CHEMICAL CONTROL 6.

1 HISTORY OF INSECTICIDE USE
Introduction Some 10,000 species of the more than 1 million species of insects are phytophagous, and of these, approximately 700 species worldwide cause most of the insect damage to man’s crops, in the field and in storage. Humanoids have been on earth for more than 3 million years, while insects have existed for at least 250 million years. We can only guess, but the first materials likely used by our primitive ancestors to reduce insect annoyance were mud and dust spread over their skin to repel biting and tickling insects, a practice resembling the habits of elephants, swine, and water buffalo. Under these circumstances, mud and dust would be classed as repellents, a category of insecticides. Historians have traced the use of pesticides to the time of Homer around 1000 B.C., but the earliest records of insecticides pertain to the burning of "brimstone" (sulphur) as a fumigant. Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23-79) recorded most of the earlier insecticide uses in his Natural History. Included among these were the use of gall from a green lizard to protect apples from worms and rot. Later, we find a variety of materials used with questionable results: extracts of pepper and tobacco, soapy water, whitewash, vinegar, turpentine, fish oil, brine, lye and many others. At the beginning of World War II (1940), our insecticide selection was limited to several arsenicals, petroleum oils, nicotine, pyrethrum, rotenone, sulphur, hydrogen cyanide gas, and cryolite. And it was World War II that opened the Chemical Era with the introduction of a totally new concept of insect control chemicals--synthetic organic insecticides, the first of which was DDT.

6.2

TOXICOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL

1. Poisons: any agent capable of producing a deleterious response in a biological system, seriously injuring function or producing death. 2. All Substances are Poisons: there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy (Paracelsus 1493-1541). Fine line between a poison and medicine. 1

Any chemical substance may evoke one or both of two toxic effects. They are the acute toxic effect and the chronic toxic effect. 6.2.1 Acute Toxic Effect This is the one more readily comprehensible to the layman, and normally occurs shortly after contact with one single dose of poison. The magnitude of the effect depends on the innate toxicity of the substance and upon its method of application to a particular organism. 6.2.2 Chronic Toxic Effect This occurs when an organism is exposed to repeated small and non-lethal doses of potentially harmful substance. Well-known chronic responses to various instants include long cancer, brain damage and necrosis of the liver and kidneys. Table 1. Acute toxicity of insecticides and other substances.
COMPOUND Botulinus toxin A aldicarb (temic) disulfoton (Disyston) parathion strychnine Mercury nicotine dichlorvos propoxur DDT ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY LD50 (mg/kg) 0.0014 0.9 4.5 8.3 30 37 55 68 90 113 COMPOUND rotenone gasoline warfarin caffeine demethoate (Cygon) diazinon chlordane 300 382 500 820 1200 1375 3300 3500 4240 4500 none ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY LD50 (mg/kg) 132 150 186 200 215

chlordane carbaryl (Sevin) pyrethrin aspirin malathion table salt

table salt boric acid resmethrin ethyl alcohol Bacillus thruingiensis

2

FREQUENCE OF EXPOSURE
or e xc re t io n

Acute Dose

e

-n

o

m

et

ab

oli

sm

Ch r

on

ic

Chronic dose Accumulation of toxin

Do s

Residual injury

NOEL:

No Observable Effect Level

Figure 1. Diagrammatic view of dose and corresponding measure of effect. Acute dose is compared to the cumulative dose after multiple administration of a chemical that has limited elimination and

thus accumulates, and one that produces injury, which accumulates with multiple dosing (Klassen et al. 1986). 6.2.3 Measure of Toxicity A frequently used measure of acute toxicity is the 50% lethal dose or LD50. It is the amount of poison, which kills half the organisms in a randomly chosen batch of a named species when applied in a particular way under stated experimental conditions. It is usually expressed in terms of milligram poison per kilogram body weight of the experimental organism. This LC50 is a somewhat similar concept to the LD50. It is the concentration, usually in the air or water surrounding experimental animals, which causes 50 percent mortality. To determine the LD50 of a substance, batches of animals are exposed to a range of doses and the percentage of organisms dying in each batch is recorded. The results can usually be represented by the (idealized) sigmoid curve shown in Figure 6.2.3. It should be noted that compounds with smaller LD50 s are more toxic than the compounds with large LD50 s, and that mg/kg or (µ g/g) is equivalent to expressing a toxic dose as parts per million body weight. 100

Percentage kill
50 0 Log LD50 (=m) Increasing log concentration 3

persistency in the soil and toxicity. pesticides may be defined as “ any substance used for controlling. spectrum of pests to be controlled. anti-feedants etc... one should refer to the product label for details on each separate pesticide.3. herbicides and microbial agents given below are classified by chemical nature. this shows the principal involved for these well-known compounds. However. which stresses the relationship in chemical structure. commonly associated with the adverse effects of pesticides and frequently used as synonym for pesticide. In legal terminology. or mitigating any pest”. ticks and spiders fungicide…………………… . fungi Insecticide……………………. 6. but is increasingly being used in writings on environmental issues to describe substances that kill living organisms.Fig. nematodes Weedicide………………………Weeds The newly generated term ‘biocide’ is a non descript word. 6.1 CLASSIFICATION OF PESITICIDES ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF PESTS THEY CONTROL (term bearing the suffix-cide) Acaricide…………………….2. even chemicals that do not actually kill pests may. The term usually refers to one or more materials developed and used to destroy a broad range of specific pests. Included under the term are compounds used as repellents. repelling. Also shown are various ways of classifying these main groups of pesticides by their mode of action. attractants. fungicides. It has no exact scientific meaning.3 The relationship between Increasing log concentration and Percentage kill 6.2 CLASSIFICATION BY EFFECT ON PESTS 4 . Some information is provided too on the type of activity. ticks and spiders Nematicide……………………. destroying. preventing.. mites. insects & sometimes related pest such as ticks & mites Miticide………………………. mites.3.3 Classification of Pesticides By definition.6. for practical and legal reasons. be considered as pesticides. The insecticides. a pesticide is a pest-killing agent (the Latin word cida means to cut or kill). A great many pesticides are available today for the control of unwanted organisms. Hence.

an insecticide may act upon one or more of the life processes. destroys a pest’s ability to reproduce Defoliant………………………. Semiochemicals…………………. growth. Synergist…………………………..1 BY MODE OF ACTION Insecticides may also be classified according to the various ways they enter or affect pests.. reduce transpiration Attractant………………………. 1. Anti-transpirant…………………. 3. pheromones.destroys or inactivates harmful organisms Feeding stimulant………………. sex attractants.. allomones and kairomones. inhibits feeding while insects remain on the treated plants.. causes insects to feed more vigorously Growth regulator…………………. which stimulate or inhibit certain behavioural activities of insects.. The following are some examples of their method of classification. Contact toxicants generally penetrate a pest’s body as a result of contact with the legs or other external portions and treated surfaces such sprayed leaves. illness or a change in the behaviour. stops. metabolism or reproductive capabilities of the pest.. speeds up or retard growth processes of plants or insects. Once on or inside a pest organism. substances emitted by plants or animals. 5 . 6.. The result may be death. Repellent…………………………. 2..4 CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTICIDES 6.. lures pests to treated location. eg. removes unwanted plant growth without immediately killing the whole plant Desiccant……………………….4. Fumigants are volatile and enter a pest’s body through the respiratory system and kill at lethal concentration. the insects eventually starve to death. Stomach toxicants generally enter a pest’s body through the mouth during feeding (ingestion) and are absorbed through the digestive tract. dries up plant parts and insects Disinfectant…………………… . drives pests away from treated object without killing them. Chemosterilant…………………. enhances the effectiveness of an active agent.(term not being bearing the suffix-cide) Anti-feedant…………………….

Systemic toxicants are characterized by high water solubility. 6.4. Consequently. by which property they can readily be taken into the plant through its roots. those containing arsenic.4. usually oils. Once inside the plant.1 Inorganic compounds Inorganic compounds are derived from naturally occurring elements and do not contain carbon. the use of almost all inorganic chemicals has been discontinued in favour of lees hazardous synthetic organic ones. boring and mining insects and nematodes and are also used to control pests of livestock. clog the respiratory mechanism of pests. cyanide. Examples of inorganic chemicals are: boric acid copper hydroxide copper oxychloride copper sulphate sodium arsenite sodium chlorate sodium fluoride sodium fluoroacetate mericuric oxide mercurous fluoaluminate (cryolite) thallium sulphate The elements copper and sulphur formulated as dusts or sprays are still widely used as fungicides (see below).4.2. Both boric acid and silica gels are used in baits for controlling household insects such as cockroaches and ants. Systemic insecticides are particularly effective against sucking. stems or leaves. Many of them are persistent. Boric acid and silica gels affect the waxes of an insect’s cuticle. Suffocating materials. which becomes permeable to water from the insect’s body. the insect dies from dehydration. They are stable. mercury and thallium are cumulative poisons. systemic insecticides move through the plant’s vascular to other untreated parts from were insects acquire the translocated insecticide during feeding. non-volatile chemicals frequently soluble in water. isomerism. 5. natural or synthesized compounds. 6. 6 . Because of their residual persistence and high mammalian toxicity. Cryolite is regaining a place as a selective insecticide in integrated pest control.2 Classification by chemical nature Most common insecticides can be classified into main chemical groups consisting of inorganic or organic.

an intense mammalian poison extracted from Strychnos spp. Urginea (Scilla) maritime. its use is discouraged.4.3 Botanicals Botanicals. it can be employed in fish farming to clean unwanted fish from ponds prior to restocking. oxygen. anti-feedant and growth inhibiting effect on many insects belonging to six taxonomic orders.4. The main groups are described hereafter.2.6. Nicotine is an alkaloid extracted from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) that has long been used as an insecticide. sulphur. in South-east Asia and Lonchocarpus spp. eg. 7 . Pyrethrum is extracted from chrysanthemum flowers. admixed at 3-5 ppm concentration. These may be produced in the form of powder made from finely ground plant parts or extracts. Pyrethrum is very safe to man and mammals. It has a high mammalian toxicity with symptoms resembling these evolved by strychnine. are toxicants that have been derived from plant materials. also known as “natural insecticides”. hydrogen and one or more other elements such as chlorine. Because of its toxicity to fish and its relatively short residual effect. pyrethrum is used in animal husbandry. piperonyl butoxide. Insecticidal activity is markedly increased by the addition of synergists. seeds. Neem extracts obtained from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) have an insecticidal. Neem seed oil.4. but since it is also a strong neuromuscular poison in man and animals. repellent. Its use should be discouraged. It too is a superseded compound. It has long been used as an insecticide and is still used as a pesticide. in stored food protection and in households.2. Rotenone is extracted from the roots of bean legumes.cinerariaefolium).3) 6. it controls most species of rats and mice. Watery extracts from neem leaves and fruit can be sprayed at weekly intervals against leaf-feeding caterpillars on vegetables. which are used in sprays. Mixed with bait. Sabadilla is an alkaloid extracted from seeds of Schoenocaulon officinale (Liliaceae). Ryania is obtained from the stem of Ryania speciosa. phosphorus and nitrogen. in South America. (The details of these compounds are discussed in section 6. Scilliroside is a very toxic glucoside with stomach action. protects stored beans against bruchid bean beetles for a period of up to six months. Neem is nonhazardous to man and other mammals. and there are no harmful side-effects on natural enemies. Pyrethrum is a powerful degradable contact insecticide causing a rapid knockdown action. but insects may recover. which is extracted from ground bulbs of the red squill. (C.2 Organic compounds Organic compounds are man-made or extracted pesticides consisting of carbon. i.e Derris spp. a shrub from South America. As dusts or sprays.

the neurons fire impulses spontaneously. Because of its low cost. They are synthetic organic insecticides that contain carbon. mosquitoes. causing the muscles to twitch. among which are DDT and BHC. 1. Also.2 Organochlorine Compounds Organochlorine compounds are axonic poisons. The other five compounds are very effective miticides. both these of were synthesized more than hundred years ago. Axonic chemicals affect the peripheral and central nervous system in such a way as to prevent normal transmission of nerve impulses in mammals and insects. 2. chlorine. named “chlorinated hydrocarbons” or “chlorinated 3. The axon of a nerve cell is a long extension of the cell body and it is vital in the transmission of electrical nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. it compounds may be distinguished: 6. DDT become famous for its efficacy against flies. because it accumulates in the tissues of animals and plants. the repeated discharge results in muscle spasms and paralysis and finally death.2 Benzene derivatives benezene hexachloride (BHC.3.4. it was only around 1940 that their insecticidal properties were recognized. 6. HCH) lindane (Gemma BHC) pentachlorophenol 8 . it has a long residual life or persistence in the soil in aquatic environments. hydrogen and sometimes oxygen. Eventually. it is banned for agricultural use. its use continues in health programmes for mosquito control. However. They comprise a notorious group of insecticides. However. and do not have the long persistency of DDT.1 Diphenyl aliphatics Chlorobenside DDT chlorofenethol dicofol Although DDT has a high oral LD 50 value than the organo phosphates.4. They may be insecticides”. 4. body lice and bubonic plague.6. DDT was also used on a large scale in agriculture and horticulture. This event gave birth to era of synthetic organic pesticide manufacture.4.3.

affects the taste of rot crops and vegetables. only endosulfan is still registered for use on field crops.-hexachlorocyclohexane 6.7. of which only the Gamma isomer was found to have insecticidal properties.5. containing only 12% Gamma-isomer. cyclodienes are persistent soil insecticides.3. Used of cyclodienes is progressively being cancelled or banned (aldrin and dieldrin) for reasons of resistance in insects. HCH (BHC) cl cl cl cl cl cl 1.5a. normal mixture BHC.9-methano-2. lindane was previously widely used in the control of storage pests.9. Because the Gamma-isomer is odorless.9a-hexahydro-6. but too expensive for large-scale crop use.3. Hence.BHC is a chlorinated benzene consisting of a mixture if five isomeres.9.4. mainly used against coleopterous insects and termites. In Western countries. 9 .3 benzodioxathiepin 3-oxide. A product containing 99% Gammaisomer.2.10. the other four being insecticidally inactive ingredients. they also are generally photostable.8.5. fish toxicity and serious environmental hazard. is highly effective. The four inert isomers have a musty flavour that persist in animal and plant tissues as well as in the soil. namely lindane.4.6.4.10-hexachloro-1.3 Cyclodienes endrin heptachlor endosulfan Generally. Cl Cl O ENDOSULFAN O S O Cl2 Cl Cl 6.

4. Phosphorus esters have distinctive combinations of oxygen. 1. 6.6. it was widely used in mixtures initially with DDT and later with methyl parathion. 6. acting through inhibition of cholinesterase enzyme. nitrogen or sulphur and the ring may consist of three.4. 3. 10 . The names of the phosphor molecules above are part of much more complicated chemical names for the compounds that contain these building blocks (moieties) There are three chemical classes of organophorous insecticides.4.2 Phenyl derivatives containing a benzene ring with ne hydrogen atom in the ring being repleaced by the phosphorous moiety. Toxaphene had the greatest use of any single insecticide in agriculture. but is toxic to fish. however. But is often a problem when longer protection is desired. five or six atoms.1 Aliphatic derivatives having a carbon chain structure.4.4. one or more carbon atoms are displaced by oxygen . Repeated applications may then be necessary. Organophosphates are generally acutely toxic to man and vertebrate animals 2. Although Toxaphene is persistent in the soil.3 Heterocyclic derivatives also containing a ring structure and the phosphorus group in a heterocyclic carbon ring.4 Polychloroterpenses Camphechlor (Toxaphene) For 25 years until 1980. which is desirable in keeping down residues on food crops 4. it evaporates from plant surfaces within weeks.4. Organophosphates are nervepoisons. Most of them have a short residual activity. their toxic action is explained in. In cotton cultivation.3. 6. 6. They are non-persistent. It has low mammlian toxicity.4. sulphur and nitrogen attached to the phosphorus atom. carbon. They are.4.4 Organophosphate Insecticides Phosphates (OPs) or Phsphorus esters of phosphoric acid. They comprise a large group of compounds that have two characteristics.

it is widely used for the control of mosquitoes. it has been used for almost 40 years on a large scale for agriculture. Parathion-ethyl was introduced in 1947. flies and ecto-parasites of domestic animals.6. Because of its dangerously high toxicity. As is the case malathion. MALATHION O S (CH3O)2 P S CH2 CH C C OC2H5 OC2H5 O 0. Examples are listed hereunder (i) methamidophos (ii) mevinphos (iii) monocrotophos (This insecticide is now banned in many countries including SriLanka) (iv) malathion 6.1 Aliphatic organophosphates The oldest and best known insecticide of this class is malathion. Naled is another safe OP-compound having a very short residual action and a fumigant quality. it is still very useful.0-dimethyl-S-1.4. with widespread use. Little resistance against malathion has developed among insect species and thus. demeton and dimethoate.3.2 di (carboethoxy) ethy phosphorodithioate. Some aliphatic OP-insecticides-although being highly toxic-have such very short residual activity that they are preferred for use on vegetables.4. These compounds are particularly effective against sucking insects. it came to be known as parathion. Because of its high efficacy against many insect pests and its low mammalian toxicity.2 Phenyl Organophosphates These compounds are generally more stable than aliphatic ones and more persistent. have a systemic action. Several older members of this class. public health and the control of storage and household pests. such S (CH3O)2 P O 11 METHYL PARATHION NO2 . it has largely be replaced by the slightly less and broad acting parathion-methyl.4. Several aliphatic OPs. such as monocrotophos.

Examples in this group are: (i) parathion (iv) fenitrothion (ii) parathion-methyl (v) fenthion (iii) chlorfenvinphos 6. its acaricidal or miticidal effect is enormously enhanced.3 Heterocyclic organophosphates Heterocyclic compounds have complicated molecular structure and are generally longer lasting than most of the aliphatic and phenyl derivatives. Examples of this group are: (i) ovex (ii) propargite (iii) tetradifon 12 . Sulphur alone has a good efficacy against mites but. in combination with the two phenyl rings. horticulture and public health programmes. some are very effective against mites and soil insects.4.0-dimethyl 0-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate as fenitrothion and tetrachlorvinphos. thus. Upon degradation they may break down into many metabolities which may be difficult to analyse.0.4. they are very selective miticides and useful in integrated pest management. are widely used in agriculture. Organosuphurs combine this high toxicity to mites with a remarkably low toxicity to insects.0-dimethylphosporothioate Organo-sulphur compounds contain a dominant sulphur atom and commonly two phenyl rings. Examples of this group are: (i) chlorpyrifos (ii) chlorpyrifos-methyl (v) quinalphos (vi) pirimiphos-methyl (iii) phosmet (iv)diazinon PIRIMIPHOS-METHYL CH3 N N(CH2CH3)2 O P S (OCH3)2 0-[2 (diethylamino)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl] 0.

4. CH3 6. Carbamates are esters of carbamic acid 2. household and storage pests because of their rapid knockdown effect and long residual efficacy in wall surfaces.) Among the carmamates. (The groups of thiocarbamates and dithiocarbamates are considered under herbicides and fungicides. 3. respectively.4. They generally have a short residual activity and a very broad-spectrum effectivity as insecticides.6. Inhibit the cholinesterase enzyme required for nerve function in animals. nematicidies and molluscicides. Methyl carbamates with Phenyl ring structure (i) aminocarb (ii) BPMC (iii) carbaryl (v) isoprocarb (MICP) (vi)propoxur (iv) promecarb H CARBAMIC ACID Carbaryl has become very popular in horticulture because of its low toxicity and broad spectrum efficacy. 4. bendiocarb and dioxacarb are used to control mosquitoes.5 Carbamates These compounds resemble closely the organophosphates in biological activity and. they CARBARYL O O C N H CH3 1-napthyhl N-methylcarbamate O OH C N H 1.4.5. The carbamate group also includes herbicides such as diallate and propham.5. three classes of compounds may be distinguished: 6. The carbamates propoxur. like them.1 Carbofuran CH3 O O C O NH 13 CH3 . miticides.

5. a mixture if six esters named cinerin I and II.3-dihydro-2.5. jasmolin I and II and pyrethrin I and 14 . the chemical structure of which is patterned after pyrethrins (extracted from the chrysanthemum flower). it has a long residual activity of up to 14 days.3 Methyl carbamates of oximes having a chain structure (i) aldicarb (ii) oxamyl (iii) methomyl ALDICARB CH3 CH3 S CCH CH3 N O CH3 O C NH (iv) thiodicarb 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde 0-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime Thiodicarb is relatively new compound with a double carbamate molecule linked with a sulphur atom.6 PYRETHROIDS Pyrethroids are synthetic compounds.3.4.2.3.2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate 6. 6.2 Methyl heterocyclic carmbamates and structure dimethyl carbamates with (i) bendiocarb (ii) dioxacarb (v) dimetilan (iii) carbofuran (iv) pirimicarb 6.

Compared with the botanical pyrethrum. they may be used for agricultural purposes. Their efficacy is so good that a dose of only 10-40 g active ingredient per hectare is required. pyrethroids show low mammalian toxicity. Examples are: (i) bifenthin (ii) fenpropathrin (iii) cyfluthrin (iv) fluvalinate (v) cypermethrin (vi) tralomethrin FENPROPATHRIN (CH3)2 O C O C CH N O (CH3)2 ∝-cyno-3-phenoxybezyl 2. They are anoxic nerve poisons.2. but some of them have good volatility and are very effective against indoor insect pests.3. The mode of action of pyrethroids resembles organochlorines. they are not suited to agricultural use. Examples are: (i) allethrin resmethrin (v) bioresmethrin (ii) Phenothrin (iii) bioallethrin (vi) tetramethrin (iv) From the early 1970s. which contains all six ester properties. no resistance has yet been observed as it becomes very difficult for insects to develop the requisite combination of alternative pathways to these six properties. The synthetic pyrethroids mimic the broad efficacy of the botanical. Their residues in crops do not cause problems. insect species tend to develop resistance to them. because their molecules split under ultra-violet light. Therefore.3-tetramethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate 15 . For household use they are formulated as aerosols together with piperonyl butoxide for synergistic action. Pyrethrum and the older the synthetic pyrethroids are very sensitive to sunlight. but. Examples are: deltamethrin permethrin fenvalerate The latest groups of synthetic pyrethroids are photo-stable as well as extremely toxic insects. These new pyrethroids are not mixed with synergists. as they contain only one of these esters.II. pyrethroids have been produced which have better photo-stability with low volatility. but like pyrethrum. therefore. Generally. they are highly toxic to fish and bees..

it is recognized that insects possess unique biochemical and physiological mechanisms essential to growth and reproduction such that disruption of these processes should result in toxicity to insect pests while minimizing adverse effects to man and the environment. Diflubenzuron 16 . More recent modifications have resulted in compounds with considerably more toxicity than DFB. The importance of this discovery was that these compounds act differently from neurotoxins since mortality was connected with the process of moulting and the adult stages of insects were unaffected by the compound. While these newly developed compounds were ineffective as herbicides.7.2 Types of Insect Growth Regulators 1.7 INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS 6. and widespread resistance to most of the neurotoxins on the market.1 Introduction: With the growing concern over insecticide residues in food and water. 6. Acylureas (Benzophenylureas). but are likely to become an increasingly more important component of the synthetic insecticide industry. they proved to be potent insecticides. As part of this strategy. there has been a concerted effort on the part of the agrochemical industry to develop new insecticides with unique mode of action and selectivity toward insects. The following list of compounds represents the major advancements in development of these "biorational" insecticides. Further work on the chemistry of these compounds led to the development of diflubenzuron (DFB) commonly referred to as dimilin. These compounds comprise a minor share of the insecticide market compared to the conventional neurotoxic insecticides.7.6. The discovery of this class of insecticides was a result of efforts to develop new herbicides.

Failure to feed. maulting appears normal. It is of interest that chitin synthetase systems in fungi are not sensitive to BPU's. 2.Figure 1. Chitin formation is dependent upon the formation of a high energy intermediate UDP-acetylglucosamine complex which is formed at the expense of UTP. Severity of ecdysis disruption is related to dosage and nature of the BPU. Chitin is a polysaccharide made up of N-acetyl-Dglucosamine and glucosamine units linked through b-1. e. benzophenyl ureas affect larval stages of pest insects that are actively synthesizing chitin. Initial research into the mode of action of benzophenyl ureas indicate that they act to inhibit chitin biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects of BPU's reflects this primary mode of action. is responsible for the transfer of an N-acetylglucosamine unit from this complex to a pre-existing poly(N-acetylglucosamine) primer. Studies on the mode of action of diflubenzuron revealed that the compound alters cuticle composition . It has been clearly established that benzophenylureas (BPU) act to inhibit chitin formation.thereby affecting the elasticity and firmness of the endocuticle. Others have suggested that BPU's prevent activation of a precursor of chitin synthetase from a precursor molecule. but the precise molecular site of this inhibition remains uncertain. Apolysis is completed normally. The effects may be categorized as follows: 1.4-glucosidic bonds. The 17 . One possible explanation is that they act as inhibitors of chitin synthetase. the effects on adults of non-target species. The enzyme chitin synthetase. After exposure to BPU's. this appears to imply that the primary target of these substances is some reaction or control mechanism of particular relevance to insects. Therefore. however.especially that of chitin . With a number of insects exposed to BPU's. 2. Disruption of ecdysis. Another suggestion is that activated metabolites or formed within the body but thus far none have been identified. although in vitro inhibition of the enzyme has not been demonstrated. predators and pollinators are minimized. The reduced level of chitin in the cuticle seems to result from inhibition of biochemical processes leading to chitin formation. The biochemical effects of benzophenylureas on chitin synthesis directly affect the insect's maulting physiology. 3.g. parasites. Chemical structures of various benzophenyl urea analogues with insecticidal activity. but the mandibles and labrum may be displaced such that the insect is not able to feed In addition to selectivity resulting from a mode of action that is specific to insects. symptoms are generally not observed until the maulting process is initiated. ecdysis is disrupted.

In addition.7. OP's and carbamates and the "first generation" inorganic pesticides. small changes in the endocrine balance can be greatly amplified resulting in a reduced ability to compete in the environment or death.3 Endocrine Based Insecticides The many functions of the insect endocrine system are governed by a variety of hormones that can be divided into three chemical and functional classes of compounds: the neuropeptide and neuroprotein hormones. He referred to these compounds as "third-generation pesticides' to follow the "secondgeneration" chlorinated hydrocarbons. The use of the natural juvenile hormone as a selective insecticide is not feasible because of its environmental instability and difficulties of synthesis. 1. Thus. Given the broad range of responsibilities of the insect endocrine system. and juvenile hormones. Identification of Juvenile Hormone in insects and its physiological effects by Carroll Williams in 1967 led him to propose that JH type compounds could be developed as insect-specific control agents. 6.compounds are effective mainly by ingestion. A number of compounds have been developed that exploit the sensitivity of the endocrine system. neuromodulator.7. because of the novel target site. Phenoxyphenoxy carbamate Figure 2. but in some species. depending on the system. these compounds are less likely to be affected by resistance mechanisms common to more traditional insecticides. the insect endocrine system is an excellent target for insecticides. suppression of fecundity and ovicidal activity have been demonstrated.1 Juvenile Hormone Analogues. The major breakthrough came when in was observed that 18 . 6. ecdysteroids. although numerous other sites of attack have been proposed and a basic understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes are essential to the further development of these compounds.3. or neurohormone. A fourth class may also exist in the form of biogenic amines which function as neurotransmitter. Some of the major juvenile hormone analoguesues of commercial importance.

their effectiveness is limited to pests that cause damage to adults such as flies and mosquitoes. 19 . such as aphids and scales.synthesized aromatic terpenoid ethers were several hundred-fold more active than the natural hormone.3. The lipophilic nature of JH allows use of structural analogues as pesticides since it can penetrate the insect cuticle. and can act either as JH agonist or antagonists or a mixture of both. The physiological effect of JH analoguess are seen mainly during the larval-pupal transformation. and vary from one analogues to another. The action of these compounds produces various degrees of incomplete metamorphosis or production of supernumerary instars (i. 2. Since JH is a hormone. 2. excretion and feedback control are all important biochemical mechanisms with which an analogues might interfere. or for insects that take many genrations to build up damaging populations. and may or may not be similar in structure. and in the adult. which in turn prevents the secretion of ecdysone. 6. If the action of Juvenile hormone can be negated in the early stages then the larva can be forced to molt into a miniature pupa or adult which will be sterile. Many of the analogues escape the normal degradation route of the natural hormone and exert an agonistic function as well as stimulate production of JH esterases such that degradation of the natural hormone is enhanced. it induces vitellogenin synthesis during ovarian development. The presence of JH must be precisely timed in order for to exert juvenilizing activity at the appropriate stage in development. During the larval stage it suppresses metamorphic change during molting.7. degradation. extra instars in insects that should have molted to pupae or adults). Removal and degradation of JH is accomplished by specific esterases. 2.e. Inhibition of JH esterases by the analogues would also disrupt the regulatory mechanisms responsible for JH removal. and efficacy that endocrine-based insecticides will possess. transport. selectivity. the regulation of secretion.2 Anti-juvenile Hormones: The high titer of juvenile hormone in the early larval stages is necessary for retaining the larval morphology. JH analogues may also interfere with activities of other hormones. Juvenile hormone analoguess functionally resemble JH. Methoprene has been shown to inhibit the release of prothoracicotropic hormone. The effects of juvenile hormone analogues are complex. Although the JH mimics clearly demonstrate the relative safety. The natural hormone has two distinct effects: one during the larval stage and the other in the adult.

have limited the marketability of these compounds. Figure 3. The mechanism of precocene is unique since it is a selective cytotoxin for the active corpus allatum. 20 .7. The epoxidase enzyme necessary for the synthesis of juvenile hormone is also responsible for the metabolism of precocene in the corpus allatum. Because these compounds induced precocious development they were named precocenes. In addition to inducing precocious development in young nymphs.3 Formamidines 1. Unfortunately. 6. precocene is generally active only on some heteroptera and some grasshoppers only at extremely high doses. This enzyme reacts with precocene and forms a transient but reactive epoxide which alkylates the proteins in the corpus allatum causing cellular death.3. Precocenes: These compounds are plant derived from the bedding plant (Ageratum houstonianum) and observed to have anti JH activity. Precocene Structure and metabolism of the anti-juvenile hormone. induce atrophy of corpora allata.1. These compounds are characterized by their ability to evoke a variety of behavioral and other effects in a limited range of insects and more importantly. Precocene treatment results in progressive degeneration of the corpus allatum. The lack of activity against most holometabola. and the high dosage required for its effect on others. precocene has been shown to prevent ovarian development. certain mites and ticks. and inhibit in vitro biosynthesis of juvenile hormone by corpora allata. The two commonest members of this group are chlordimeform and amitraz.

These products are complex molecules that are not readily synthesized and can only be produced in large scale fermentation facilities. The broken lines indicate common loci for metabolism 2. These compounds are included with the endocrine-based insecticides since their mode of action involves activity at receptors of the biogenic amines. Some author's report that these compounds occupy the octapamine receptor in a way that leads to an agonistic response (i. Octopamine has received the most attention as a neuromodulator in insects and it is believed to function similarly to adrenaline in vertebrates (i. 4. Biogenic amines in insects are though to act as neuromodulators that are released by neurons and modulate the reaction of another transmitter with its receptor. 3. The structures of two formamidines. They have been described as having a repellent action.8. not to a blocking of octopamine activity. Others propose that formamidines interact with octopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase. 21 . 6. Organisms can suffer an increase excitability leading to ineffectual probing of the food source. but to sustained and abnormal octopamine-like stimulation).1 Fermentation Products This group of active ingredients represents a relatively new group of insecticides that are derived from fermentation products of naturally occuring bacteria.e. produces characteristic "fight or flight" symptoms). The effects of formamidines are diverse.Figure 4. the enzyme that catalses the production of cyclic AMP and functions as an intracellular messenger. yet an affected organism will not feed even if provided with insecticide-free food. Disruption of behavioral patterns essential to mating and reproduction are also common.8 NOVEL PRODUCTS OF INSECTICIDES 6. attempts to fly or aimless walking. the occupation leads. specifically at octopamine receptors.e. The generally accepted target site for formamidine insecticides is the octopamine receptor.

The avermectins are extremely effective insecticides although marketing of these compounds has been limited and their use has been primarily as an antihelminthic in the livestock industry. Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosad causes excitation of the insect nervous system. Lepidoptera.8. The active ingredient consists of two compounds referred to as sponosyn A and D.8. Spinosad acts as both a contact and stomach poison. but recent evidence suggests that it’s primary site of activity involves the acetylcholine receptor.3 Spinosad 1. and antihelminthic agents that have been isolated from fermentation products of the soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. Isoptera. General Properties: This compound is derived from fermentation products of the bacterium. However. acaricidal. the exact nature of this interaction remains uncertain. although it is generally more active when ingested. prostration with tremors and finally paralysis. Hymenoptera. They may interact directly with the GABA receptor thereby increasing chloride conductance or they may act at an allosteric binding site and increase the inhibitory effect of GABA. Unlike the cyclodienes which also interact at the GABA receptor ionophore.2 Avermectins 1. It has shown activity against many insect orders including Coleoptera. Current registrations of this product include. 22 . Mode of Action: Spinosad mode of action has has been the subject of recent debate. the avermectins 4. Although the material degrades rapidly in the environment.6. Other reports indicate that avermectins and cyclodienes act similarly. The symptomology of insecgs treated with spinosad is distinctly different than for conventional insecticides. 3. General Properties: This is a new family of insecticidal. Several different avermectins have been isolated although one of the most active components is avermectin Bl. a) Symptomology: Spinosad affects the insect nervous system and is fact acting. 6. are generally thought of as GABA agonists. Mode of Action: Most work to date supports the view that Gamma amino butyric acid avermectins block signal transmission from interneurons to excitatory neurons that have GABA as neurotransmitter. Siphonoptera and Thysanoptera. leading to involuntary muscle contractions. Avermectins are extremely complex and production relies on the processing of fermentation products from the bacterium. Diptera. 2. residual activity is comparable in the laboratory to other commonly used synthetic insecticides.

Fipronil is highly efficacious at very low does and is active by contact or ingestion. chemists working the heterocyclic nitromethylene chemistry in Japan. The mode of action of Fipronil in the insects is as an antagonist of the GABA regulated chloride channel.8. Preliminary investigations with this chemistry revealed good insecticidal but rather poor photostable properties. Fipronil shows no cross resistance with other GABA antagonists.5 Chloronicotinyls During the 1970’s.b) These effects are consistent with the activation of nictinic acetylcholine receptors (acetylcholine agonsist) by a mechanism that is novel and unique among known insect control products. Spinosad also has effects of GABA receptor function that may contribute further to its insect activity. although cessation of feeding may be noted soon after treatment. synthesized the first member of the new chloronicotinyl group of active ingredients (closely related to the heterocyclic nitromethylenes). and therefore. a new chemical class of insecticides. In 1985. imidacloprid. the heterocyclic nitromethylenes. The effects of Fipronil are relatively slow to occur. The exact site on the GABA receptor-ionophore that interacts with Spinosad is uncertain although preliminary information indicates that is is different from both cyclodienes and avermectins based on cross resistance spectra. The interference of passage of chloride ions by Fipronil disrupts the central nervous system causing death similar to that discussed for cyclodiene insecticides. 6. (Admire) 23 .4 Phenyl.Pyrazoles Discovered by Rhone-Poulenc in 1987. were discovered by a group of chemists at Shell. the specific binding site for Fipronil is likely to be different from these other insecticides. 6. Spinosad affects the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by a mechanisms that is different from other nicotinic receptor-based insecticides (imidacloprid and nictoine).8. in extensive bioassays and biochemical/electrophysiologcal studies. Fipronil is the first member of this new insecticide class. However.

For example. and the protective spraying of fungicides. and storage protection. thousands of people are poisoned by pesticides. Pesticide consumption is often stimulated through liberal subsidizing by national Governments and through credit schemes which include the supply of fertilizer and pesticides. household pest and rodent control. usually. except for those inflicted by particular bacteria. then the use of pesticides is often the only remedy. which has the same mode of action.Strictly speaking. but probably also binds to the same site as imidacloprid. They offer protection against many diseases. viruses and microplasmas. No technical solutions. The mode of action of these compounds is as acetylcholine agonists since their binding to acetylcholine receptors mimics the effects of acetylcholine. has been used a natural insecticide for centuries. in 1983 a total of about 2 24 .6 DISADVANTAGES OF CHEMICAL CONTROL  Yearly. horticulture.5 • ADVANTAGES OF CHEMICAL CONTROL Generally pesticides are effective and reliable means for controlling pests and diseases and preventing losses in the field and in storage. such as the disinfection of soils and seeds. Unfortunately. the proper preventive use of pesticides. the mode of action of the chloronicotinyls is not new. Most pesticides demonstrate a fast activity. the choice is usually limited to older inexpensive products. Pesticides are almost ubiquitously available in developing countries and. other than the use of pesticides. • • • • 6. at prices affordable even to poor farmers. Nicotine. are as yet known with regard to a number of problems in intensive agriculture. Particularly when there is no tome left for limitation by a build-up of natural enemies and the ripening produce is being threatened. are indispensable methods in modern plant protection. about half of them in the Third World. by which serious infections and outbreaks can be limited or possibly even controlled. Chemical control is effective under very diverse ecological conditions and it is less dependent on the scale of the operation than the various forms of cultural and biological control. 6. Nictotine acts not only on the same moleuclar receptors. Further. the supply often does not correspond with the need and with safety requirements.

and rapid replacement of those chemicals with new products. The goal is to maximize pest mortality while minimizing harm to natural enemies. Pest resistance builds up more rapidly in tropical than in temperate climates. These chemicals become. 2 kinds of nematodes and 5 kinds of rodents (Gips 1987). 100 plant pathogens. When an insecticide is applied.  Over time. which must then be used in ever higher doses to have effect. new pesticides must be developed. which necessitates the application of higher dosages. soil or water. Chemical insecticides generally more adversely affect natural enemies than the target pest. Eventually. The major part reaches the air. higher application frequencies and mixtures. However. Because of their toxicity.  Pesticides that do not break down easily are absorbed in the food chain and cause considerable damage to insects. many species of insects. human beings. as biological processes are more rapid at higher temperatures. organochlorines are still being used in many developing countries. Aquatic organisms are particularly sensitive to pesticides. pests build up resistance to pesticides. such as natural enemies of pests. insect-consuming animals. many types of pesticides.a very expensive process. ideally only the target pest(s) should be affected. micro-organisms and weeds have acquired a degree of resistance against one or several types or chemical groups of pesticides. they generally are very mobile and spend a considerable amount of time moving across plant tissue. and 40 000 of the cases were fatal (Schoubroeck et at. 1990). Many pesticides cause the development of resistance in populations of organisms. 25 . gradually. mites. prey birds and ultimately. have been banned in industrialized countries.g DDT. In 1984. This increases the likelihood that they will contact the insecticide. The incidence of pest attacks and secondary pest attacks may increase after pesticides have killed the natural enemies. e. Because predators and parasitoids must search for their prey. resistance to pesticides was known for 447 insects and mites.million people suffered from pesticide poisoning. 55 kinds of weeds. where it has a damaging effect on living organisms. nematodes. This is the so-called “pesticide treadmill  Pesticides kill not only organisms that cause damage to crops but also useful organisms. less effective.  Only a small proportion of the pesticides applied in fields reaches the organisms that are supposed to be controlled.

Secondary pests. This trend has continued since then and is adversely affecting farmers as farm crop prices generally remained static and levels below the world market values. in particular broad-spectrum insecticides and miticides having a persistent activity. or species that hitherto had no economic importance may suddenly assume such importance (e.  The inherent toxicity of pesticides and their often long persistence is a cause of many accidents involving mankind and non-target animals. may destroy the natural enemy complex. cotton whitefly). The increasing complexity of newer insecticides requiring a higher investment in research and manufacturing results in higher retail prices for the user. Thus. may then become major pests. 26 . thus freed from their controlling factors.  The cost of pesticides is rising steadily. pesticidal selectivity and dosages need to be taken into account. the average wholesale prices for well-established insecticides rose about 20% in the period 1970-1977. qualities which are often scarcely available among farmers and plant-protection technicians in developing countries. a profound knowledge and skill is needed for the responsible use of chemical control. With regard to the specific sensitivity of the target organisms and natural enemies. Pesticides. and a grave source of environmental contamination.g.  Improper application of pesticides may cause unwanted or hazardous effects. whereas application technology must correspond with their behaviour and environmental conditions.

Pesticides are sold in many formulations and a single pesticide may even be sold in more than one formulation. handling.. permitting case of application. The chemical component (actual toxicant) of a formulation that is responsible for the pesticidal effect.6 mg/kg LD50 = 2250 X 100 = 75. for practical purposes. It is usually necessary add other non pesticide substances so that the chemical can be used at the required concentration and in an appropriate form. Example: (1) Carbofuran 3% G means The active ingredient of carbofuran is 3%. transportation.6.i in formulation Technical grade carbofuran is a crystalline solid having an acute oral toxicity of 3mg/kg (Rats) and a dermal toxicity of 2250 mg/kg (Rabbits) For carbofuran 3%G. Active Ingredient (AI) Pesticide toxicity. usually refers to the toxicity of the active ingredient (AI) or technical material (TC). However. Thus chemical insecticides may be formulated in number of ways. storage and maximum killing power.000 mg/kg 3 27 . the available active ingredient is 3grams in 100 grams product. as described in standard reference books. (2) Fenthion 60%EC The active ingredient of Fenthion is 60 ml in 100ml of the product.4 INSECTICIDE FORMULATIONS The technical product of a chemical insecticide is rarely suitable for application in its pure form. In other words. Toxicity of formulation = LD50 of active ingredient X 100 % a. the oral toxicity of the formulation would be LD50 (Oral) = 8 X 100 = 800 3 3 Dermal toxicity (Rabbit) = 266. the pesticide user is more interested in knowing the toxicity of the particular formulation he is using.

Emulsifiable Concentrates Fumigants sold as liquids or solids SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES 6. Formulations can be subdivided into solids.i. Particulates. It may be necessary to include other inerts such as solvents. extenders or emulsifiers. An inert ingredient may be talc in a dust formulation or petroleum distillate in an emulsifiable concentrate formulation.The type of formulation depends on several factors: • • • • • • • chemistry of the active ingredient toxicology of the active ingredient efficacy of the product on the pest the effect of the product on the plant. Some products are ready to use and require no further mixing although most products applied in the liquid form require dilution in water or oil before use. liquids and gases. Granules. wetting agents. Tablets. Dry Flowables Suspensions (Flowables). animal or surface the effect of the product on the environment the application technique (equipment) the application rate A formulation consists of one or more active ingredients (a. Solutions. Pellets.4. Dusts or Powders.) plus inert ingredients (materials with no pesticidal action). A formulation is developed to make the product safer and more convenient to use.1 ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations are often used behind the trade name on the pesticide label to indicate type of formulation: D DF EC F G P S Dust Dry flowable Emulsifiable Concentrate Flowable Granular Pellet Solution Sc Sn SP WDG WP WS 28 Sprayable Concentrate Active Solution Soluble Powders Water Dispersible Granules Wettable Powders Water Soluble Concentrate .

C. punctured or heated A high Possibly flammable concentration of a. Suspension or Flowable A cloudy liquid composed of solid particles of a. Increases the residual of a. See comment May be expensive on E. Buy less bulk. used undiluted only in ULV equipment. in microcapsules giving a slow release of a. usually water and when mixed with water remains clear. Very high concentrate of a.C.C.i. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES TYPICAL USE No mixing Pressurized Flying insect required.i. Final spray solution is a milky colour. Insecticide sprays normally inside structures.i.'s. Reduces hazard to operator. Needs dilution. Concentration of active ingredient during application makes them hazardous. SUMMARY OF FORMULATION TYPES LIQUIDS NAME DESCRIPTION LIQUIDS NAME Aerosol (MORTEIN Spray) DESCRIPTION A liquid with one or more solvents. See comments on E. a.'s. Use without (ULV) Concentrate designed to be mixing.i. A clear solution with emulsifiers for dilution in water.i. Insecticides Agricultural sprays True Liquid/ Solution See comments on E. Possibly corrosive Agricultural sprays Ultra-low Volume Solution af a. is in solution.The following chart summarizes formulation types and lists some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type.'s.i.i.i. (finely ground) in a liquid.i. Requires little agitation when added to water in spray tank. Special equipment required. forestry GASES 29 . Active ingredient may settle out of formulation Agricultural sprays Emulsifiable Concentrate Microencapsulate A suspension d Suspension with a. supplied per container. Ready to use in pressurized containers. Low containers are control concentration of hazardous if a.

TYPICAL USE Greenhouses Mushroom houses Other structures Bulk containers (ships. etc.) Fumigant Volatile liquids or Toxic to many s solids packaged for forms of the pest at release as a gas one time. 30 . Highly toxic. Penetrates cracks and crevices. rail cars.NAME DESCRIPTION ADVANTAGES DISADVANGES Area to be fumigated must be well sealed.

i.i. Preformed mixture of a. Forms a suspension in water. No liquid agitation to remain in sprays spills suspension 31 .i. slugs Seed treatment General use Seed Treatment Soluble Powder or Granules A finely ground dry Colours seed to material containing distinguish it a dye. Care must be taken with dye Containers empty Dusty easily. Drifts and very Spot visible on surface. a. Mixed with edible inerts. Requires Soil special application treatment for equipment.talc) contains a wetting and dispersing agent. insect or vegetation control Could clog equipment Agricultural soil application Impregnated Granular fertilizer Fertilizer containing low amount of herbicides Particulate or Bait Mixture of large particles not recognized as a pellet or granular formulation. No dilution needed before use. added to powder (clay. Drift minimal. Not dusty Dusty. and children Fumigant Containers empty Dusty. Ready to use. large. usually red from untreated A dry material similar to dust or granules above except it is soluble in water A preformed "tablet" composed of inerts and a. treatment Animal powder Granular Some dust. free-flowing particles usually with a low concentration of a. and inerts to form spheres or cylinders Easy to spot treat Accessible to pets and children Bait for insects or rodents Pellet As above As above Baits to control rodents.) plus inerts such a talc. A mix of dry.i. Low a. Requires Agricultural easily.i. One step application.i. No liquid spills Tablet Wettable Powder Easy to measure Accessible to pets and use. Now mixing required.SOLIDS NAME DESCRIPTION ADVANTAGES Less dusty than WP formulations and easier to handle DISADVANTAGES TYPICAL USE Dry Flowable A wettable powder which is formulated into small pellets or granules Dust or Powder Requires agitation in Agricultural spray tank pesticides A finely ground dry Ready to use material of a low concentration (a. concentration.

Once immersed. if such mixtures are not registered. Mixing more than two pesticide types is not encouraged. Care should also be taken that the screens in the sprayer do not become clogged. they must be proven to be compatible. Care must be taken to avoid splashing unused packages. It is not recommended to use an insecticide plus fungicide plus miticide in the same tank. Soluble packages are made from soluble plastic in which pre-measured amounts of pesticide have been packaged. they are then incompatible and should not be used. a separation.4 ADJUVANTS The effectiveness of some pesticides may be improved by the addition of adjuvants to the product in the spray tank. their use would be illegal under the federal Pest Control Products Act. An example of a commonly used adjuvant is a surfactant. This type of packaging was developed to reduce dermal exposure and improve accuracy in measuring amounts needed. placing the pesticide where it can be more effective 6. In addition. Check the label for product compatibility or refer to compatibility charts available through industry or government extension services.4. 6. they dissolve rapidly.4.4. 32 .3 OTHER FORMULATIONS Other available pesticide formulations less commonly used include paints and soluble packages.6.5 PESTICIDE COMPATIBILITY When two or more pesticides are added to a spray tank. Paints have the advantage of being easy to handle. they are considered compatible. mix satisfactorily and when combined work effectively together. Poor results or crop injury may result. Adjuvants may improve the effectiveness of a pesticide in the following ways: • • • • Wetting the surface: the spray may stick to the surface better Increasing/decreasing evaporation: an adjuvant may prevent the spray from drying too fast or help it dry more quickly Increasing absorption into the plant: this is important if the pesticide must enter the plant to be effective Improving spray droplet uniformity: this gives more complete coverage of the target surface. coagulation. Residues remaining on the crop could be in contravention of the federal Food & Drugs Act. Combining two chemicals which are incompatible is costly and time consuming. An adjuvant is a substance added to a pesticide spray tank to improve the effectiveness of the active ingredient. Surfactants are "surface active agents" whose purpose is to improve pesticide uptake. gel or curd is obtained. If when mixing. Before combining pesticides. Avoid these cocktail mixtures. They spread easily over a surface.

Apart from their importance in helping to increase the world food supply. they are often life-savers. Since most productive land is already cultivated. land already under cultivation must be made as productive as possible. which are necessary to guarantee a minimum profitability to farmers. they bring economic benefits. Even with dramatic increases in pesticide use in recent decades. Although increasingly costly. and many wilderness areas are threatened by the expansion of agriculture. Pesticides present a dilemma: as their hazards become more apparent. Synergism. Improving pest control. just pouring on more chemicals is no answer. they 33 .4. Although designed to kill.6. and public health improved in tropical areas where insect-borne diseases remain serious problems. And while they have opened up many possibilities for improving agriculture and public health. the percentage of crop lost to pests has apparently not declined. It is convenient and economical to combine pesticides so that only one application must be made. Pesticide tank mixes may have synergism if each pesticide controls a different life stage of the pest population. they safeguard the crop yields. up to one third of Asian rice production may be lost to insects annually. Sometimes several types of pests can be controlled at the same time -. CONCLUSION Pesticides are integral part of agricultural production.6 SYNERGISM At times combining two or more pesticides will provide better control than when each is used alone. This is an asset during a busy spray season. is the increased effectiveness achieved when two chemicals are used together compared to their effectiveness when used alone. This could be a result of synergism.insects. For example. or potentiation. If agricultural productivity is to be increased to meet rising food demand. both pre-and postharvest. so does the need to use them. is one important means of raising net yields. the stability of pest control must be a global concern. however. diseases and mites. For example: Chemical A controls 60% of the pest Chemical B controls 20% of the pest Chemical A + B controls 98% of the pest Synergism increases control so that less chemical may be required. Clearly.

Furthermore. In Summary 34 .have closed others. shows that we can better manage pests without excessively polluting the earth and us. they contribute to the rationalization and intensification of farming and to more effective harvesting. They enable farmers to produce regularly. To summarize. pesticides are efficient tools for preventing crop losses due to plant pest and diseases. Pest-control methods themselves are not inherently safe or risky: the way the method is applied determines risk. Can we resolve this dilemma? Can we reduce the risks of pesticide use while retaining the benefits? Must we rely solely on chemicals for effective. making us extremely dependent on them for our continued survival. good yields of high quality crops. affordable pest control? The technologies that can be brought to bear on pest and pesticide management.

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