum of twelve pulse drive

Network Without Capacitors


GRID

Harmonic currents flow towards Grid. Min. Import of Harmonics from Grid. No Resonance at harmonic frequencies.

BUS
Non Linear Load

Hence least Harmonic Problem. Power Factor Very Low.

Network With Capacitors


GRID ZN ZT BUS

Harmonic currents flow towards Capacitors , due to parallel resonance with load ZL Import of Harmonics from Grid towards Capacitors , due to series resonance with network & transformer impedances ZN &ZT Increase of THD(V) in the Bus Harmonic overloading of Capacitors, leading to its failure Improvement in Power Factor With Harmonic overload

M
Non Linear Load

Equivalent Load Impedance ZL

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN HARMONIC RICH ENVIRONMENT

lh

XC

XL

Session 14
Harmonic Filters

Network With Harmonic Filters


GRID ZN ZT BUS L

No resonance at harmonic frequencies as filter is inductive at such frequencies Harmonic currents flow towards Grid , as it offers least impedance compared to filter

M
Non Linear Load

Predominantly fundamental current flows through Capacitors Moderate THD(V) in the Bus No harmonic overloading of Capacitors Improvement in Power Factor without Harmonic overload

Equivalent Load Impedance ZL

Harmonic Filter
Harmonic filter comprises of a reactor (L) in series with a capacitor (C) Such a filter has a unique self series resonance frequency fR at which inductive reactance of reactor equals capacitive reactance of capacitor. Fr = 1/(2LC) Below fR the filter is capacitive Above fR the filter is inductive

Characteristics of Harmonic Filter


Capacitive
Impedance

Inductive

fR= Resonant

Frequency

f < fR - Capacitive f > fR - Inductive


Harmonic filters are classified based upon how close fR is to a Harmonic frequency

fR

Frequency

Classification of Harmonic Filters


Detuned or harmonic suppression filters
Resonance frequency fR< 90% of lowest dominant harmonic frequency.

Tuned or harmonic absorption filters


Resonance frequency fR within 10% of the frequency of the harmonic to be absorbed.

Classification of Harmonic Filters


Harmonic Filters

Passive Harmonic Filters

Active Harmonic Filters

Hybrid Harmonic Filters

Detuned Filters

Tuned Filters

3 3wire 3 4wire Single Phase

7%

14 %

Standard Detuned Filters-1


Standard detuned filters have a fixed percentage tuning factor p Percentage tuning factor is defined as Reactor reactance at system frequency p = Capacitor reactance at system frequency X 100 % Standard detuned filters are available for 7% tuning factor The resonant frequency of the filter fR is related to tuning factor p by Fr = Fs/ (p/100) = 189 Hz for 7% filter

Standard Detuned Filters-2


Standard 7% detuned filters are suitable for use in majority of installations where the dominant harmonics are higher than 189 Hz like 5th and higher. 7% detuned filters should not be used in installations where predominant 3rd harmonics are present like IT based industries. For IT based industries 14% detuned filters (fR=134 Hz) should be used.

Note on Capacitor for Detuned Filter Application


It is seen that the voltage rating of the capacitor has to be higher than the system voltage. Hence normal capacitor of 415/440 volts rating should never be used in series with reactor. Any such attempt would be hazardous to the capacitor and the installation.

Analysis of Detuned Filters

CY

CY

Actual connection of Detuned Filter

SLD Representation Star equivalent of Detuned Filter of Detuned Filter

Limitations of Passive filters


Sensitive to system frequency change. Sensitive to change in network parameters. Has location limitation when Drives exist in system. Mixing of filters having different tuning factor generally not possible due to risk of resonance. Not immune from harmonic overloading. Generally cannot handle wide harmonic spectrum. kVAr. output of filter variable only in steps.

Session 15
Active Compensation

Active Compensation Benefits


Filtering upto the 50th HARMONIC including Inter-Harmonics Unsymmetrical Compensation of Reactive Power Real time response < 2 msec Independent of network characteristics, voltage & frequency behavior INFINITE CONTROL Compatibility with conventional compensation installations

Active Compensation - BENEFITS


Total PF Control No risk of Resonance

Voltage Stabilty

Extremely Flexible

THD (V) Control

Plug & Play Solution

Active filter schematic diagram


Load Current with Harm onics Sinusoidal Supply Current Supply System

Compensating Current Active Filter

+
(Time Domain)

+
(Frequency Domain)

Waveform of current without Active filter

Waveform of current with Active filter

Current harmonics without active filter

Current harmonics with active filter

Cost-Technology Pyramid of Harmonic Filters


Active filters Top end solution for wide spectrum of current harmonics & suitable for installations having sensitive equipment

Suitable for installations having high harmonic distortion (cement, sugar & steel plants, etc.)

Hybrid Filters

Tuned Filters

14% Detuned Filters Suitable for installations having 3rd harmonics and above (IT parks, corporate banks & establishments) 7% Detuned Filters Most common, Base end product suitable for majority of industries having 5th and above harmonics