john m.

chivington and the sand creek massacre: infamous for his role in the 1864 sand creek massacre, where colorado territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of cheyenne and arapaho encamped on the eastern plains. geronimo: cheif of the chiricahua apache who defended native americans against the taking of their land in the united states for many years great sioux reserve: other of to reservations given to sioux in present day south dakota. however, many of the tribes rejected a sedentary farming way of life. hostility followed as violent indians troubled white settlers and pioneers. the army retaliated on any native american out of the reservation. sitting bull: leader of the sioux tribe that became a prominent indian leader during custer's last stand in 1876, while he made medicine for crazy horse and his army. him and others fled to canada. george armstrong custer: former civil war general who attacked 2,500 sioux warriors near the little big horn river in montana and killed them all. his army consisted of 264 men that were defeated after colums failed to arrive. chief joseph: nez perce indians cheif of idaho. people wanting gold trespassed on their beaver river. sought freedom for his people and moved towards canada, but was caught 30 miles from it. chief dull knife: defeated general george a. custer at the little bighorn. the united states army recognized their power and mobilized more troops, so he went with little wolf north. helen hunt jackson, a century of dishonor: writer using his book to call for change on te treatment of native americans. jackson sent his book to every congress member, although it was not recieved well for it's insulting cover. dawes severalty act, 1887: allowed for the surveying and division of reservations by the u.s. president wovoka, the ghost dance, and wounded knee: wovoka made predictions of peace with white settlers and clean lives. the ghost dance was a native american religious movement and the wounded knee was the last true conflict between the lakota sioux and the united states. pacific railroad act, 1862: construction of the first transcontinental railroad in the west had been authorized by this act. labor was performed by the poorer classes and immigrant e.g. chinese and irish immigrants, as well as mexican-americans and african- americans. homestead act, 1862: grant of 160 acres of free land for an upkeep and improvement of it for five years. attractive offer for immigrants from europe. timber culture, desert land, and timber and stone acts, 1870s: desert act made 640 acres of land $1.25 per acre if irrigated in three years by buyer. the timber and stone acts stated that 160 acres of land could be purchased from the federal government, if able to acquire it's timber or minerals. henry comstock and the comstock lode: nevada became a state as a result of comstock's discovery of its riches.the "fifty-niners" rushed to nevada in their own hopes of getting rich. joseph g. mccoy and the cattle frontier: the cattle frontier was a confinement of the plains indians on reservations, extension of the railroad to kansas, and the construction of new stockyards and railheads such as abilene made possible the open-range cattle industry.

the oklahoma land rush and the “sooners”: the land in oklahoma that was once promised to native americans was now desired by hungry landseekers. congress opened 2 million acres in the indian territory to white many as nine out of ten of these settlers had jumped the gun, earning themselves the name "sooners". frederick jackson turner’s “frontier thesis”: best known for his writing of "the significance of the frontier in american history." it stated that the american frontier should be urbanized and populated. ned buntline and william f. “buffalo bill” cody: writers in the 1860s and 1870s wrote of the hero frontiersman who fought indians and saved maidens. buntline made buffalo bill so popukar that he used a wild west tour to make money. john wesley powell, henry d. washburn, george perkins, john muir, and the birth of the conservation movement: powerful men that wished to preserve the west's beauty.the response was the creattion of the nation's first national parks(yellowstone and yosemite) and muir became president of the sierra club.

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