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Linear Elastic Waves
Wave propagation and scattering are among the most fundamental processes
that we use to comprehend the world around us. Whereas these processes are
often very complex, one way to begin to understand themis to study wave prop-
agation in the linear approximation. This is a book describing such propagation
using, as a context, the equations of elasticity. Two unifying themes are used.
The first is that an understanding of plane wave interactions is fundamental to
understanding more complex wave interactions. The second is that waves are
best understood in an asymptotic approximation where they are free of the com-
plications of their excitation and are governed primarily by their propagation
environments. The topics covered include reflection, refraction, propagation of
interfacial waves, integral representations, radiation and diffraction, and prop-
agation in closed and open waveguides.
Linear Elastic Waves is an advanced level textbook directed at applied mathe-
maticians, seismologists, and engineers.
John G. Harris received an undergraduate degree (honors) in 1971 fromMcGill
University, where he studied electrical engineering and gained a lasting interest
in wave propagation. In 1979, he received a doctoral degree in applied mathe-
matics from Northwestern University for a thesis on elastic-wave diffraction
problems. Following this, he joined the Theoretical and Applied Mechan-
ics Department at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), where he
teaches dynamics and mathematical methods and carries out research on elastic-
wave problems at microwave frequencies. He has used asymptotic methods of
analysis to explore diffraction and imaging, propagation and scattering of
interfacial waves, and waveguiding.
Cambridge Texts in Applied Mathematics
Maximum and Minimum Principles
M. J. SEWELL
Solitons
P. G. DRAZIN AND R. S. JOHNSON
The Kinematics of Mixing
J. M. OTTINO
Introduction to Numerical Linear Algebra and Optimisation
PHILIPPE G. CIARLET
Integral Equations
DAVID PORTER AND DAVID S. G. STIRLING
Perturbation Methods
E. J. HINCH
The Thermomechanics of Plasticity and Fracture
GERARD A. MAUGIN
Boundary Integral and Singularity Methods for Linearized Viscous Flow
C. POZRIKIDIS
Nonlinear Wave Processes in Acoustics
K. NAUGOLNYKH AND L. OSTROVSKY
Nonlinear Systems
P. G. DRAZIN
Stability, Instability and Chaos
PAUL GLENDINNING
Applied Analysis of the Navier–Stokes Equations
C. R. DOERING AND J. D. GIBBON
Viscous Flow
H. OCKENDON AND J. R. OCKENDON
Scaling, Self-Similarity, and Intermediate Asymptotics
G. I. BARENBLATT
A First Course in the Numerical Analysis of Differential Equations
ARIEH ISERLES
Complex Variables: Introduction and Applications
MARK J. ABLOWITZ AND ATHANASSIOS S. FOKAS
Mathematical Models in the Applied Sciences
A. C. FOWLER
Thinking About Ordinary Differential Equations
ROBERT E. O’MALLEY
A Modern Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Water Waves
R. S. JOHNSON
Rarefied Gas Dynamics
CARLO CERCIGNANI
Symmetry Methods for Differential Equations
PETER E. HYDON
High Speed Flow
C. J. CHAPMAN
Wave Motion
J. BILLINGHAM AND A. C. KING
An Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics
P. A. DAVIDSON
Linear Elastic Waves
JOHN G. HARRIS
Linear Elastic Waves
JOHN G. HARRIS
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
iuniisuio n\ rui iiiss s\xoicari oi rui uxiviisir\ oi caxniioci
The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom
caxniioci uxiviisir\ iiiss
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK
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First published in printed format
ISBN 0-521-64368-6 hardback
ISBN 0-521-64383-X paperback
ISBN 0-511-04041-5 eBook
Cambridge University Press 2004
2001
(netLibrary)
©
To Beatriz
Contents
Preface page xiii
1 Simple Wave Solutions 1
1.1 Model Equations 1
1.1.1 One-Dimensional Models 3
1.1.2 Two-Dimensional Models 4
1.1.3 Displacement Potentials 5
1.1.4 Energy Relations 5
1.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms 6
1.3 A Wave Is Not a Vibration 11
1.4 Dispersive Propagation 13
1.4.1 An Isolated Interaction 13
1.4.2 Periodic Structures 15
References 18
2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves 20
2.1 Time-Dependent Plane Waves 20
2.2 Time-Harmonic Plane Waves 22
2.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations 24
2.3.1 A Gaussian Beam 24
2.3.2 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a
Spherical Wave 26
2.3.3 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a
Cylindrical Wave 28
2.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 28
2.4.1 Compressional Wave 29
2.4.2 Shear Wave 33
ix
x Contents
Appendix: Spherical and Cylindrical Waves 34
References 35
3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves 37
3.1 Reflection of a Compressional Plane Wave 37
3.1.1 Phase Matching 39
3.1.2 Reflection Coefficients 40
3.2 Reflection and Refraction 41
3.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves 44
3.4 The Rayleigh Wave 48
3.4.1 The Time-Harmonic Wave 49
3.4.2 Transient Wave 50
3.4.3 The Rayleigh Function 51
3.4.4 Branch Cuts 52
References 55
4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations 56
4.1 Introduction 56
4.2 Reciprocity 57
4.3 Green’s Tensor 58
4.3.1 Notes 61
4.4 Principle of Limiting Absorption 62
4.5 Integral Representation: A Source Problem 64
4.5.1 Notes 65
4.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem 65
4.6.1 Notes 66
4.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region 68
4.7.1 No Edges 68
4.7.2 Edge Conditions 69
4.7.3 An Inner Expansion 71
4.8 Scattering from an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid 72
References 76
5 Radiation and Diffraction 77
5.1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space 77
5.1.1 The Transforms 78
5.1.2 Inversion 79
5.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I 82
5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 86
Contents xi
5.3.1 Watson’s Lemma 87
5.3.2 Method of Steepest Descents 90
5.3.3 Stationary Phase Approximation 94
5.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II 96
5.4.1 The Complex Plane 96
5.4.2 The Scattered Compressional Wave 98
5.4.3 The Scattered Shear Wave 99
5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 101
5.5.1 Formulation 102
5.5.2 Wiener–Hopf Solution 104
5.5.3 Description of the Scattered Wavefield 108
5.6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study 112
Appendix: The Fresnel Integral 116
References 119
6 Guided Waves and Dispersion 121
6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide 121
6.1.1 Partial Waves and the Transverse Resonance Principle 123
6.1.2 Dispersion Relation: A Closed Waveguide 124
6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 128
6.2.1 Partial Wave Analysis 129
6.2.2 Dispersion Relation: An Open Waveguide 131
6.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide 134
6.3.1 Harmonic Excitation 134
6.3.2 Transient Excitation 135
6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 139
6.4.1 The Wavefield in the Layer 140
6.4.2 The Wavefield in the Half-Space 145
6.4.3 Leaky Waves 146
6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous, Closed Waveguide 146
6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 150
6.6.1 Causes of Dispersion 150
6.6.2 The Propagation of Information 151
6.6.3 The Propagation of Angular Frequencies 153
References 157
Index 159
Preface
A wave
builds up
perhaps it says its name, I don’t understand,
mutters, humps its load
of movement and foam
and withdraws. Who
can I ask what it said to me?
1
Wave propagation and scattering are among the most fundamental processes
that we use to comprehend the world around us. While these processes are
often very complex, one way to begin to understand them is to study linear
wave propagation. This is a book describing such propagation.
I use the equations of linear elasticity to form a context for my description of
wave propagation. However, the reader’s knowledge of elasticity need not be
very great, and experience with a related field theory, such as fluid mechanics or
electromagnetic theory, is sufficient to understand what is written here. In many
places I treat only the antiplane shear problem because I do not believe that the
extra work needed to do the analogous inplane problem adds anything of signi-
ficance to understanding the underlying wave processes. Nevertheless, where
an inplane elastic problem introduces a unique feature, such as the presence of
a nondispersive surface wave, that problem is treated.
This is also a book describing the parts of applied mathematics that de-
scribe the propagation and scattering of linear elastic waves. It assumes that the
reader has a good background in calculus, differential equations, and complex
analysis. By this I mean that the reader should have studied most of the topics in
1
Neruda, Pablo, Soliloquy in the Waves, pp. 185–186. In Isla Negra, a Notebook, translated by
A. Reid. New York: Noonday Press. 1981.
xiii
xiv Preface
Courant and John, Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, Vols. 1 and 2 (1989)
and in Boyce and DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary
Value Problems (1992). Moreover, the reader should be able to look things
up in Carrier, Krook, and Pearson, Functions of a Complex Variable (1983) or
Ablowitz and Fokas Complex Variables, Introduction and Applications (1997)
and Zauderer Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics (1998)
and not feel lost. None of the mathematical analyses exceed, in sophistica-
tion or difficulty, those found in Courant and John (1989). I work almost
entirely in Cartesian coordinates so that no knowledge of special functions or
the transforms associated with them is needed. Some previous experience with
asymptotic analysis would be helpful, but is not essential. All the asymptotic
analysis needed is explained in the book.
I have used two unifying themes throughout. The first is that an understand-
ing of plane-wave interactions is fundamental to understanding more complex
wave interactions. The second is that waves are best understood in an asymp-
totic approximation where they are free of the complications of their excitation
and are governed primarily by their propagation environment. Therefore plane-
wave spectral analyses and asymptotic approximations are the main techniques
used to study the more complicated problems.
The selection of problems for the reader is small and directed at engaging
him or her in the development of the subject. The problems are an integral part
of the book and most should be attempted.
I have tried to avoid a menagerie of symbols. In general I use Cartesian ten-
sors such as τ
i j
, where the indices i, j = 1, 2, 3, or a boldface notation τ. The
symbol ∂
i
is used to represent the partial derivative with respect to the i th coor-
dinate. Similarly, sometimes I use d
x
f to represent d f /dx. Repeated indices
are summed over 1, 2, 3 unless otherwise indicated. For problems engaging
only two coordinates, subscripts using Greek letters such as α, β = 1, 2 are
used so that a vector component would be written as u
β
and a partial deriva-
tive as ∂
α
. When these subscripts are repeated they are summed over 1, 2. At
times I use symbols such as c
L
or c
T
when there is need to distinguish between
parameters that relate to compressional or shear disturbances, but when that
distinction is not important I drop the subscript. Constants such as A are used
over and over again and have no special meaning.
Professor Jan Achenbach was my research advisor. He taught me the subject.
His influence is everywhere is this book. I thank him. I have been supported
over the years primarily by the National Science Foundation, though recently
also by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. I am very grateful for
their support. Elaine Wilson typed the early parts of this manuscript and Mike
Preface xv
Greenberg provided the illustrations. Don Carlson and Bill Phillips tolerated
my complaints with humor; Eduardo Velasco prevented me from publishing a
discussion of group velocity that was at best muddled. To everyone, thank you.
The book undoubtedly contains errors, for which I alone am responsible. I
anticipate that few if any are serious.
Books Cited
Ablowitz, M. J. and Fokas, A. S. 1997. Complex Variables, Introduction and
Applications. New York: Cambridge.
Boyce, W. E. and DiPrima, R. C. 1992. Elementary Differential Equations and
Boundary Value Problems, 5th ed. New York: Wiley.
Carrier, G. F., Krook, M., and Pearson, C. E. 1983. Functions of a Complex Variable.
Ithaca, NY: Hod Books.
Courant, R. and John, F. 1989. Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, Vols. 1 and 2.
New York: Springer.
Zauderer, E. 1983. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. New York:
Wiley-Interscience.
Evanston and Urbana, Summer 2000.
1
Simple Wave Solutions
Synopsis
Chapter 1 provides the background, both the model equations and some of
the mathematical transformations, needed to understand linear elastic waves.
Only the basic equations are summarized, without derivation. Both Fourier
and Laplace transforms and their inverses are introduced and important sign
conventions settled. The Poisson summation formula is also introduced and
used to distinguish between a propagating wave and a vibration of a bounded
body.
A linear wave carries information at a particular velocity, the group velocity,
which is characteristic of the propagation structure or environment. It is this
transmitting of information that gives linear waves their special importance.
In order to introduce this aspect of wave propagation, propagation in one-
dimensional periodic structures is discussed. Such structures are dispersive and
therefore transmit information at a speed different from the wavespeed of their
individual components.
1.1 Model Equations
The equations of linear elasticity consist of (1) the conservation of linear and
angular momentum, and (2) a constitutive relation relating force and deforma-
tion. In the linear approximation density ρ is constant. The conservation of
mechanical energy follows from (1) and (2). The most important feature of the
model is that the force exerted across a surface, oriented by the unit normal n
j
,
by one part of a material on the other is given by the traction t
i

j i
n
j
, where
τ
j i
is the stress tensor. The conservation of angular momentummakes the stress
tensor symmetric; that is, τ
i j

j i
. The conservation of linear momentum, in
1
2 1 Simple Wave Solutions
differential form, is expressed as

k
τ
ki
+ρf
i
=ρ∂
t

t
u
i
. (1.1)
The term f is a force per unit mass.
Deformation is described by using a strain tensor,

i j
=(∂
i
u
j
+∂
j
u
i
)/2, (1.2)
where u
i
is ith component of particle displacement. The symmetrical definition
of the deformation ensures that no rigid-body rotations are included. However,
the underlying dependence of the deformation is upon the ∇u. For a homoge-
neous, isotropic, linearly elastic solid, stress and strain are related by
τ
i j

kk
δ
i j
+2µ
i j
, (1.3)
where λ and µare Lam´ e’s elastic constants. Substituting (1.2) in (1.3), followed
by substituting the outcome into (1.1), gives one formof the equation of motion,
namely
(λ +µ)∂
i

k
u
k
+µ∂
j

j
u
i
+ρf
i
=ρ∂
t

t
u
i
. (1.4)
Written in vector notation, the equation becomes
(λ +µ)∇(∇ · u) +µ∇
2
u+ρ f =ρ∂
t

t
u. (1.5)
When the identity ∇
2
u =∇(∇ · u) −∇ ∧∇ ∧u is used, the equation can also
be written in the form
(λ +2µ)∇(∇ · u) −µ∇ ∧∇ ∧u+ρ f =ρ∂
t

t
u. (1.6)
This last equation indicates that elastic waves have both dilitational ∇ · u and
rotational ∇ ∧u deformations.
If ∂R is the boundary of a region R occupied by a solid, then commonly
t and u are prescribed on ∂R. When t is given over part of ∂R and u over
another part, the boundary conditions are said to be mixed. One very common
boundary condition is to ask that t =0 everywhere on ∂R. This models the
case in which a solid surface is adjacent to a gas of such small density and
compressibility that it is almost a vacuum. When R is infinite in one or more
dimensions, special conditions are imposed such that a disturbance decays to
zero at infinity or radiates outward toward infinity from any sources contained
within R.
1.1 Model Equations 3
Another common situation is that in which ∂R
12
is the boundary between
two regions, 1 and 2, occupied by solids having different properties. Contact
between solid bodies is quite complicated, but in many cases it is usual to
assume that the traction and displacement, t and u, are continuous. This models
welded contact. One other simple continuity condition that commonly arises
is that between a solid and an ideal fluid. Because the viscosity is ignored, the
tangential component of t is set to zero, while the normal component of traction
and the normal component of displacement are made continuous.
These are only models and are often inadequate. To briefly indicate some
of the possible complications, consider two solid bodies pressed together. A
(linear) wave incident on such a boundary would experience continuity of trac-
tion and displacement when the solids press together, but would experience a
traction-free boundary condition when they pull apart (Comninou and Dundurs,
1977). This produces a complex nonlinear interaction.
The reader may consult Hudson (1980) for a succinct discussion of linear
elasticity or Atkin and Fox (1980) for a somewhat more general view.
1.1.1 One-Dimensional Models
We assume that the various wavefield quantities depend only on the variables
x
1
and t . For longitudinal strain, u
1
is finite, while u
2
and u
3
are assumed to be
zero, so that (1.2) combined with (1.3) becomes
τ
11
=(λ +2µ)∂
1
u
1
, τ
22

33
=λ∂
1
u
1
, (1.7)
and (1.1) becomes
(λ +2µ)∂
1

1
u
1
+ρf
1
=ρ∂
t

t
u
1
. (1.8)
For longitudinal stress, all the stress components except τ
11
are assumed to be
zero. Now (1.3) becomes
τ
11
= E∂
1
u
1
, E =µ
3λ +2µ
λ +µ
, (1.9)
and

2
u
2
=∂
3
u
3
=−ν∂
1
u
1
, ν =
λ
2(λ +µ)
. (1.10)
Now (1.1) becomes
E∂
1

1
u
1
+ρf
1
=ρ∂
t

t
u
1
. (1.11)
4 1 Simple Wave Solutions
Note that (1.8) and (1.11) are essentially the same, though they have somewhat
different physical meanings. The longitudinal stress model is useful for rods
having a small cross section and a traction-free surface. Stress components that
vanish at the surface are assumed to be negligible in the interior.
1.1.2 Two-Dimensional Models
Let us assume that the various wavefield quantities are independent of x
3
. As a
consequence, (1.1) breaks into two separate equations, namely

β
τ
β3
+ρf
3
= ρ∂
t

t
u
3
, (1.12)

β
τ
βα
+ρf
α
= ρ∂
t

t
u
α
. (1.13)
Greek subscripts α, β =1, 2 are used to indicate that the independent spatial
variables are x
1
and x
2
. The case for which the only nonzero displacement
component is u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ), namely (1.12), is called antiplane shear motion, or
SH motion for shear horizontal.
τ

=µ∂
β
u
3
, (1.14)
giving, from (1.12),
µ∂
β

β
u
3
+ρf
3
=ρ∂
t

t
u
3
. (1.15)
Note that this is a two-dimensional scalar equation, similar to (1.8) or (1.11).
The case for which u
3
=0, while the other two displacement components
are generally nonzero, (1.13), is called inplane motion. The initials P and SV
are used to describe the two types of inplane motion, namely compressional
and shear vertical, respectively. For this case (1.3) becomes
τ
αβ
=λ∂
γ
u
γ
δ
αβ
+µ(∂
α
u
β
+∂
β
u
α
), (1.16)
and
τ
33
=λ∂
γ
u
γ
. (1.17)
The equation of motion remains (1.4); that is,
(λ +µ)∂
α

β
u
β
+µ∂
β

β
u
α
+ρf
α
=ρ∂
t

t
u
α
. (1.18)
This last equation is a vector equation and contains two wave types, compres-
sional and shear, whose character we explore shortly. It leads to problems of
some complexity.
1.1 Model Equations 5
These two-dimensional equations are the principal models used. The scalar
model, (1.14), allows us to solve complicated problems in detail without being
overwhelmed by the size and length of the calculations needed, while the vector
model, (1.18), allows us enough structure to indicate the complexity found in
elastic-wave propagation.
1.1.3 Displacement Potentials
When (1.4)–(1.6) are used, a boundary condition, such as t =0, is relatively
easy to implement. However, in problems in which there are fewboundary con-
ditions, it is often easier to cast the equations of motion into a simpler form and
allow the boundary condition to become more complicated. One way to do this
is to use the Helmholtz theorem (Phillips, 1933; Gregory, 1996) to express the
particle displacement u as the sumof a scalar ϕ and a vector potential ψ; that is,
u =∇ϕ +∇ ∧ψ, ∇ · ψ =0. (1.19)
The second condition is needed because u has only three components (the parti-
cular condition selected is not the only possibility). Assume f =0. Substituting
these expressions into (1.6) gives
(λ +2µ)∇


2
ϕ −

1/c
2
L


t

t
ϕ

+µ∇ ∧


2
ψ−

1/c
2
T


t

t
ψ

=0.
(1.20)
The equation can be satisfied if

2
ϕ =

1/c
2
L


t

t
ϕ, c
2
L
=(λ +2µ)/ρ, (1.21)

2
ψ =

1/c
2
T


t

t
ψ, c
2
T
=µ/ρ. (1.22)
The terms c
L
and c
T
are the compressional or longitudinal wavespeed, and shear
or transverse wavespeed, respectively. The scalar potential describes a wave of
compressional motion, which in the plane-wave case is longitudinal, while the
vector potential describes a wave of shear motion, which in the plane-wave
case is transverse. Knowing ϕ and ψ, do we know u completely? Yes we do.
Proofs of completeness, along with related references, are given in Achenbach
(1973).
1.1.4 Energy Relations
The remaining conservation law of importance is the conservation of mecha-
nical energy. Again assume f =0. This law can be derived directly from
6 1 Simple Wave Solutions
(1.1)–(1.3) by taking the dot product of ∂
t
u with (1.1). This gives, initially,

j
τ
j i

t
u
i
−ρ(∂
t

t
u
i
)∂
t
u
i
=0. (1.23)
Forming the product τ
kl

kl
, using (1.3), and making use of the decomposition

j
u
i
=
j i

j i
, where ω
j i
=(∂
j
u
i
−∂
i
u
j
)/2, allows us to write (1.23) as
1
2

t
(ρ∂
t
u
i

t
u
i

ki

ki
) +∂
k
(−τ
ki

t
u
i
) =0. (1.24)
The first two terms become the time rates of change of
K =
1
2
ρ∂
t
u
k

t
u
k
, U =
1
2
τ
i j

i j
. (1.25)
These are the kinetic and internal energy density, respectively. The remaining
term is the divergence of the energy flux, F, where F is given by
F
j
=−τ
j i

t
u
i
. (1.26)
Then (1.24) can be written as
∂E/∂t +∇ · F=0, (1.27)
where E =K + U and is the energy density. This is the differential statement
of the conservation of mechanical energy. To better understand that the energy
flux or power density is given by (1.26), consider an arbitrary region R, with
surface ∂R. Integrating (1.27) over Rand using Gauss’ theorem gives
d
dt

R
E(x, t ) dV =−

∂R
F· ˆ n dS. (1.28)
Therefore, as the mechanical energy decreases within R, it radiates outward
across the surface ∂Rat a rate F · ˆ n.
1.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms
All waves are transient in time. One useful representation of a transient wave-
form is its Fourier one. This representation imagines the transient signal de-
composed into an infinite number of time-harmonic or frequency components.
One important reason for the usefulness of this representation is that the trans-
mitter, receiver, and the propagation structure usually respond differently to the
different frequency components. The linearity of the problem ensures that we
can work out the net propagation outcomes for each frequency component and
then combine the outcomes to recreate the received signal.
1.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms 7
The Fourier transform is defined as
¯ u(x, ω) =


−∞
e
i ωt
u(x, t ) dt. (1.29)
The variable ω is complex. Its domain is such as to make the above integral
convergent. Moreover, ¯ u is an analytic function within the domain of conver-
gence, and once known, can be analytically continued beyond it.
1
The inverse
transform is defined as
u(x, t ) =
1


−∞
e
−i ωt
¯ u(x, ω) dω. (1.30)
Thus we have represented u as a sum of harmonic waves e
−i ωt
¯ u(x, ω). Note
that there is a specific sign convention for the exponential term that we shall
adhere to throughout the book.
A closely related transform is the Laplace one. It is usually used for initial-
value problems so that we imagine that for t <0, u(x, t ) is zero. This is not es-
sential and its definition can be extended to include functions whose
t -dependence extends to negative values. This transform is defined as
¯ u(x, p) =


0
e
−pt
u(x, t ) dt. (1.31)
As with ω, p is a complex variable and its domain is such as to make ¯ u(x, p)
an analytic function of p. The domain is initially defined as ( p) >0, but
the function can be analytically continued beyond this. Note that p =−i ω so
that, when t ∈ [0, ∞), (ω) >0 gives the initial domain of analyticity for
¯ u(x, ω). The inverse transform is given by
u(x, t ) =
1
2πi

+i ∞
−i ∞
e
pt
¯ u(x, p) dp, (1.32)
where ≥0. The expressions for the inverse transforms, (1.30) and (1.32), are
misleading. In practice we define the inverse transforms on contours that are
designed to capture the physical features of the solution. A large part of this
book will deal with just how those contours are selected. But, for the present,
we shall work with these definitions.
1
Analytic functions defined by contour integrals, including the case in which the contour extends
to infinity, are discussed in Titchmarsh (1939) in a general way and in more detail by Noble
(1988).
8 1 Simple Wave Solutions
Consider the case of longitudinal strain. Imagine that at t =−∞a disturbance
started with zero amplitude. Taking the Fourier transform of (1.8) gives

d
2
¯ u
1
/dx
2
1

+k
2
¯ u
1
=0, (1.33)
where k =ω/c
L
and c
L
is the compressional wavespeed defined in (1.21). The
parameter k is called the wavenumber. Here (1.33) has solutions of the form
¯ u
1
(x
1
, ω) = A(ω)e
±i kx
1
. (1.34)
If we had sought a time-harmonic solution of the form
u
1
(x
1
, t ) = ¯ u
1
(x
1
, ω)e
−i ωt
, (1.35)
we should have gotten the same answer except that e
−i ωt
would be present. In
other words, taking the Fourier transform of an equation over time or seeking
solutions that are time harmonic are two slightly different ways of doing the
same operation.
For (1.35), it is understood that the real part can always be taken to obtain
a real disturbance. Much the same happens in using (1.30). In writing (1.30)
we implicitly assumed that u(x, t ) was real. That being the case, ¯ u(x, ω) =
¯ u

(x, −ω), where the superscript asterisk to the right of the symbol indicates
the complex conjugate. From this it follows that
u(x, t ) =
1
π


0
e
−i ωt
¯ u(x, ω) dω. (1.36)
The advantage of this formulation of the inverse transform is that we may
proceed with all our calculations by using an implied e
−i ωt
and assuming ω is
positive. The importance of this will become apparent in subsequent chapters.
Now (1.36) can be regarded as a generalization of the taking of the real part of
a time-harmonic wave (1.35).
Problem 1.1 Transform Properties
Check that ¯ u(x, ω) = ¯ u

(x, −ω) and derive (1.36) from (1.30). The reader
may want to consult a book on the Fourier integral such as that by Papoulis
(1962).
When the plus sign is taken, (1.35) is a time-harmonic, plane wave propagat-
ing in the positive x
1
direction. We assume that the wavenumber k is positive,
unless otherwise stated. The wave propagates in the positive x
1
direction be-
cause the term (kx
1
−ωt ) remains constant, and hence u
1
remains constant,
1.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms 9
only if x
1
increases as t increases. The speed with which the wave propagates
is c
L
. The term ω is the angular frequency or 2π f , where f is the frequency.
That is, at a fixed position, 1/f is the length of a temporal oscillation. Similarly,
k, the wavenumber, is 2π/λ, where λ, the wavelength, is the length of a spatial
oscillation.
Note that if we combine two of these waves, labeled u
+
1
and u

1
, each going
in opposite directions, namely
u
+
1
= Ae
i (kx
1
−ωt )
, u

1
= Ae
−i (kx
1
+ωt )
, (1.37)
we get
u
1
= Ae
−i ωt
2 cos(kx
1
). (1.38)
Taking the real part gives
u
1
=2| A| cos(ωt +α) cos(kx
1
). (1.39)
We have taken A as complex so that α is its argument. This disturbance does
not propagate. At a fixed x
1
the disturbance simply oscillates in time, and at a
fixed t it oscillates in x
1
. The wave is said to stand or is called a standing wave.
Problem 1.2 Fourier Transform
Continue with the case of longitudinal strain and consider the following
boundary, initial-value problem. Unlike the previous discussion in which the
disturbance began, with zero amplitude, at −∞, here we shall introduce a distur-
bance that starts up at t =0
+
. Consider an elastic half-space, occupying x
1
≥0,
subjected to a nonzero traction at its surface. The problem is one dimensional,
and it is invariant in the other two so that (1.8), the equation for longitudinal
strain, is the equation of motion. At x
1
=0 we impose the boundary condition
τ
11
=−P
0
e
−ηt
H(t ), where H(t ) is the Heaviside step function and P
0
is a con-
stant. As x
1
→∞we impose the condition that any wave propagate outward in
the positive x
1
direction. Why? Moreover, we ask that, for t < 0, u
1
(x
1
, t ) =0
and ∂
t
u
1
(x
1
, t ) =0. Note that, using integration by parts, the Fourier transform,
indicated by F, of the second time derivative is
F[∂
t

t
u
1
] =−ω
2
¯ u
1
(x
1
, ω) +i ωu
1
(x
1
, 0

) −∂
t
u
1
(x
1
, 0

). (1.40)
In deriving this expression we have integrated fromt =0

to ∞so as to include
any discontinuous behavior at t =0. Taking the Fourier transformof (1.8) gives
10 1 Simple Wave Solutions
(1.33). Show that the inverse transform of the stress component τ
11
is given by
τ
11
(x
1
, t ) =
P
0
2πi


−∞
e
i (kx
1
−ωt )
ω+i η
dω. (1.41)
In the course of making this step you will need to chose between the solutions to
the transformed equation, (1.33). Why is the solution leading to (1.41) selected?
Note that, if the disturbance is to decay with time, η must be positive. Next show
that
τ
11
(x
1
, t ) =−P
0
H(t −x
1
/c
L
)e
−η(t −x
1
/c
L
)
. (1.42)
Explain how the conditions for convergence of the integral, as its contour is
closed at infinity, give rise to the Heaviside function. Note howthe sign conven-
tions for the transformpair, by affecting where the inverse transformconverges,
give a solution that is causal.
Problem 1.3 Laplace Transform
Solve Problem 1.2 by using the Laplace transform over time. Why select the
solution e
−px
1
/c
L
? How does this relate to the demand that waves be outgoing
at ∞?
The solution of Problem 1.2 suggests how we shall define the Fourier trans-
form over the spatial variable x. Suppose we have taken the temporal transform
obtaining ¯ u(x, ω). Then its Fourier transform over x is defined as

¯ u(k, ω) =


−∞
e
−i kx
u(x, t ) dx, (1.43)
and its inverse transform is
¯ u(x, ω) =
1


−∞
e
i kx ∗
¯ u(k, ω) dk . (1.44)
Again note the sign conventions for the transform pair. This will remain the
convention throughout the book. Moreover, note that
u(x, t ) =
1

2


−∞


−∞
e
i (kx−ωt )∗
¯ u(k, ω) dωdk . (1.45)
This shows that quite arbitrary disturbances can be decomposed into a sum of
time-harmonic, plane waves and thereby indicates that the study of such waves
is very central to the understanding of linear waves.
1.3 A Wave Is Not a Vibration 11
1.3 A Wave Is Not a Vibration
A continuous body vibrates when a system of standing waves is established
within it. Vibration and wave propagation can be explicitly linked by means
of the Poisson summation formula. This formula might better be termed a
transformandis quite useful, especiallyfor asymptoticallyapproximatingsums.
Proposition 1.1. Consider a function f (t ) and its Fourier transform
¯
f (ω).
Restrictions on f (t ) are given below. The Poisson summation formula states
that

m=−∞
f (mλ) =
1
|λ|

k =−∞
¯
f

2πk
λ

, (1.46)
where λ is a parameter.
This formula relates a series to one comprising its transformed terms. If we want
to approximate the left-hand side of (1.46) for λ that is small, then knowing the
Fourier transform of each term enables us to use an approximation based on the
fact that λ
−1
is large. The left-hand side of (1.46) may converge only slowly
for a small λ.
Proof.
2
This proof follows that of de Bruijn (1970). Consider the function
ϕ(x) given by
ϕ(x) =

m =−∞
f [(m +x)λ], (1.47)
where the sum converges uniformly on x ∈ [0, 1]. The function ϕ(x) has
period 1. We assume that f (t ) is such that ϕ(x) has a Fourier series, ϕ =


k=−∞
c
k
e
i k2πx
. Its kth Fourier coefficient equals

1
0
e
−i k2πx
ϕ(x) dx =

1
0

m =−∞
e
−i k2πx
f [(m +x)λ] dx
=

m =−∞

(m+1)
m
e
−i k2πx
f (xλ) dx
=
1
|λ|


−∞
e
−i k2π(x/λ)
f (x) dx. (1.48)
2
A minimum amount of analysis is used, both here and elsewhere, and no attempt at rigorous
proofs is made. The conclusions are usually valid under more general conditions than those
cited.
12 1 Simple Wave Solutions
Note that the integral

(m+t )
m
e
−i kx
f (xλ)dx →0 as m →±∞, uniformly in
x ∈ [0, 1], as the sum (1.47) converges uniformly.
These conditions are more restrictive than needed. Lighthill (1978), among
others, indicates that the Poisson summation formula holds for a far more
general class of functions than assumed here.
Consider the impulsive excitation of a rod of finite length 1. The governing
equation is (1.11). Assume f
1
=0, set c
b
and ρ =1 (c
2
b
= E/ρ), and assume
that for t < 0, u
1
(x
1
, t ) =∂
t
u
1
(x
1
, t ) =0. The boundary conditions are
τ
11
(0, t ) =−Tδ(t ), τ
11
(1, t ) =0. (1.49)
By using a Fourier transform over t and solving the boundary-value problem
in x
1
, we get
3
τ
11
=iTH(t )

n =−∞
e
−i nπt
sin[nπ(1 −x
1
)]
cos(nπ)
. (1.50)
Thus the rod is filled with standing waves. One usually considers a solution in
this form as a vibration. This is a very useful way to express the answer, assum-
ing the pulse has reverberated within the rod for a time long with respect to that
needed for one echo fromthe far end to return to x =0. But the individual inter-
actions with the ends have been obscured. To find these interactions we apply
the Poisson summation formula to (1.50). Break up the sin[nπ(1 −x
1
)] term
into exponential ones and apply (1.46) to each term. The crucial intermediate
step is the following, where we have taken one of these terms.

m =−∞
1
cos mπ
e
−i mπ[t −(1−x
1
)]
= (π|t +x
1
−2|)
−1
×

n =−∞


−∞
e
−i ω

1−
2n
|t +x
1
−2|


= 2

n =−∞
δ(|t +x
1
−2| −2n). (1.51)
The outcome to our calculation is
τ
11
= T

k=1
δ(t +x
1
−2k) −T

k=0
δ(t −x
1
−2k). (1.52)
3
The reader should check that this is the solution.
1.4 Dispersive Propagation 13
This is a wave representation. It is very useful for times of the order of the echo
time. For example, if t ∈ (1, 2), then τ
11
= Tδ[(t −1) +(x
1
−1)]. We have thus
isolated the pulse returning from its first reflection at the end x
1
=1. However,
the representation is not very useful for t that is large because it becomes tedious
to work out exactly at what reflection you are tracking the pulse. Moreover, the
representation (1.52) would have been awkward to work with if, instead of delta-
function pulses, we had had pulses of sufficient length that they overlapped one
another. Nevertheless, the representation captures quite accurately the physical
phenomena of a pulse bouncing back and forth in a rod struck impulsively at
one end.
Avibration therefore is defined and confined by its environment. It is the out-
come of waves reverberating in a bounded body. A period of time, sometimes a
long one, is needed for the environment to settle into a steady oscillatory motion.
In contrast, a wave is a disturbance that propagates freely outward, returning
to its source perhaps only once, experiencing only a finite number of interac-
tions. Understanding howan individual wave interacts with its environment and
tracking it through each of its interactions constitute the principal problems of
wave propagation. Moreover, while one works frequently with time-harmonic
propagating waves, one usually assumes that at some stage a Fourier synthesis
will be carried out, mapping the unending oscillatory motion into a disturbance
confined both temporally and spatially.
1.4 Dispersive Propagation
1.4.1 An Isolated Interaction
A basic interaction of a wave with its environment is scattering from a discon-
tinuity. Continue to consider waves in a rod by using the longitudinal stress
approximation. Consider time-harmonic disturbances of the form
u
1
= ¯ u
1
(x
1
)e
−i ωt
, τ
11
=ρc
2
b

1
u
1
. (1.53)
We shall not indicate the possible dependence on ω of ¯ u
1
unless this is needed.
The equation of motion (1.11) becomes
d
2
¯ u
1
/dx
2
1
+k
2
¯ u
1
=0, k =ω/c
b
. (1.54)
Assume there is a region of inhomogeneity within x
1
∈ (−L, L). Incident on
this inhomogeneity is the wavefield
¯ u
i
1
(x
1
) =

A
1
e
i kx
1
, x
1
<−L,
A
2
e
−i kx
1
, x
1
> L,
(1.55)
14 1 Simple Wave Solutions
where we have allowed waves to be incident fromboth directions. Upon striking
the inhomogeneity, the scattered wavefield
¯ u
s
1
(x
1
) =

B
1
e
−i kx
1
, x
1
<−L,
B
2
e
i kx
1
, x
1
> L
(1.56)
is excited. Note that the scattered waves have been constructed so that they are
outgoing from the scatterer. The linearity of the problem suggests that we can
write the scattered amplitudes in terms of the incident ones as

B
1
B
2

=

S
11
S
12
S
21
S
22

A
1
A
2

, (1.57)
or, more compactly, as
B =SA. (1.58)
The matrix S is called a scattering matrix and characterizes the inhomogeneity.
We next consider a specific example. Imagine that the rod has a cross-
sectional area 1 and that the inhomogeneity is a point mass M, at x
1
=0.
The left-hand figure in Fig. 1.1 indicates the geometry. The conditions across
the discontinuity are
u
1
(0

, t ) =u
1
(0
+
, t ), M∂
t

t
u
1
=−τ
11
(0

, t ) +τ
11
(0
+
, t ). (1.59)
That is, the rod does not break, but the acceleration of the mass causes the
traction acting on the cross section to be discontinuous. Setting tan θ =kM/2ρ,
with θ ∈ (0, π/2), we calculate the matrix S to be
S =

sin θe
i (θ+π/2)
cos θe
i θ
cos θe
i θ
sin θe
i (θ+π/2)

. (1.60)
x
1
x
1
0
0 L 2L
1 2
Fig. 1.1. One or more point masses M are embedded in a rod of cross-sectional area
1. The left-hand figure shows a single, embedded, point mass. The right-hand figure
shows an endless periodic arrangement of embedded point masses, each separated by a
distance L. The masses are labeled 0, 1, 2, . . . , with the zeroth mass at x
1
=0.
1.4 Dispersive Propagation 15
It is also of interest to relate the wave amplitudes on the right to those on
the left. This matrix T, called the transmission matrix, gives R =TL, where
L =[A
1
, B
1
]
T
and R =[B
2
, A
2
]
T
. The matrix T is readily calculated from S
and is given by
T =

1 +i tan θ i tan θ
−i tan θ 1 −i tan θ

. (1.61)
Note that the amplitudes A
1
and B
2
are those of right-propagating waves, while
B
1
and A
2
are those of left-propagating ones.
Problem 1.4 Scattering From a Layer
Imagine a layer of width d and properties ( ¯ ρ, ¯ c
L
) embedded in a material
with properties (ρ, c
L
). Let the x
1
axis be perpendicular to the face of the
layer and place the origin at the left face, so that the layer occupies x
1
∈ (0, d).
A wave of longitudinal strain Ae
i kx
1
is incident from x
1
< 0. Calculate the
reflection coefficient B/A and the transmission coefficient C/A, where the
reflected wave is Be
−i kx
1
and the transmitted one is Ce
i k(x
1
−d)
. Treat the waves
in the layer as a sum of a single right and left propagating wave, each with
different amplitudes, and imagine that the amplitudes contain the effects of all
the multiple reflections from each side of the layer. Similarly B and C contain
the effects of all the reflections and transmissions from the layer into the outer
material. The wavenumber k =ω/c
L
. For what values of d is the reflection
minimized? Can you identify any of the components of the S matrix for the
layer in terms of these coefficients?
1.4.2 Periodic Structures
One of the more interesting aspects of wave-bearing structures is that they often
contain several length scales. Propagation in such a structure often can only take
place if the angular frequency ω is linked to the wavenumber – a term we must
define a bit more carefully here – in a nonlinear way. To consider this possibility
we use the matrix T, (1.61), to analyze propagation in a periodic structure. We
imagine an infinite rod, cross-sectional area 1, in which equal point masses,
M, are periodically embedded. The right-hand figure of Fig. 1.1 indicates the
geometry and the how the masses are labeled. One such mass has the nominal
position x
1
=0 and is labeled n =0. Each mass is separated from its neighbors
by a distance L. A cell of length L is thereby formed and is labeled n if the
nth mass occupies its left end. There are thus two length scales, the wavelength
16 1 Simple Wave Solutions
λ =2π/k and the cell length L. In this problem we do not concern ourselves
with howthe waves are excited, but only with the simpler question, What waves
does this structure support? Consider the zeroth cell, where x
1
∈ (0, L). Within
that cell the solution to (1.54) is
¯ u
1
(x
1
) = R
0
e
i kx
1
+L
0
e
−i kx
1
. (1.62)
At x
1
= L

the wavefield is [R
0
e
i kL
, L
0
e
−i kL
]
T
. This can be written as L
1
=
PR
0
, with R
0
=[R
0
, L
0
]
T
. The matrix P is called the propagator or the prop-
agation matrix and is given by
P =

e
i kL
0
0 e
−i kL

. (1.63)
At x
1
= L
+
, within the 1th cell, the wavefield amplitudes R
1
=[R
1
, L
1
]
T
are
R
1
=TPR
0
. (1.64)
This relation is readily generalized. If R
n
=[R
n
, L
n
]
T
, then
R
n+1
=TPR
n
. (1.65)
The central feature of the propagation structure is that it has translational
symmetry. The central feature of the disturbance we seek is that its phase
changes from cell to cell in a way that represents propagation. Specifically con-
sider propagation to the right. To capture these two features, the wavefield at
a point within the (n +1)th cell can differ from that at a point within the nth
cell, where the two points are separated by a distance L, by at most a multi-
plicative phase factor. This kinematic constraint is expressed by the relation
R
n+1
=e
i κL
R
n
, (1.66)
where κ is unknown. κ is positive, if real, and such as to cause decay, if complex.
Combining (1.65) and (1.66) gives a 2 ×2 system of algebraic equations that
has a nontrivial solution if and only if
det(TP−e
i κL
I) =0. (1.67)
Recalling our previous definition of tan θ =kM/2ρ, we can write this equation
compactly as
cos κL =cos(kL +θ)/cos θ. (1.68)
1.4 Dispersive Propagation 17
This is a nonlinear relationship between the angular frequency ω =c
b
k and the
effective wavenumber κ, though it may not be apparent, as yet, that κ (and not
k) is the wavenumber of interest.
Note that if κL ∈ [−π, π] is a solution, then κL ±2nπ, for n =1, 2, . . . is
also a solution. Accordingly, we need only consider κL ∈ [−π, π]. The term
κL is real provided | cos κL| ≤1. Therefore the boundaries between real and
complex κL are given by
cos(kL +θ)/ cos θ =±1. (1.69)
When +1 is taken, the solutions are sin(kL/2) =0 or tan(kL/2) =−tan(θ).
That is, kL =2nπ or kL +2θ =2mπ, where n and m are integers. When
−1 is taken, the solutions are cos(kL/2) =0 or cot(kL/2) =tan(θ). That is,
kL =(2n −1)π or kL +2θ =(2m −1)π, where, again, n and m are inte-
gers. All these cases are covered by kL =nπ or kL +2θ =mπ. For kL ∈
[(n −1)π, (nπ −2θ)], κL is real. These intervals are called passbands. Else-
where κL is complex, causing the disturbance to decay as it pro-
pagates, and the intervals are called stopbands. At the lower boundary of a
passband, L is an integer number of half-wavelengths. If T were real, then
all the reflected waves add constructively and little or nothing is transmit-
ted. The actual situation is complicated by the complex T, but the con-
structive interference of the reflected waves is the basic physical mecha-
nism giving rise to the stopbands. This phenomenon is referred to as Bragg
scattering.
Consider the interval x
1
∈ (nL, (n +1)L). Then
¯ u
1
(x
1
) = R
n
e
i k(x
1
−nL)
+L
n
e
−i k(x
1
−nL)
= e
i κL

R
n−1
e
i k(x
1
−nL)
+L
n−1
e
−i k(x
1
−nL)

= e
i κL
¯ u
1
(x
1
−L) (1.70)
This equation is a restatement of (1.66). Further, it indicates that ¯ u
1
(x
1
) must
satisfy the functional equation ¯ u
1
(x
1
+L) =e
i κL
¯ u
1
(x
1
) if the kinematic con-
straint is to be enforced. Within each cell there are nominally two waves, as
indicated in (1.70), that we call partial waves. However, we seek a solution for
the wave globally propagating to the right along the structure, as distinguished
from the right- and left-propagating partial waves in each cell. With this in
mind, the solution to the functional equation is
¯ u
1
(x
1
) =e
i κx
1
ϕ(x
1
), (1.71)
18 1 Simple Wave Solutions
where ϕ(x
1
+L) =ϕ(x
1
)
4
. That is, ϕ(x
1
) is a periodic function and can be
represented by a Fourier series, whose coefficients are c
n
. Therefore, ¯ u
1
(x
1
)
becomes
¯ u
1
(x
1
) =

−∞
c
n
e
i x
1
(κ−2πn/L)
. (1.72)
The time-harmonic wavefield ¯ u
1
(x
1
)e
−i ωt
is thus a consequence of an infinite
number of space harmonics. Note that shifting κL by ±2mπ would not change
this expression.
More importantly, it is clear that it is κ, through the term e
i (κx
1
−ωt )
, that is
the wavenumber. Equation (1.68) indicates that ω is a function of κ, or κ a
function of ω. A relation such as this is called a dispersion relation. Writing κ
as ω/c(ω), we see that ¯ u
1
(x
1
, ω) propagates at a different speed for each ω. If
we excited the structure with a pulse, then the pulse would be composed of an
infinite number of such components, as indicated by (1.36). Each component
would then propagate at its own speed and the pulse would become dispersed. A
pulse is information, whereas a sinusoid is not. Hence what we have inferred is
that dispersion can cause the distortion of or loss of information from a signal.
We shall explore this topic further in Chapter 6.
There are many fascinating aspects to propagation in periodic structures. The
discussion here has followed parts of Levine (1978), and a reader seeking to
learn more may wish to read this work further.
References
Achenbach, J.D. 1973. Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids. Amsterdam:
North-Holland.
Atkin, R.J. and Fox, N. 1980. An Introduction to the Theory of Elasticity. London:
Longman.
de Bruijn, N.G. 1970. Asymptotic Methods in Analysis, 3rd ed., pp. 52–56.
Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Comninou, M. and Dundurs, J. 1977. Reflexion and refraction of elastic waves in the
presence of separation. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A, 356: 509–528.
Friedman, B. 1956. Principles and Techniques of Applied Mathematics, pp. 65–67.
New York: Wiley.
Gregory, R.D. 1996. Helmholtz’s theorem when the domain is infinite and when the
field has singular points. Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 49:439–450.
Hudson, J.A. 1980. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves. Cambridge:
University Press.
Levine, H. 1978. Unidirectional Wave Motions, pp. 273–308, 339–345, and elsewhere.
Amsterdam: North-Holland.
4
This is a partial statement of Floquet’s theorem (Friedman, 1956).
References 19
Lighthill, M.J. 1978. Fourier Analysis and Generalized Functions, pp. 67–71.
Cambridge: University Press.
Noble, B. 1988. Methods Based on the Wiener-Hopf Technique, pp. 11–27. New York:
Chelsea.
Papoulis, A. 1962. The Fourier Integral and its Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Phillips, H.B. 1933. Vector Analysis, pp. 182–196. New York: Wiley.
Titchmarsh, E.C. 1939. The Theory of Functions, 2nd ed., pp. 85–86. Oxford:
Clarendon Press.
2
Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
Synopsis
A wave equation is an equation of motion, so that a study of its solutions is
perhaps more than just the study of the kinematics. However, when one writes
little about how a wavefield is excited and concentrates primarily upon the
geometrical descriptionof a wavefield’s propagation, it is reasonable tolabel this
as such. The present chapter describes the kinematics of waves in a propagation
environment without boundaries. Descriptions of a plane wave are emphasized
because they forma canonical kinematical object fromwhich more complicated
solutions can be constructed.
2.1 Time-Dependent Plane Waves
A time-dependent plane wave is one whose form is
u(x, t ) =
ˆ
d u(t −s · x), (2.1)
where
ˆ
d is a constant unit vector
1
called the polarization and s is a constant
vector called the slowness. The time is t and the position vector is x. The
equation s · x = t −C, where C is a constant, is a parametric representation of
a family of planes, where each value of parameter t gives a different member of
the family. The normal to the plane is s. Figure 2.1 sketches this relationship.
As t is incremented, then x must be incremented along s if the argument
t −s · x is to equal the constant C. Accordingly, u retains a constant value over
each plane defined by t provided this plane advances along the normal s as t
increases. The wave’s name then arises from this fact and the plane is called a
wave front. Setting s = s ˆ p so that ˆ p is the unit normal to each plane, it is then
1
The circumflex indicates a unit vector.
20
2.1 Time-Dependent Plane Waves 21
x
2
x
3
x
1
x
s
Fig. 2.1. Asketch of the plane wavefront s · x = t −C, where t is a parameter identify-
ing a particular plane. The position vector x identifies a point on the plane; the slowness
vector s is normal to the plane and hence gives its orientation.
straightforward to find that
ˆ p · dx/dt = 1/s, (2.2)
so that s
−1
is the speed of advance of the plane along ˆ p.
Substituting (2.1) into the equation of motion, (1.6), gives
c
2
L
s(s · ∂
t

t
u) −c
2
T
s ∧ s ∧ ∂
t

t
u = ∂
t

t
u. (2.3)
Because, for any vector A, s(s · A) −s ∧s ∧ A = s
2
A, (2.3) implies that either
s
2
= 1/c
2
L
, s ∧ u = 0, (2.4)
or
s
2
= 1/c
2
T
s · u = 0. (2.5)
Thus either
u =
ˆ
du(t − ˆ p · x/c
L
), ˆ p ∧
ˆ
d = 0, (2.6)
or
u =
ˆ
du(t − ˆ p · x/c
T
), ˆ p ·
ˆ
d = 0. (2.7)
22 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
The first is a longitudinal wave with its polarization parallel to its direction
of propagation, while the second is a transverse wave with its polarization
perpendicular to this direction.
The flux of energy Fis given by (1.26). Calculating Ffor (2.6) or (2.7) gives
F
I
= ρc
I
(∂
t
u)
2
ˆ p, (2.8)
where I = L or T and F
I
is the corresponding flux. The energy density is
E = K+U, where K, the kinetic energy, and U, the internal energy, are given
by (1.25). For these two plane waves the velocity of energy transport, C, is
C
I
= F
I
/E
I
= c
I
ˆ p, (2.9)
where I = L or T, and F
I
and E
I
are the corresponding flux and energy density.
2.2 Time-Harmonic Plane Waves
In one sense, time-harmonic plane waves are only a particular case of a general
plane wave, but because we are working with the temporal transform, we have
the additional flexibility of allowing ˆ p to be complex. This has some interesting
implications for the form of the corresponding time-dependent plane wave that
we shall explore in Section 3.3. For the present, assume that the time depen-
dence is e
−i ωt
or that the wavefield has been transformed over time. The e
−i ωt
is not given, unless explicitly needed, and ω is assumed real and positive, for
the present.
A time-harmonic plane wave has the form
2
u = A
ˆ
de
i k ˆ p·x
, (2.10)
where the amplitude A = | A|e
i θ
and the wavenumber k = ω/c. The combi-
nation k ˆ p = ωs is the wavevector. To recover a real, time-harmonic wave,
multiply by e
−i ωt
and take the real part of the expression.
As indicated previously, we may take ˆ p = p
r
+ i p
i
, with p
r
and p
i
both
real. Because ˆ p · ˆ p = 1, p
r
· p
i
= 0. The real and imaginary components are
perpendicular to one another. If p
i
= 0, the plane wave is an inhomogeneous or
evanescent one, while if p
i
= 0, it is homogeneous. Writing(2.10) indetail gives
u = A
ˆ
de
−kx· p
i
e
i kx· p
r
. (2.11)
2
In the previous chapter we distinguished a time-harmonic wave from a time-dependent one by
using an overbar. The overbar is no longer used unless explicitly needed.
2.2 Time-Harmonic Plane Waves 23
An inhomogeneous plane wave propagates in the p
r
direction, but decays in
the p
i
direction. That such waves arise in practice will soon become apparent.
Substituting (2.10) into the equation of motion, (1.6), gives, just as it did in (2.3),

c
2
L
/c
2

ˆ p( ˆ p ·
ˆ
d) −

c
2
T
/c
2

ˆ p ∧ ˆ p ∧
ˆ
d =
ˆ
d. (2.12)
Thus, either ˆ p ∧
ˆ
d = 0 and c = c
L
, or ˆ p ·
ˆ
d = 0 and c = c
T
. Note that these
statements imply that
ˆ
d may also be complex.
The symbol ˆ p
i
is the i th component of ˆ p. Assume that ˆ p
3
= 0 and ˆ p
1
is real.
Then ˆ p
2
may be real or imaginary. That is,
ˆ p
2
=

1 − ˆ p
2
1

1/2
, | ˆ p
1
| < 1,
i

ˆ p
2
1
− 1

1/2
, | ˆ p
1
| > 1.
(2.13)
In the first case the wave is homogeneous:
u = A
ˆ
de
i k(x
1
ˆ p
1
+x
2
ˆ p
2
)
. (2.14)
In the second it is inhomogeneous:
u = A
ˆ
de
−k ˆ αx
2
e
i kx
1
ˆ p
1
. (2.15)
Here α = −i ˆ p
2
. The implications of allowing the vectors ˆ p and
ˆ
d to be
complex lead to many interesting results, many of which are discussed by
Boulanger and Hayes (1993).
For the remainder of the section, we shall assume that ˆ p is real. Calculating
the instantaneous energy flux gives
F
I
= ρc
I
ω
2
(i Ae
i η
I
)(i Ae
i η
I
) ˆ p, (2.16)
where η
I
= k
I
(x · ˆ p − c
I
t ), and I = L or T. The instantaneous value is of
less interest than the average value over a period T(= 2π/ω). This average is
defined as
G =
1
T

t +T
t
G(τ) dτ, (2.17)
where G(t ) is a real periodic function of t with period T. It can be shown by
direct calculation that
(Ae
i η
)(B
i η
) =
1
2
(AB

), (2.18)
where A and B are the complex amplitudes and η has the formgiven previously.
24 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
Problem 2.1
Carry out the calculation leading to (2.18).
Applying (2.18) to (2.16) gives
F
I
=
1
2
ρc
I
ω
2
AA

ˆ p. (2.19)
Problem 2.2
Show that F
I
= c
I
E
I
ˆ p and F
I
and E
I
are the corresponding flux and
energy density.
2.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations
Spherical and cylindrical waves can be constructed directly from solutions to
the equations of motion in the corresponding coordinate systems. A summary
of this approach is given in an Appendix. However, these waves can also be
constructed fromcollections of homogeneous and inhomogeneous plane waves.
These representations are called plane-wave or angular-spectrum representa-
tions. The advantage of these representations is that, upon constructing the
outcome of an interaction of a plane wave with an obstacle, linearity allows
us to use it to construct the outcome of an interaction with the same obstacle
by a more general wavefield. Here, we construct an antiplane shear, Gaussian
beam and a compressional spherical wave, and give the result for an antiplane
shear, cylindrical wave. This last construction is taken up in Problem 4.1, be-
cause it is more easily motivated by starting from a radiation problem. The
clarity of the plane-wave spectral technique is well demonstrated by Clemmow
(1966) through the description and solution of several electromagnetic wave
propagation and scattering problems.
2.3.1 A Gaussian Beam
Consider an antiplane shear wave whose equation of motion is (1.15). We shall
continue to use u
3
for the particle displacement, but write c rather than the
awkward c
T
. When a time-harmonic disturbance is assumed, (1.15) gives, in a
region where there are no sources of excitation,

α

α
u
3
+ k
2
u
3
= 0. (2.20)
We consider a signaling problem. This is a problem wherein the source is given
as a function of time over an initial plane – in the present case it is given as a
2.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations 25
time-harmonic function along the x
2
axis – and the excited wavefield is allowed
to propagate outward, usually in only one direction, to infinity. At x
1
= 0,
u
3
(0, x
2
) = Ae
−(x
2
/b)
2
, (2.21)
where A is a complex amplitude and b is a parameter that measures the initial
width of the wavefield. While it will not be clear from what we do here, this
wavefield will remain Gaussian in cross section but spreads as it propagates
outward. As x
1
→∞, we ask that the wave be outgoing (there are no sources
at infinity).
When the spatial Fourier transform over x
2
is used, the equation of motion
becomes
d
2∗
u
3
/dx
2
1
+k
2
1

u
3
= 0, (2.22)
where
k
1
=

k
2
−k
2
2

1/2
, (k
1
) ≥ 0, (k
1
) ≥ 0. (2.23)
Defining the branches of the radical k
1
is very important, but for the present
we do not need to know in detail where the branch cuts are placed. This will
be discussed in Section 3.4.4. The solution to (2.22) that satisfies the outgoing
condition is

u
3
= U(k
2
)e
i k
1
x
1
. Therefore
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
) =
1


−∞
U(k
2
)e
i (k
1
x
1
+k
2
x
2
)
dk
2
. (2.24)
Note that we could simply have asserted that this was a solution to (2.20) and
hence begun the discussion at this point.
To find U, we use (2.21) to write
U(k
2
) = A


−∞
e
−(x
2
/b)
2
e
−i k
2
x
2
dx
2
,
= π
1/2
Abe
−(k
2
b/2)
2
. (2.25)
Therefore,
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
) =
bA

1/2


−∞
e
−(k
2
b/2)
2
e
i (k
1
x
1
+k
2
x
2
)
dk
2
. (2.26)
We have succeeded in taking a rather general wavefield and expressing it as an
integral over a set of plane waves; hence the name plane-wave representation
and the descriptive term plane-wave spectra. Note that k
1
takes both real and
imaginary values as k
2
ranges over (−∞, ∞). That is, the integral is one over
both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, time harmonic, plane waves.
26 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
2.3.2 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a Spherical Wave
Consider a spherically symmetric compressional wave such that the particle
displacement u is described by ∇ϕ. The equation governing ϕ is (1.21). The
only spatial dependence is upon r = (x
2
1
+ x
2
2
+ x
2
3
)
1/2
. Again we assume that
the disturbance is time harmonic. For r > 0, (1.21) becomes
1
r
2

∂r

r
2
∂ϕ
∂r

+k
2
ϕ = 0, (2.27)
where we have written c to replace c
L
and k = ω/c to replace k
L
. For r = 0 a
solution of (2.27) is
ϕ = A(e
i kr
/kr), (2.28)
where Ais an amplitude that may be complex. Clearly its wavefront is spherical.
The energy flux is proportional to r
−2
balancing the increase in surface area
of the spherical wavefront as the wave propagates outward. In Section 4.3.1,
Note 2, we suggest a possible source for such a spherical, compressional wave.
Rather than consider the wave excited by a compact source, we pose a sig-
naling problem. Set ρ = (x
2
1
+ x
2
2
)
1/2
. The potential ϕ satisfies (2.27), while,
at x
3
= 0,
ϕ = A(e
i kρ
/kρ). (2.29)
As x
3
→ ±∞ we ask that the wave be outgoing. For the moment consider
x
3
≥ 0. The potential ϕ can be represented as
ϕ =
1
(2π)
2


−∞


−∞

ϕ(k
1
, k
2
)e
i (k
1
x
1
+k
2
x
2
+k
3
x
3
)
dk
1
dk
2
, (2.30)
with
k
3
=

k
2
−k
2
1
−k
2
2

1/2
, (k
3
) ≥ 0, (k
3
) ≥ 0. (2.31)
This is a solution to (2.27). The termk
3
has been defined so that the wavefield is
outgoing. Note that we have moved directly to the step represented previously
by (2.24). Applying the condition at x
3
= 0, (2.29), gives

ϕ(k
1
, k
2
) =
A
k


−∞


−∞
e
i kρ
ρ
e
−i (k
1
x
1
+k
2
x
2
)
dx
1
dx
2
. (2.32)
Integrals of this form are most readily evaluated by transforming the coordi-
nates of the integrand to polar ones, both in the physical and in the transform
2.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations 27
space. The transformations are
k
1
= κ cos ψ, k
2
= κ sin ψ, x
1
= ρ cos θ, x
2
= ρ sin θ, (2.33)
where κ = (k
2
1
+k
2
2
)
1/2
and ρ was given previously. The integral in (2.32) can
now be written as

ϕ =
A
k


0


0
e
iρ[k−κ cos(ψ−θ)]
dρ. (2.34)
Performing the integration gives

ϕ = 2πi A/kk
3
, (2.35)
where k
3
is given by (2.31). Therefore, the spherical wave, (2.28), can be repre-
sented as an integral, taken over both homogeneous and inhomogeneous waves,
given by
ϕ =
i A
2πk


−∞


−∞
e
i (k
1
x
1
+k
2
x
2
+k
3
|x
3
|)
dk
1
dk
2
k
3
. (2.36)
This then is the plane-wave representation of a spherical wave. It serves to
indicate again the centrality of plane waves as kinematical objects. Note that
x
3
has been replaced with its absolute value so as to give a spherical wave over
all space. Had we assumed x
3
negative, then the definition of the branch of the
function k
3
, (2.31), would have to be changed. The outcome of assuming both
x
3
negative and changing the branch of k
3
that is taken is equivalent to retaining
the definition of (2.31) and replacing x
3
with its absolute value.
3
It is possible to do still more with this representation. Each plane wave in
the integrand has the form e
i k·x
, where k is the complex wavevector and x the
position vector. Written this way, it is possible to imagine that a spherical wave
could be constructed froma bursting of wavevectors fromsome compact source
region, with each wavevector piercing a spherical surface. It is therefore enough
to identify each wavevector with two angles.
Again let us momentarily assume that x
3
> 0. Consider the following trans-
formation, sometimes called the Sommerfeld transformation.
κ = k sin ξ, k
3
= k cos ξ, (2.37)
3
There are two points in this calculation that have not been explained clearly. The first, how the
branch of a radical such as k
3
is determined, is explained in Section 3.4.4. The second, why we
can assume that e
i kρ
→0 as ρ →∞, is explained in Section 4.4.
28 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
where κ was given previously. The variables k
1
and k
2
both vary from −∞
to +∞, so that κ varies from 0 to ∞. Moreover, k
3
must satisfy (2.31). The
integration with respect to ψ goes from 0 to 2π. But the integration over ξ is
more complicated because ξ must vary over both real and complex values to
capture the full range of κ. Let ξ = ξ
r
+ i ξ
i
, with ξ
r
and ξ
i
both real. Then
sin(ξ
r
+i ξ
i
) = sin ξ
r
cosh ξ
i
+i cos ξ
r
sinh ξ
i
and cos(ξ
r
+i ξ
i
) = cos ξ
r
cosh ξ
i

i sin ξ
r
sinh ξ
i
. Let ξ
r
vary from0 to π/2 and keep ξ
i
= 0, so that κ varies from0
to k and (k
3
) ≥ 0. To have κ continue to ∞, we hold ξ
r
= π/2 and let ξ
i
vary to
either +∞or −∞. To keep (k
3
) ≥ 0 we must have ξ
i
vary from 0 to −∞. We
are integrating in the complex ξ plane so that a strict adherence to this contour
is not essential, but the contour must begin at zero and end somewhere near
π/2−i ∞. Further, it must be such that the integral is convergent and represents
an outgoing wavefield. Carefully changing the variables of integration in (2.36)
gives
ϕ =
i A
2πk


0

π/2−i ∞
0
e
i k·x
sin ξ dξ. (2.38)
Note that k
3
has has been removed by this transformation. The expression (2.38)
is called an angular-spectrum representation and succinctly captures the image
of a spherical wave as a burst of wavevectors. Note that to fully achieve the
spherical wavefront, inhomogeneous waves are also needed.
2.3.3 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a Cylindrical Wave
To achieve a plane-wave or angular-spectrum representation of a cylindrical
wave, it is easier to work from the equation of motion with a line force than
to try to pose a signaling problem. This is done in Problem 4.1. However, as
indicated in the Appendix, an outgoing cylindrical wave is described by the
Hankel function, H
(1)
0
(kρ). Sommerfeld (1964) describes how to represent this
function as an angular spectrum and gives the result
H
(1)
0
(kρ) =
1
π

C
e
i kρ cos ξ
dξ. (2.39)
The contour C begins at −η +i ∞and ends at η −i ∞, where η ∈ (0, π).
2.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion
A much older way to represent waves is by using rays. Born and Wolf
(1986) give a concise introduction to ray theory for electromagnetic waves,
while Achenbach et al. (1982) provide a detailed asymptotic development of
2.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 29
elastic-wave ray theory. There are, at least, two ways to approach ray descrip-
tions. The one presented next builds upon the time-harmonic plane wave, with
the assumption, lurking in the background, that we can synthesize the time-
dependent case from this construction, should we need to. However, it is also
possible to use the fact that hyperbolic equations permit discontinuities to be
transported along their characteristics. A wave is permitted to have a discon-
tinuity at its wavefront and the kinematics of the discontinuity is developed.
This is the approach taken by Hudson (1980) for elastic waves, and in a more
general context by Whitham (1974). The two approaches are connected by
the fact that a discontinuity in a wavefront engages predominantly the high-
frequency components of the temporal Fourier transform (Lighthill, 1978). We
expect ray descriptions to be useful only when the wavelengths are small with
respect to any other characteristic length in the propagation environment.
2.4.1 Compressional Wave
We begin by working with the scalar potential ϕ. Knowing the representation
for ϕ, it is straightforward to construct that for the vector potential ψ and hence
that for the particle displacement u. We are, then, left examining the equation

2
ϕ +k
2
ϕ = 0, (2.40)
where we have again written c for c
L
, so that k = ω/c.
As a generalization of a plane wave, we assume that ϕ can be expanded as
ϕ(x) ∼ e
i k[S(x)−ct ]
(i k)
−α−1

n=0
(i k)
−n
A
n
(x), (2.41)
where α < 1 is a positive number (the term raised to the power α is added
for generality). We have added the e
−i ωt
, where t is time, to the exponential to
aid in our subsequent discussions. In writing this expression, we are using two
ideas. First, we note that any surface can be approximated by its tangent planes
and hence locally any wavefield will have a propagating part or phase
4
that
behaves as does that of a plane wave. Second, by examining the representations
(2.38) and (2.39), we should expect that the amplitude of a wave with a curved
wavefront depends insome wayonk or, equivalently, the wavelengthλ = 2π/k.
4
The word phase has a rather confused meaning in wave propagation. Looking back at (2.10), we
note the argument of the amplitude A makes a contribution to the exponential term of a plane
wave. This contribution is sometimes called the phase. However, referring to (2.41), we note that
the exponential, kS(x), is also called the phase. When the word phase is used in this book, it
refers to this latter term, that controlled by the wavenumber k.
30 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
Therefore, it is reasonable that the amplitude can be expanded as an asymptotic
power series
5
in the principal parameter λ, or equivalently k
−1
, and that the
approximation becomes increasingly accurate as λ → 0 or k → ∞. We begin
the expansionwithk
−α−1
sothat the approximationfor the particle displacement
will start as k
−α
. Lastly, it is not good workmanship to expand in a parameter
with a dimension because the measure of large or small remains too vague. In
the present case the reader should imagine that k is multiplied by a distance
representing that between interactions, call it L, and that it is kL that is very
large. Rather than introduce an extra parameter, however, we suppress the L
unless explicitly needed.
Substituting (2.41) into (2.40) gives

n=0

(∇S · ∇S −1)A
n
+ [2(∇S · ∇)A
n−1
+∇
2
SA
n−1
] (2.42)
+∇
2
A
n−2

(i k)
−(n−1)
= 0,
where the A
n
with negative subscripts are zero. The set {(i k)
−n
} is linearly
independent. Accordingly, for A
0
= 0,
∇S · ∇S = 1. (2.43)
Note that |∇S| = 1. This equation is called the eikonal equation. At n = 1 we
have
2(∇S · ∇)A
0
+(∇
2
S)A
0
= 0, (2.44)
and, for n > 1,
2(∇S · ∇)A
n−1
+(∇
2
S)A
n−1
= −∇
2
A
n−2
. (2.45)
These last two equations are called the transport equations. Collectively, (2.43)–
(2.45) provide a recursive scheme whereby the solution to one equation gives
the missing information needed for the solution to the next. The solution of the
eikonal equation gives a family of curves along which the amplitudes A
n
are
transported.
We define a ray as the vector k∇S. It is tangent to one of the curves found
from solving (2.43). We define a wavefront, just as we did following (2.1),
5
Holmes (1995) and Hinch (1991) provide useful starting points for the reader to learn more about
asymptotic and perturbation methods.
2.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 31
as the family of surfaces S(x) = ct + C, where t is a parameter giving each
member of the family and C is a constant.
To solve (2.43), let x(s, q) define a family of curves that are orthogonal to each
surface S(x) = ct +C. The variable s defines the arclength along the curve,
while q indicates each member of the family. For the moment, we imagine that
x does not depend on q and suppress any reference to it until we need it. By
definition,
dx/ds = ∇S. (2.46)
Setting ˆ p = ∇S, we see that the left-hand side of (2.43) is ˆ p · ∇S, which is
nothing more than the directional derivative dS/ds. Thus S(x) = s(x) + ct
0
,
where t
0
is an initial time. We have assumed that the equation for each curve
x(s) can be inverted to give s as a function of x. We do not at present know
x(s).
Direct differentiation and using (2.43) indicate that d ˆ p/ds = 0 along a curve
x(s, q), where we have reinserted the q to indicate that we are now considering
a family (a pencil) of such curves. Therefore the curves are straight lines whose
equations are
x(s, q) = x
0
(q) +s ˆ p(q). (2.47)
In Fig. 2.2 we have sketched some aspects of the construction. The vector
x
0
(q) is the starting point for a ray identified by q on the initial wavefront
S(x
0
) = ct
0
. Boththese equations are assumedknownor given. The components
of the vector q = (q
1
, q
2
) constitute a coordinate systemon the initial wavefront
and define the point at which the ray is launched at t = t
0
. The rays propagate
along and are tangent to x(s, q) and pierce each wavefront perpendicularly.
Inverting (2.47) to obtain s(x) and q(x) gives the equation for a wavefront as
S(x) = s(x) +S(x
0
), where s(x) = c(t −t
0
)
6
. Recall that (2.47), by the implicit
functiontheorem, is locallyinvertible if the Jacobiandoes not vanish. Surfaces at
which this Jacobian vanishes are called caustics. In the neighborhood of these
surfaces, the expansion (2.41) becomes disordered. Choi and Harris (1989,
1990) give an interesting example of caustic formation in elastic materials,
though their asymptotic analysis starts from integral representations, rather
than ray expansions.
6
Note that this description of the rays, while qualitatively correct for anisotropic or inhomogeneous
materials, requires some substantial modification in these cases.
32 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
q
S(x
0
)
x(s, q) ϭ x
0
(q) ϩ sp
S(x)
ˆ
Fig. 2.2. A ray is launched in a direction normal to an initial wavefront S(x
0
) from the
point q on S(x
0
). It is a straight line. After propagating a distance s along this line, it
pierces the wavefront S(x), again in a normal direction. The starting point of the ray is
x
0
(q), and its present position is x(s, q) = x
0
(q) +s ˆ p, where ˆ p is a unit vector pointing
along (tangent to) the ray
Weatherburn (1939)
7
shows that

2
S = 1/ρ
1
+1/ρ
2
, (2.48)
where ρ
1
and ρ
2
are the principal radii of curvature of the surface S(x) =
s(x) + S(x
0
). These radii take a sign. If a wavefront is expanding, its radii of
curvature are positive, and the normal to the surface points in the direction of
expansion. If the wavefront is contracting, the radii of curvature are negative,
but the normal continues to point in the direction of propagation, namely that
of contraction. Moreover, because s is the distance along the straight lines
orthogonal to each surface, ρ
1
= ρ
01
+ s and ρ
2
= ρ
02
+ s, where the ρ
0i
are
the radii of curvature of the initial surface S(x
0
) = ct
0
. Accordingly, the first
transport equation, (2.49), can be written as
dA
0
ds
+
1
2

1
ρ
01
+s
+
1
ρ
02
+s

A
0
= 0. (2.49)
This is a differential equation along each ray q. Its solution is
A
0
=
A(q)
[(ρ
01
+s)(ρ
02
+s)]
1/2
, (2.50)
where A(q) is assumed to be given.
7
The difference in sign from that in Weatherburn arises because of how we have defined the signs
of the radii of curvature.
2.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 33
Collecting the various pieces and noting that the compressional component
of the particle displacement u
L
= ∇ϕ, gives, to leading order,
u
L

ˆ pA
L
(q)
(i k
L
)
α
[(ρ
01
+s)(ρ
02
+s)]
1/2
e
i k
L
[s(x)−c
L
(t −t
0
)]
, (2.51)
where we have put back the subscript L to indicate that we have calculated the
compressional component. The power α must also be given, typically as part
of the initial data for the problem.
This is a remarkable expression. It captures our intuitive notions of a wave as
an object whose phase steadily increases as we move along a curve, the tangent
vector to the curve being a ray, and whose amplitude decays geometrically
such as to conserve energy (Problem 2.4). Note also that the denominator may
vanish, in which case our asymptotic approximation is no longer accurate. This
happens on the caustic surfaces mentioned previously. Lastly, note that the
polarization of the leading-order term (2.51) is that of a longitudinal wave, but
this does not preclude the possibility that the higher-order terms could have
different polarizations.
Problem 2.4 Conservation of Energy in a Ray Tube
Show, by multiplying through by A
0
, that the first transport equation, (2.49),
can be written as
∇ ·

∇SA
2
0

= 0. (2.52)
Integrate this over a tube formed from rays and, for an infinitesimal cross
section, deduce the result, (2.50). Interestingly, this equation establishes more
than just the conservation of time-averaged energy. The A
0
can be complex and
the solution to (2.52) gives both its magnitude and its argument. If conservation
of energy were our only goal, we should consider ∇ · (∇SA
0
A

0
) = 0. The
reader is encouraged to do so.
2.4.2 Shear Wave
Next we consider a shear wave. The vector potential ψ is written as
ψ(x) ∼ e
i k
T
[S(x)−c
T
t ]
(i k
T
)
−α−1

n=0
(i k
T
)
−n
A
n
(x), (2.53)
where k
T
= ω/c
T
. Recall that ∇ · ψ = 0. Provided we do not seek terms
beyond the leading one, this implies that
A
0
· ∇S = 0. (2.54)
34 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
The kinematic analysis here will be identical to that of the previous section so
that ˆ p = ∇S gives the direction of the rays, which propagate along straight
lines. Hence, A
0
will be orthogonal to ˆ p and have two linearly independent
components, A
T V
0
ˆ
d
T H
and A
T H
0
ˆ
d
T V
. We select the unit vectors
ˆ
d
I
so that
ˆ p ∧
ˆ
d
T V
=
ˆ
d
T H
. (2.55)
At this point the analysis giveninthe previous sectionapplies toeachcomponent
of A
0
. We find that, to leading order, the shear particle displacement is
u
I

χ
I
ˆ
d
I
A
I
(q)
(i k
T
)
α
[(ρ
01
+s)(ρ
02
+s)]
1/2
e
i k
T
[s(x)−c
T
(t −t
0
)]
, (2.56)
where χ
I
= ∓1 as I = T H, T V. Note that the radii of curvature ρ
0i
are
different for the two wave types (2.51) and (2.56). It takes the presence of a
source or boundary to couple the waves together. As with the compressional
wave, the polarization can change as one proceeds to the higher-order terms.
Appendix: Spherical and Cylindrical Waves
The following is a summary of information about spherical and cylindrical
waves.
To begin, we consider a wavefield whose only dependence is upon the radial
coordinate r and whose only component of particle displacement u is in the
radial direction. The equation of motion becomes

2
u
∂r
2
+
2
r
∂u
∂r

2u
r
2
=
1
c
2
L

2
u
∂t
2
. (2.57)
Such a wavefield could be excited by a uniformly pressurized spherical cavity.
Setting u = ∂ϕ/∂r, we find that this equation reduces to

2
(rϕ)
∂r
2
=
1
c
2
L

2
(rϕ)
∂t
2
, (2.58)
and its solution is
ϕ(r, t ) =
1
r
f

t −
r
c
L

+
1
r
g

t +
r
c
L

, (2.59)
where f and g are arbitrary functions. The first term represents an outgoing
wave and the second an incoming one. Let us assume that there is only an
References 35
outgoing wave and take its temporal transform. Then we get
¯ ϕ =
¯
f (ω)
r
e
i k
L
r
, (2.60)
in agreement with (2.28). Note that the particle displacement u = ∂ϕ/∂r so
that there are both r
−1
and r
−2
terms.
Next we consider inplane, rotary shear motion. We use a cylindrical coordi-
nate system to describe it. The only component of particle displacement is v, a
displacement in the angular, θ direction. The only dependence is upon the polar,
radial coordinate ρ. There is no dependence on x
3
. The equation of motion is

2
v
∂ρ
2
+
1
ρ
∂v
∂ρ

v
ρ
2
=
1
c
2
T

2
v
∂t
2
. (2.61)
Such a wavefield could be excited by a traction, solely in the θ direction, on the
walls of a cylindrical cavity. Setting v = −∂ψ
3
/∂ρ, we find that this equation
reduces to

2
ψ
3
∂ρ
2
+
1
ρ
∂ψ
3
∂ρ
=
1
c
2
T

2
ψ
3
∂t
2
. (2.62)
Taking the temporal transform, we get

2
¯
ψ
3
∂ρ
2
+
1
ρ

¯
ψ
3
∂ρ
+k
2
T
¯
ψ
3
= 0. (2.63)
This is Bessel’s equation of order zero and has, as two of its linearly independent
solutions, the Hankel functions H
(1,2)
0
(k
T
ρ). The asymptotic behavior of these
functions is
H
(1,2)
0
(k
T
ρ) ∼ (2/πk
T
ρ)
1/2
e
±i (k
T
ρ−π/4)
, k
T
ρ →∞, (2.64)
where the plus sign goes with the 1 and the minus sign with the 2. From this
behavior, we see that H
(1)
0
(k
T
ρ) represents an outgoing wave and H
(2)
0
(k
T
ρ) an
incoming one. Recall that the particle displacement is v = −∂ψ
3
/∂ρ.
References
Achenbach, J.D., Gautesen, A.K., and McMaken, H. 1982. Ray Methods for Waves in
Elastic Solids, pp. 77–88. Boston: Pitman.
Born, M. and Wolf, E. 1986. Principles of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed., pp. 109–127.
Oxford: Pergamon.
Boulanger, Ph. and Hayes, M. 1993. Bivectors and Waves in Mechanics and Optics.
New York: Chapman and Hall.
36 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
Choi, H.C. and Harris, J.G. 1989. Scattering of an ultrasonic beam from a curved
interface. Wave Motion 11: 383–406.
Choi, H.C. and Harris, J.G. 1990. Focusing of an ultrasonic beam by a curved
interface. Wave Motion 12: 497–511.
Clemmow, P.C. 1966. The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic
Fields. Oxford: Pergamon.
Hinch, E.J. 1991. Perturbation Methods. Cambridge: University Press.
Holmes, M.H. 1995. Introduction to Perturbation Methods. New York: Springer.
Hudson, J.A. 1980. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves. New York:
Cambridge.
Lighthill, M.J. 1978. Fourier Analysis and Generalized Functions, pp. 46–57. New
York: Cambridge
Sommerfeld, A. 1964. Partial Differential Equations in Physics, Lectures on
Theoretical Physics, Vol. VI, pp. 84–101. Translated by E.G. Straus. New York:
Academic.
Weatherburn, C.E. 1939. Differential Geometry of Three Dimensions, Vol. 1,
pp. 225–227. Cambridge: University Press.
Whitham, G.B. 1974. Linear and Nonlinear Waves. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
3
Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
Synopsis
Chapter 3 describes reflection and refraction at an interface between two mate-
rials having different densities and wavespeeds. Moreover, the chapter describes
waves that propagate along an interface, while decaying perpendicularly away
from it. These waves, in many cases, must be continuously renewed from a
wavefield in the interior of one or both the materials to sustain their propagation.
However, a traction-free elastic surface is special in that a wave can be excited
on such a surface and not require an interior wavefield to sustain it.
There is an intimate relation between the topography of the complex waven-
umber plane and the physical manifestation of the propagating wavefield, as we
have previously noted. Extending this connection, we discuss how branches of
the function (k
2
−z
2
)
1/2
, where z is the complex variable and k a parameter, are
selected and how these selections manifest themselves in the physical domain.
3.1 Reflection of a Compressional Plane Wave
We consider a longitudinal or compressional plane wave incident to a traction-
free surface. Figure 3.1 indicates the geometry of the problem along with a
schematic representation of the interaction. Further, we assume that the distur-
bance is time harmonic, but suppress the e
−i ωt
unless it is explicitly needed.
We do so knowing that using (1.36) will carry the resulting expressions into
corresponding time-dependent ones. The incident wave u
0
is described by
u
0
= A
0
ˆ p
0
e
i k
L
ˆ p
0
·x
, (3.1)
where the unit vector ˆ p
0
, which describes both the polarization of the wave and
its direction of propagation, is given by
ˆ p
0
= sin θ
0
ˆ e
1
+cos θ
0
ˆ e
2
. (3.2)
37
38 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
Fig. 3.1. The elastic solid fills the x
2
< 0 half-space, while x
2
> 0 is a vacuum. The
surface is free of tractions. A compressional plane wave is incident to the surface in the
direction ˆ p
0
.
The angle θ
0
is indicated in Fig. 3.1, and the ˆ e
i
are the unit vectors along the
x
i
axes (i = 1, 2). The amplitude A
0
is real and positive. As in previous work,
k
L
= ω/c
L
. The incident polarization has no antiplane component. Therefore
any waves excited at the boundary must also be inplane. Further, the incident
wave is plane so that it imposes a projection of its phase everywhere on the
surface. We therefore expect both compressional and shear plane waves to
be reflected
1
from the boundary, because both wave types can have matching
phase components along the surface.
The reflected compressional wave is described by
u
1
= A
1
ˆ p
1
e
i k
L
ˆ p
1
·x
, (3.3)
where the vector ˆ p
1
is given by
ˆ p
1
= sin θ
1
ˆ e
1
−cos θ
1
ˆ e
2
. (3.4)
The reflected shear wave is described by
u
2
= A
2
ˆ
d
2
e
i k
T
ˆ p
2
·x
, (3.5)
where the propagation direction is given by
ˆ p
2
= sin θ
2
ˆ e
1
−cos θ
2
ˆ e
2
, (3.6)
1
I use the phrase scattered wave or scattered wavefield to describe almost any disturbance that
is returned from or perturbed by an obstacle struck by an incident wave. When the obstacle is
impenetrable, the scattered wavefields generally break into reflected and diffracted ones. Any
wavefield that penetrates a shadowed region is a diffracted one; otherwise, it is reflected.
3.1 Reflection of a Compressional Plane Wave 39
but the polarization direction by
ˆ
d
2
= ˆ e
3
∧ ˆ p
2
. (3.7)
Figure 3.1 defines the angles θ
1
and θ
2
. The amplitudes A
1
and A
2
may be
complex. And as in previous work, k
T
= ω/c
T
. Note that both reflected waves
propagate away fromthe surface. Also note that the polarization of the reflected
shear wave is chosen so that ˆ p
2

ˆ
d
2
= ˆ e
3
.
3.1.1 Phase Matching
The boundary conditions at x
2
= 0 are that τ
22
= τ
21
= 0. Direct application
of these boundary conditions can be tedious. However, a little thought indicates
that they must take the form
(· · ·)A
0
e
i k
L
sin θ
0
x
1
+(· · ·)A
1
e
i k
L
sin θ
1
x
1
+(· · ·)A
2
e
i k
T
sin θ
2
x
1
= 0. (3.8)
This condition must hold for all x
1
. This can happen only if θ
0
= θ
1
and
s
L
sin θ
0
= s
T
sin θ
2
, where s
I
= c
−1
I
is the slowness. These two conditions
are called the phase-matching condition. The phrase phase-matching is often
used as a verb in the sense that “the reflected waves phase match to the incident
one.” Phase matching is nothing more than a demand that the projections, on the
surface x
2
= 0, of the various wavelengths be equal or, equivalently, because
ω is common to all the k
I
, that the wavespeeds along the surface be identical.
In fact it is a kinematical condition, rather than a kinetic one. The surface is
translationally invariant and the disturbance at one point differs from that at
another only by an exponential phase term that indicates propagation, in this
case to the right. This is a similar condition to that used to derive (1.66). Phase
matching is a fundamental principle of linear wave propagation, and, whenever
it occurs, something physically interesting will happen.
There is a very useful diagram that geometrically represents the phase-
matching condition. We define the slowness vectors
s
0
= ˆ p
0
/c
L
, s
1
= ˆ p
1
/c
L
, s
2
= ˆ p
2
/c
T
. (3.9)
The tip of each slowness vector describes a circle, a slowness surface,
2
as the
parameter θ
0
is variedthrough2π. This is showninFig. 3.2. The phase-matching
condition is stated as the condition that the s
1
components of each slowness
vector must be equal. We have indicated this by the vertical dashed line. In the
2
Slowness surfaces for isotropic materials are always spheres (circles really, because only two
dimensions are involved), but for anisotropic materials they can become very elaborate indeed.
Auld (1990) gives an account of these surfaces and of their use in determining phase-matching.
40 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
s
1
s
2
s
0
s
1
s
2
Fig. 3.2. The slowness surfaces for an isotropic elastic solid. The phase-matching
condition is indicated geometrically by demanding that the horizontal components (pro-
jections on the surface x
2
= 0) of the slowness vectors be equal.
case we are examining here, for real θ
0
, θ
2
must be real and less than π/2, even
in the limit that θ
0
= π/2.
3.1.2 Reflection Coefficients
Problem 3.1 asks the reader to calculate the longitudinal or compressional
reflection coefficient R
L

0
) = A
1
/A
0
and the transverse or shear reflection
coefficient R
T

0
) = A
2
/A
0
. When this is done the reader will find that
R
L

0
) = A


0
)/A
+

0
), (3.10)
R
T

0
) = 2κ sin 2θ
0
cos 2θ
2
/A
+

0
). (3.11)
The auxiliary functions are
A

= sin 2θ
0
sin 2θ
2
∓κ
2
cos
2

2
. (3.12)
These terms must be supplemented with the condition s
L
sin θ
0
= s
T
sin θ
2
. The
term κ = c
L
/c
T
is given by
κ = [2(1 −ν)/(1 −2ν)]
1/2
, (3.13)
where ν is Poisson’s ratio. For many materials, κ is close to 3
1/2
.
3.2 Reflection and Refraction 41
Note that, provided θ
0
is real, these reflection coefficients have no frequency
dependence and hence can be used both for time-harmonic and time-dependent
plane waves.
Problem 3.1 Reflection Coefficients
Show that applying the boundary condition τ
22
= 0 leads to

λ +2µcos
2
θ
0

(A
1
/A
0
) −κµsin 2θ
2
(A
2
/A
0
) = −

λ +2µcos
2
θ
0

,
(3.14)
and that applying the condition τ
21
= 0 leads to
−µsin 2θ
0
(A
1
/A
0
) −κµcos 2θ
2
(A
2
/A
0
) = −µsin 2θ
0
. (3.15)
Hence deduce (3.10)–(3.12).
Problem 3.2 Conservation of Energy
Show that the power flux into the surface equals that away from it. That is,
show that
|R
L
|
2
+|R
T
|
2
cos θ
2
κ cos θ
0
= 1. (3.16)
Hint. The calculation becomes straightforward once the reader realizes that
he or she must be careful to use the same element of area at the surface to
calculate both the flux into the surface and that away from it.
While there are several other problems of this general kind that could be
considered, we treat only one other, namely the reflection and refraction of an
antiplane shear wave at the interface between two contrasting materials.
3.2 Reflection and Refraction
We consider a plane, antiplane shear wave incident to an interface between two
materials that are in welded contact. In this case both the traction and the particle
displacement are continuous across the interface. To simplify the notation, we
replace c
T
, k
T
and similarly labeled symbols by c, k, and so on. It is clear that
only an antiplane particle displacement can be excited at the interface by an
42 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
Fig. 3.3. In the x
2
< 0 half-space the density is ρ, the elastic shear modulus µ, and
the wavespeed c = (µ/ρ)
1/2
, while in the x
2
> 0 half-space the density is ¯ ρ, the elastic
shear modulus ¯ µ, and the wavespeed ¯ c = ( ¯ µ/¯ ρ)
1/2
. A plane, antiplane shear wave is
incident to the surface in the direction ˆ p
0
.
incident wave with an antiplane polarization, so that the scattered waves must
also be similarly polarized.
Figure 3.3 indicates the various angles. The incident wave is described by
u
30
= A
0
e
i k ˆ p·x
, (3.17)
where the subscript 3 indicates the component and therefore the polarization,
and the 0 that the wave is incident. The incident direction is given by (3.2). The
reflected wave, indicated with the additional subscript 1, is described by
u
31
= A
1
e
i k ˆ p·x
, (3.18)
with its propagation direction given by (3.4). The wave that is transmitted
across the interface is said to be refracted. The refracted wave, indicated by the
additional subscript 2, is described by
u
32
= A
2
e
i
¯
k ˆ p
2
·x
, (3.19)
with its propagation direction given by
ˆ p
2
= sin θ
2
ˆ e
1
+cos θ
2
ˆ e
2
. (3.20)
3.2 Reflection and Refraction 43
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
1
s
2
s
2
s
2
s
2
Fig. 3.4. The upper slowness surface is that for the material of the upper half-space
in Fig. 3.3 and the lower for the material of the lower half-space. The left-hand side
indicates the case ¯ c > c, and the right the opposite one. The phase-matching condition
is indicated by the dashed vertical lines.
In Fig. 3.4 the slowness surfaces for the two materials are arranged vertically
in a pattern corresponding with the positions of the half-spaces in Fig. 3.3.
The two possible cases are shown. The left-hand side indicates that when the
upper material is faster and the right-hand side that when it is slower. Phase
matching demands that the s
1
components of the slowness vectors be equal; that
is, θ
0
= θ
1
and ¯ s sin θ
2
= s sin θ
0
. More importantly, the slowness diagrams
indicate the occurrence of critical refraction. This occurs when a wave incident
to the interface from the slower material excites a wave skimming along the
interface in the faster material. In principle the reverse can also occur. For
the case ¯ c > c or, equivalently ¯ s < s, the critical angle of incidence is θ
0c
,
where s sin θ
0c
= ¯ s. Of course θ
0
can be greater than θ
0c
, in which case θ
2
must be complex to satisfy the phase-matching condition. This gives rise to an
inhomogeneous plane wave in the upper material but to no time-average flux
of energy across the interface, as the solution to Problem 3.4 indicates. This
wave, clinging to the interface, is propelled along it by the waves in the lower
material.
44 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
Applying the continuity of traction and particle displacement at the interface
gives the antiplane shear, reflection coefficient R(θ
0
) and the antiplane shear,
refraction or transmission coefficient T(θ
0
), namely
R(θ
0
) = C


0
)/C
+

0
), (3.21)
T(θ
0
) = 2 cos θ
0
/C
+

0
). (3.22)
The auxiliary functions are
C

= cos θ
0
∓( ¯ µc/µ¯ c) cos θ
2
. (3.23)
Problem 3.3 Slowness Surfaces
Figure 3.4 shows how we can place slowness surfaces above one another to
work out the phase-matching conditions and the various critical angles. Draw
diagrams, similar to Fig. 3.4, of the slowness surfaces for inplane motion.
Consider both an incident compressional plane wave and inplane shear one.
Consider all the possibilities for critical reflection and critical refraction. Critical
reflection, analogouslytocritical refraction, arises whena wave skimmingalong
the interface or surface of a material is excited by a slower wave incident to
the interface from the same material. The reader may be surprised by the large
number of occurrences of critical reflection and refraction.
3.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves
Our discussion of critical refraction indicates that we do not need to consider
the angle of refraction as real. Moreover, as Problem 3.3 has indicated, critical
phenomena occur frequently in elastic-wave scattering. We must then regard
reflection and transmission coefficients as functions of a complex variable.
In fact, we shall find in Chapters 5 and 6 that where the complex plane is
punctured by the poles or cut by the branches of these coefficients, interesting
wave processes occur.
Let us continue to consider the problem of Section 3.2 and work with the
case of ¯ c > c. When θ
0
> θ
0c
, θ
2
must be complex to permit sin θ
2
> 1. To
find its form we set θ
2
= π/2 ± iβ, where β is real and positive. In this case
sin θ
2
= cosh β and cos θ
2
= ∓i sinh β. Next we look back at (3.21)–(3.23) and
note that |R(θ
0
)| = 1, implying that R(θ
0
) = e
−i 2ϕ
and T(θ
0
) = |T(θ
0
)|e
−i ϕ
.
Here ϕ is the argument of C
+

0
). Setting A
0
= 1, we find that the particle
displacement in x
2
> 0 becomes
u
32
= |T(θ
0
)|e
−i ϕ
e
±
¯
k sinh βx
2
e
i
¯
k cosh βx
1
, (3.24)
3.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves 45
where ˆ p
2
has been written in full as ˆ p
2
= cosh β ˆ e
1
∓ i sinh β ˆ e
2
. Assuming
that
¯
k is positive, we must select θ
2
= π/2 − iβ to ensure that the wavefield
decays as x
2
→∞. Thus (3.24) is an example of both an inhomogeneous plane
wave and of a wave that clings to the interface. We call the wave an interfacial
one. However, note that the wave would not exist unless a plane wave were
continuously incident to the interface from x
2
< 0 sustaining it.
There remains one subtle point. In choosing the minus sign we assumed that
¯
k
and thus ω was positive. If ω were negative then we must choose θ
2
= π/2+iβ
to ensure decay. Therefore, when θ
0
≥ θ
0c
, we must write
R(θ
0
) = e
−i 2ϕ sgnω
, T(θ
0
) = |T(θ
0
)|e
−i ϕ sgnω
, (3.25)
where
sgn ω =

1, ω > 0,
−1, ω < 0,
(3.26)
to take account of this ω dependence. The argument ϕ is determined when ω is
positive. It was to handle such situations that we rewrote the inverse temporal
Fourier transform in the form of (1.36).
Problem 3.4 Flux of Energy in the Upper Material
For the case of critical refraction, show that the time-average flux of energy
in x
2
> 0 is given by
F =
1
2
¯ µω
¯
k|T(θ
0
)|
2
e
−2
¯
k sgnω sinh β x
2
cosh β ˆ e
1
. (3.27)
Thus there is no flux of energy to x
2
→∞and energy is continually returned
to the slower material.
When θ
0
< θ
0c
the reflection and transmission coefficients have no frequency
dependence and therefore a plane pulse reflects and refracts exactly as a time-
harmonic, plane wave. When critical refraction takes place there is a frequency
dependence that distorts howa pulse reflects and refracts. Moreover, this partic-
ular frequency dependence is rather interesting because it depends only on the
sign of ω. To explore this further
3
we construct an incident plane-wave pulse,
namely
u
30
(t − ˆ p
0
· x/c) =
1
π


0
A
0
(ω) e
−i ω(t − ˆ p
0
·x/c)
dω, (3.28)
3
This argument has been taken from Friedlander (1947).
46 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
where we have used the fact that A
0
(ω) = A

0
(−ω) because u
30
is real. A
0
(ω) is
no longer simply a positive real constant, but can nowbe an arbitrary amplitude
with a frequency dependence. From the linearity of the problem it follows that
the reflected pulse is given by
u
31
(t − ˆ p
1
· x/c) =
1
π


0
A
0
(ω)e
−i 2ϕ
e
−i ω(t − ˆ p
1
·x/c)
dω, (3.29)
while the refracted pulse is given by
u
32
(x, t ) = |T(θ
0
)|
1
π


0
A
0
(ω)e
−i ϕ
e
−ωx
2
sinh β/¯ c
e
−i ω(t −x
1
cosh β/¯ c)
dω.
(3.30)
The reflected pulse retains many of the features of the incident pulse and most
importantly the argument indicating that the wave is plane. The refracted pulse
is rather more complicated.
We rewrite the reflected pulse in the form
u
31
(t − ˆ p
1
· x/c) = cos 2ϕ u
30
(t − ˆ p
1
· x/c) +sin 2ϕ v(t − ˆ p
1
· x/c),
(3.31)
where
v(t − ˆ p
1
· x/c) =
1
π


0
A
0
(ω) e
−i ω(t − ˆ p
1
·x/c)
dω. (3.32)
The incident pulse is reflected with a diminished amplitude and a newpulse has
been excited. The function v is called the allied function (Titchmarsh, 1948).
To make this a little more concrete we examine an incident pulse of the form
u
30
(t ) = H(t )−H(t −a), where H(t ) is the Heaviside function and a measures
the length of the pulse. Its allied function is
v(t ) =
1
π
ln

a −t
t

. (3.33)
The reflected pulse then becomes
u
31
(t − ˆ p
1
· x/c) = cos 2ϕ u
30
(t − ˆ p
1
· x/c)
+ sin 2ϕ
1
π
ln

t −a − ˆ p
1
· x/c
t − ˆ p
1
· x/c

. (3.34)
Note that the second pulse is present for all time and appears to arrive before
the incident pulse. This is an example of a two-sided wave. It cannot exist alone
and must be part of a more extended disturbance.
3.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves 47
To explain this anomalous behavior we must consider the transmitted pulse.
Carrying out the necessary integrations gives
u
32
(x, t ) = |T(θ
0
)|
1
π

cos ϕ

tan
−1

τ
λ

−tan
−1

τ −a
λ

+
1
2
sin ϕ ln

(τ −a)
2

2
τ
2

2

, (3.35)
where
τ = t − x
1
cosh β/¯ c, λ = x
2
sinh β/¯ c. (3.36)
Clearly the refracted pulse is also two sided and present for all time.
This is not as anomalous as it might at first appear, once we recall that the
upper material is faster than the lower and that the incident plane pulse has been
exciting the upper material from t →−∞, at x
1
→−∞(θ
0
> 0) in Fig. 3.3.
At the far left, the incident pulse excites a disturbance in the faster material.
This disturbance propagates along the interface at ¯ c and fills the whole upper
material, or, at least, the regionnear the interface. However, the maindisturbance
moves along the interface at ¯ c/ cosh β = c/ sin θ
0
. Therefore the precursor in
the upper material gets ahead of the trace of the wavefront, of the incident
pulse, at the interface and must somehow satisfy the boundary condition. It
does so by shedding a reflected pulse into the slower material that appears
before the incident one arrives, the second term in (3.34). Moreover, no energy
is permanently carried into the upper material. The refracted pulse continually
reradiates into the slower, lower material. It is also interesting to note that,
as the distance from the interface increases, u
32
decays as 1/x
2
rather than
as e

¯
kx
2
sinh β
, so that the pulse decays algebraically, while the time-harmonic
disturbance decays exponentially.
The origin of this phenomenon is the cos θ
2
in the expressions for C

, (3.23).
But cos θ
2
= [1−(¯ c/c)
2
sin
2
θ
0
]
1/2
. If we regard (ω/c) sin θ
0
as a complex vari-
able z, then in fact the phenomenon arises fromthe definition of the branch of the
function (
¯
k
2
−z
2
)
1/2
(=
¯
k cos θ
2
) that appears in the reflection and transmission
coefficients. Critical refraction, and reflection, therefore, manifest themselves
as branch cuts in the complex plane.
Problem 3.5 Reflection of an Acoustic Wave from a Plate
Consider the reflection of a time harmonic, plane acoustic wave from a thin
elastic plate. We assume that the fluid has no viscosity so that the incident
acoustic wave excites predominantly flexural motions in the thin plate. More-
over, we assume that the fluid belowthe plate is sufficiently dense that the elastic
48 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
Fig. 3.5. A thin elastic plate separates a dense fluid such as water from a tenuous
one such as air, which we model as a vacuum. A time harmonic, plane acoustic wave,
incident from the fluid, strikes the plate and is reflected.
plate and the fluid can interact, but that the fluid above the plate is sufficiently
tenuous that it can be treated as a vacuum. Water and air, respectively, satisfy
these assumptions. Figure 3.5 indicates the geometry of the problem.
In the fluid

2
ϕ +k
2
ϕ = 0 (3.37)
where ϕ is the velocity potential, k = ω/c, and a time dependence of the form
e
−i ωt
is assumed but suppressed. The pressure p = i ωρϕ and the particle
displacement is −i ωu = ∇ϕ. The density of the fluid is ρ.
The one dimensional, flexural motion of the plate is described by
(∂
1

1
)
2
w −k
4
p
w = p(x
1
, 0)/D, (3.38)
where k
4
p
= ω
2
ρ
p
h/D. The terms ρ
p
, h, and D are the density per unit area,
the thickness, and the elastic constant for the plate, respectively. At x
2
= 0, the
particle displacement is continuous so that −i ωw(x
1
, x
3
) = ∂ϕ/∂x
2
. Note that
phase matching must take place so that the x
1
dependence of wis determined by
the incident wave. Equation (3.38) then gives a boundary condition connecting
p and ϕ at x
2
= 0.
The incident and reflected waves are ϕ
0
= A
0
e
i k ˆ p
0
·x
and ϕ
1
= A
1
e
i k ˆ p
1
·x
,
respectively. Find the reflection coefficient R(θ
0
). Note that |R(θ
0
)| = 1 so that
R(θ
0
) = −e
i 2α
. Find α. Speculate about the form of a reflected pulse.
3.4 The Rayleigh Wave
We have seen that critical refraction produces a wave in the faster material that
clings to the interface. However, this wave could not exist without being con-
tinuously sustained by a wave from the interior. In contrast there are waves that
3.4 The Rayleigh Wave 49
cling to a surface or interface that are self-sustaining. Their particle displace-
ment decays exponentially with distance away from the surface or interface, in
the time-harmonic approximation. Such waves are also referred to as surface or
interfacial waves. It is one of the distinctive features of linear elasticity that a
traction-free surface guides such a wave, called a Rayleigh wave. Both here and
in Chapter 5, it is demonstrated that this latter surface wave, and ones similar
to it, arises from a pole rather than a branch point.
3.4.1 The Time-Harmonic Wave
We consider an elastic half-space with the x
1
coordinate lying along the surface
and the positive x
2
coordinate pointing into the interior (the reverse of that
shown in Figs. 3.1 and 3.3). We seek a time-harmonic wave whose particle
displacement is inplane and that decays in the positive x
2
direction. We use
a scalar potential ϕ and a single component ψ
3
of the vector potential [the
divergence condition (1.19) is then automatically satisfied], and assume that
ϕ = Ce
−βγ
L
x
2
e
iβx
1
, ψ
3
= De
−βγ
T
x
2
e
iβx
1
, (3.39)
where β = ω/c and c is the unknown wavespeed along the surface x
2
= 0. To
satisfy (1.21) and (1.22) for the potentials,
γ
L
=
_
1 −
c
2
c
2
L
_
1/2
, γ
T
=
_
1 −
c
2
c
2
T
_
1/2
. (3.40)
The boundary conditions at x
2
= 0 are τ
22
= τ
21
= 0. To satisfy these boundary
conditions,
_
2 −c
2
/c
2
T
2i γ
T
−2i γ
L
2 −c
2
/c
2
T
_ _
C
D
_
=
_
0
0
_
. (3.41)
Setting the determinant of the matrix to zero, the condition for a nontrivial
solution, gives
_
2 −
_
c
2
_
c
2
T
__
2
−4γ
L
γ
T
= 0. (3.42)
This equation, or an insignificant modification of it, is called the Rayleigh
equation. We examine it momentarily. It has a real positive solution c = c
r
,
giving the wavespeed of the surface wave. Note that γ
L
and γ
T
must be real if
we are to have decay into the interior; thus 0 < c
r
< c
T
. Returning to (3.41)
we find that
C
D
=
−2i γ
T
_
2 −c
2
r
_
c
2
T
_. (3.43)
50 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
With the use of (1.19), the particle displacement components are
u
1
= iβ
r
C
2
_
2e
−β
r
γ
L
x
2

_
2 −
c
2
r
c
2
T
_
e
−β
r
γ
T
x
2
_
e

r
x
1
,
u
2
=
−β
r
C

T
_

L
γ
T
e
−β
r
γ
L
x
2

_
2 −
c
2
r
c
2
T
_
e
−β
r
γ
T
x
2
_
e

r
x
1
, (3.44)
where β
r
= ω/c
r
. This then is the form of the time harmonic, Rayleigh wave.
3.4.2 Transient Wave
Previously we have seen that a critically refracted wave becomes a two-sided
wave in the time domain. Much the same thing happens when a time-harmonic
Rayleigh wave is mapped into the time domain. In this case the frequency
dependence enters through the terms e
−β
r
γ
L
x
2
and e
−β
r
γ
T
x
2
. Proceeding as we
did in (3.28)–(3.30), the transient displacement components are given by
u
1
(t − x
1
/c
r
, x
2
) =
1
π

_

0
A
0
(ω)
_
2e
−(ω/c
r
)x
2
γ
L

_
2 −
c
2
r
c
2
T
_
e
−(ω/c
r
)x
2
γ
T
_
e
−i ω(t −x
1
/c
r
)
dω,
u
2
(t − x
1
/c
r
, x
2
) =
1
π

_

0
A
0
(ω)e
i π/2
γ
−1
T
_

L
γ
T
e
−(ω/c
r
)x
2
γ
L

_
2 −
c
2
r
c
2
T
_
e
−(ω/c
r
)x
2
γ
T
_
e
−i ω(t −x
1
/c
r
)
dω, (3.45)
where A
0
(ω) has the same form as in (3.28)–(3.30) and would be set by the
source. For simplicity we take A
0
(ω) = πC, where C is a constant. Note the
e
i π/2
in u
2
. Performing the integrations gives
u
1
(t − x
1
/c
r
, x
2
) =
2C (x
2
/c
r

L
_
(x
2
/c
r
)
2
γ
2
L
+(t − x
1
/c
r
)
2
_

C
_
2 −
_
c
2
r
/c
2
T
__
[(x
2
/c
r

T
]
_
(x
2
/c
r
)
2
γ
2
T
+(t − x
1
/c
r
)
2
_ ,
u
2
(t − x
1
/c
r
, x
2
) = −
2C (t − x
1
/c
r

L
_
(x
2
/c
r
)
2
γ
2
L
+(t − x
1
/c
r
)
2
_
+
C
γ
T
_
2 −
_
c
2
r
/c
2
T
__
(t − x
1
/c
r
)
_
(x
2
/c
r
)
2
γ
2
T
+(t − x
1
/c
r
)
2
_ . (3.46)
3.4 The Rayleigh Wave 51
Because of our choice of A
0
, these pulses are more singular than real ones,
but nevertheless they exhibit the basic features of interest. Note that there is no
leading wavefront. We have a two-sided wave. Using our approximations, we
have implicitly assumed that the leading wavefront, which is that of a compres-
sional pulse, has already propagated everywhere along the surface. The com-
pressional pulse was excited at t →−∞and propagates outward at wavespeed
c
L
, where c
L
> c
T
> c
r
. Also note that the exponential decay of the time-
harmonic disturbance has become an algebraic decay. Lastly, the reader, having
noted the presence of the e
i π/2
in (3.45), may find it interesting to show that the
u
2
component is essentially the allied function of the u
1
component.
3.4.3 The Rayleigh Function
We are thus left with examining the roots of (3.42). The most important feature
of this equation is that the function on the left-hand side contains two radicals
whose branches must be defined with care. To do so it is more convenient to
work with R(s), a slightly modified version of (3.42). This function, sometimes
called the Rayleigh function, is given by
R(s) =

2s
2
−s
2
T

2
−4s
2

s
2
−s
2
L

1/2

s
2
−s
2
T

1/2
, (3.47)
where s = 1/c and s
I
= 1/c
I
.
Recall that the denominator of the reflection coefficient for the inplane re-
flection is A
+

0
), given in (3.12). Setting s = s
L
sin θ
0
= s
T
sin θ
2
, we find
that A
+

0
) = R(s
L
sin θ
0
)/(s
L
s
T
)
2
. This feature is not accidental. A pole in the
reflection coefficient implies that a surface wave exists. The question then is
whether the pole is real or complex, and, if complex, is its imaginary part such
that the surface wave is physically meaningful. The slownesses are ordered as
s > s
T
> s
L
for a surface wave to exist, so that sin θ
0
= s/s
L
> 1, and thus θ
0
must be complex. Ahomogeneous plane wave striking a traction-free boundary
cannot excite a surface wave.
Problem 3.6 A Surface Wave Supported by an Impedance
Consider a time harmonic disturbance u(x
1
, x
2
) that satisfies

1

1
u +∂
2

2
u +k
2
u = 0, (3.48)
where k = ω/c. Further, consider the same general geometry as shown in
Fig. 3.5, but with the plate replaced by an impedance. That is, the boundary
52 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
condition at x
2
= 0 becomes

2
u = i k Zu, Z = R +i X, (3.49)
with Z the impedance. The impedance may depend upon ω, but not upon the
angle of incidence of the wave. That is, the response at a given point on the
boundary does not depend upon the response of the surrounding points. Taking
as the incident wave u
0
one identical to (3.17), and as the reflected wave u
1
one
identical to (3.18), calculate the reflection coefficient.
Next show that the surface wave
u = Ce
−b|x
2
|
e
i ax
(3.50)
is also a solution. a and b are positive and real. C is a constant. What restrictions
must R and X satisfy for a surface wave to exist? Find a and b in terms of a Z
that permits a surface wave to exist. For this same Z show that the reflection
coefficient has a pole at a particular θ
0
, say θ
0s
. Using this θ
0s
, show that the
reflected wave takes the form of the surface wave, (3.50).
3.4.4 Branch Cuts
The Rayleigh function contains two radicals of the form
γ = (α
2
−k
2
)
1/2
, (3.51)
where α is the independent variable and k is known. Almost always, k is a
wavenumber. Thus we may, by imagining that the material in which the wave
is propagating is slightly lossy, set k = k
r
+ i k
i
, where |k
i
/k
r
| 1. By con-
sidering a plane wave propagating in the positive x direction with wavenumber
k, namely, e
i k
r
x
e
−k
i
x
, we see that k
r
and k
i
must both be positive. Looking back
at (3.39) and (3.40), we note that for a surface wave (γ
L
) ≥ 0 and (γ
T
) ≥ 0.
Accordingly, we want to define the branches of the radical, so that (γ ) ≥ 0 ∀α.
The curves (γ ) = 0 therefore define the branch cuts.
It is hard to work with γ directly, but somewhat easier to begin by working
4
with γ
2
. Setting α = σ +i τ, we can write γ
2
as
γ
2
=


2
−τ
2
) −

k
2
r
−k
2
i

+2i (στ −k
r
k
i
). (3.52)
We next partition the α plane, as shown in Fig 3.6, using the curves (γ
2
) = 0
and (γ
2
) = 0. Perturbing α slightly, we find that (γ
2
) < 0 between the
4
I first learned of this argument from Mittra and Lee (1971).
3.4 The Rayleigh Wave 53
Fig. 3.6. The complex α plane with a sketch of the curves (γ
2
) = 0 and (γ
2
) = 0.
From these curves we select the branch cuts indicated by the wavy overlying line on the
curves (γ
2
) = 0.
two curves (γ
2
) = 0, while (γ
2
) < 0 between the two curves (γ
2
) = 0.
Expressing γ as |γ |e
i θ
, we note that, if (γ ) > 0, then |θ| < π/2 and thus
|2θ| < π. The branch cuts, (γ ) = 0, therefore must lie along the curves
2θ = ±π. That is along (γ
2
) = 0, where (γ
2
) < 0. These are the curves
in Fig. 3.6 overlain with the wavy line. In the limit as k
i
→0, we arrive at the
branch cuts shown in Fig. 3.7.
To investigate this branch, express γ as
γ = (r
1
r
2
)
1/2

cos

θ
1

2
2

+i sin

θ
1

2
2

, (3.53)
where
(α −k)
1/2
= r
1/2
1
e
i θ
1
/2
, (α +k)
1/2
= r
1/2
2
e
i θ
2
/2
. (3.54)
Figure 3.7 indicates from what reference the angles are measured. Note that
(γ ) ≥ 0 ∀α, while (γ ) > 0 in the first and third quadrants and negative in
the other two. As well, note that to go from the first to the second quadrant, and
remain on the same Riemann sheet, we must first move into the fourth and then
poke through the gap at the origin into the second.
54 3 Reflection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
Fig. 3.7. The complex α plane as k
i
→0. (γ ) ≥ 0 ∀α on the Riemann sheet exhibited
in the drawing.
Returning to the Rayleigh function R(s), (3.47), we note that there are two
radicals appearing as the product (s
2
− s
2
L
)
1/2
(s
2
− s
2
T
)
1/2
. Both radicals are
defined as just indicated. However, the product is only discontinuous across
a branch cut connecting s
L
and s
T
, and one connecting −s
L
and −s
T
. These
are the appropriate branch cuts for the product. Hence the Rayleigh function
R(s) is defined as that branch occupying the Riemann sheet (sγ
L
) ≥ 0,
(sγ
T
) ≥ 0 ∀s and cut as just indicated. Recall that s = 1/c. We next seek a
root or roots to R(s) = 0 on this Riemann sheet.
First, note that if s
r
is a root then so is −s
r
. Second, at s = s
L
and at
s = s
T
, R(s) > 0 but as s → ∞along the positive real s axis, R(s) becomes
negative. Thus a real root s
r
, with s
T
< s
r
< ∞, exists. By symmetry a
root −s
r
also exists. Third, does R(s) have any other roots on this Riemann
sheet? The answer is no. This can be proven conclusively by using a theorem
sometimes called the argument principle (Ablowitz and Fokas, 1997). This
theorem allows one to systematically calculate the number of poles and zeros
of a function by performing a contour integral of its logarithmic derivative.
Achenbach (1973) does this in some detail, though the original argument may
be found in Cagniard (1962). Lastly, do the roots on the other Reimann sheets
ever manifest themselves? Yes, they do when they lie close to a branch cut.
This point is discussed in Aki and Richards (1980) in their description of the
reflection of spherical waves from a traction-free surface.
While knowing that only the Rayleigh slownesses ±s
r
exist on the Reimann
sheet of interest is important, actuallysolvingfor s
r
is less so. It canbe calculated
References 55
to good accuracy by using the formula
κ
r
= (0.86 +1.12ν)/(1 +ν) (3.55)
The term κ
r
= s
T
/s
r
and ν is Poisson’s ratio. For many materials κ
r
is close to
0.9.
The branches of (2.23) and (2.31) were selected as just indicated. However,
note that k
1
= i γ in (2.23) and k
3
= i γ in (2.31). In particular, in the case
of (2.23), the complex k
2
plane is cut so that (k
1
) > 0 ∀k
1
, corresponding
exactly with the branch of γ just selected. Further, the contour in (2.24) starts
at −∞ in the second quardant, passes above the branch cut, pokes into the
fourth quadrant, passes below the branch cut, and ends at +∞. The radicals we
encounter will often present themselves in the formξ = (k
2
−α
2
)
1/2
, rather than
as that in (3.51). The two are connected by ξ = i γ . Only when considering the
Cagniard–deHoop integration technique in Section 5.1 do we select a different
branch.
References
Ablowitz, M.J. and Fokas, A.S. 1997. Complex Variables, pp. 259–265. New York:
Cambridge.
Achenbach, J.D. 1973. Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids, pp. 189–191. Amsterdam:
North-Holland.
Aki, K. and Richards, P.G. 1980. Quantitative Seismology, Theory and Methods,
Vol. 1, pp. 319–333. San Francisco: Freeman.
Auld, B.A. 1990. Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, 2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 1–57.
Malabar, FL: Krieger.
Cagniard, I. 1962. Reflection and Refraction of Progressive Seismic Waves,
pp. 42–49. Translated and revised by E.A. Flinn and C.H. Dix. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Friedlander, F.G. 1974. On the total reflection of plane waves. Quart. J. Mech. Appl.
Math. 1: 379–383.
Mittra, R. and Lee, S.W. 1971. Analytical Technique in the Theory of Guided Waves,
pp. 20–23. New York: Macmillan.
Titchmarsh, E.C. 1948. Introduction to the Theory of Fourier Integrals, 2nd ed.,
pp. 119–121, 147–148, and elsewhere. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
4
Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
Synopsis
In Chapter 4 we discuss the formulation of integral representations of solutions
to rather general problems in elastic-wave propagation. Two constructions are
used: the reciprocity identity and the Green’s tensor for a full space. For these
representations for an infinite domain to be derived, the principle of limiting
absorption is introduced. This is needed for time-harmonic problems because
the disturbance, in a sense, has been going on forever, resulting in no initial
wavefront being present. Moreover, we establish a uniqueness result, indicating
as we do so both the role of the principle of limiting absorption and that of
specifying an edge condition. The chapter closes with an example that uses
these ideas to develop an integral representation for the scattering of an acoustic
wave by an elastic inclusion.
4.1 Introduction
In Chapter 2 we moved away fromdiscussing plane waves to an introduction of
plane-wave spectral representations in Section 2.3. This allowed us to discuss
more general wavefields and to understand their propagation characteristics
in terms of those of plane waves. We continue with this general theme, but
construct, in this chapter, both far more general representations and ones in
physical space rather than in wavenumber space. Though we make limited use
of it in the chapters that follow, this material is very important because it is the
basis for formulating elastic-wave problems in a form suitable to be analyzed
numerically. Ageneral survey of many useful representation results is provided
by deHoop (1995).
When the wavefield is time dependent, it is straightforward (straightfor-
ward is not a synonym for easy) to seek its representations (Friedlander, 1958;
Achenbach, 1973; Hudson, 1980). We must work in a four-dimensional space,
56
4.2 Reciprocity 57
the fourth dimension being time. Nevertheless, the wavefield propagates out-
ward from its sources at a finite speed and thus for a finite time it occupies a
region that is bounded. However, a representation in this form is less useful
than it might seem because both the source and receiver of the wavefield have
their own frequency behaviors, and to incorporate those effects in an overall
propagation model the Fourier component of the wavefield rather than, say,
its time-dependent response to a sudden impulse is of greater use. Thus we
consider almost exclusively time-harmonic wavefields.
When working with a time-harmonic wavefield, though we need only work
with regions in three-dimensional space, we have imagined that the wavefield
was excited at the time minus infinity, and it has thus, even for a finite positive
time, filled all of space. In constructing representations for various wavefields,
we must unambiguously identify waves that are outgoing from their source of
excitation. Moreover, at some stage we must send the outer surfaces, over which
integrals are being taken, to infinity and must be assured that these integrals
either go to zero or a finite, unambiguously identified value. In this chapter we
use the principle of limiting absorption as the technical device to achieve these
outcomes.
4.2 Reciprocity
Proposition 4.1. In a bounded region R
x
with surface ∂R
x
, the equations
of motion in the time-harmonic approximation for two reciprocating elastic
wavefields, indicated by the superscripts 1 and 2, are

j
τ
1,2
j i
+ρf
1,2
i
+ρω
2
u
1,2
i
= 0. (4.1)
The tractions on ∂R
x
are t
1,2
i
= τ
1,2
j i
ˆ n
j
. The unit normal ˆ n to ∂R
x
is outward.
Then

R
x

f
2
i
u
1
i
− f
1
i
u
2
i

ρdV =

∂R
x

u
2
i
t
1
i
−u
1
i
t
2
i

dS. (4.2)
Proof. We take the scalar product of each equation in (4.1) with the particle
displacement of its reciprocating wavefield and subtract. This gives
ρ

f
2
i
u
1
i
− f
1
i
u
2
i

= −u
1
i

j
τ
2
j i
+u
2
i

j
τ
1
j i
. (4.3)
Using the relation between stress and strain, (1.3), we note that τ
1
j i

j
u
2
i
=
τ
2
j i

j
u
1
i
so that the right-hand side of (4.3) equals ∂
j

1
i j
u
1
i
−τ
2
i j
u
1
i
); (4.2) follows
after integration.
58 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
There is one special case of (4.2) of interest. Let us assume that the integral
over ∂ R
x
vanishes and that f
1,2
i
= a
1,2
i
δ(x − x
1,2
), where the a
1,2
i
are constant
vectors. Then the reciprocity statement becomes a
2
i
u
1
i
(x
2
) = a
1
i
u
2
i
(x
1
). This is
the origin of the careless statement “the source and receiver can be interchanged
by reciprocity.”
4.3 Green’s Tensor
Inthe propositiontofollowwe shall use the three-dimensional Fourier transform
pair given by

u(k) =


−∞
u(x)e
−i k·x
dx, (4.4)
u(x) =
1
(2π)
3


−∞

u(k)e
i k·x
dk. (4.5)
This is a straightforward generalization of (1.43) and (1.44). The differen-
tial in physical space dx =dx
1
dx
2
dx
3
and that in the transform space dk =
dk
1
dk
2
dk
3
.
Proposition 4.2. The particle displacement u
G
i
is the solution to
(λ +µ)∂
i

k
u
G
k
+µ∂
j

j
u
G
i
+ρω
2
u
G
i
= −ρ ˆ a
i
δ(x), (4.6)
subject to the condition that, as x → ∞, the solution represent an outgoing
wavefield. |x| = x. Here ˆ a is a constant unit vector giving the direction of the
point force at the origin. The Green’s tensor
1
for a full space, u
G
i k
, is related to
u
G
i
by u
G
i
= ˆ a
k
u
G
i k
, with u
G
i k
given by
u
G
i k
=
1
k
2
T
c
2
T


i

k
[−G(k
L
x) + G(k
T
x)] +k
2
T
δ
i k
G(k
T
x)

, (4.7)
where
G(k
I
x) = (1/4πx)e
i k
I
x
, I = L, T. (4.8)
Note that we may replace x with the more general vector x − x

, where x

is
the position vector of the point of action of the delta function.
1
It is possibly better to describe the pair (u
G
i k
, τ
G
i j k
) as a Green’s state.
4.3 Green’s Tensor 59
Proof.
2
Fourier transforming (4.6) in all three spatial variables and solving
the resulting algebraic equations give

u
G
i
= −
1
c
2
T

k
2
L
−k
2

ˆ a
i
+

1 −c
2
T
/c
2
L

k
i
k
k
ˆ a
k

k
2
L
−k
2

k
2
T
−k
2
, (4.9)
where k
2
= k· k. From the definition of u
G
i j
, and with some rewriting, we arrive
at

u
G
i k
=
1
c
2
T

k
i
k
k
k
2
T

1
k
2
−k
2
L

1
k
2
−k
2
T

+
δ
i k
k
2
−k
2
T

. (4.10)
Note that ∂
i
in physical space transforms to i k
i
in transform space and vice
versa. Therefore, to transform (4.10) to physical space, all that we have to do
is evaluate integrals of the form
I
I
=
1
(2π)
3


−∞
e
i k·x
k
2
−k
2
I
dk. (4.11)
To evaluate (4.11) we introduce, in transform space, a spherical coordinate
system (k, ξ, ν), where the azimuthal axis is chosen in the direction x and ξ
is the azimuthal angle. Note that this is identical, apart from the change in
symbols, to the coordinate transformation (2.33) and (2.37) used to construct
an angular spectrum representation of a spherical wave. The transformation is
defined as
k
1
= k sin ξ cos ν, k
2
= k sin ξ sin ν, k
3
= k cos ξ. (4.12)
The integral (4.11) can then be expressed as
I
I
=
1
(2π)
3


0

π
0


0
k
2
sin ξ
k
2
−k
2
I
e
i kx cos ξ
dkdξdν. (4.13)
The integrations over the angles are readily done, and we are left with evaluating
I
I
=
−i
(2π)
2
x


−∞
ke
i kx
k
2
−k
2
I
dk. (4.14)
Recall that e
i (k
I
x−ωt )
is an outgoing wave. Thus to satisfy the condition that
waves be outgoing as x →∞, the contour of the integral must pass above the
2
Contrast how we have used a three-dimensional transform in this problem, but have used a two-
dimensional one for the very similar problem of constructing a plane-wave representation of a
spherical wave in (2.36).
60 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
pole at −k
I
but below that at k
I
. Then closing the contour in the upper half of
the k plane, where the integral is convergent, gives an outgoing wave and hence
gives (4.8) with G(k
I
x) = I
I
. Thus (4.7) follows.
The corresponding Green’s stress τ
G
i j k
is calculated by using
τ
G
i j k
= c
i jlm

l
u
G
mk
, (4.15)
where
c
i jlm
= λδ
i j
δ
lm
+µ(δ
il
δ
j m

i m
δ
jl
). (4.16)
These last two equations are simply restatements of (1.3).
Problem 4.1 Two-Dimensional Green’s Function
In this problem we ask the reader to calculate the time harmonic, antiplane
shear Green’s function, u
G
3
. In fact it will turn out to be identical to the angu-
lar spectrum representation of a cylindrical wave, cited in Section 2.3.3. The
equation to be solved
3
is

α

α
u
G
3
+k
2
u
G
3
= −δ(x), (4.17)
where x has components (x
1
, x
2
). At infinity u
G
3
represents an outgoing wave.
Show that u
G
3
can be expressed as
u
G
3
(x) =
i


−∞
e
i (k
1
x
1
+k
2
|x
2
|)
dk
1
k
2
. (4.18)
How are the branches of the radical k
2
defined? Next introduce the transfor-
mations, k
1
= k
T
cos ξ, x
1
= ρ cos θ, |x
2
| = ρ sin θ, and show that (4.18)
reduces to
u
G
3
(ρ) = −
i

C
e
i k
T
ρ cos(θ−ξ)
dξ. (4.19)
Most importantly show that C is a contour beginning near π − i ∞ and end-
ing near i ∞. The integral representation of the Hankel function H
(1)
0
(kρ)
(Sommerfeld, 1964b) is such that u
G
3
= (i /4)H
(1)
0
(kρ).
3
The right-hand side of this equation should be multiplied by c
−2
, if the reader wants its dimen-
sional form to be identical to (4.6).
4.3 Green’s Tensor 61
4.3.1 Notes
1. For future work we shall need the farfield results. The farfield is that
region for which |k
I
x

| |k
I
x| and |k
I
x| 1. Approximating |x − x

| by
using the law of cosines gives
|x − x

| ∼ x −( ˆ p · x

), ˆ p = x/x. (4.20)
With this approximation, (4.7), with x replaced by |x−x

|, splits into two parts,
namely
u
G
i k
∼ u
GL
i k
+u
GT
i k
, (4.21)
where
u
GL
i k
=
1
c
2
L
ˆ p
i
ˆ p
k
e
i k
L
x
4πx
e
−i k
L
ˆ p·x

, (4.22)
u
GT
i k
=
1
c
2
T

i k
− ˆ p
i
ˆ p
k
)
e
i k
T
x
4πx
e
−i k
T
ˆ p·x

. (4.23)
Further, using (4.15) and (4.16), we have
τ
G
j i k
ˆ p
j
∼ τ
GL
j i k
ˆ p
j

GT
j i k
ˆ p
j
, (4.24)
where
τ
GL
j i k
ˆ p
j
= i k
L
(λ +2µ)u
GL
i k
, (4.25)
τ
GT
j i k
ˆ p
j
= i k
T
µu
GT
i k
. (4.26)
Each of the above expansions is carried out only to O[(k
I
x)
−1
] in the amplitude
while the additional term (i k
I
ˆ p · x

) is retained in the exponential terms. The
character of a wavefield is more sharply determined by its phase than by its
amplitude. As before, I = L or T.
2. There are a number of very localized sources that can be constructed from
point forces and their derivatives (Hudson, 1980). Here we consider one such
construction, the center of compression. Consider a special (three-dimensional)
body force, namely
f = −c
2
L
F(t )∂
x

δ(x)
4πx
2

ˆ p, (4.27)
where x

is set to zero, |x| = x, and ˆ p is defined in (4.20).
62 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
The scalar potential ϕ satisfies
1
x
2

x
(x
2

x
ϕ) −
1
c
2
L

t

t
ϕ = F(t )
δ(x)
4πx
2
(4.28)
and the vector potential ψ = 0. This particular source is useful because it excites
only compressional waves. The solution to (4.28), satisfying the condition that
the wave be outgoing from its source, is
ϕ = −
1
4πx
F

t −
x
c
L

. (4.29)
The center of compression can be thought of as a small uniformly pressurized
cavity or as three dipoles without moment.
Problem 4.2 A Causal Green’s Function
Problem 1. Show that (4.29) is the solution to (4.28), subject to the condi-
tion that the wave be outgoing from the source. Here (4.29) is the free-space
causal Green’s function for (4.28) if F(t ) = δ(t ). Begin by showing that xϕ =
f (t − x/c
L
) is a solution, for x = 0. Then integrate the equation of motion,
(4.28) over a small sphere of radius , centered at the origin, and, taking the
limit as →0, identify f (t ).
Problem 2. Equation (4.27) is a three-dimensional body force. In two di-
mensions, (x
1
, x
2
), the termin brackets becomes δ(x)/(2πx). Find the response
ϕ for a two-dimensional center of compression or line of compression.
4.4 Principle of Limiting Absorption
Figure 4.1 shows a typical region R
x
within which we shall work. It is a large
spherical region with radius x. Both the bounded subregions contained within
R
x
, S and R, will be sources of waves. Two questions arise. (1) How do we
determine unambiguously which waves are outgoing fromthese sources? (2) In
the arguments that follow we shall ask that the integrals over ∂R
x
vanish or
approach some finite known value as x → ∞. How do we ensure that this
happens? As we indicated in Section 4.1, this issue does not arise in the time-
dependent case because any outgoing wavefield will propagate toward infinity
at a finite speed and, therefore, for a finite t the surface ∂R
x
, as x →∞, will
eventually pass into a region that the wavefield has not reached. However, in
4.4 Principle of Limiting Absorption 63
Fig. 4.1. The large spherical region R
x
, with surface ∂R
x
, has a radius |x| = x. In
several of the arguments x → ∞. Within are two bounded subregions, S and R. The
first contains sources that excite an incident wavefield, while the second is a scatterer,
with surface ∂R. The unit normal ˆ n points out from R
x
\R.
the time-harmonic case, we are imagining that the wavefield started abruptly
at t = −∞and thus it now fills all space. Stated somewhat differently, there is
no initial wavefront because we have imposed no initial conditions.
We solve this problem by demanding that ω = ω
0
+i , where ω
0
and > 0
are real. Hence, lim
t →−∞
f (x)e
i (kx−ωt )
= 0, for x fixed, so that the wavefield
is forced to zero. This gives the missing initial conditions. Though, as t →∞
the wavefield becomes unbounded, t will always be taken as finite and, in a
time-harmonic problem, often never appears explicitly in the calculation. It in
no sense indicates a temporal instability. Moreover, note that the wavenumber
k
I
= ω/c
I
. That is, k
I
= k
I 0
+ i /c
I
, where k
I 0
= ω
0
/c
I
. Therefore, for t
fixed, lim
x→∞
f (x)e
i (k
I
x−ωt )
= 0 provided f (x) remains bounded. That is, if
we want the wavefield to go to zero as x → ∞, we must use the exponential
term e
i k
I
x
in combination with e
−i ωt
, and reject e
−i k
I
x
as a possible solution.
In Proposition 4.5 we shall find that this choice of ω and hence of k is needed
to ensure a unique solution. Once we have completed our calculation we may
invoke analytic continuation
4
and, by letting → 0, recover the result for the
case of real ω. This device of setting ω = ω
0
+i to determine which wavefields
are outgoing as x → ∞ and hence to select which particular solutions to a
problem give outgoing waves is called the principle of limiting absorption.
Note that the sign conventions leading to the evaluation of the contour integral,
(4.14), and all previous contour integrals, are consistent with this principle. In
particular we have implicitly used this principle when evaluating the contour
integral, (4.14).
4
Here we are invoking the law of permanence of functional equations (Hille, 1973).
64 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
4.5 Integral Representation: A Source Problem
Proposition 4.3. Consider the region R
x
, shown in Fig. 4.1, with the region
R absent, but S present. S is a bounded subregion containing time harmonic,
body forces per unit mass, f
i
, that excite the wavefield u
i
in R
x
; u
i
is the
solution to
(λ +µ)∂
i

k
u
k
+µ∂
j

j
u
i
+ρω
2
u
i
= −ρf
i
(x), f
i
(x) = 0, x / ∈ S.
(4.30)
The wavefield satisfies the principle of limiting absorption as x → ∞. After
∂R
x
is sent to infinity, the solution u
i
can be represented as
u
k
(x) =

S
f
i
(x

)u
G
i k
(x − x

) dV(x

), (4.31)
where u
G
i k
is given by (4.7) and also satisfies the principle of limiting absorption.
Proof. Starting with the bounded region R
x
, we select as reciprocating wave-
field1the triple ( f
i
, u
i
, τ
i j
) andas 2the triple [δ(x−x

) ˆ a
i
, u
G
i k
(x−x

) ˆ a
k
, τ
G
i j k
(x−
x

) ˆ a
k
], where u
G
i k
is given by (4.7). Then (4.2) becomes

R
x

δ(x − x

)u
i
(x) ˆ a
i
− f
i
(x)u
G
i k
(x − x

) ˆ a
k

ρdV(x) = I
k
ˆ a
k
, (4.32)
where
I
k
=

∂R
x

u
G
i k
(x − x


j i
(x) −u
i
(x)τ
G
j i k
(x − x

)

ˆ n
j
dS(x). (4.33)
We shall subsequently show that lim
x→∞
I
k
= 0. Therefore (4.32) reduces to
u
i
(x

) ˆ a
i
=

S
f
i
(x)u
G
i k
(x − x

) ˆ a
k
dV(x). (4.34)
By inspection, u
G
i k
(x − x

) = u
G
i k
(x

− x). Hence we are lead to (4.31), after a
relabeling of the independent and integration variables.
Returning to the question of how I
k
behaves, we use the asymptotic results
of (4.22)–(4.26) to show that, as x →∞,
I
k

1
c
2
L
e
i k
L
x
4πx

∂R
x

j i
ˆ n
j
−i k
L
(λ +2µ)u
i
] ˆ n
i
ˆ n
k
e
−i k
L
ˆ n·x

dS(x

)
+
1
c
2
T
e
i k
T
x
4πx

∂R
x

j i
ˆ n
j
−i k
T
µu
i
](δ
i k
− ˆ n
i
ˆ n
k
)e
−i k
T
ˆ n·x

dS(x

). (4.35)
4.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem 65
Note that we have relabeled the variables from those used in (4.33). When the
principle of limiting absorption is invoked, lim
x→∞
I
k
= 0.
4.5.1 Notes
1. When thinking through the argument just given, note that two issues have
been settled by using the principle of limiting absorption. First, reexamining the
argument leading to the Green’s tensor, recall that we demanded that the waves
be outgoing. In place of the phrase outgoing, we now ask that the wavefield
satisfy the principle of limiting absorption and thus approach zero as x →∞.
Therefore we must choose the solution that behaves as e
i kx
and not e
−i kx
. The
principle thus serves to determine the solution uniquely. Second, through its
use, integrals such as I
k
can be shown to approach zero without having to make
detailed asymptotic estimates of how they behave as x →∞.
2. As an alternative to using the principle of limiting absorption, we could
have demanded that
lim
x→∞

∂R
x
|[τ
i j
ˆ n
j
−i k
L
(λ +2µ) u
i
] ˆ n
i
|
2
dS(x

) = 0,
lim
x→∞

∂R
x
|[τ
i j
ˆ n
j
−i k
T
µu
i
](δ
i k
− ˆ n
i
ˆ n
k
)|
2
dS(x

) = 0. (4.36)
This is one way of stating the elastodynamic radiation conditions. Note that
they would only be satisfied by an outgoing wave. That is one having the form
f (x)e
i k
I
x
. From this it is possible to show that lim
x→∞
I
k
= 0 (Achenbach
et al., 1982).
3. Note that (4.31) asymptotically approaches the form
u
i
∼ A
i
(x)
e
i k
L
x
k
L
x
+ B
i
(x)
e
i k
T
x
k
T
x
, x →∞, (4.37)
provided S is bounded. In this case S is said to be a compact source because
the support for f
i
(x) is compact or bounded. Irrespective of the geometry of
the source, provided it is compact, the wavefield must evolve into two separate
spherical waves with radiation patterns given by A
i
and B
i
.
4.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem
We continue to consider the region R
x
shown in Fig. 4.1. Within it we imagine
that the total wavefield u
t
i
= u
i
i
+ u
i
, where u
i
i
is the wavefield excited by the
sources in S in the absence of the subregion R and u
i
is that scattered by R.
We next perform a slight of hand whereby we imagine that the subregion S
66 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
is removed from R
x
so that the scattered wavefield u
i
does not interact with
the sources in S. Lastly, we consider R to be an empty cavity and ask that the
traction vanish on ∂R. We now formulate a boundary-value problem for u
i
,
with t
i
= −t
i
i
on ∂R acting as a source. It is useful at this point to define R
as an open region so that it does not contain its boundary points ∂R. Then we
define the region R
x
\R as that contained in R
x
excluding R, but containing
the boundary points ∂R.
Proposition 4.4. Consider the region R
x
shown in Fig. 4.1 with the region
S absent, but R present. Within R
x
\R the time-harmonic wavefield u
i
is a
solution to (4.30), with the right-hand side set to zero. On ∂R, u
i
is unknown,
but τ
j i
ˆ n
j
= −τ
i
j i
ˆ n
j
, where τ
i
j i
is known. Moreover, u
i
satisfies the principle of
limiting absorption as x → ∞. It follows then that as the radius x → ∞, u
i
can be represented as
u
k
(x) = −
1
ρ

∂R

u
G
i k
(x − x


i
j i
(x

) +u
i
(x


G
j i k
(x − x

)

ˆ n
j
dS(x

). (4.38)
The prime given τ
G
j i k
indicates that the x

is differentiated when τ
G
j i k
is calculated
by using (4.15).
Proof. Select as reciprocating wavefield 1 the triple (0, u
i
, τ
i j
) and as 2 the
triple [ ˆ a
i
δ(x − x

), u
G
i k
(x − x

) ˆ a
k
, τ
G
i j k
(x − x

) ˆ a
k
]. Using (4.2) and proceeding
as we did with Proposition 4.3, we arrive at
ρu
i
(x

) ˆ a
i
=

∂R

u
G
i k
τ
j i
−u
i
τ
G
j i k

ˆ a
k
ˆ n
j
dS(x) + I
k
ˆ a
k
. (4.39)
Using the boundary condition on ∂R, relabeling the independent and integration
variables and noting that again lim
x→∞
I
k
= 0, by the principle of limiting
absorption, we obtain (4.38).
4.6.1 Notes
1. Note, in (4.38), that τ
G
j i k
is calculated from u
G
i k
(x −x

) by differentiating
with respect to x

, the second argument of the combination (x − x

).
2. Note that (4.38) is not a solution to the boundary-value problembecause
the integral contains the unknown u
i
evaluated on the boundary. In fact we have
used the incorrect Green’s tensor for this problem. We should have calculated a
Green’s tensor for which τ
G
j i k
ˆ n
j
= 0 on ∂R. This is usually far from easy to do.
Nevertheless, (4.38) forms the starting point for many useful approximations.
4.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem 67
3. The integral representation for u
i
(x) can be used to construct an integral
equation, as Problem4.3 suggests. In forming the integral equation care must be
taken because, as x approaches the surface, the Green’s tensors become singular.
Kevorkian (1993) gives an introduction to how to examine the consequences
of these singularities within his discussion of integral equations in potential
theory. Integral equations are sometimes easier to solve numerically than are
differential ones, and their solution lends insight that direct numerical methods
often do not. One book describing the numerical solution of integral equations
is that by Delves and Mohamed (1985).
Problem 4.3 Integral Equation Problems
These are two dimensional, antiplane shear problems designed to ask the
reader to derive directly, in this simpler context, several of the formulas given
previously. In both the problems that follow, the elastic half-space is described
by {(x
1
, x
2
)| −∞< x
1
< ∞, −∞< x
2
≤ 0}.
Problem1. An elastic half-space is clamped at the surface x
2
= 0 by a rigid
strip over |x
1
| < a. This forces the particle displacement at the surface to go to
zero there. For |x
1
| > a the surface is free of traction. An antiplane shear wave
u
i
3
= Ae
i kx
2
(4.40)
is normally incident to the rigid strip and adjacent free surface. Determine an
integral equation for the scattered wavefield.
Problem2. Nowassume that the region |x
1
| > a is clamped by rigid sheets,
while within a slot |x
1
| < a the surface is free of traction. For the same incident
wave, determine an integral equation for the scattered wavefield.
Outline of the Solution to Problem 1
1. Divide the total particle displacement u
t
3
into the sum of two parts, namely,
u
t
3
= u
i
3
+ u
s
3
, where u
s
3
is the scattered wavefield. Then divide this latter
wavefield again into two parts, namely, u
s
3
= u
r
3
+u
3
, where u
r
3
is the plane
wave reflected fromthe surface with no strip present and u
3
is that caused by
the presence of the rigid strip. Showthat u
3
satisfies the time-harmonic wave
equation and the following boundary conditions along x
2
= 0: u
3
= −2A
on |x
1
| < a, and ∂
2
u
3
= 0 on |x
1
| > a. How does u
3
behave at ∞? At ±a?
2. Use the method of images to find the antiplane shear, Green’s function
u
G
3
(x
1
, x
2
|x

1
, x

2
), for the half-space satisfying a homogeneous boundary
68 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
condition ∂
2
u
G
3
= 0 at x
2
= 0, and the principle of limiting absorption as
x → ∞. Note that what is needed is the Green’s function for this prob-
lem. In contrast, the Green’s tensor derived in Proposition 4.2 and used in
Propositions 4.3 and 4.4 was that for a region without boundaries and not
the correct Green’s tensor for the scattering problem just discussed.
Hint. The reader may find the results of Problem 4.1 useful.
3. Derive the reciprocity identity for two reciprocating, antiplane shear wave-
fields. Taking as one reciprocating wavefield the Green’s function and as the
other u
3
, show that
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
) = −

a
−a
u
G
3
(x
1
, x
2
|x

1
, 0)I (x

1
)dx

1
, (4.41)
where I (x

1
) = ∂

2
u
3
(x

1
, 0) and the prime indicates that the derivative is taken
with respect to x

2
.
4. Use the boundary conditions satisfied by u
3
to derive the integral equation
2A =
i
2

a
−a
H
(1)
0
(k|x
1
− x

1
|)I (x

1
)dx

1
. (4.42)
Note that I (x
1
) is the unknown to be solved for. After I (x
1
) is found, the
representation (4.41) is used to calculate u
3
throughout the region of inter-
est. Describe the nature of the singularities, in [−a, a], possessed by the
integrand.
Repeat the above steps for the second problem, making appropriate changes
where necessary. In particular use a Green’s function that satisfies u
G
3
= 0
at x
2
= 0. Note that on this occasion the integrand is more singular than in
the previous case. While one can work with singular integral equations, this
particular equation can be reduced to one that is no more singular than that of
the first problem (Sommerfeld, 1964a).
4.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region
4.7.1 No Edges
Proposition 4.5. Consider the region R
x
shown in Fig. 4.1. Consider two time-
harmonic wavefields (u
1
i
, τ
1
i j
) and (u
2
i
, τ
2
i j
) that satisfy

j
τ
1,2
j i
+ρf
i
+ρω
2
u
1,2
i
= 0. (4.43)
in R
x
\R. The force f
i
= 0 for x ∈ S but is zero elsewhere; ρ, λ, and µ are
real parameters. The tractions on ∂R are equal; that is, τ
1
j i
ˆ n
j
= τ
2
j i
ˆ n
j
. The
4.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region 69
wavefields are sufficiently continuous on ∂ R that Gauss’ theorem may be used.
In accord with the principle of limiting absorption, ω = ω
0
+ i so that both
wavefields go to zero as x →∞. Then the two wavefields are identically equal
in R
x
\R.
Proof. Set u = u
1
−u
2
and τ
i j
= τ
1
i j
−τ
2
i j
. Then (u
i
, τ
i j
) satisfies

k
τ
kl
+ρω
2
u
l
= 0 (4.44)
in R
x
\R. Moreover, (u

i
, τ

i j
) satisfies the same equation with ω
2
replaced by

2
)

. As was done previously, the superscript asterisk indicates the complex
conjugate. Take the scalar product of (4.44) with u

i
and the scalar product of
the complex conjugate of (4.44) with u
i
. Subtracting one from the other and
using (1.3), the stress–strain relation, gives
[(ω
2
)

−ω
2
]ρu

l
u
l
= ∂
j

j i
u

i
−τ

j i
u
i
). (4.45)
Integrating this result gives
[(ω
2
)

−ω
2
]

R
x
\R
ρu

l
u
l
dV =

∂R∪∂R
x

j i
u

i
−τ

j i
u
i
) ˆ n
j
dS. (4.46)
The right-hand integral is zero because τ
i j
ˆ n
j
= 0 on ∂R and the integral over
∂R
x
goes to zero as x →∞, by the principle of limiting absorption. Therefore
the right-hand side equals zero. In addition, ω

= ω, by the principle of limiting
absorption, so that the left-hand integral must equal zero. The integrand is either
everywhere zero or positive. If positive somewhere, then the integral cannot be
zero, giving a contradiction. Therefore u
i
and hence τ
i j
must be zero throughout
R
x
\R
5
.
4.7.2 Edge Conditions
To prove uniqueness (or, in fact, to prove Proposition 4.1 and hence all the
subsequent propositions), it was essential that we be able to use Gauss’ theorem.
Thus the wavefields must have a certain measure of continuity on the surfaces.
In the simpler proofs one asks that the partial derivatives be continuous apart
from finite jumps (Courant and John, 1989; Kellogg, 1970). In Fig. 4.2 a sketch
of the region R, in cross section, with a lancet-shaped singularity whose edge
is perpendicular to the page, is given. The wavefield is singular there. The
5
Note that the analytic continuation of a function is unique. Hence, when the unique solution is
determined by setting ω = ω
0
+i , that uniqueness is not lost by taking the limit →0.
70 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
Fig. 4.2. The subregion Ris drawn, in cross section, with a lancet-shaped singularity
whose edge is perpendicular to the page. At such an edge the wavefield is singular. The
edge is surrounded by a cylindrical region R

with a radius . Both regions are contained
within R
x
.
particle displacement is usually bounded even continuous, but its derivatives
are singular. Thus Gauss’ theorem is inapplicable near this edge without a cer-
tain amount of care being taken.
To investigate what happens at this edge, we surround it with a region
R

whose surface is ∂R

. This region does not intrude into (is disjoint from)
R. Again it is useful to define R and R

as open regions that do not contain
their boundary points. Gauss’ theorem may be applied to the region Q =
R
x
\(R∪R

). The reader should look back at Fig. 4.1 and thereby recall that R
and R

are both contained within R
x
. The surface ∂Q = ∂R
x
∪ ∂(R ∪ R

).
Now (4.46) is written as
[(ω
2
)

−ω
2
]

Q
ρu

l
u
l
dV =

∂Q

j i
u

i
−τ

j i
u
i
) ˆ n
j
dS. (4.47)
To complete the uniqueness proof we must ask additionally that
lim
→0

∂R

τ
j i
u

i
ˆ n
j
dS

= 0. (4.48)
Then the right-hand side of (4.47) goes to zero subject to (4.48) being satisfied.
And the uniqueness argument proceeds as before. A condition such as this is
called an edge condition. However, it is more usual to enforce the edge condition
by asserting the nature of the singularity that will be permitted at the edge so
that (4.48) is satisfied. It is important to realize that this singularity must be
specified before the scattering problemis solved and is as important in achieving
a unique solution as is specifying a boundary condition or invoking the principle
of limiting absorption.
Next we shall work through a specific case. However, for an edge, an ele-
ment of surface area S

of ∂R

is O(). Moreover, typically u
i
∼ O(
α
)
and τ
i j
∼ O(
α−1
), where α < 1. Therefore, to satisfy (4.48), we demand
α > 0.
4.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region 71
Fig. 4.3. The subregion Rhas been collapsed to a infinitesimally thin, semi-infinite slit
or crack and ∂R becomes its two surfaces, upper and lower. The edge is perpendicular
to the page, extending inward and outward to infinity. It is surrounded by a cylindrical
region R

with a radius that is smaller than a wavelength.
4.7.3 An Inner Expansion
We nowconsider a specific case of a scatterer with an edge. Figure 4.3 shows the
region R collapsed to a infinitesimally thin, semi-infinite slit or crack defined
by {(x
1
, x
3
)| − ∞ < x
1
≤ 0, −∞ < x
3
< ∞}. Its surface ∂R, the upper
and lower surfaces of the crack, is free of traction. Though R is no longer
bounded, our previous arguments are readily extended to this case. We wish to
find the wavefield in the neighborhood of the edge to determine the nature of
the wavefield’s singularity there.
For simplicity, we take the wavefield to be an antiplane shear one. We seek a
solution to (1.15), in the time-harmonic approximation and expressed in polar
coordinates, namely
(1/r)∂
r
(r∂
r
u
3
) +(1/r
2
)∂
2
θ
u
3
+k
2
u
3
= 0, (4.49)
where k is the wavenumber. At θ = ±π, r = 0, ∂
θ
u
3
= 0. We do not
intend to solve a global problem but merely to explore possible solutions in
the neighborhood of r = 0. Therefore we should use a coordinate expansion in
kr for u
3
beginning with (kr)
α
, 0 < α < 1, with the assumption that kr →0.
However, a bit more insight is gained by introducing the length scale shown
in Fig. 4.3, where k 1. Setting ρ = r/ and w = u
3
/U (U is a max-
imum particle displacement), we reexpress (4.49) in terms of (ρ, θ) and w.
Asymptotically expanding w as
w(ρ, θ) ∼ (k)
α

n≥0
w
n
(ρ, θ)(k)
n
, (4.50)
72 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
we find that the lowest-order term satisfies
(1/ρ)∂
ρ
(ρ∂
ρ
w
0
) +(1/ρ
2
)∂
2
θ
w
0
= 0. (4.51)
The wavefield near the edge is essentially equivalent to the static field. This
further illustrates the principle that a wave has to propagate several wavelengths,
freeing itself of its source, before its propagating character becomes manifest.
An expansion such as (4.50) is called an inner expansion. This expansion will
contain an unknown constant that can be found by matching it to an outer
expansion. The inner expansion connects the source – in this case the crack
tip – with the propagating wavefield, the outer expansion, a few wavelengths
away. This method of analysis is called matching asymptotic expansions (Hinch,
1991; Holmes, 1995). We shall continue with this analysis in Section 5.6.
Subject to the boundary condition stated previously, (4.51), has solutions of
the form
w
0
(ρ, θ) = (Aρ
β
+ Bρ
−β
) sin βθ, (4.52)
where β = (2n+1)/2, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . and Aand B are undeterminedconstants.
To satisfy (4.48), B = 0 and α = β =
1
2
. Larger values of β also give acceptable
solutions, but this is the minimum such value and hence determines the most
singular termallowable. Thus ku
3
∼ (kr)
1/2
A sin(θ/2)+ O[(kr)
3/2
] as kr →0.
Therefore, for a problem with the geometry of Fig. 4.3, we must specify,
when we first formulate the problem, that ku
3
= O[(kr)
1/2
] as kr →0 to ensure
that we arrive at a unique solution.
4.8 Scattering From an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid
To convince the reader of just how powerful and general the foregoing results
can be, in this closing section we extend slightly these results to develop an
expression for the total wavefield present in an ideal fluid that contains an
elastic inclusion. We again take the time dependence as harmonic. The elastic
inclusion, in contrast to the empty cavity of Proposition 4.4, is penetrable.
Waves enter it, reverberate within it, and then reradiate. This calculation is
based on the work of Wickham (1992) and Leppington (1995).
The elastic inclusion occupies a region Rwith surface ∂R. The unit normal
ˆ n points out of R (in contrast with our previous convention). We indicate by
∂R
+
the surface approached fromoutside Rand by ∂R

that approached from
within. Figure 4.1 indicates the geometry, if we imagine that the radius x →∞
and the region S is absent. To indicate when a position vector x identifies a
4.8 Scattering From an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid 73
point in R, we define the function χ(x) as
χ(x) =

1, x ∈ R,
0, otherwise
(4.53)
We treat the inclusion as a linearly elastic solid embedded in a linearly elastic
(ideal) fluid. The equations of motion for an elastic fluid are given by those of
linear elasticity when the shear coefficient is set to zero. The elastic fluid is
compressible but cannot withstand shearing. The equation of motion for the
particle displacement u is
¯
λ∂
i

k
u
k

2
¯ ρu
i
= −¯ ρ f
i
, x ∈ R. (4.54)
The stress tensor is given by τ
i j
= −pδ
i j
, where p, the acoustic pressure, equals

¯
λ∂
k
u
k
. As before, f is the body force per unit mass. The parameters ¯ ρ and
¯
λ
are the density and bulk modulus, respectively, of the elastic fluid. Lastly, there
is another equation of motion, namely ∇ ∧ u = 0, arising because the motion
is irrotational.
We write the equation of motion for the particle displacement u in the elastic
solid in such a way that the solid’s inertial and elastic properties appear as a
body force within the region R. The equation is thus written as
¯
λ∂
i

k
u
k

2
¯ ρu
i
= −∂
j
σ
j i
−ωp
i
, x ∈ R. (4.55)
The right-hand terms are given by
σ
i j
= (λ −
¯
λ)δ
i j

k
u
k
+µ(∂
i
u
j
+∂
j
u
i
), (4.56)
p
i
= ω(ρ − ¯ ρ)u
i
. (4.57)
Next we imagine that an incident wavefield u
i
scatters from the elastic in-
clusion, giving rise to the scattered wavefield u
s
. The total wavefield u(x) =
[1−χ(x)]u
i
(x) +u
s
(x). Across the surface ∂Rthe normal components of par-
ticle displacement and traction are continuous and the tangential components
of traction vanish. We express these conditions as
[u
s
j
] ˆ n
j
= −u
i
j
ˆ n
j
,


k
u
s
k

δ
i j
ˆ n
j
= −∂
k
u
i
k
δ
i j
ˆ n
j

j i
ˆ n
j
/
¯
λ. (4.58)
The symbol [· · ·] indicates the jump in going from ∂R
+
to ∂R

.
Taken together, (4.55)–(4.58) capture the concept that the elastic solid is
an inclusion within a host material, the elastic fluid, with the departure of the
74 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
properties of the solid from those of the fluid expressed as body force terms on
the right-hand side of (4.55) and in the conditions across ∂R, (4.58).
Our goal is to use Propositions 4.2–4.4, or a slight variation of them, to give
an integral representation for u as a volume integral over R that contains σ
i j
and p
i
. To do so we need the Green’s tensor for the elastic fluid. This satisfies
an equation analogous to (4.6), namely
¯
λ∂
i

k
u
G
km
+ ¯ ρω
2
u
G
i m
= −¯ ρδ
i m
δ(x). (4.59)
It is calculated exactly as outlined in Proposition 4.2 and is given by
u
G
i k
= 1/k
2
c
2
[−∂
i

k
(e
i kx
/4πx) +∂
m

m

i k
/4πx)]. (4.60)
Note that this is not the usual Green’s function for linear acoustics, which
function is the response to a mass flux at a single point. However, it is the
correct Green’s tensor when one considers the fluid as elastic and seeks its
response to a force acting at a single point. For a point force in the direction ˆ a,
the reader is asked to verify that u
G
i k
ˆ a
k
is irrotational, provided x = 0.
Next we apply arguments identical to those used in Propositions 4.4 and then
in 4.3. The reciprocity relation is applied to the complement of R. The Green’s
tensor is one reciprocating wavefield and u
s
the second. The outcome is
u
s
m
(x)[1 −χ(x)] = −c
2

∂R
+

u
G
j m
(x − x

)∂
k
u
s
k
(x

)
−u
s
j
(x

)∂

k
u
G
km
(x − x

)

ˆ n
j
dS(x

). (4.61)
The wavespeed c = (
¯
λ/¯ ρ)
1/2
. The prime indicates that the derivative is taken
with respect to x

. The unit normal ˆ n points out of R rather than out of its
compliment.
Next consider the region R. Arguments that combine those used in both
Propositions 4.3 and 4.4 are used. Again the reciprocity relation is applied, but
now within R itself. The Green’s tensor is one reciprocating wavefield and u
s
the second. The outcome is
u
s
m
(x)χ(x) =
1
¯ ρ

R
[∂
i
σ
i j
(x

) +ωp
j
(x

)]u
G
j m
(x − x

)dV(x

)
+c
2

∂R

u
G
j m
(x − x

)∂
k
u
s
k
(x

)
−u
s
j
(x

)∂

k
u
G
km
(x − x

)

ˆ n
j
dS(x

). (4.62)
Recall that within R, u = u
s
. We add (4.61) and (4.62) to obtain the following
4.8 Scattering From an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid 75
representation for u
s
.
u
s
m
(x) =
1
¯ ρ

R
[∂
i
σ
i j
(x

) +ωp
j
(x

)]u
G
j m
(x − x

)dV(x

)
− c
2

∂R

u
G
j m
(x − x

)


k
u
s
k

(x

)

u
s
j

(x

)∂

k
u
G
km
(x − x

)

ˆ n
j
dS(x

). (4.63)
As it stands, this is a remarkable expression. First note that the departure of the
properties of the elastic solid from the host elastic fluid appears as a body force
term in the integral over R. Second note that the jumps [u
s
j
] ˆ n
j
and [∂
k
u
s
k

i j
ˆ n
j
,
given by (4.58), are present in the integral over ∂R. The superscripts ± on ∂R
have served their purpose and are omitted from now on.
Now we imagine that the region R contains only the incident wavefield u
i
and use the reciprocity relation along with the Green’s tensor to write
u
i
m
(x)χ(x) = c
2

∂R

u
G
i m
(x − x

)∂
k
u
i
k
(x


i j
− u
i
j
(x

)∂

k
u
G
km
(x − x

)

ˆ n
j
dS(x

). (4.64)
This in itself is a interesting result. It is called an extinction theorem,
6
and it
indicates that the surface integral vanishes for observation points x outside R.
We now subtract (4.63) from (4.64) to obtain
u
m
(x) = u
i
m
(x) +
1
¯ ρ

R
[∂
i
σ
i j
(x

) +ωp
j
(x

)]u
G
j m
(x − x

)dV(x

)

1
¯ ρ

∂R

u
G
i m
(x − x


i j
(x

)

n
j
dS(x

). (4.65)
We are almost done, but we are still left with a surface integral. Noting the
divergence termin the volume integral, we make one more application of Gauss’
theorem to give
u
m
(x) = u
i
m
(x) −
1
¯ ρ

R

σ
i j
(x

)∂
i
u
G
j m
(x − x

)
− ωp
j
(x

)u
G
j m
(x − x

)

dV(x

). (4.66)
This is a very satisfying outcome. We have, through successive applications of
the Green’s tensor in combination with the reciprocity relation, shown that the
6
The expressions (4.61) and (4.62) are also examples of extinction theorems.
76 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
total wavefield u outside R equals the incident wavefield u
i
plus a scattered
wavefieldu
s
whose source is the departure of the inertial andelastic properties of
the solidinclusionfromthose of its host, the elastic fluid. However, (4.66) is not a
solution to the boundary-value problem for u
s
. Just as with (4.38), the integral
contains unknown terms. These are σ
i j
and p
i
, which cannot be calculated
without knowing u within R. Thus this expression is only a representation and
not a solution to the problem. However, it can be made the basis for deriving a
system of integral equations for σ
i j
and p
i
. One uses (4.66) in (4.56) and (4.57)
to enforce self-consistency (Leppington, 1995).
References
Achenbach, J.D. 1973. Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids, pp. 96–110. Amsterdam:
North-Holland.
Achenbach, J.D., Gautesen, A.K., and McMaken, H. 1982. Ray Methods for Waves in
Elastic Solids, pp. 22–27 and 34–38. Boston: Pitman.
Courant, R. and John, F. 1989. Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, Vol. II,
pp. 597–602. New York: Springer.
deHoop, A.T. 1995. Handbook of Radiation and Scattering of Waves. London:
Academic.
Delves, L.M. and Mohamed, J.L. 1985. Computational Methods for Integral
Equations. Cambridge: University Press.
Friedlander, F.G. 1958. Sound Pulses. Cambridge: University Press.
Hille, E. 1973. Analytic Function Theory, Vol. II, pp. 31–36. New York: Chelsea.
Hinch, E.J. 1991. Perturbation Methods, pp. 52–101. Cambridge: University Press.
Holmes, M.H. 1995. Introduction to Perturbation Methods, pp. 47–104. New York:
Springer.
Hudson, J.A. 1980. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves, pp. 106–109.
New York: Cambridge.
Kellogg, O.D. 1970. Foundations of Potential Theory, pp. 84–121. New York:
Frederick Ungar.
Kevorkian, J. 1993. Partial Differential Equations, pp. 64–75 and 94–99. New York:
Chapman and Hall.
Leppington, S.J. 1995. The Scattering of Sound by a Fluid-Loaded, Semi-Infinite Thick
Elastic Plate, pp. 75–105. Manchester: Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of
Manchester.
Sommerfeld, A. 1964a. Optics, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol. IV, pp. 273–289.
Translated by O. LaPorte and P.A. Moldauer. New York: Academic.
Sommerfeld, A. 1964b. Partial Differential Equations in Physics, Lectures on
Theoretical Physics, Vol. VI, pp. 84–101. Translated by E.G. Straus. New York:
Academic.
Wickham, G.R. 1992. A polarization theory for scattering of sound at imperfect
interfaces. J. Nondestr. Eval. 11: 199–210.
5
Radiation and Diffraction
Synopsis
Chapter 5 summarizes the basic propagation processes that are encountered
when studying radiation or edge diffraction. Three problems of progressive dif-
ficulty are studied. We begin by calculating the transient, antiplane radiation
excited by a line source at the surface of a half-space. The Cagniard–deHoop
method is used to invert the integral transforms. We then return to consider-
ing how plane waves and a knowledge of their interactions can be used to
construct more general wavefields. We calculate the time harmonic, inplane ra-
diation, from a two-dimensional center of compression buried in a half-space.
Plane-wave spectral techniques are used and the resulting integrals are ap-
proximated by the method of steepest descents. This method is discussed in
detail. Lastly, we extend our knowledge of plane-wave interactions by calcu-
lating the diffraction of a time harmonic, plane, antiplane shear wave by a
semi-infinite slit or crack. This problem is solved exactly by using the Wiener–
Hopf method and approximately by using matched asymptotic expansions. An
Appendix describing the reduction of the diffraction integral to Fresnel integrals
is included.
5.1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space
We consider an elastic half-space. The x
1
coordinate stretches along its surface
and the positive x
2
coordinate extends into the interior. At the origin a line load
is applied to an otherwise traction-free surface. The line load is a tangentially
acting force very localized in x
1
and directed from−∞to ∞in the x
3
direction.
The equations of motion are given by (1.15) combined with (1.14). On the
surface x
2
=0,
µ∂
2
u
3
=−µδ(x
1
) f (t ). (5.1)
77
78 5 Radiation and Diffraction
The half-space is quiescent for t < 0 so that f (t ) ≡0 and u
3
≡0 for t < 0. The
waves are outgoing from the source. As we have done previously, the subscript
T is dropped.
5.1.1 The Transforms
Cagniard (1962) developed a very instructive way to invert the integral trans-
forms arising in transient wave problems. DeHoop (1960) popularized
Cagniard’s method by making it more readily understood. The essence of the
technique, now referred to as the Cagniard–deHoop technique, is the map-
ping of the phase term, and subsequently the integration contour, of the spatial
inverse transform into a form that allows one to immediately identify the in-
verse temporal transform. What is most satisfying about the technique is that
it shifts the burden of inverting the transform to understanding a mapping that
primarily affects the phase term, the amplitude term being adjusted almost as
an afterthought. And the transform merely provides a shell within which the
mapping lives.
Arguably, the simplest way to understand the technique is to use a one-sided
Laplace transform over time and a two-sided one over space. First, the one-
sided transform over time (1.31) is taken, with the restriction that the transform
variable p remain real and positive. This is not a serious restriction because
we shall not need to invert this transform. Moreover, if necessary, we can
analytically continue the transform into the complex p plane. Second, we take
the two-sided Laplace transform over the spatial coordinate; that is,

¯ u
3
(α, x
2
, p) =


−∞
e
−pαx
1
¯ u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, p) dx
1
, (5.2)
where the overbar indicates the temporal transform. Note that p is used to scale
the spatial transform variable α; α is complex. Though we have not used this
transform previously, it is only a slight modification of the Fourier transform
of (1.43). The inverse of (5.2) is
¯ u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, p) =
p
2πi

+i ∞
−−i ∞
e
pαx
1

¯ u
3
(α, x
2
, p) dα, (5.3)
where ≥0.
Applying the transforms over t and x
1
leads to the ordinary differential
equation
d
2∗
¯ u
3

dx
2
2
− p
2
χ
2 ∗
¯ u
3
=0, χ =(s
2
−α
2
)
1/2
. (5.4)
5.1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space 79
The slowness s =1/c is used instead of the wavespeed c. The solution must
be selected in such a way that the outgoing condition is enforced. This can
be achieved by asking that
1
(χ) ≥0 ∀α and taking as the solution

¯ u
3
=
A(α, p)e
−pχx
2
. Enforcing the transformed boundary condition at x
2
=0 gives
A(α, p) =
¯
f ( p)/( pχ). Inverting in α by using (5.3) gives
¯ u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, p) =
¯
f ( p)
2πi

+i ∞
−−i ∞
e
pαx
1
e
−pχx
2
χ
dα. (5.5)
Next, inverting in time gives
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) = f (t ) ∗ I (x
1
, x
2
, t ), (5.6)
where the centered asterisk indicates a convolution in t . Hence, we are left with
inverting the integral
¯
I (x
1
, x
2
, p) =
1
2πi

+i ∞
−−i ∞
e
pαx
1
e
−pχx
2
χ
dα. (5.7)
The has been added to the inversion contour in (5.3), and hence (5.7), so
that should the contour be rotated to give a standard Fourier transform, the
contour will pass above and below the branch cuts in such a way that −pχ,
with p =−i ωand ω > 0, will give an outgoing wave for x
2
> 0 in the integrand
of (5.7).
5.1.2 Inversion
To make further progress we must decide how to cut the α plane. The cuts are
not the same as those indicated previously, because we are now using a Laplace
rather than a Fourier transform. Nevertheless the reasoning is identical to that
given in Section 3.4.4. Note that χ =−i γ , where γ is given by (3.51). Thus,
for (χ) ≥0 ∀ α, (γ ) ≥0 ∀α and the branch cuts shown in Fig. 5.1 follow.
Here χ is given as
χ =(r
1
r
2
)
1/2
e
i θ
1
/2
e
i θ
2
/2
e
−i π/2
, (5.8)
where (r
i
, θ
i
) are defined in Fig. 5.1. The angle θ
1
∈ (0, 2π) and θ
2
∈ (−π, π).
Note that the sign of (χ) varies from quadrant to quadrant, as indicated in the
caption to Fig. 5.1.
1
In the absence of propagation, we are asking that the components of the disturbance decay toward
infinity. For p that is real and positive, this choice will give us the freedom to distort, almost
anywhere, the spatial inversion contour in the complex α plane.
80 5 Radiation and Diffraction
Fig. 5.1. The complexα plane cut sothat (χ) ≥ 0 ∀α. Inquadrants 1and2, (χ) > 0,
and in quadrants 3 and 4, (χ) < 0. The magnitude r
i
and argument θ
i
for each radical
are shown. Contrast this figure with Fig. 3.7.
We start by mapping the variable of integration fromα to t , without assigning
any physical meaning to t . That is,we set
t (α) =−αx
1
+χx
2
. (5.9)
The variable t traces out a contour in the complex t plane as α ranges from
(− −i ∞) to ( +i ∞). However, rather than look at the t plane, we find
that it is simpler to continue examining the α plane. Setting x
1
=r cos θ and
x
2
=r sin θ, where r =(x
2
1
+x
2
2
)
1/2
, we use (5.9) to find α as a function of t .
A quadratic equation for α is arrived at, and when solved gives the two roots
α
±
=−
t
r
cos θ ±i sin θ

t
2
r
2
−s
2

1/2
. (5.10)
We next ask, along what contour in the α plane is t real and positive, and can
we distort the current contour to that one? The answer to the latter question is
yes, for x
2
> 0, because, with p real and positive, the integral (5.7) is conver-
gent throughout the particular Riemann sheet we are working on. Figure 5.2
indicates the answer to the former question. The original contour is shown by
the heavy, dashed line and the new one by the solid line. The new contour has
two branches evinced by the subscripts plus and minus attached to the α. Elim-
inating the parameter t shows that the curve is a hyperbola with asymptotes

±
)/(α
±
) =∓tan θ. The parameter t starts at sr, where α
±
=−s cos θ,
and goes to ∞ along each branch α
±
. This contour is the Cagniard–deHoop
5.1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space 81
Fig. 5.2. A sketch of the original contour (heavy, dashed line) and the Cagniard–
deHoop contour (solid line) in the complex α plane. Also shown are the asymptotes
(light, dashed lines) to the Cagniard–deHoop contour and the angle θ. Note how the
angle θ is defined.
contour. One last term is needed, namely

±
dt
=−
1
r
cos θ ±i
t sin θ
r
2
[(t
2
/r
2
) −s
2
]
1/2
. (5.11)
Equation (5.7) can now be written as
¯
I (x
1
, x
2
, p) =
1
2πi


sr

e
−pt
(s
2
−α
2
+
)
1/2

+
dt

e
−pt
(s
2
−α
2

)
1/2


dt

dt. (5.12)
Noting that one component of the integrand is the complex conjugate of the
other, we rewrite the integral as
¯
I (x
1
, x
2
, p) =
1
π


sr
e
−pt


+
/dt
(s
2
−α
2
+
)
1/2

dt. (5.13)
Thus, by inspection,
I (x
1
, x
2
, t ) = H(t −sr)
1
π


+
/dt
(s
2
−α
2
+
)
1/2

, (5.14)
where H(x) is the Heaviside function.
The burden of the inversion has rested with the mapping from the α plane
to the t plane by using (5.9) and its inverse (5.10). Recall, however, that a
convolution integral (5.6) must still be evaluated. Moreover, the example just
82 5 Radiation and Diffraction
given is a particularly simple instance of this mapping, and indeed Cagniard
(1962) should be explored for more complicated cases.
It is also of interest to note the form of (5.13). It is precisely of the form
needed to approximate it, for large p, using Watson’s lemma, something we
discuss in Section 5.3.1. With a bit of exploring, we should find that in doing
so the leading term is determined by the nature of the singularity in the dα
+
/dt
of the integrand. Using a Tauberian theorem (van der Pol and Bremmer, 1950),
we can construct an approximation to I (x
1
, x
2
, t ) for t near sr. This is called
a wavefront approximation. This technique is described, within the context of
elastic waves, by Knopoff and Gilbert (1959) and is used extensively by Harris
(1980a,1980b). It is also briefly explored in Problem 5.3.
Problem 5.1 Half-Plane and Strip Problems
Problem 1. Consider the half-space {(x
1
, x
2
)| −∞< x
1
<∞, x
2
≥0}. It
is subjected, at x
2
=0, to the antiplane traction
τ
23
=−µ H(x
1
)d f /dt (5.15)
f (t ) ≡0 for t < 0. Determine the particle displacement u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) in the
interior by using the Cagniard–deHoop technique to invert the transforms. The
integrand of the inverse spatial transformwill have a pole and two branch points.
Identify the waves represented by the pole term and by the integral taken along
the Cagniard–deHoop contour.
Problem 2. A simple variation to Problem 1 is to consider exactly the same
problem except that (5.15) is replaced by
τ
23
=−µd f /dt [H(x
1
+a) − H(x
1
−a)], (5.16)
where a is a constant. Determine u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) for this case.
5.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I
Finding the response of an elastic half-space to a point or line load applied
either at its surface or buried just below it is possibly the most studied problem
in elastic waves. It is usually called Lamb’s problem. Ewing et al. (1957) and
Cagniard (1962) are primary references to these problems, though all the books
on elastic waves cited previously discuss them. We limit our discussion to
calculating the response of an elastic half-space to a time-harmonic line of
compression (a two-dimensional center of compression) by using the plane-
wave spectral approach.
5.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I 83
We consider an elastic half-space, identical to that discussed in Section 5.1,
with a line of compression located at (0, h). A source of this kind was intro-
duced in Section 4.3.1 and explored further in Problem 4.2. The outcome of
that problem suggests that the present calculations are most easily begun by
working with potentials. The potentials and their governing equations are given
by (1.19)–(1.22). The vector potential ψ =ψˆ e
3
, so that the divergence condi-
tion is automatically satisfied. The potentials are divided into two parts, namely
ϕ
t

i
+ϕ and ψ
t
=ψ. The terms ϕ
t
and ψ
t
are the total compressional and
shear potentials, respectively. The term ϕ
i
is that excited by the line of com-
pression in the absence of the traction-free surface and the terms ϕ and ψ are
the compressional and shear potentials scattered from the surface. The source
is time harmonic, and we suppress that dependence.
The term ϕ
i
satisfies

α

α
ϕ
i
+k
2
L
ϕ
i
= F
0
δ(x)δ(y −h), (5.17)
an equation almost identical to (4.17). The constant F
0
has the dimensions of
length squared. It is sometimes useful to set F
0
= A/k
2
L
, where A is a dimen-
sionless constant. The potentials ϕ and ψ satisfy the same equation, but with
no source term on the right-hand side, and in the equation governing ψ, with
k
L
replaced by k
T
. Note that (4.18) gives the solution to (5.17). Written here
using a different notation, the solution is
ϕ
i
=
−i F
0

C
β
e
i (βx
1

L
|x
2
−h|)

γ
L
. (5.18)
The radical γ
L
=(k
2
L
−β
2
)
1/2
. Note that γ
L
=i γ , where γ is the radical defined
by (3.51)
2
. We ask that (γ
L
) ≥0 ∀β. The radical γ
T
=(k
2
T
−β
2
)
1/2
, which
will soon be needed, is defined in the same way. This leads to the complex plane
structured as indicated in Fig. 5.3 (imagine the branch cuts for γ
L
and γ
T
lying
on top of one another). The contour C
β
is also shown.
The total particle displacement u
t
=u
i
+u, the incident plus scattered wave-
fields. For x
2
< h, u
i
is given by
u
i
=
F
0

C
β
(βˆ e
1
−γ
L
ˆ e
2
) e
i [βx
1

L
(h−x
2
)]

γ
L
. (5.19)
We next introduce the Sommerfeld transformation β =k
L
cos α, γ
L
=k
L
sin α
first introduced in (2.37). Then (5.18) becomes
u
i
=−
k
L
F
0

C
ˆ p
0
(α)e
i k
L
ˆ p
0
·x
e
i k
L
h sin α
dα, (5.20)
2
γ
L
is the radical noted at the end of Section 3.44 and there labeled ξ.
84 5 Radiation and Diffraction
Fig. 5.3. The complex β plane cut so that (γ
I
) ≥0 ∀β, where I = L, T. In quadrants
1 and 2, (γ
I
) > 0, and in quadrants 3 and 4, (γ
I
) < 0. The contour C
β
is shown, as
are the Rayleigh poles at ±k
r
.
where
ˆ p
0
(α) =cos α ˆ e
1
−sin α ˆ e
2
. (5.21)
In writing (5.20), we have used a notation very similar to that of Section 3.1.
Here (5.21) is identical to (3.2) with θ
0
=π/2 +α, though we now use α as
the independent variable. The α plane, with the contour C, is shown in Fig. 5.4.
We discuss its topography further in Section 5.4.
The integrand of (5.20) is a plane, compressional wave incident to the
traction-free surface x
2
=0. Using as the integrands the reflected plane, com-
pressional and shear waves calculated in Section 3.1, we can construct the
scattered wavefields such that the boundary condition is satisfied, as well as the
condition that the scattered wavefields be outgoing. The total scattered wave-
field u =u
sL
+u
sT
, where the first termrepresents the scattered compressional
wavefield and the second the scattered shear wavefield. These wavefields are
given by
u
sL
= −
k
L
F
0

C
ˆ p
1
(α)R
L
(α)e
i k
L
ˆ p
1
·x
e
i k
L
h sin α
dα, (5.22)
u
sT
= −
k
L
F
0

C
ˆ
d
2
(α)R
T
(α)e
i k
T
ˆ p
2
·x
e
i k
L
h sin α
dα. (5.23)
5.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I 85
Fig. 5.4. The complex α plane. The branch cuts with branch points α
T
and π −α
T
, the
two Rayleigh poles α
r
and π −α
r
, and the contour C are indicated. Moreover, the saddle
point θ
1
, for the compressional wave, and the contour of steepest descents C
s
, with its
asymptotes at θ
1
±π/2, are also indicated. Quadrants 1 and 2 of Fig. 5.3 are mapped
into quadrants 1

and 2

. Note how part of the contour of steepest descents passes onto
the other Riemann sheet. This is indicated by the dashed portion of the contour.
The several unit vectors are given by
ˆ p
1
(α) =cos α ˆ e
1
+sin α ˆ e
2
, (5.24)
ˆ p
2
(α) =cos ¯ α ˆ e
1
+sin ¯ α ˆ e
2
, (5.25)
and
ˆ
d
2
(α) = ˆ e
3
∧ ˆ p
2
(α). (5.26)
These are identical to the unit vectors defined in Section 3.1 by (3.4), (3.6) and
(3.7), when θ
0
=π/2 +α and θ
2
=π/2 + ¯ α. The two reflection coefficients
R
L
(α) and R
T
(α) are also given by (3.10)–(3.12). The independent variable is
taken as α, with the understanding that c
−1
L
cos α =c
−1
T
cos ¯ α is used to relate
α to ¯ α. Expressing the reflection coefficients in terms of α and ¯ α, we have
R
L
(α) = A

(α)/A
+
(α), (5.27)
R
T
(α) = 2κ sin 2α cos 2α/A
+
(α), (5.28)
86 5 Radiation and Diffraction
with
A

=sin 2α sin 2¯ α ∓κ
2
cos
2
2¯ α (5.29)
and κ =c
L
/c
T
.
Defining X = x
1
ˆ e
1
+(x
2
+h)ˆ e
2
, we can write the phase of the integrand of
(5.22) as e
i k
L
ˆ p
1
·X
, implying that the scattered compressional wave appears to
come from a virtual line of compression at (0, −h). The phase of the integrand
of (5.23) is complicated by the term e
i k
L
h sin α
. The scattered shear wave does
not appear to come from a virtual line source. We indicate subsequently that its
virtual source is a caustic.
Problem 5.2 Lamb’s Problem
The problem of a buried line of compression is often solved differently from
the method we have just used. The present problemindicates this more common
method.
Continue to work with the potentials. To apply the boundary conditions, the
reader will need τ
12
and τ
22
expressed in terms of the potentials. Accordingly,
show that
τ
12
= µ(2∂
1

2
ϕ +∂
2

2
ψ −∂
1

1
ψ), (5.30)
τ
22
= λ∂
α

α
ϕ +2µ(∂
2

2
ϕ −∂
2

1
ψ). (5.31)
Take a Fourier transform in x
1
of (5.17) and solve the ordinary differential
equation in x
2
. Note that [d
2

ϕ
i
]
h+
h−
= F
0
. Thus show that

ϕ
i
(β, x
2
) =−
i F
0

L
e
i γ
L
|x
2
−h|
. (5.32)
Showthat the transformed, scattered potentials are given by

ϕ =(β)e
i γ
L
x
2
and

ψ =(β)e
i γ
T
x
2
. Are the radicals γ
I
identical to those defined previously?
Expressing the traction terms as τ
t
i j

i
i j

i j
, the boundary conditions at
x
2
=0 become τ
12
=−τ
i
12
and τ
22
=−τ
i
22
. Enforce the boundary conditions in
the transform domain to show that
(β) =
i F
0

L
e
i γ
L
h

k
2
T
−2β
2

2
−4β
2
γ
L
γ
T

R(β)
, (5.33)
and find a similar expression for (β). The function R(β) is the Rayleigh
function, (3.47), multiplied by ω
4
to account for the change in scaling.
5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 87
Lastly, calculate the x
1
component of the scattered particle displacement,
u
1
=u
sL
1
+u
sT
1
. Show that
u
sT
1
=
F
0

C
β
U
sT
(β)e
i (βx
1

T
x
2
)
e
i γ
L
h
dβ, (5.34)
where
U
sT
=
2βγ
T

k
2
T
−2β
2

R(β)
. (5.35)
Find the expression for u
sL
1
.
5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals
The calculations of the previous section, as well as those undertaken in the pre-
vious chapters, have indicted how readily one arrives at integrals such as (5.22)
or (5.23). We now consider their asymptotic approximation when k
I
r →∞;
that is, when the distance r is many wavelengths long. Asymptotic approxima-
tions give a satisfying interpretation to these integrals as ray fields. This is a
another way of generating asymptotic approximations such as those discussed
in Section 2.4. We are then concerned with integrals of the form
I (κ) =

C
1
f (z)e
κq(z)
dz, (5.36)
where q(z) =u(x
1
, x
2
) +i v(x
1
, x
2
). Also note that I (κ) is also dependent on the
contour of integration C
1
, though that dependence is seldomexplicitly indicated.
The parameter
3
κ, which is often k
I
r, is assumed to be real, positive and large,
though the approximations can (with care) be analytically continued to sectors
of the complex κ plane.
5.3.1 Watson’s Lemma
To facilitate our work we need to study briefly the gamma function and two of
its friends. We define the gamma function
4
as
(z)! :=


0
e
−t
t
z
dt, (5.37)
3
The first step in asymptotically approximating an integral is to scale the variables so that the
large parameter κ can be clearly identified. This scaling and identification depends a good deal
on the situation of interest. Harris (1987) indicates how these decisions can effect approximating
diffraction from an aperture, while Carrier et al. (1983) indicate how they affect the asymptotic
approximation of a Hankel function.
4
(z)! is also written as (z +1).
88 5 Radiation and Diffraction
the incomplete gamma function as
γ (z, x) :=

x
0
e
−t
t
z−1
dt, (5.38)
and the complement to the incomplete gamma function as
(z, x) : = (z −1)! −γ (z, x),
=


x
e
−t
t
z−1
dt. (5.39)
These definitions are for (z) > 0, though the functions can be analytically
continued to (z) < 0. We take x as real and positive.
Lemma.
(a, x) ∼e
−x

n≥1
(a −1)!
(a −n)!
x
a−n
, x →∞, (5.40)
where a and x are real and positive.
Proof The following proof is from Copson (1971), but it is repeated here
both for completeness and because it illustrates a very simple but useful way
to generate an asymptotic approximation to an integral, namely integration by
parts. After N such integrations (5.39) becomes
(a, x) =e
−x
N

n=1
(a −1)!
(a −n)!
x
a−n
+
(a −1)!
(a − N −1)!
(a − N, x). (5.41)
To estimate the magnitude of the remainder term, we note that

(a −1)!
(a − N −1)!


x
e
−t
t
a−N−1
dt

<

(a −1)!
(a − N −1)!

x
a−N−1


x
e
−t
dt
=

(a −1)!
(a − N −1)!

x
a−N−1
e
−x
, (5.42)
for N > (a −1). Equation (5.40) follows.
We begin by considering (5.36) with a contour C
1
that begins at a finite point
z
1
and extends to ∞ in a sector of the complex plane wherein the integral is
convergent. We assume that d
z
q =0 even at the end point z
1
. We look for a
contour C
2
from z
1
to ∞ along which q(z) <q(z
1
) and q(z) =q(z
1
).
5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 89
First, we map the z plane into the s plane by using
s =q(z
1
) −q(z). (5.43)
Second, we deform the contour in the s plane to one along the real s axis from
zero to ∞. As with the Cagniard–deHoop contour, one seldom works directly
in the s plane. Rather it is the contour C
1
in the z plane that is deformed to a
new contour C
2
in that plane. Any poles or branch cuts encountered during the
deformation must be appropriately surrounded and their contributions added to
the asymptotic approximation of the integral, though we do not include such
contributions here.
With the change of variables of (5.43) we introduce the function G(s) =
−f (z)/d
z
q and write G(s) as G(s) = g(s)s
λ
, where g(s) is analytic at s =
0 (z = z
1
) with a radius of convergence ¯ r. The term s
λ
includes any singularity
at s =0 either from f (z) itself or as a result of mapping to the s plane. The
integral now assumes the form exp[κq(z
1
)]J(κ), where J(κ) is given by (5.44).
Proposition 5.1 (Watson’s Lemma). Consider the integral
J(κ) =


0
g(s)s
λ
e
−κs
ds, (5.44)
arrived at by the change of variables described in the preceding paragraphs.
λ >−1. Let real constants K and b exist so that |g(s)| ≤ Ke
bs
as s →∞. Let
g(s) be analytic at s =0 so that for s ∈ [0,r

],
g(s) =a
0
+a
1
s +a
2
s
2
+· · · + R
m+1
(s), (5.45)
with |R
m+1
(s)| ≤Cs
m+1
; ¯ r is the radius of convergence for g(s) and r

< ¯ r.
Then
J(κ) ∼

n≥0
a
n
(λ +n)!
κ
λ+n+1
, κ →∞. (5.46)
Proof This is proven in Copson (1971), Carrier et al. (1983), Ablowitz and
Fokas (1997) and Wong (1989) with greater generality and weaker assumptions
than those stated here.
The integral J(κ) is written as
J =

r

0
e
−κs
s
λ
(a
0
+a
1
s +a
2
s
2
+· · · +a
m
s
m
) ds
+

r

0
e
−κs
s
λ
R
m+1
(s) ds +


r

g(s)s
λ
e
−κs
ds. (5.47)
90 5 Radiation and Diffraction
The first integral is again split into two parts by being written as one from zero
to ∞minus one fromr

to ∞. The integral fromzero to ∞is readily evaluated,
giving
a
0
λ!
κ
λ+1
+a
1
(λ +1)!
κ
λ+2
+· · · +a
m
(λ +m)!
κ
λ+m+1
. (5.48)
Each term of the second integral, say that with index n, is such that


r

e
−κs
a
n
s
λ+n
ds =
a
n
κ
λ+n+1


κr

e
−t
t
λ+n
dt. (5.49)
Noting that the integral on right-hand side is (λ +n +1, κr

), we conclude
from the previous Lemma that each term of this second integral is


r

e
−κs
a
n
s
λ+n
ds = O

e
−κr

κ

. (5.50)
With |R
m+1
(s)| ≤Cs
m+1
, the second integral in (5.47) is such that

r

0
e
−κs
s
λ
R
m+1
(s) ds


C
κ
λ+m+2

κr

0
e
−t
t
λ+m+1
dt
= O

κ
−(λ+m+2)

, (5.51)
where we recognize that the integral on the right is, after a change of variables,
the incomplete gamma function, (5.38). With the use of (5.39) and the previous
Lemma, the ordering follows. Lastly, using |g(s)| ≤ Ke
bs
, as s →∞, and the
previous Lemma, we find that
K


r

e
−s(κ−b)
s
λ
ds = O

e
−r

(κ−b)
(κ −b)

. (5.52)
All the the bounds are taken as κ →∞. The asymptotic approximation (5.46)
follows.
One simple weakening of the assumptions of this proposition follows imme-
diately by noting that g(s) need only have the asymptotic behavior exhibited
by (5.45) as s →0. This fact and Watson’s lemma are the starting point for the
various Abelian and Tauberian theorems found in Doetsch (1974) or van der
Pol and Bremmer (1950). It also demonstrates the principle that how a function
behaves at its origin is projected into how its transform behaves at infinity and
vice versa.
5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 91
5.3.2 Method of Steepest Descents
We next consider (5.36) with a contour C
1
that stretches across the complex
plane, beginning in one sector of the complex plane at infinity and ending in
another sector at infinity. The contours C
β
and C defining integrals (5.19) and
(5.20) are examples. Assume that (q) has a stationary point at z
s
. We then
deform the contour C
1
into a contour C
s
passing through this point and defined
by q(z) ≤q(z
s
) and q(z) =q(z
s
), assuming, of course, that such a defor-
mation is possible. Pole and branch cut contributions arising from deforming
C
1
to C
s
must be added to the contribution made by the new integral over C
s
,
though they are not explicitly included in the present discussion. If f (z) is an-
alytic and slowly varying near z
s
, the principal contribution to the new integral
comes from z
s
and I (κ) takes the approximate form
I (κ) ≈ f (z
s
)e
i κv(x
1s
,x
2s
)

C
s
e
κu(x
1
,x
2
)
dz. (5.53)
The Steepest Descents Contour
To fix our ideas more precisely, we examine the topography of the function
q(z) =u(x
1
, x
2
) +i v(x
1
, x
2
) near its stationary point z
s
. Our discussion follows
a similar one given in Felsen and Marcuvitz (1994). We assume that q(z) is
analytic in region Q containing z
s
, and that d
z
q =0 but d
2
z
q =0 at z
s
. The
function q(z) satisfies the Cauchy–Riemann equations

1
u =∂
2
v, ∂
2
u =−∂
1
v (5.54)
in Q so that u and v are harmonic functions. Thus, if at (x
1s
, x
2s
) the curvature
of the surface u(x
1
, x
2
) =C, or v(x
1
, x
2
) =C, where C is a constant, is positive
along the x
1
axis, it is negative along the (perpendicular) x
2
axis. The stationary
point z
s
is therefore a saddle point and its neighborhood a col or saddle (Courant
and John, 1974). Figure 5.5 sketches the topography in the neighborhood
of z
s
.
To investigate this neighborhood and the contour C
s
, we parameterize the
contour C
s
with the arclength r so that the directional derivative of u along this
contour is
d
r
u =∂
1
u cos α +∂
2
u sin α, (5.55)
where d
r
x
1
=cos α and d
r
x
2
=sin α. Viewing (5.55) as a function of α, the
direction of maximum change in u is given by
d(d
r
u)/dα =−∂
1
u sin α +∂
2
u cos α =0. (5.56)
92 5 Radiation and Diffraction
Fig. 5.5. A three-dimensional sketch of the topography of (q) =u near z
s
, the sta-
tionary point. The contour C
s
, its arclength r, and the angle it makes with the x
1
axis as
it passes through z
s
are shown.
With the use of the Cauchy–Riemann equations, this equation becomes d
r
v =0.
Therefore v is constant along the same contour on which u changes most rapidly.
However, there are two such contours and we need to select that one along which
u decreases, as we move away from the saddle point z
s
. The contour C
s
along
which v is constant but along which u decreases most rapidly is called the path
of steepest descents, or the steepest descents contour.
To determine this contour, we examine the behavior of q(z) in the neigh-
borhood of z
s
. Expanding q(z) about z
s
gives
exp[κq(z)] ≈exp[κq(z
s
)] exp

(κ/2) d
2
z
q(z
s
)(z −z
s
)
2

, (5.57)
or
exp[κq(z)] ≈ exp[κq(z
s
)]
×exp

(κ/2)

d
2
z
q(z
s
)(z −z
s
)
2

(cos 2ψ +i sin 2ψ)

, (5.58)
where
ψ =arg(z −z
s
) +
1
2
arg

d
2
z
q(z
s
)

. (5.59)
Examining (5.58) indicates that, locally, e
κu
decreases most rapidly and e
i κv
remains constant for ψ =±π/2. This then is the contour C
s
we seek. For
ψ =0 or π, e
κu
increases most rapidly and e
i κv
again remains constant; for
ψ =±π/4 or ±3π/4, e
κu
remains constant and e
i κv
oscillates most rapidly.
These latter contours are paths of stationary phase or stationary phase contours.
5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 93
Note that we could shift the steepest descents contour to pass through a point
higher up the ridge. However, this would mean that the exponential in the inte-
grand would oscillate and, therefore, there could be cancellations, voiding the
assumption that the maximumcontribution to the integral comes fromthis point.
An Isolated First-Order Saddle Point
With the following proposition we put the knowledge just gained into a more
precise form. As with previous propositions, the conditions cited are stronger
than they have to be. Any of the references cited when Watson’s lemma was dis-
cussed also discuss the method of steepest descents fromvarious points of view.
Proposition 5.2. Let the function q(z) =u(x
1
, x
2
) +i v(x
1
, x
2
) be analytic in a
region Q containing z
s
. The point z
s
is a saddle point, and it is isolated and
first order. That is, d
z
(z
s
) =0, but d
n
z
q(z
s
) =0, n ≥2.
Assume that the contour C
1
has been deformed into the steepest descents
contour C
s
defined previously.
Let the function f (z) be analytic in a region R containing z
s
such that
f (z
s
) =0. Moreover, let there be constants K and b such that

2 f (z)[q(z
s
) −q(z)]
1/2
d
z
q(z)

< Ke
b[q(z)−q(z
s
)]
,
as |z| →∞in sectors of the complex plane where C
s
begins and ends.
Then
I (κ) ∼
(−2π)
1/2

κ d
2
z
q(z
s
)

1/2
f (z
s
)e
i κq(z
s
)
+O

κ
−3/2

, κ →∞. (5.60)
The argument of [−2/d
2
z
q(z
s
)]
1/2
is defined by the argument of d
s
z at z
s
.
Proof We again use a mapping that captures the essential topographical
features of the phase function q(z) in the neighborhood of the stationary point.
We map from the z plane to the s plane by using
s
2
=q(z
s
) −q(z). (5.61)
We define the inverse mapping so that, as s varies from −∞to ∞, z traces the
steepest descents contour from beginning to end. Figure 5.5 suggests how the
contour C
s
might look in the z plane. With this change of integration variable,
the integral I (κ) is now given by
I (κ) =e
κq(z
s
)


−∞
G(s)e
−κs
2
ds, (5.62)
94 5 Radiation and Diffraction
where
G(s) = f (z)
dz
ds
,
dz
ds
=
−2s
d
z
q(z)
. (5.63)
Note that at z = z
s
, d
s
z becomes indefinite so that a limit must be taken as
z →z
s
.
We have assumed that f (z) is analytic in a region containing z
s
. Moreover,
d
s
z is also analytic in a region containing s =0 (the singularity is removable).
Thus G(s) is analytic in a region containing s =0 and can be expanded in a
power series with a radius of convergence ¯ r.
G(s) = G(0) +d
s
G(0)s +d
2
s
G(0)(s
2
/2) +· · · + R
2(m+1)
(s), (5.64)
where |s| ≤r

< ¯ r. This expansion is seldom easy to calculate because (5.61)
expanded in a power series in z −z
s
must be inverted to give z = z(s) as a
power series in s. Copson (1935) describes how to invert a series. However, it
is usually enough to calculate only the first term G(0)
5
. Therefore
G(0) = f (z
s
)

dz
ds

s=0
,

dz
ds

s=0
=

−2
d
2
z
q(z
s
)

1/2
. (5.65)
The differential element ds is real and positive along the path of integration, so
that at s =0,
arg

dz
ds

s=0
= arg(dz)
z=z
s
=α. (5.66)
Because G(s) is analytic, |R
2(m+1)
(s)| < Cs
2(m+1)
, where C is a constant.
Moreover, setting G(s) = g(s)s, we note that by hypothesis |g(s)| < Ke
bs
2
as
|s| →∞. At this point we follow a procedure almost identical to that used to
establish Proposition 5.1. Setting I (κ) =exp[κq(z
s
)]J(κ), we write
J =

r

−r

e
−κs
2

G(0) +· · · +d
2m
s
G(0)
s
2m
(2m)!

ds
+ 2

r

0
e
−κs
2
R
2(m+1)
(s) ds +


r

g(s)s e
−κs
2
ds. (5.67)
Estimating the contributions of the various integrals is identical to that used
previously in (5.48)–(5.52). The asymptotic approximation, (5.60), follows.
Note howr

enters the calculation. If r

is small we have not really achieved
very much, so that we want it to be at least O(1). This is what is meant by the
phrase that f (z) be slowly varying near z
s
.
5
If, say, d
2
s
G(0) is the first nonzero term, the pattern of the proof is unchanged.
5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 95
5.3.3 Stationary Phase Approximation
The stationary phase approximation is usually applied to integrals of the form
I (κ) =

x
2
x
1
f (x)e
i κp(x)
dx, x
1
< x
2
, (5.68)
where p(x) is a real function when x is real, and κ is real, positive, and assumed
large. The contour is thus a stationary phase contour. We assume that there is a
first-order stationary point x
s
between x
1
and x
2
.
To asymptotically approximate this integral, we use the method of steepest
descents. We assume i p(z) is analytic in region containing x
s
so that the sta-
tionary point becomes a saddle point. The integration contour is then deformed
to a path of steepest descents passing through x
s
. Using (5.60), we find the
contribution from x
s
is
I (κ) ∼


κ

d
2
x
p(x
s
)

1/2
f (x
s
)e
i [κp(x
s
)±π/4]
, κ →∞. (5.69)
The plus sign is taken for d
2
x
p(x
s
) > 0 and the minus sign for d
2
x
p(x
s
) < 0.
The end point contributions are estimated by using the method outlined in
Section 5.3.1 and Watson’s lemma. The contributions from the end points x
1
and x
2
are
I (κ) ∼
1
i κ

f (x
2
)
d
x
p(x
2
)
e
i κp(x
2
)

f (x
1
)
d
x
p(x
1
)
e
i κp(x
1
)

, κ →∞. (5.70)
The integral (5.68) is asymptotically approximated by the sum of the contribu-
tions given by (5.69) and (5.70).
The references cited in connection with Watson’s lemma discuss the sta-
tionary phase approximation from various other viewpoints and provide more
detailed discussions.
Problem 5.3 Asymptotic Approximations of Integrals
Problem 1. Consider an integral having the form given by (5.7). Show that
the Cagniard–deHoop contour is one of steepest descents and that α =−s cos θ
is a saddle point. The angle θ is that shown in Fig. 5.2.
Problem 2. Consider the integral given by (5.13). Use Watson’s lemma to
show that the first term of an asymptotic expansion in p is
¯
I (x
1
, x
2
, p) ∼
a
0
(−1/2)!
p
1/2
e
−psr
, p →∞. (5.71)
96 5 Radiation and Diffraction
Find a
0
. Invert this to approximate I (x
1
, x
2
, t ). This approximation is accurate
as t →sr (consult Doestch, 1974 or van der Pol and Bremmer, 1950 to learn
why) and is therefore sometimes called a wavefront approximation.
Problem 3. Consider an integral of the form
I (kr) =

C
P(cos α)e
i kr cos(θ−α)
dα, (5.72)
where θ ∈ (0, π). The contour C begins at π −i ∞and ends at i ∞. Sketch the
contour and show that the integral converges provided it begins and ends in
the sectors containing these points. Speculate on the structure that P(cos α)
might be permitted in order that an asymptotic approximation of the integral be
successful. Consider the change of integration variable
τ =2
1/2
e
i π/4
sin[(θ −α)/2]. (5.73)
Show that a deformation of the contour to one along which τ is real gives an
integral along the path of steepest descents C
s
.
5.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II
We nowturn to the asymptotic approximation of the integrals, (5.22) and (5.23),
that describe the wavefield scattered from the traction-free surface.
5.4.1 The Complex Plane
We begin by recalling the Sommerfeld transformation used to arrive at (5.20),
namely
β =k
L
cos α =k
T
cos ¯ α, γ
L
=k
L
sin α, γ
T
=k
T
sin ¯ α, (5.74)
where c
−1
L
cos α =c
−1
T
cos ¯ α and γ
I
=(k
2
I
−β
2
)
1/2
. Moreover, recall Figs. 5.3
and 5.4 where the features of the β plane and the α plane, respectively, are
described. In particular, the contours C
β
and C are indicated there. Section 3.4.3
points out that A
+
(α) is identical to the Rayleigh function, provided the def-
inition of α given in the paragraph preceding (5.27) is used. The integrands
of (5.22) and (5.23) therefore have poles at α
r
and π −α
r
. These are indicated
in Fig. 5.4, as are their β-plane counterparts in Fig. 5.3. These poles give rise
to oppositely directed Rayleigh surface waves.
Before continuing, it is useful to ask what Fig. 5.4 and (5.22) and (5.23)
mean. Consider the values of α to the left of the vertical line through π/2.
5.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II 97
Those to the right have a very similar meaning. From π/2 to zero the incident
compressional wave is composed of plane waves, each incident at the angle
α in this range. They are reflected into plane compressional and shear waves
propagating away from the surface at α and ¯ α, respectively. As α climbs the
imaginary axis, incident inhomogeneous plane waves are added to the overall
incident wavefield. Theydecaytowardthe surface. Reciprocallytheyscatter into
compressional inhomogeneous plane waves that decay away from the surface.
However, as α takes on imaginary values from zero to a critical angle α
T
,
defined by c
−1
L
cos α
T
=c
−1
T
, shear plane waves are still being reflected at the
real angle ¯ α. At the limiting (imaginary) angle α
T
a shear wave grazing the
surface is excited. For values of α beyond α
T
the scattered shear plane waves
are now also inhomogeneous and decay away from the surface. Lastly, note
that as we climb beyond α
T
, we quite quickly encounter the Rayleigh pole at
α
r
. This term must be included in our evaluation of (5.22) and (5.23) when it is
enclosed. Note that the Rayleigh wave could not be excited unless the incident
disturbance contained inhomogeneous waves.
5.4.2 The Scattered Compressional Wave
Setting x
1
=r cos θ
1
and (x
2
+h) =r sin θ
1
, we express (5.22) as
u
sL
=−
k
L
F
0

C
ˆ p
1
(α)R
L
(α)e
i k
L
r cos(α−θ
1
)
dα. (5.75)
To approximate this integral for k
L
r large, we must first ascertain where the
contour of steepest descents C
s
begins and ends, and what it looks like near the
stationary point. Expressing α as α =α
1
+i α
2
,
cos(α −θ
1
) =cos(α
1
−θ
1
) cosh α
2
−i sin(α
1
−θ
1
) sinh α
2
. (5.76)
For the integral (5.75) to converge, [cos(θ
1
−α)] > 0 so that C
s
must begin
and end in a region of the α plane where sin(α
1
−θ
1
) sinh α
2
< 0. That is, the
contour must begin in a region α
1
∈ (θ
1
, π +θ
1
), where α
2
< 0, and end in
α
1
∈ (θ
1
−π, θ
1
), where α
2
> 0.
The function q(α) =i cos(α −θ
1
) and the stationary point, a saddle point, is
given by α =θ
1
. The contour C
s
is described by [q(α)] =1, or, from(5.76), by
cos(α
1
−θ
1
) cosh α
2
=1. (5.77)
Near α =θ
1
, C
s
is described by α
2
=±(α
1
−θ
1
). Because we want [q(α)]
to achieve a maximum along C
s
at θ
1
, α
2
=−(α
1
−θ
1
). Further, for |α| large,
α
1
→±π/2 +θ
1
.
98 5 Radiation and Diffraction
Figure 5.4 indicates the contour C
s
passing through the saddle point θ
1
, as
well as the two limiting lines at α
1
=±π/2 +θ
1
. Note that depending upon
θ
1
, the poles at α
r
and π −α
r
may or may not be enclosed. Problem 5.4 asks
the reader to evaluate the contribution from α
r
. Suppose that θ
1
is such that in
distorting C to C
s
the pole at α
r
is enclosed. From (5.77), the condition for this
first to happen is that cos θ
1
cosh(−i α
r
) =1. This is equivalent to the condition
that cos θ
1r
=c
r
/c
L
, where we have added the subscript r to indicate this special
value. Thus for values of θ
1r
< θ
1
< π/2, no Rayleigh wave is present. If we
inverted our result in time we should find that this is equivalent to asserting
that the Rayleigh wave cannot be excited before the incident compressional
disturbance strikes the surface.
Note also that C
s
passes onto the other Riemann sheet – the dashed portion
in Fig. 5.4 – over part of its path. One must be careful to ensure that when this
happens that one can reemerge onto the Riemann sheet of physical interest. Oc-
casionally one must also be careful that one does not forget to include any pole
contributions that may arise from poles on this other sheet, should they be en-
closed by this excursion. When one cannot reemerge onto the Riemann sheet of
physical interest, then the contour C
s
must instead be wrapped around the branch
cut, on the physically meaningful Riemann sheet, and this contribution asymp-
totically approximated. Harris and Pott (1985) discuss such contributions.
The remaining issue before using the steepest descents result (5.60) is to settle
what the argument of the square root is. Following the rule set out in Proposition
5.2 , arg[−2/d
2
α
q(θ
1
)]
1/2
=3π/4. Putting the various pieces together, we find
that
u
sL

A
4πk
L


k
L
r

1/2
ˆ p
1

0
)R
L

0
)e
i k
L
r
e
−i π/4
, k
L
r →∞, (5.78)
where F
0
= A/k
2
L
has been used. Note that this has given us a representation
of the kind investigated in Section 2.4. The overall structure of (5.78) is that of
a farfield expression for a cylindrical wave radiating from a virtual source at
(0, −h), in agreement with what we indicated previously. At the surface x
2
=0,
r =h/ sin θ
1
is the radius of curvature of the reflected cylindrical wave as it is
just about to form.
5.4.3 The Scattered Shear Wave
Equation (5.23), which is repeated in the following equation, is a somewhat
harder integral to approximate.
u
sT
=−
k
L
F
0

C
ˆ
d
2
(α)R
T
(α)e
i k
T
ˆ p
2
·x
e
i k
L
h sin α
dα. (5.79)
5.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II 99
The complexity arises from the mixing of wave types: an incident compres-
sional wave whose phase lingers in the term e
i k
L
h sin α
and the scattered shear
wave whose phase is e
i k
T
ˆ p
2
·x
. Finding C
s
and investigating it in the neighbor-
hood of the stationary point is similar to that for the compressional case. We
therefore know approximately what C
s
looks like and can apply (5.60) without
working out C
s
in detail. Instead, the key to understanding (5.79) can be found
by considering the geometry of the rays. We know from (5.78) that a steepest
descents approximation will give phase terms that are those of a ray theory.
The first clue can be found by examining (2.51) and (2.56). These expressions
are singular when the distance along the ray is the negative of the radius of
curvature. That is, the radius of curvature has its origin either at a point on a
caustic surface or at a single point. We have seen that the reflected compressional
wave (5.78) appears to originate at the virtual source point (0, −h). In a similar
way we should expect that the reflected shear wave will appear to originate,
if not from a virtual source point, then from a point on a virtual caustic. We
have sketched this possibility in Fig. 5.6. The radius of curvature ρ
T
measures
the distance from a point on the virtual caustic to a point on the surface x
2
=0
at which the scattered shear wave is starting to form. Let s
0
be the distance
the compressional ray propagates from (0, h) to this same point on the surface
and s
2
be the distance the reflected shear ray propagates from this point to the
Fig. 5.6. Asketch of the shear ray scattered fromthe surface when struck by an incident
compressional ray. The compressional ray originates at (0, h) and propagates a distance
s
0
, striking the surface at an angle θ
0
. The scattered shear ray emerges at an angle θ
2
.
It appears to originate from a point on a virtual caustic located by extending the ray
backward a distance ρ
T
.
100 5 Radiation and Diffraction
observation point (x
1
, x
2
). We do not at present have an analytic expression
for ρ
T
, nor do we have one for the virtual caustic. However, we know that
the asymptotic expansion of (5.79) must contain the term (1 +s
2

T
)
1/2
in its
denominator so that we can identify ρ
T
from the final asymptotic expression.
Setting (x
1
−s
0
cos θ
0
) =s
2
cos θ
2
and x
2
=s
2
sin θ
2
, we express (5.79) as
u
sT
=−
k
L
F
0

C
s
ˆ
d
2
(α)R
T
(α)e
(k
T
s
2
+k
L
s
0
)q(α)
dα, (5.80)
where
q(α) =i
k
T
s
2
(k
T
s
2
+k
L
s
0
)
cos( ¯ α −θ
2
) +i
k
L
s
0
(k
T
s
2
+k
L
s
0
)
cos(α −θ
0
). (5.81)
The parameter (k
T
s
2
+k
L
s
0
) is large. The stationary point, a saddle point, is
given by ¯ α =θ
2
and α =θ
0
. This is a manifestation of Fermat’s principle that
the ray path is an extremum. The unknowns at this point can be taken as s
0
, s
2
,
θ
0
, and θ
2
, while x
1
, x
2
and h (=s
0
sin θ
0
) can be considered as given. Note, as
well, that the phase-matching condition c
−1
L
cos θ
0
=c
−1
T
cos θ
2
gives a fourth
relation. Thus we may solve for the unknowns in terms of what is given.
We have enough information at this point to approximate (5.80) by us-
ing (5.60). This gives, after some algebraic manipulation,
u
sT

A
4πk
L


(k
L
s
0
)(1 +s
2

T
)

1/2
×
ˆ
d
2

0
)R
T

0
)e
i (k
T
s
2
+k
L
s
0
)
e
−i π/4
, k
T
s
2
+k
L
s
0
→∞, (5.82)
where again F
0
= A/k
2
L
has been used. The radius of curvature ρ
T
is given by
ρ
T
=s
0
c
L
c
T
sin
2
θ
2
sin
2
θ
0
, (5.83)
and s
0
, s
2
, θ
0
, and θ
2
are determined in terms of x
1
, x
2
, h, and the ratio κ =
c
L
/c
T
. κ is given in terms of Poisson’s ratio by (3.13).
In closing we note that the contour in the β plane, C
β
, Fig. 5.3, could be
distorted so as to wrap around the Rayleigh pole and the branch cuts. This
would give a representation of the wavefields u
sL
and u
sT
that corresponds to
an eigenfunction expansion. Of particular interest is the fact that the spectrum
has a discrete eigenvalue, the contribution of the Rayleigh pole, along with a
continuous distribution of eigenvalues, the contribution from the branch cuts.
Problem 5.4 The Rayleigh Wave
Calculate the Rayleigh-pole contributions to u
sL
and u
sT
, and hence the
Rayleigh wave excited by a harmonic line of compression at (0, h). There are a
5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 101
number of starting points. I should likely begin with (5.22) and (5.23), but this
is not the only starting point.
5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge
The previous problem has considered scattering of a cylindrical wave from an
infinite traction-free surface. The complications came about not only because
both compressional and shear wavefields were scattered from the surface, but
also because the incident wavefield was composed of a complete spectrum of
plane waves. In this section we consider a related problem: one in which the
scatterer has an edge that excites a full spectrum of plane waves, though the
incident wave is a single plane one. Specifically, we consider a time harmonic,
antiplane shear wave normally incident to a semi-infinite slit or crack. The
crack lies along the positive x
1
axis. On both sides, the traction acting on the
surfaces of the crack is zero. Figure 5.7 indicates the geometry of the problem.
The equations of motion are given by (1.14) and (1.15), with the corresponding
time-harmonic equation being given by (2.20). As we have done previously
when dealing with antiplane shear waves, we simplify the notation by dropping
Crack
1
4
5 2
3
x
1
x
2
Fig. 5.7. Asketch of the crack, the cylindrical diffracted wave emanating fromthe crack
tip, and the reflected and transmitted geometrical waves. The rippled arrows indicate
their directions of propagation. Separating the diffracted and geometrical wavefields, in
regions 1,2, and 3, are parabolic shaped, transition, or boundary layers, labeled regions
4 and 5.
102 5 Radiation and Diffraction
the subscript T and use c and k =ω/c as the wavespeed and wavenumber,
respectively.
5.5.1 Formulation
The plane wave u
i
3
, described by
u
i
3
=(A/k)e
i kx
2
, (5.84)
is incident to the crack. The constant A is dimensionless, having been made
so by dividing by k, the wavenumber. The total wavefield u
t
3
=u
i
3
+u
3
, where
u
3
is the scattered wavefield. The boundary and continuity conditions to be
satisfied at x
2
=0 are
µ∂
2
u
t
3
(x
1
, 0
±
) =0, x
1
> 0; u
t
3
(x
1
, 0
+
) =u
t
3
(x
1
, 0

), x
1
< 0. (5.85)
The superscripts ± indicate that the boundary is approached through positive
or negative values of x
2
, respectively. Also we ask that the scattered wave be
outgoing from its source, the crack, and that it therefore satisfy the principle of
limiting absorption (Section 4.4).
Note that x
2
=0 is a plane of reflection symmetry for the problem. As a way
to formulate the problem for the scattered disturbance, the problem is divided
into two, one symmetric and one antisymmetric with respect to this plane.
To begin, we divide the incident wavefield into symmetric and antisymmetric
components as follows.
u
i
3
=(A/2k)(e
i kx
2
+e
−i kx
2
) +(A/2k)(e
i kx
2
−e
−i kx
2
), (5.86)
so that u
i
3
=u
i s
3
+u
i a
3
. We next set the scattered wavefield u
3
=u
s
3
+u
a
3
where
u
s
3
is symmetric and u
a
3
antisymmetric with respect to x
2
=0. The symmet-
ric scattered wavefield is excited by the incident symmetric one and the an-
tisymmetric scattered wavefield by the incident antisymmetric one. The total
wavefield u
t
3
=u
t s
3
+u
t a
3
, where u
t s
3
and u
t a
3
are the symmetric and antisymmet-
ric components, respectively. Lastly, each wavefield, symmetric and antisym-
metric, separately satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions (5.85). The
problem has therefore been divided into two separate ones. Reflecting the sym-
metric problemin the plane x
2
=0 leaves the particle displacement unchanged,
while reflecting the antisymmetric one multiplies it by −1.
We consider the symmetric problem. By construction, ∂
2
u
i s
3
=0 ∀ x
1
at x
2
=
0. From the symmetry, ∂
2
u
s
3
=0 ∀ x
1
at x
2
=0. This and the condition that
the scattered wavefield propagate outward imply that u
s
3
≡0. Therefore the
symmetric part of the incident wavefield remains unaffected by the presence of
5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 103
the crack in its path of propagation. The complete problem is then equivalent
to the antisymmetric one and the scattered wavefield is antisymmetric in x
2
.
Reasserting the decomposition u
t
3
=u
i
3
+u
3
, but noting that u
3
=u
a
3
, we
are led to reformulate the problem, in the half-space x
2
> 0, for the scattered
wavefield u
3
as follows.

α

α
u
3
+(k +i )
2
u
3
=0, (5.87)
subject to the conditions, at x
2
=0,

2
u
3
(x
1
, 0) =−i Ae
−x
1
, x
1
> 0; u
3
(x
1
, 0) =0, x
1
< 0. (5.88)
As well, the condition that u
3
be outgoing and satisfy the principle of limiting
absorption is enforced. It is for this latter reason that the i , 0 < 1, has
been explicitly added to k in (5.87). We set k

=k +i , with k taken as real and
positive. The addition of the e
−x
1
in the boundary condition is an artifice also
neededtoenforce the principle of limitingabsorption. Inthis particular problem,
because the incident wave strikes the crack normally, the scattered wavefield
will contain geometrically reflected waves that, as with the incident wave, do
not vanish as |kx
1
| →∞unless this artifice is used. However, it is not needed
for other angles of incidence, as we indicate in Problem 5.5. Lastly, we must
also append to these equations an edge condition as explained in Section 4.7.2.
In fact we use the analysis of Section 4.7.3 to demand that
ku
3
=O

(kr)
1/2

, kr →0, (5.89)
where r =(x
2
1
+x
2
2
)
1/2
. This condition is essential to ensure that the solution
be unique. The scattered wavefield for x
2
< 0 is found by using the fact that
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
) =−u
3
(x
1
, −x
2
).
We could solve this problem by formulating an integral equation for the
scattered wavefield following the ideas outlined in Problem4.3. We should then
find that the integral equation can be solved by using the Wiener–Hopf method
(Titchmarsh, 1948). However, it is easier, and perhaps just as informative, to
solve the problem directly with the Wiener–Hopf method as used by Jones
(Jones, 1952; Noble, 1988).
5.5.2 Wiener–Hopf Solution
We begin by setting
u
3
(x
1
, 0) =

0, x
1
< 0,
u
3+
, x
1
> 0,
(5.90)
104 5 Radiation and Diffraction

2
u
3
(x
1
, 0) =

τ

, x
1
< 0,
τ
+
=−i Ae
−x
1
, x
1
> 0.
(5.91)
Our strategy in solving the problem for the scattered wavefield is to find a
functional relation between the two unknowns τ

and u
3+
.
We seek a solution to (5.87) by using a representation very similar to that
used previously in Section 2.3.1 (the roles of x
1
and x
2
are interchanged). That
is, we set
u
3
=
1


−∞

u
3+
e
i (βx
1
+γ x
2
)
dβ, (5.92)
where γ =(k
2
−β
2
)
1/2
. The transform

u
3+
remains to be determined. Recall
that x
2
> 0 so that the β plane is cut such that (γ ) ≥0, ∀β. This is the same
choice of Riemannsheet as was takeninSection5.2andfirst explicitlydiscussed
in Section 3.4.4. Figure 5.8 shows the branch points with the accompanying
cuts.
Imposing the conditions at x
2
=0 on (5.92) and using (5.90) gives the
following:

u
3+
=


0
u
3+
(x
1
)e
−iβx
1
dx
1
. (5.93)
With some thought, one realizes that, to the right along the crack in Fig. 5.6,
the dominant wavefield is a plane one, propagating normally away from the
Fig. 5.8. The complex β plane showing the branch cuts, pole at i , and strip of common
analyticity 2 wide. The contour for the inverse transform initially lies within this strip.
As →0 the pole will approach a position just above this contour.
5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 105
crack, but one that is forced to decay as x
1
→∞ because of the e
−x
1
placed
in the first of (5.88). Any other wave present will originate from the crack tip.
6
That part grazing the crack face will also decay as e
−x
1
because k

=k +i .
Thus ku
3+
= O(e
−x
1
) as kx
1
→∞, from which it follows that

u
3+
is an
analytic function of β for (β) < . Noble (1988) discusses in some detail
the conditions needed to ensure that a transform is an analytic function of its
independent variable, while Titchmarsh (1939) discuses this somewhat more
generally. In essence, the transform is an analytic function of its variable β
for those regions of the complex β plane wherein the integral is uniformly
convergent. Also note that the condition that u
3
=0 for x
1
< 0, x
2
=0 has been
built into

u
3+
.
Working next with (5.91), we find that

τ
+
=


0
τ
+
(x
1
)e
−iβx
1
dx
1
=
−A
(β −i )
. (5.94)
Note the pole at i . Further we define the transform

τ

as

τ

=

0
−∞
τ

(x
1
)e
−iβx
1
dx
1
. (5.95)
The crack tip is the only possible source for a scattered wave in x
1
< 0. A
cylindrical scattered wave is emitted from the tip. Thus τ

= O(e
−|x
1
|
) as
kx
1
→−∞, because k

=k +i , from which it follows that

τ

is an analytic
function of β for (β) >−.
We demand that ∂
2
u
3
calculated from (5.92) be consistent with that repre-
sented by (5.94) and (5.95) at x
2
=0. This gives
i γ

u
3+
=[−A/(β −i )] +

τ

, (5.96)
which is the functional relation we are looking for. Note that different parts of
it are analytic in different parts of the complex β plane, but that all parts are
analytic inthe commonstrip(β) ∈ (−, ). The goal of the next fewparagraphs
will be to rearrange this expression so that one side is analytic in the region
(β) >−, while the other is analytic in the region (β) < . The two sides will
6
We need to guess at the kinematics of the scattered wave to deduce where

u
3+
and

τ

are
analytic. Experience with similar problems is how this is done. However, the final answer must
be checked to ensure that it is consistent with these assumptions.
106 5 Radiation and Diffraction
be equal in the common strip and hence will be different representations of the
same function, which function must then be entire. This process is the Wiener–
Hopf method. Proceeding to this relation directly from the transforms, rather
than through first forming an integral equation, is the simplification introduced
by Jones (1952).
We next write (5.96) as
i (k

−β)
1/2 ∗
u
3+
=
−A
(β −i )(k

+β)
1/2
+

τ

(k

+β)
1/2
, (5.97)
so that its left side becomes an analytic function for (β) < . The right side
is almost one for (β) >−, but for the presence of the pole at i . To isolate
the pole term we add and subtract the residue multiplied by (β −i )
−1
. The
outcome is
i (k

−β)
1/2 ∗
u
3+
+
A
(β −i )(k

+i )
1/2
=−A

(k

+i )
1/2
−(k

+β)
1/2
(β −i )(k

+β)
1/2
(k

+i )
1/2

+

τ

(k

+β)
1/2
. (5.98)
We have succeeded in achieving our goal. The left side is analytic for (β) <
and the right side for (β) >−, while the two sides are equal in the common
strip (β) ∈ (−, ). The two sides are thus the analytic continuations of one
another, and together they represent a function analytic everywhere in the finite
β plane. The function is entire and its nature is determined by its behavior at
infinity.
We have still not used the edge condition. This is the condition that tells us
how the entire function behaves at infinity. Recall that we asked that ku
3+
=
O[(k|x
1
|)
1/2
] as k|x
1
| →0. From this we may infer that τ

= O[(k|x
1
|)
−1/2
]
as k|x
1
| →0. Adapting an Abelian theorem k
2 ∗
u
3+
= O(k
3/2
|β|
−3/2
) and
that k

τ

= O(k
1/2
|β|
−1/2
) as k
−1
|β| →∞. Using Liouville’s theorem
(Titchmarsh, 1939) it follows that the entire function must be identically zero.
Therefore

u
3+
=
i A
(β −i )(k

+i )
1/2
(k

−β)
1/2
. (5.99)
Note how the edge condition was essential to the determination of a unique
solution.
5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 107
At this point has served its purpose and we take the limit →0. We are
thus left with an integral expression for the scattered wavefield, namely
u
3
=
i A
2πk
1/2


−∞
e
i (βx
1
+γ x
2
)
β(k −β)
1/2
dβ, (5.100)
where the contour passes below β =0. Integrals of this form or of the form
achieved after using the Sommerfeld transformation are sometimes referred
to as diffraction integrals. In closing, we recall that this is the solution to the
scattered wavefield only for x
2
> 0.
Problem 5.5 An Arbitrary Angle of Incidence
Problem1. Repeat the calculations leading to (5.100) for an arbitrary angle
of incidence θ
0
. The incident wave is given by
u
i
3
=(A/k)e
i k

(cos θ
0
x
1
+sin θ
0
x
2
)
, (5.101)
where k

=k +i and > 0. Initially assume that θ
0
< π/2. Why might this
be a useful restriction? Once the solution is obtained, can the restriction be
removed? Show that the scattered wavefield u
3
is given by
u
3
=
i A
2πk
1/2
sin θ
0
e
i k(cos θ
0
x
1
)
(1 +cos θ
0
)
1/2


−∞
e
i (βx
1
+γ x
2
)
(β −k cos θ
0
)(k −β)
1/2
dβ. (5.102)
Problem 2. The integral (5.102) has a pole at β =k cos θ
0
. Calculate an
asymptotic approximation to (5.102) that is not uniform. Include the pole term
when it it is needed and note when the asymptotic approximation breaks down.
When we calculate a steepest descents approximation to (5.102), we must
take care that the stationary point does not lie near the pole, because in that case
we can no longer argue that the integrand, aside from the exponential term, is
slowly varying. An asymptotic approximation, calculated when one parameter
is large, that becomes disordered for certain values of a second parameter, in
this case the angle of incidence θ
0
, is said not to be uniform. It is uniform when
the approximation is accurate for all values of the second parameter.
5.5.3 Description of the Scattered Wavefield
We have indicated five regions in Fig. 5.6, each of which has a somewhat
different wavefield. In region 1 the wavefield u
3
is composed of a residue term,
from the pole in the integrand of (5.100) at β =0, plus the integral itself. The
108 5 Radiation and Diffraction
residue contribution cancels the u
i
3
so that the crack casts the region behind
it into partial silence. The integral represents a diffracted wave that appears
as a cylindrical one radiating from the crack tip. This is the only wave that
penetrates the silence. In region 2 the wavefield u
3
consists solely of the integral
representing the diffracted wave, though the total wavefield would include u
i
3
as well. In region 3 the wavefield u
3
is again composed of a residue term plus
the integral itself. However, note that in using the antisymmetry, namely that
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
) =−u
3
(x
1
, −x
2
) to calculate u
3
for x
2
< 0, the residue contribution
gives the wave reflected fromthe crack, while the integral continues to represent
the diffracted wave. The incident wave u
i
3
must be added to this to produce the
total wavefield. Regions 4 and 5 are transition or boundary layers. Moving from
left to right through these layers, the scattered wavefield makes a transition
from solely a diffracted wave to a diffracted plus geometrical wave. These
regions are characterized by Fresnel integrals, as we subsequently demonstrate.
Within these regions the diffracted wave comes close to phase matching to the
geometrical wave so that the two kinds of waves strongly interact, thereby
producing a complicated wavefield, but propagate independently elsewhere.
Note that (5.100) contains both the diffracted wave and geometrical terms.
A uniform asymptotic approximation to (5.100) is calculated in Felsen and
Marcuvitz (1994).
7
However, most of the manipulations undertaken to do so
are nomore difficult thanthose neededtoreduce (5.100) toanexact combination
of Fresnel integrals. This reduction is described in detail in the Appendix. The
Fresnel integral is defined as
F(z) :=


z
e
i ξ
2
dξ. (5.103)
We introduce the polar coordinates (r, θ), where x
1
=r cos θ and x
2
=r sin θ.
For x
2
> 0, θ ∈ (0, π], while for x
2
< 0, θ ∈ (0, −π]. The outcome of the cal-
culations described in the Appendix is that
u
3
=
e
−i π/4
A
π
1/2
k

e
−i kr cos(θ−π/2)
F

(2kr)
1/2
cos

θ −π/2
2

−e
−i kr cos(θ+π/2)
F

−(2kr)
1/2
cos

θ +π/2
2

. (5.104)
It is important to note that this expression assumes that x
2
> 0 or, equivalently,
7
The calculation is done by separating a term that contains the pole from the rest of the integrand.
One way to do this is to subtract and add the integrand of (5.125). The integral with no pole term
in its integrand is approximated in the usual way, while the integral with the pole term becomes
a Fresnel integral.
5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 109
θ ∈ (0, π]. To obtain an expression for x
2
< 0, we use the fact that u
3
(r, θ) =
−u
3
(r, −θ).
To calculate the total wavefield, we use the following property of the Fresnel
integral:
F(z) + F(−z) =π
1/2
e
i π/4
. (5.105)
The total wavefield u
t
3
, for θ ∈ (−π, π], is, after adding u
i
3
to (5.104), given by
u
t
3
=
e
−i π/4
A
π
1/2
k

e
−i kr cos(θ−π/2)
F

(2kr)
1/2
cos

θ −π/2
2

+e
−i kr cos(θ+π/2)
F

(2kr)
1/2
cos

θ +π/2
2

. (5.106)
For kr 1 these integrals can be asymptotically approximated. Problem 5.7
describes the asymptotic approximations to the Fresnel integral. When this is
done we find, for θ ∈ (0, π], that
u
t
3

A
k
e
i kx
2
H(−x
1
) + D(θ, π/2)
A
k
e
i kr
(kr)
1/2
, kr →∞, (5.107)
where
D(θ, π/2) =
e
i π/4
2(2π)
1/2

1
cos[(θ −π/2)/2]
+
1
cos[(θ +π/2)/2]

. (5.108)
We find a very similar expression for θ ∈ (0, −π]. Note the similarity in struc-
ture between the expansion (5.107) and the earlier expansion (2.41). The coef-
ficient D(θ, π/2) is called a diffraction coefficient. Its arguments are intended
to suggest that a ray incident to the crack tip at an angle π/2 excites a diffracted
ray that leaves the tip at an angle θ. In fact, there are a whole fan of such rays
as θ is allowed to take on all its values. These coefficients play an important
role in the geometrical theory of diffraction for edges. The interested reader
can pursue this theory further in books by Achenbach et al. (1982), Babiˇ c and
Buldyrev (1991), and Jull (1981). Problem 5.6 introduces some of the ideas
used in this description of diffraction.
The integrals of (5.106) can also be approximated for kr 1, as Problem
5.7 indicates. Any singular behavior as kr →0 is contained entirely within u
3
,
whose approximation in this limit is
ku
3
= O[(kr)
1/2
], kr →0. (5.109)
This reproduces the edge condition we enforced in (5.89).
110 5 Radiation and Diffraction
The approximation (5.107) breaks down near θ =±π/2. Examining (5.106),
we note that one or the other of the arguments of the Fresnel functions changes
sign at these angles. Let us consider the neighborhood of π/2 so that it is the
second Fresnel integral in (5.106) whose argument changes sign. Examining
this argument, we find that if θ is close to π/2 the argument of the Fresnel
integral is too small to approximate it asymptotically, despite kr being quite
large. Thus if
(2kr)
1/2
cos

θ +π/2
2

≤1, (5.110)
suchanapproximationis not accurate. Takingthe equalityas formingthe bound-
ary of the region outside of which the asymptotic approximation is sufficiently
accurate, we find that the boundary is described by kr(1 −sin θ) =1, the equa-
tion of a parabola in polar form. This then marks the boundary of region 4 with
regions 1 and 2. The boundary layer lies within this boundary, and its scale is
set by the expression on the left in (5.110). The boundary of region 5 is simply
the reflection in x
2
=0 of that for region 4.
Problem 5.6 The Geometrical Theory of Diffraction
Consider an antiplane shear wave normally incident to the opening between
two cracks, as shown in Fig. 5.9. Estimate the wavefield diffracted by the strip
by using what has been learned fromthe semi-infinite crack problem. Howdoes
this problem, aside from the fact that the time dependence is harmonic, differ
from Problem 5.1?
Fig. 5.9. Asketch of the strip indicated by the dashed line, formed by two semi-infinite
cracks, indicated by the solid lines. Each crack tip ±b serves as the origin for one of the
polar coordinate systems (s
i
, θ
i
). Here i =1 at b and 2 at −b.
5.6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study 111
As before, express the total wavefield as u
t
3
=u
i
3
+u
3
. The incident wave
is given by (5.84). Are the boundary and continuity conditions at x
2
=0 the
following?
µ∂
2
u
t
3
(x
1
, 0
±
) = 0, x
1
∈ (−∞, −b) ∪(b, ∞),
u
t
3
(x
1
, 0
+
) = u
t
3
(x
1
, 0

), x
1
∈ (−b, b). (5.111)
Formulate the problemfor the scattered wavefield u
3
, in x
2
> 0, stating all the
conditions that must be satisfied. An exact analytic solution to this problemmay
not be possible. Explain, using what has been learned from the semi-infinite
crack problem, why the following expression is a plausible asymptotic solution
to this problem
u
t
3
=
A
k
[H(x
1
+b) − H(x
1
−b)]e
i kx
2
+ D

π −θ
2
,
π
2

A
k
e
i ks
2
(ks
2
)
1/2
+ D

θ
1
,
π
2

A
k
e
i ks
1
(ks
1
)
1/2
, (5.112)
where the coordinates (s
1
, θ
1
) and (s
2
, θ
2
) are defined in Fig. 5.9 and D(θ, π/2)
is given by (5.108). This solution is best for 2kb 1. Why?
Consider the boundary layers surrounding θ
1,2
=π/2. They growin width as
one moves away fromthe edges. At what point do they choke off the geometrical
term given by the first term of (5.112)? The earlier parts of Harris (1987) might
be useful, but are not in any way essential, in answering this last question.
5.6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study
We have just undertaken a relatively complex solution to what, looking at
Fig. 5.7, might seem a simple wave process. After all, to some leading order
of approximation, the crack merely blocks the incident wave from reaching
the other side. In this closing section we construct an asymptotic solution that
captures this idea mathematically. In writing this I have followed a similar
discussion in Zauderer (1983) and benefited from a very detailed analysis of
edge diffraction by Gautesen (1979).
In Section 2.4 we explored howwaves could be approximated by a ray theory
and provided an asymptotic structure that explained the connection. Using this
structure, we begin our analysis of the diffraction problem by assuming that the
wavefield can be described with the asymptotic approximation
u
3
∼e
i kS(x
1
,x
2
)

n≥0
(−i k)
−n
A
n
(x
1
, x
2
). (5.113)
112 5 Radiation and Diffraction
This assumption leads to the eikonal equation (2.43) for S and the transport
equation (2.44) for A
0
.
First, we consider the region x
1
> 0. To match the phase of the incident
wave u
i
3
at x
2
=0, given by (5.84), we ask that S(x
1
, 0) =0 and that the scat-
tered waves be outgoing fromthe crack. The appropriate solution is S(x
1
, x
2
) =
±x
2
H(x
1
), where the plus sign is used for x
2
> 0 and the minus sign for x
2
< 0,
and H(x
1
) is the Heaviside function. Knowing S, the transport equation, (2.44),
indicates that A
0
can have at most an x
1
dependence. Moreover, it must be such
that the traction for the total wavefield vanishes on both sides of the crack. The
appropriate solution is A
0
(x
1
) =∓(A/k) H(x
1
), where the minus sign is used
for x
2
> 0 and the plus sign for x
2
< 0. It also follows that A
n
≡0 for n ≥1.
Second, we consider the region x
1
< 0. There are no boundary conditions to
enforce, leading to the conclusion that A
n
≡0 for n ≥0. Therefore, to leading
order the total wavefield u
t
3
is given by
u
t
3
(x
1
, x
2
) =







(A/k)e
i kx
2
, region 2,
(A/k)(e
i kx
2
+e
−i kx
2
), region 3,
0, region 1,
(5.114)
where the regions are those indicated in Fig. 5.7.
This solution gives the geometrical part of (5.106), but does not capture
the transition in regions 4 and 5. Even in the absence of an exact solution,
we might suspect that our asymptotic ansatz does not have enough struc-
ture to capture the effects of the rapid changes in the wavefield near x
1
=0
just from the apparent discontinuity there. We have encountered a bound-
ary layer. What we need to do is scale the problem in such a way that the
boundary layer is opened up and an equation governing the wavefield within
it found. The scaling needed to open the layer up is usually not known and
must be found as part of discovering the governing equation. We then con-
struct the solution to this equation so that it matches the surrounding wavefield
to some order of approximation. Such a procedure is called matched asymp-
totic expansions. Both Hinch (1991) and Holmes (1995) discuss this technique
thoroughly.
Moreover, recall that, from our analysis in Section 4.7.3, we know that very
near the crack tip the wavefield is quasi-static, with part of it behaving as
(kr)
1/2
. In addition to the boundary layer, that we are about to examine, there
is a nearfield or inner region that is not described by the asymptotic anzatz
(5.113). However, for the present we avoid this nearfield.
5.6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study 113
We consider the case that x
2
> 0 so that θ is near π/2 and leave the case x
2
< 0
to the reader. Examining (5.106), we note that in this region a propagator term
e
i kx
2
always appears. Accordingly, we set
u
3
=w(x
1
, x
2
)e
i kx
2
(5.115)
and arrive at the following equation for w:
2i k∂
2
w+∂
2
2
w+∂
2
1
w =0. (5.116)
We have stripped away the oscillatory part of the wavefield. At this point we
note that if w varies rapidly in the neighborhood of x
1
=0, then ∂
2
1
w may be
very large and to solve the equation we shall need another term to balance it.
The term 2i k∂
2
w seems a likely candidate because it is multiplied by the large
parameter k.
We have indicated previously that a length scale is very important, as it sets
a gauge to measure large and small. The diffraction problem does not have a
natural length scale, so that we must introduce one somewhat artificially, just
as we did when examining the local field near the crack tip in Section 4.7.3. We
again take the length as a reference length. It might represent a wavelength
at a reference frequency or a distance at which a measurement is made. We
then define the nearfield as that for which k 1 and the farfield as that for
which k 1. We are examining the wavefield in the region k 1 with θ
near π/2.
We scale the problem by setting ¯ x
i
= x
i
/ and ¯ w =wk/A (recall that A/k is
a magnitude of the incident wave) and reexpress (5.116) in terms of the scaled
variables. Having done this, we now omit the overbar. Equation (5.116) has
become
2i (k)∂
2
w+∂
2
2
w+∂
2
1
w =0. (5.117)
The argument, expressed in terms of the scaled (x
1
, x
2
), of the second Fresnel
function in (5.106), namely −x
1
(k/2x
2
)
1/2
, suggests the scaling needed to
open up the boundary layer. We set y
1
=(k)
β
x
1
with β =1/2. This change
of coordinate is called introducing a stretching transformation. Note, however,
that we do not in general know β and must determine it from the rescaled
equation by balancing the various terms (Hinch, 1991; Holmes, 1995). In this
case it is the first and third terms in (5.117) that balance. The coordinates (y
1
, x
2
)
are called the inner coordinates and the (scaled) (x
1
, x
2
) the outer coordinates.
114 5 Radiation and Diffraction
We next introduce an asymptotic expansion of the form
w ∼w
0
(y
1
, x
2
) +(k)
γ
w
1
(y
1
, x
2
) . . . , (5.118)
where γ > 0. The leading-order term is governed by the parabolic Schrodinger
equation,
2i (∂w
0
/∂x
2
) +


2
w
0

∂y
2
1

=0. (5.119)
This is the equation governing the behavior of the wavefield in the boundary
layer.
Recalling the fundamental or causal Green’s function for the diffusion equa-
tion (Zauderer, 1983), we write the solution to (5.119) as
w
0
=
1
x
1/2
2


−∞
f

(k)
1/2
s

e
i (y
1
−s)
2
/(2x
2
)
ds. (5.120)
Tofindthe unknown f (x) we express this equationinterms of the outer variables
as
w
0
=
(k)
1/2
x
1/2
2


−∞
f (s)e
i k(x
1
−s)
2
/(2x
2
)
ds. (5.121)
The reader should recall that we are assuming x
2
> 0. This integral can be
asymptotically expanded for large k, provided f (s) does not vary rapidly near
the stationary point s = x
1
. However, the function f (s) must vary rapidly near
x
1
=0 if it is to capture the transition in the boundary layer, so that an asymp-
totic approximation there will not be accurate. However, for |x
1
| > 0 we expect
that the asymptotic approximation to (5.121) should match our earlier approx-
imation to u
3
. That is, w
0
∼0 when x
1
< 0 and w
0
∼−1 for x
1
> 0. Using the
stationary phase approximation, (5.69), or the steepest descents approximation,
we find that
w
0
∼ f (x
1
)(2π)
1/2
e
i π/4
. (5.122)
Thus we find for x
2
> 0 that
f (x
1
) =−e
−i π/4
/(2π)
1/2
H(x
1
). (5.123)
This process of finding f (x
1
) is referred to as matching the inner and outer
expansions. At this point we could now match the nearfield expansion (4.52)
to (5.120) to determine unequivocally that β =1/2 and also to determine the
unknown constant A in the nearfield expansion (4.52) (Gautesen, 1979).
Appendix: The Fresnel Integral 115
Removing all the scaling so that we may compare our result with (5.104), we
find that
u
3
∼−
Ae
−i π/4

1/2
e
−i kx
2
F

−x
1

k
2x
2

1/2

, (5.124)
where F(z) is the Fresnel integral defined previously by (5.103). For x
2
> 0 and
x
1
≈0, (5.104) reduces to this expression. If we need a boundary layer solution
for x
2
< 0, region 5, we use the antisymmetry of the scattered wavefield, namely
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
) =−u
3
(x
1
, −x
2
), which is a global property of the solution.
Had we expanded (5.121) to a second term, we should have encountered a
term O[(k)
−1/2
] but found no similar term in the expansion (5.113) to match
it. Why? The ansatz (5.113) contains only the geometrical wavefield and not the
diffracted one. Examining (5.107), we see immediately that the missing term
comes from the diffracted wavefield. To include this possibility we should have
allowed for fractional powers of k in positing (5.113) just as we did with the α in
(2.41). Had we not known the solution nor suspected what was going on, the fail-
ure to match at higher order would have indicated that something was missing.
Appendix: The Fresnel Integral
Our purpose is to derive the expression (5.104). The integral to be evaluated is
(5.100), which we rewrite here.
u
3
=
i A
2πk
1/2

C
β
e
i (βx
1
+γ x
2
)
β(k −β)
1/2
dβ. (5.125)
An integral that has a pole and stationary point (usually a saddle), points that
maycoalesce for certainvalues of the physical coordinates, is calleda diffraction
integral. The essence of its evaluation is to reduce it to one on its contour of
steepest descents. I follow the derivation given in Born and Wolf (1986). It is
repeated here so that the calculation begun in Section 5.5 can be completed.
Recall that the diffraction integral is evaluated along the contour C
β
that
passes below the pole at β =0. We use the Sommerfeld transformation β =
k cos α and γ =k sin α and introduce the coordinates (r, θ) by setting x
1
=
r cos θ and x
2
=r sin θ to reduce (5.125) to an integral over the contour C in
the α plane, namely
u
3
=−
i A
2
1/2
πk

C
cos(α/2)
cos α
e
i kr cos(α−θ)
dα. (5.126)
Note that the contour now passes above the pole at α =π/2.
116 5 Radiation and Diffraction
Fig. 5.10. The complex β plane for the diffraction integral, showing the contour C
β
,
is sketched on the left. The complex α plane, showing the contours C and −C
s
(θ), is
sketched on the right. θ is the saddle point in the α plane.
The following two identities are needed for the work to follow:
2
3/2
cos(α/2)
cos α

1
cos[(α −π/2)/2]
+
1
cos[(α +π/2)/2]
,
(5.127)
4 cos(α/2) cos[(θ −π/2)/2]
cos α +cos(θ −π/2)

1
cos[(α +θ −π/2)/2]
+
1
cos[(α −θ +π/2)/2]
. (5.128)
The second identity is a generalization of the first.
We now distort the contour C to the steepest descents contour C
s
described
by (5.76) and (5.77). We next reverse the direction of integration, writing
the symbol for the contour as −C
s
(θ). This contour is shown in Fig. 5.10.
The position of the stationary point is indicated as an argument of this con-
tour to underscore the structure of the contour. The diffraction integral is now
written as
u
3
=
i A
4πk

−C
s
(θ)
e
i kr cos(α−θ)
×

1
cos[(α −π/2)/2]
+
1
cos[(α +π/2)/2]

dα, (5.129)
where (5.127) has been used.
Setting aside the i A/(4πk), we consider the first of the two integrals, which
we label I . We note that the calculation of the second is not different from that
Appendix: The Fresnel Integral 117
of the first. We next change variables, giving
I =
1
2
_
−C
s
(0)
e
i kr cos α
×
_
1
cos[(α +θ −π/2)/2]
+
1
cos[(α −θ +π/2)/2]
_
dα. (5.130)
Using (5.128), we can collapse this integral into the more symmetric form
I =2
_
−C
s
(0)
cos(α/2) cos[(θ −π/2)/2]
cos α +cos(θ −π/2)
e
i kr cos α
dα. (5.131)
We now introduce yet another change of variables with the relation τ =
2
1/2
e
i π/4
sin(α/2) (recall Problem 5.3). Thus the integral I becomes
I =−2e
i π/4
e
i kr
η
_

−∞
e
−krτ
2
τ
2
−i η
2
dτ, (5.132)
where η =2
1/2
cos[(θ −π/2)/2].
A third identity, namely
_

kr
e
i η
2
ζ
_

−∞
e
−ζ τ
2
dτdζ ≡π
1/2
_

kr
ζ
−1/2
e
i η
2
ζ
dζ, (5.133)
is needed. Using this (interchange the order of integration on the left-hand side),
we find that
η
_

−∞
e
−krτ
2
τ
2
−i η
2
dτ =

1/2
η
|η|
e
−i krη
2
_

|η|(kr)
1/2
e
i µ
2

=

1/2
η
|η|
e
−i krη
2
F
_
|η|(kr)
1/2
_
, (5.134)
where the Fresnel function F(z), repeating the definition (5.103), is
F(z) :=
_

z
e
i ξ
2
dξ. (5.135)
We now return to (5.129). Note that this integral contains both a pole contri-
bution and a part composed of Fresnel integrals. Let u
3np
represent the particle
displacement that does not include the pole contribution and u
3p
the pole con-
tribution itself. Now u
3np
is given by
u
3np
=
e
−i π/4
A
π
(1/2)
k
_
e
−i kr cos(θ−π/2)
F
_
(2kr)
1/2
cos
_
θ −π/2
2
__
±e
−i kr cos(θ+π/2)
F
_
±(2kr)
1/2
cos
_
θ +π/2
2
___
, (5.136)
118 5 Radiation and Diffraction
where the plus sign is used for θ ∈ (0, π/2) and the minus sign for θ ∈ (π/2, π).
Here u
3p
is given by
u
3p
=−(A/k)e
−i kr cos(θ−π/2)
H(π/2 −θ). (5.137)
Recalling (5.105),
F(z) + F(−z) =π
1/2
e
i π/4
, (5.138)
we use it to combine (5.137) with the second term of (5.136) to give (5.104).
Problem 5.7 Asymptotic Approximations to the Fresnel Integral
Consider the Fresnel integral (5.135) for z = x, where x is real.
Problem 1. Find the first term of an asymptotic expansion of the Fresnel
integral for both positive and negative x.
(a) Assume x > 0 and consider the integral
G(x) =e
−i x
2


x
e
i ζ
2
dζ. (5.139)
Show that
G(x) ∼
i
2x
+O(x
−3
), x →∞. (5.140)
One way to do this is to deformthe contour to one such that Watson’s lemma
can be used.
(b) Assume x < 0. The approach of part (a) must be modified. Why? Write the
integral in (5.139) as one from x to −∞and one from −∞to ∞. Do not
use (5.138). Hence show that
G(x) ∼π
1/2
e
i π/4
e
−i x
2
+
i
2x
+O(x
−3
), x →−∞. (5.141)
That the two approximations differ for x that is positive or negative is an
example of the Stokes’ phenomena.
Problem 2. Find the first term of an asymptotic expansion of the Fresnel
integral for |x| 1. Write the integral as the difference between one from zero
References 119
to ∞and one from zero to x. Expand the integrand of the second integral in a
Taylor expansion. Hence show that
F(x) ∼

π
1/2
e
i π/4

/2 −x +O(x
3
), x →0. (5.142)
References
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Cambridge.
Achenbach, J.D., Gautesen, A.K., and McMaken, H. 1982. Ray Methods for Waves in
Elastic Solids. Boston: Pitman.
Babiˇ c, V.M. and Buldyrev, V.S. 1991. Short-Wavelength Diffraction Theory. Berlin:
Springer.
Born, M. and Wolf, E. 1986. Principles of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed., pp. 565–578.
Oxford: Pergamon.
Cagniard, L. 1962. Reflection and Refraction of Progressive Seismic Waves. Translated
and revised by E.A. Flinn and C.H. Dix. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Carrier, G.F., Krook, M., and Pearson, C.E. 1983. Functions of a Complex Variable,
pp. 249–283. Ithaca, NY: Hod Books.
Copson, E.T. 1935. An Introduction to the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable,
pp. 121–125. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Copson, E.T. 1971. Asymptotic Expansions, pp. 13–14 and 48–62. Cambridge:
University Press.
Courant, R. and John, F. 1989. Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, Vol. II,
pp. 345–350. New York: Springer
deHoop, A.T. 1960. A modification of Cagniard’s method for solving the seismic pulse
problem. Appl. Sc. Res., B 8: 349–356.
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Transform, pp. 218–230. New York: Springer.
Ewing, W.M., Jardetzky, W.S., and Press, F. 1957. Elastic Waves in Layered Media.
New York: McGraw-Hill.
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New York: IEEE and Oxford University Presses.
Gautesen, A.K. 1979. On matched asymptotic expansions for two dimensional
elastodynamic diffraction by cracks. Wave Motion 1: 127–140.
Harris, J.G. 1980a. Diffraction by a crack of a cylindrical longitudinal pulse. Z. Angew.
Math. Phys. 31: 367–383. Errata, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 34.
Harris, J.G. 1980b. Uniform approximations to pulses diffracted by a crack. Z. Angew.
Math. Phys. 31: 771–775.
Harris, J.G. 1987. Edge diffraction of a compressional beam. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82:
635–646.
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120 5 Radiation and Diffraction
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pp. 653–658 and 403–405. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
6
Guided Waves and Dispersion
Synopsis
Chapter 6 discusses guided waves and the dispersion they experience. Only the
antiplane shear problem is treated. The guided waves are constructed by using
partial waves and their dispersion calculated by using the transverse resonance
principle. Both harmonic and transient excitations of a closed waveguide are
studied by using an expansion of modes. The harmonic excitation of an open
waveguide by a line source is also studied, though in this case by using both
ray and mode representations. As a last example, we examine propagation in a
closed waveguide with a slowly varying thickness, using an asymptotic expan-
sion that combines features of both rays and modes. We close by examining
how information and energy propagate at the group velocity.
6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide
We consider a layer of infinite extent in the x
1
direction and of finite thick-
ness in the x
2
direction. Within the layer, the coordinate x
2
∈ (−h, h) and the
plane x
2
=0 is a plane of reflection symmetry. This structure is a waveguide or
guide because the waves are forced to propagate in the x
1
direction and the
guide is closed because waves are completely trapped within the structure.
We are interested in learning what kinds of antiplane waves propagate in the
guide without, at present, seeking to know how they are excited. Accordingly,
we seek possible solutions to the following antiplane problem. In the layer, u
3
must satisfy (2.20), which, rewritten here, is

a

a
u
3
+k
2
u
3
=0, (6.1)
and at the surfaces
µ∂
2
u
3
(x
1
, ±h) =0. (6.2)
121
122 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
As in previous chapters the subscript T has been dropped. Problem6.1 indicates
how solutions to this problem can be found by reducing it to an eigenvalue
problemin the transverse coordinate. When this is done we find that the possible
wavefields are described by
u
3m
= A
m
cos
sin

m
x
2
)e

m
x
1
, m =0, 1, 2, . . . , (6.3)
where u
3m
is the mth (waveguide) mode for this guide. Cosine is used for m
even and sine for m odd. This wave stands in the x
2
direction, but it propagates
in the x
1
direction. Here β
m
is the lateral wavenumber for the mth mode. The
transverse wavenumbers for this mode are ±γ
m
. β
m
=ω/c
m
, where c
m
is the
phase velocity of the mode. β
m
is given by
β
m
=[k
2
−(mπ)
2
/(2h)
2
]
1/2
, (6.4)
where (β
m
) ≥0 or (β
m
) ≥0 for x
1
> 0. In this particular case β
m
is either
real or imaginary, but not complex. For β
m
that is real, the wavenumber and
phase velocity in the propagation direction depend on ω (through k =ω/c).
Thus (6.4) is a dispersion relation and is similar to that found previously for
propagation in periodic structures (there we used κ to represent the effective
wavenumber). The square root is defined so that, for imaginary values, the mode
decays in its direction of propagation (x
1
> 0).
Introducing the term
1
e
iβx
1
will reduce a linear partial differential equation,
or system of such equations, in (x
1
, x
2
) to an eigenvalue problem in x
2
for β,
though that problem may not be easy to solve, or its solution may not be partic-
ularly informative. However, by examining the solution, (6.3), we can learn to
reconstruct it in a way that uses only the kinematical features of reflection and
transmission of a plane wave at a boundary. Thereafter this method of solution
can be used to solve other guided wave problems without directly considering
the underlying eigenvalue problem.
Problem 6.1 An Eigenvalue Problem: A Closed Waveguide
Equation (6.1), with boundary condition (6.2), can be reduced to an ordinary
differential equation in x
2
by seeking solutions of the form
u
3
= f (x
2
)e
iβx
1
. (6.5)
1
This is equivalent to taking the spatial Fourier transform, transformvariable β, in the x
1
direction.
6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide 123
Show that the differential equation in x
2
leads to an eigenvalue problem for β
2
.
Usually the β is linked with γ , where
γ =(k
2
−β
2
)
1/2
, (6.6)
and γ
2
or −γ
2
is considered the eigenvalue. In this book β
2
is considered the
eigenvalue. Show that solutions symmetric with respect to the reflection plane
are
f
2n
(x
2
) = A
2n
cos γ
2n
x
2
, γ
2n
=nπ/h, (6.7)
and that those antisymmetric to this plane are
f
2n+1
(x
2
) = A
2n+1
sin γ
2n+1
x
2
, γ
2n+1
=(2n +1)π/(2h), (6.8)
where n =0, 1, 2, . . . . The A
m
are constants.
6.1.1 Partial Waves and the Transverse Resonance Principle
The central feature of a waveguide is that the waves phase match in the propa-
gation direction and stand in the transverse direction. Equivalently stated, as the
waves reflect back and forth within the guide, they must interfere constructively
to reconstruct themselves and form a sustained wavefield. There are two sets of
plane waves in a guide, as indicated in Fig. 6.1 – one propagating downward
and one upward. The members of each set are referred to as partial waves, just
as were the individual plane waves in each cell of the periodic structure exam-
ined in Section 1.4. Those that propagate downward are indicated by the solid
lines and those that propagate upward by the dashed ones. The downward and
Fig. 6.1. The dashed lines indicate the upward propagating set of plane waves, while
the solid lines indicate the downward propagating set. These rays are shown in the
slowness diagram to the right. Note that phase matching must occur in the x
1
direction.
124 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
upward propagating sets are
u
3
= Ae
i (βx
1
−γ x
2
)
, (6.9)
u
3
= Be
i (βx
1
+γ x
2
)
, (6.10)
respectively. The term γ is given by (6.6). We have, at this stage, assumed
only that (γ ) ≥0. From our previous work, given in Section 3.2, we can,
by a slight modification of that calculation, show that the reflection coefficient
at x
2
=±h is one. Each upward propagating wave must be reflected into a
downward propagating one and vice versa. Therefore, at the upper and lower
boundaries,
Ae
−i γ h
Be
i γ h
= 1, (6.11)
Be
−i γ h
Ae
i γ h
= 1, (6.12)
respectively. The terms A and B are constants. For these two equations to hold
simultaneously, the following must be true:
γ h =mπ/2, (6.13)
and
A = B for m =2n, n =0, 1, 2, . . . (6.14)
or
A =−B for m =2n +1, n =0, 1, 2, . . . . (6.15)
Therefore
u
3m
= A
m
cos
sin

m
x
2
)e

m
x
1
, m =0, 1, 2, . . . , (6.16)
where β
m
is given by (6.4), γ
m
=mπ/2h, and A
m
is 2A or 2i A. This method of
finding the dispersion relation, (6.4), wherein partial waves are made to stand
or resonate in the transverse direction, is referred to as the transverse resonance
principle.
6.1.2 Dispersion Relation: A Closed Waveguide
The most intriguing feature of guided waves is that the lateral wavenumber β
m
is a function of ω, or, alternatively ω is a function of β
m
. The dispersion relation
6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide 125
Fig. 6.2. A sketch of the dispersion relation for antiplane shear modes in a closed
waveguide. The normalized angular frequency is plotted as a function of the normalized
lateral wavenumber.
can be written as
2hβ
m
=[(2hω/c)
2
−(mπ)
2
]
1/2
. (6.17)
Asketch of this relation is shown in Fig. 6.2. While the β
m
may be thought of as
a function of ω, when the frequency is a free variable, it is usual to consider ω as
a function of β
m
. For the mth mode, there is no propagation for (2hω/c) ≤mπ
and the frequency ω
m
=mπc/2h is called the cut-off frequency. The phase
velocity c
m
for the mth mode is
c
m
=ω/β
m
. (6.18)
The velocity of real interest, however, is the group velocity C
m
. Unlike c
m
, C
m
for the mth mode is given by the slope of the mth branch of the dispersion
relation, namely
C
m
=dω/dβ
m
. (6.19)
The group velocity is both the velocity of energy propagation and the velocity
with which information propagates. Here we demonstrate the first assertion
and leave to Section 6.6 the demonstration of the second. The time average of a
wavefield quantity G
m

m
x
1
−ωt, x
2
) for the mth waveguide mode is defined as
G
m
=
1
T

t +T
t

h
−h
G
m

m
x
1
−ωτ, x
2
)dx
2
dτ. (6.20)
126 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
The average G
m
does not depend upon x
1
or t because at a given x
1
, the
argument β
m
x
1
−ωτ is simply a translation of the argument ωτ, a fact noted
previously when deriving (2.18).
The instantaneous energy density E
m
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) in the mth mode is
E
m
=
1
2
ρ ∂
t
u
3m

t
u
3m
+
1
2
µ∂
a
u
3m

a
u
3m
, (6.21)
and, using (6.20) with (2.18), we find that its average is
E
m
=
1
2
ρc
2
m

2
m
A
m
A

m
. (6.22)
For propagation β
m
is real. The instantaneous flux of energy density
F
m
(x
1
, x
2
, t) in the mth mode is
F
m
= −µ∂
1
u
3m

t
u
3m
, (6.23)
and the average flux is
F
m
=
1
2
µc
m

2
m
A
m
A

m
. (6.24)
The velocity of energy propagation along the axis of the waveguide for the mth
mode is, therefore, the ratio F
m
/E
m
. Direct calculation shows that
F
m
/E
m
= c
2
/c
m
=C
m
. (6.25)
The average (6.20) can also be used to demonstrate the equipartition of
energy. Usingthis principle whencalculatingthe average energydensity, instead
of proceeding directly as we just did, usually reduces the amount of calculation
needed, though care is required because not all equations describing wavefields
exhibit equipartition. The Lagrangian density L for antiplane shear motion is
given by
L =

1
2

ρ(∂
t
u
3
)
2

1
2

µ[(∂
1
u
3
)
2
+(∂
2
u
3
)
2
]. (6.26)
Using (6.20) we readily find that L = 0, for the mth mode. It follows then
that K = U, where the kinetic and internal energy densities, K and U, were
first defined by (1.25). Clearly, the converse is also true.
Dispersion need not arise from a geometrical constraint, as it does with
a waveguide, but can arise from the structure of the equation itself, as the
following problem demonstrates.
6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide 127
Problem 6.2 Dispersion 1
Problem 1. Consider the following two differential equations, the Klein–
Gordon equation,

2
t
ϕ −a
2

2
x
ϕ +b
2
ϕ =0, (6.27)
and the equation for flexural motion in a rod,

2
t
ϕ +a
2

4
x
ϕ =0. (6.28)
The terms a and b are constants. In both cases find a dispersion relation in the
form ω =ω(k) by seeking a wave solution of the form
ϕ = Ae
i (kx−ωt )
, (6.29)
where A is a constant. Assume that the wave propagates to the right. Calculate
the phase and group velocities c and C, where c =ω/k and C =dω/dk.
Demonstrate that the group velocity is the velocity of time-averaged energy
transport. To do so you will need to knowboth the instantaneous energy density
and instantaneous flux, so that you can calculate their average values. One way
to find these is to construct conservation laws directly from (6.27) and (6.28).
Such laws have the form

t
+ ∂
x
= − . (6.30)
The first box is the instantaneous energy density, the second the instantaneous
flux, and the third, on the right-hand side, a dissipative term. For the equa-
tions being studied here, the right-hand side is zero. To find a conservation
law, multiply each of (6.27) and (6.28) by ∂
t
ϕ and configure the result to co-
incide with (6.30). Thus, show that the instantaneous energy density for the
Klein–Gordon equation is
E =(∂
t
ϕ)
2
/2 +a
2
(∂
x
ϕ)
2
/2 +b
2
ϕ
2
/2 (6.31)
and the instantaneous flux is
F =−a
2
(∂
t
ϕ)(∂
x
ϕ). (6.32)
Also, show that the instantaneous energy density for the equation for flexural
motion is
E =(∂
t
ϕ)
2
/2 +a
2


2
x
ϕ

2

2 (6.33)
128 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
and the instantaneous flux is
F =a
2
(∂
t
ϕ)


3
x
ϕ

−a
2
(∂
t

x
ϕ)


2
x
ϕ

. (6.34)
Using (2.18), complete the demonstration.
Problem 2. The equation describing acoustic waves in a wind having speed
U (<c, where c is the speed of sound) in the x
1
direction is given by
(∂
t
+U∂
1
)
2
ϕ =c
2

2
ϕ, (6.35)
where (x, t ) is a fixed coordinate system. Using a solution of the form
ϕ = Ae
i (k·x−ωt )
, (6.36)
find the dispersion relation. The vector k is needed because the propagation
environment is anisotropic.
6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide
We continue to consider an antiplane problem having the governing equation,
(6.1). We now consider a layer on a half-space. Figure 6.3 indicates the geome-
try. Note that the positive x
2
direction points into the interior. The interior of the
Fig. 6.3. A slow-on-fast structure can support trapped waves in the layer. Drawing
slowness diagrams for the layer and half-space indicates the condition for waves to be
trapped in the layer, namely that the vertical dashed line in the diagram to the right not
intersect the lower slowness circle.
6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 129
layer occupies x
2
∈ (−h, 0) and its wavespeed is c (k =ω/c). The equation of
motion in the layer is (6.1). The interior of the half-space occupies x
2
∈ (0, ∞).
The equation of motion in the half-space is also given by (6.1) with a different
wavenumber. The equation, rewriting it once again, is

α

α
u
3
+
¯
k
2
u
3
=0, (6.37)
where
¯
k =ω/¯ c and ¯ c is the wavespeed in the half-space. At x
2
=−h,
µ∂
2
u
3
(x
1
, −h) =0, (6.38)
and at x
2
=0,
u
3
(x
1
0

) =u
3
(x
1
0
+
), µ∂
2
u
3
(x
1
, 0

) = ¯ µ∂
2
u
3
(x
1
, 0
+
), (6.39)
where µand ¯ µare the elastic constants for the layer and half-space, respectively.
The layer is called an open waveguide because there is now the possibility
that waves may not remain trapped, but may radiate into the half-space. How-
ever, waves will remain trapped provided the wavespeed in the layer is less
than that in the half-space. This configuration is sometimes referred to as a
slow-on-fast guiding structure. To understand why waves are trapped, consider
the slowness diagrams sketched in Fig. 6.3. The wavespeed in the layer is c
and that in the underlying half-space ¯ c, so that the corresponding slownesses
are s and ¯ s, respectively. A slow-on-fast structure is one for which s > ¯ s. If the
waves are to phase match at x
2
=0, s
1
must be the same in both the layer and
half-space. If the waves are to remain trapped in the layer, unable to radiate
away, ¯ s
2
must be imaginary, with the sign of ¯ s
2
selected so that decay takes
place with depth. Therefore, the waves in the layer able to phase match to waves
decaying into the half-space are those for which s
1
= ¯ s
1
> ¯ s. When s
1
≤ ¯ s <s,
waves launched in the layer phase match to waves in the half-space for which
¯ s
2
is real and are therefore not trapped. The slow-on-fast structure is analyzed
next by using partial waves and the transverse resonance principle. In Problem
6.3 the problemis reduced to solving an eigenvalue problemin the x
2
direction.
A fast-on-slow structure (s < ¯ s) does not guide waves so that, except in
Problem 6.4, we do not consider it.
6.2.1 Partial Wave Analysis
In the layer, the upward and downward propagating sets of waves are
u
3
= Be
i (βx
1
−γ x
2
)
, (6.40)
u
3
= Ae
i (βx
1
+γ x
2
)
. (6.41)
130 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
In the half-space the set of waves is
u
3
=
¯
Ae
i (βx
1
+¯ γ x
2
)
. (6.42)
The waves in the half-space decay or propagate downward. This statement is
consistent with the principle of limiting absorption, given in Section 4.4. To
satisfy the equations of motion,
γ =(k
2
−β
2
)
1/2
, ¯ γ =(
¯
k
2
−β
2
)
1/2
, (6.43)
where (γ ) ≥0 and ( ¯ γ ) ≥0. We discuss the branches of these radicals more
carefully in Section 6.4. The reflection and transmission coefficients at x
2
=0
are, respectively,
R(γ ) = (µγ − ¯ µ ¯ γ )/(µγ + ¯ µ ¯ γ ), (6.44)
T(γ ) = (2µγ )/(µγ + ¯ µ ¯ γ ). (6.45)
The R(γ ) and T(γ ) are gotten from (3.21) and (3.22) by noting that β =
k sin θ
0
=
¯
k sin θ
2
, γ =k cos θ
0
, and ¯ γ =
¯
k cos θ
2
. Exactly as in the case of the
closed guide, at x
2
=−h,
Ae
−i γ h
/Be
i γ h
=1, (6.46)
and at x
2
=0,
B/A =(µγ − ¯ µ ¯ γ )/(µγ + ¯ µ ¯ γ ). (6.47)
Moreover, in the case of the open guide, we also have
¯
A/A =(2µγ )/(µγ + ¯ µ ¯ γ ). (6.48)
These last two equations indicate that plane waves incident on the lower bound-
ary must, in addition to being reflected, be transmitted into those that decay or
propagate away from the boundary. From (6.46) and (6.47) we find that for
nontrivial solutions,
e
−2i γ h
=(µγ − ¯ µ ¯ γ )/(µγ + ¯ µ ¯ γ ). (6.49)
The case of interest is ¯ s < s
1
≤s, where β =ωs
1
, so that ¯ γ =i ¯ α, where ¯ α ≥0.
In this case (6.49) reduces to
tan γ h = ¯ µ¯ α/µγ. (6.50)
Recalling (6.43), we see that (6.49) or (6.50) is the dispersion relation for the
structure. It gives ω =ω(β) or β =β(ω), albeit indirectly. The antiplane waves
6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 131
guided by the layer are called Love waves. Knowing the dispersion relation,
we can find B and
¯
A in terms of A, and thus construct the wavefields in the
layer and half-space. Note that the absence of a plane of reflection symmetry
means that the modes do not divide into symmetric and antisymmetric ones.
Problem 6.3 A Second Eigenvalue Problem: An Open Waveguide
Note that (6.29) and (6.30), with boundary conditions (6.31) and (6.32), can
be reduced to a singular eigenvalue problem (Friedman, 1956) in x
2
by looking
for solutions of the form
u
3
= f (x
2
)e
iβx
1
, x
2
∈ (−h, 0), (6.51)
u
3
= g(x
2
)e
iβx
1
, x
2
∈ (0, ∞). (6.52)
Note that the form of the function in x
1
has been chosen to give a wave prop-
agating in the positive x
1
direction and ensure phase matching at x
2
=0. Use
the condition that g(x
2
) →0 as x
2
→∞. Showthat solutions to the differential
equation in x
2
and its boundary conditions can be expressed as
f (x
2
) =C cos[γ (x
2
+h)], g(x
2
) = De
−¯ αx
2
, (6.53)
where ¯ γ =i ¯ α, ¯ α ≥0. The transverse wavenumbers γ and ¯ γ are given by (6.36).
Find the constant D in terms of C. Can you recover the dispersion relationship,
(6.50)?
The problemjust discussed is called a singular eigenvalue problembecause it
has a continuous spectrumas well as a discrete one. The precedinganalysis gives
the discrete eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, but gives one little information
about the continuous spectrum, unless the reader is quite perceptive. Friedman
(1956), mentioned previously, will help the reader understand the underlying
mathematics of singular eigenvalue problems; Tolstoy and Clay (1987) will
give the reader a reasoned physical explanation for the continuous spectrum.
What condition stated previously in this problem must be modified to find the
continuous eigenvalues and eigenfunctions?
6.2.2 Dispersion Relation: An Open Waveguide
The transcendental equation, (6.50), in combination with (6.43), gives either
ω =ω(β) or β =β(ω). To examine this dispersion relation, we begin with
a diagram such as that shown in Fig. 6.4, where three distinct regions are
identified. First we identify the boundaries between which β is real (assuming
that c < ¯ c). These boundaries are denoted by c and ¯ c, though the slopes are 1
and ¯ c/c.
132 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
Fig. 6.4. A sketch of the dispersion relation for Love waves. The normalized angular
frequency is plotted as a function of the normalized lateral wavenumber. There are three
regions whose boundaries are formed by the two wavespeeds c < ¯ c.
In region 1, γ =±i α and ¯ γ =i ¯ α, where α and ¯ α are real and positive. It
is readily seen that no solution for real β is possible and therefore no trapped
wave propagates in the x
1
direction. In region 3 both γ and ¯ γ are real. In this
case (6.43) becomes
tan(γ h) =−i ¯ µ ¯ γ /µγ. (6.54)
Again it is clear that there is no solution for β that is real, though there are
solutions for complexβ. We shall brieflydiscuss this possibilityinSection6.4.3.
The absence of roots for β real tells us that there are no trapped waves, exactly
what we would expect for γ and ¯ γ both real.
Solutions for real β are possible in region 2, as can be seen from examining
(6.50). Consider the following limits. First, let βh →∞within region 2. Write
(6.50) as
tan

βh[(k
2

2
) −1]
1/2

=
¯ µ[1 −(
¯
k
2

2
)]
1/2
µ[(k
2

2
) −1]
1/2
. (6.55)
The argument of the tangent in (6.55) approaches a finite limit or zero because
the right side remains positive, and approaches zero or +∞. There is only one
possibility, namely k/β →1. In other words, by allowing the layer to become
an infinite number of wavelengths thick, its response is no longer influenced
by the presence of the half-space. Second, let βh move toward zero through
region 2 and reason as before. For the lowest mode
¯
k/β →1 as βh →0 and
6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 133
ωh →0. However, for the higher modes
¯
k/β →1, while βh and ωh remain
finite. In this case, for some ω =ω
n
, ¯ α =0 and
[(ω
n
h/βhc)
2
−1]
1/2
βh =nπ, (6.56)
where n is a positive integer. The frequency ω
n
is that at which the waves
move frombeing trapped to radiating into the half-space. This frequency is also
called a cut-off frequency, though the term transition frequency might be more
appropriate. Unlike the case of a closed waveguide, the group velocity does not
vanish at this point. Keep in mind that we have, so far, restricted β to positive
real values and have not defined the branches of γ and ¯ γ carefully.
The outcomes of the problem just described should be compared with those
of the reflection problem that follows. The viewpoint there is rather different.
In the reflection problem the layer is viewed from the half-space, and we are no
longer as concerned as we were here with whether the structure is a slow-on-fast
or fast-on-slow one.
Problem 6.4 Reflection From a Layer
Referring to the geometry of Fig. 6.3, let the plane wave
¯ u
30
= A
0
e
i (βx
1
−¯ γ x
2
)
(6.57)
be incident to the layer from the half-space. Make no assumption at present as
to the relative magnitudes of c and ¯ c. If A
1
is the unknown amplitude of the
reflected wave, calculate the reflection coefficient of the layer, namely R(θ
0
) =
A
1
/A
0
. Show that R(θ
0
) = A


0
)/A
+

0
), where
A

= cos θ
0
cos(kh cos θ) ∓i
µ¯ c
¯ µc
cos θ sin(kh cos θ), (6.58)
and
sin θ/c =sin θ
0
/¯ c. (6.59)
The wavenumbers β =
¯
k sin θ
0
and ¯ γ =
¯
k cos θ
0
.
The reader should contrast the two possible cases, fast-on-slow and slow-on-
fast. In particular, how might a trapped wave be excited by using a disturbance
incident from the half-space when the structure is slow on fast? Note that this
reflection coefficient is frequency dependent.
134 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
6.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide
6.3.1 Harmonic Excitation
We start by considering a closed waveguide that is harmonically excited by
applying an antiplane traction at one end, while the other extends to infinity.
One common way to solve such problems is to expand the wavefield in the guide
in terms of its modes. To do so requires that a mathematical framework be in
place. As a minimum we need a means of calculating the coefficients of the
expansion – an orthogonality relation – and some assurance that the expansion
is complete. While these questions have still not been satisfactorily answered
for inplane elastic waves in a guide with an end (Miklowitz, 1978; Folguera
and Harris, 1999), the antiplane modes are simply the terms of a Fourier series,
so that in this case these questions are settled.
Problem 6.5 A Waveguide Mode Expansion
In part, (6.1) and (6.2) specify the problem. The geometry of the problem is
now described by a layer similar to that shown in Fig. 6.1, but starting at x
1
=0
and extending through positive values of x
1
to infinity. At x
1
=0 the waveguide
is excited with a traction T(x
2
) symmetric in x
2
so that
µ∂
1
u
3
=−T(x
2
), T(x
2
) = T(−x
2
). (6.60)
What condition should be imposed upon the forced disturbance as x
1
→∞?
Noting the symmetry of the excitation, how might the forced wavefield be
expanded? Show that a representation of the solution is
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
) =
N−1

n=0
(−A
n
)

n
cos


h
x
2

e

n
x
1
+

n=N
A
n
α
n
cos


n
x
2

e
−α
n
x
1
,
(6.61)
where N is the smallest n for which the inequality
nπ/h <ω/c (6.62)
is reversed. The frequency of excitation is ω, β
n
is given by (6.4), and, for
n ≥ N, β
n
=i α
n
. Using the orthogonality of the modes (eigenfunctions), write
down explicit expressions for the coefficients A
n
.
Note that the modes in the first sum of (6.61) propagate, while those in the
second are evanescent. Far from the source, only those that propagate make a
significant contribution.
6.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide 135
6.3.2 Transient Excitation
We next consider a transient excitation. In Problem 6.5, we replace (6.60) with
µ∂
1
u
3
=−T(x
2
)δ(t ). (6.63)
Moreover, we assume that the waveguide is quiescent until the excitation is
applied. That is,
u
3
=∂
t
u
3
=0, t < 0. (6.64)
Using (1.36), we synthesize the transient response as
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) =

n=0
(−A
n
)
π
cos


h
x
2


0
e
i t (β
n
x
1
/t −ω)

n
dω. (6.65)
Using the principle of limiting absorption, replace ω with ω+i , where > 0.
The n =0 term is easily inverted, giving


0
e
i (ω+i )(x
1
/c−t )
i (ω+i )/c
dω =−πc H(t −x
1
/c). (6.66)
The n > 0 terms are less straightforward. The integral to be evaluated is


0
e
i x
1

n
−ωt /x
1
)

n
dω. (6.67)
The left half of Fig. 6.5 shows the complex ω plane and the branch cuts for
n > 0. Following the arguments in Section 3.4.4, we have cut the plane so that

n
) ≥0 for all ω. Using the principle of limiting absorption for ω > 0, we
find the branch point is at c nπ/h −i . By symmetry, for ω < 0, the branch
point is at −cnπ/h +i . The integration contour in the ωplane must pass above
the branch point cnπ/h −i . Note that c nπ/h is a cut-off frequency so that
propagation has ceased when ω < cnπ/h. Note, as well, that (β
n
) > 0 in the
first and third quadrants. Once the contour has been determined, the in (6.67)
can be set to zero.
Integrals of the form of (6.67), even when they can be evaluated in closed
form, give the clearest description of the wavefield at points far fromthe source.
Accordingly, we approximate (6.67) by using the method of stationary phase
described in Section 5.3.3. We fix t /x
1
and let x
1
be the large parameter. For a
136 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
Fig. 6.5. The left-hand figure shows the complex ω plane. The contour extends from
ω =0 along the real axis. (β
n
) ≥0 ∀ω, (β
n
) >0 in the upper right quadrant of the
ω plane. The right-hand figure shows the dispersion curve for the nth mode with the
stationary point indicated by (β
ns
, ω
ns
).
given point in (x
1
, t ), the stationary point is given by

n
/dω =t /x
1
. (6.68)
Solving this equation gives the stationary point (β
ns
, ω
ns
) as a function of (x
1
, t )
(more precisely x
1
/t ), namely
ω
ns
c
=
nπ/h
[1 −(x
1
/ct )
2
]
1/2
, x
1
/ct <1, (6.69)
and
β
ns
=


h

x
1
/ct
[1 −(x
1
/ct )
2
]
1/2
, x
1
/ct <1. (6.70)
No signal can travel faster than c (Problem 6.6). Therefore, x
1
/ct <1 for prop-
agating waves and (β
ns
, ω
ns
) are real.
The integral, (6.67), is then approximated as


0
e
i x
1

n
−ωt /x
1
)

n
dω ∼
c (2π)
1/2
(nπ/h)(β
ns
x
1
)
1/2
e
i x
1

ns
−ω
ns
t /x
1
)
e
−i π/4
,
(6.71)
as x
1
→∞, while t /x
1
is held fixed. After some simplification, the particle
6.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide 137
displacement of the nth mode is approximated as
u
3n
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) ∼
(−A
n
)
π
c cos
_

h
x
2
_
_
(2h/n)
x
1
[(ct /x
1
)
2
−1]
1/2
_
1/2
×cos
_
(nπ/h)x
1
[(ct /x
1
)
2
−1)]
1/2
+π/4
_
, (6.72)
and the total particle displacement can be written as
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) ∼ A
0
c H(t −x
1
/c) +

n=1
u
3n
(x
1
, x
2
, t ). (6.73)
Examining (6.72) shows that the nth mode is O(n
−1/2
). The higher-order modes
therefore make a weaker contribution than do the lower-order ones.
Note that the stationary phase approximation breaks down for x
1
/t near c.
Dai and Wong (1994) give a correction for this case. Further, note that as x
1
/t
sweeps through its values from zero to c, ω
s
takes on all its values from cnπ/h
to infinity. In fact, for fixed x
1
, (6.68) provides a one-to-one mapping from the
t plane to the ω plane.
At (x
1
, t ) the nth mode is approximated by an expression of the form

_
A
n
(x
1
, x
2
, t )e
i (β
ns
x
1
−ω
ns
t )
_
. (6.74)
This is a group in the sense that it arises from a cluster or group of wavenum-
bers and frequencies in the neighborhood of (β
ns
, ω
ns
). Note that (6.68) can
be viewed as x
1
/t =C
n

ns
), where C
n
is the group velocity dω/dβ
n
. We have
already noted in (6.25) that C
n
is the velocity of time-averaged energy trans-
mission. Now we also note that it is the velocity with which the frequency ω
ns
propagates to the point (x
1
, t ). This is not the velocity with which the phase
θ(x
1
, t ) =(β
ns
x
1
−ω
ns
t ) propagates outward. Rather, a constant phase θ prop-
agates at a rate c
ns

ns

ns
.
Problem 6.6 No Signal Travels Faster than the Velocity c
Using the problem just discussed, show that no signal travels faster than c.
Write each integral over ω as

π
_

0
e
−i ω(t −x
1
/c)
e
i (β
n
x
1
−ωx
1
/c)

n
dω (6.75)
and note that, in the upper right quadrant of Fig. 6.5, with the ω plane cut as
138 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
indicated,
lim
|ω|→∞
e
i (β
n
x
1
−ωx
1
/c)

n
=0. (6.76)
Therefore, for t < x
1
/c, showthat the integration contour may be distorted from
one along the real ω axis to the one along the imaginary axis. Lastly, show that
the integral can be written as

π


0
i e
p(t −x
1
/c)
e
−(α
n
x
1
−px
1
/c)
(−α
n
)
dp. (6.77)
This integral must be zero (why?), indicating that no signal is present for t <
x
1
/c.
While this result is the outcome of the analysis of a specific problem, it is
true generally. Moreover, it indicates that the group velocity does not exceed
the wavespeed of the medium,
2
a result that is also generally true.
For separable problems, such as the one discussed in Problem 6.5, an expan-
sion of the solution in the eigenfunctions of the transverse eigenvalue problem
results, after invoking the orthogonality of the eigenfunctions, in reducing the
partial differential equation to an ordinary one in x
1
, involving each mode
separately. The domain of the transverse eigenvalue problem is finite and there-
fore the eigenvalues are discrete. Expanding the source in these eigenfunctions
causes the equation in x
1
to be forced by a coefficient of this expansion. This is
more or less what we did in solving Problem 6.5, though the modal expansion
already contained the solution to the differential equation in x
1
, so that that step
was leaped over. In Problem 6.7 the reader is asked to solve much the same
problem by using a continuous eigenfunction expansion in x
1
∈ (0, ∞), thus
reducing the partial differential equation to an ordinary one in x
2
. Moreover,
rather than use a Fourier synthesis to construct the transient solution, the reader
is asked to use a Laplace transform.
2
The dispersion is said to be anomalous when the group velocity exceeds the velocity of propa-
gation of a harmonic plane wave in the medium (Sommerfeld, 1964a; Brillouin, 1960). In this
case the group velocity is no longer a measure of the speed at which information or energy
propagates. In such cases a specific signaling problem must be worked through, and veloc-
ities that characterize the speed at which information is propagated and at which energy is
propagated must be defined as best one can. Moreover, the anomalous dispersion may only be
apparent and not real. One must take care to distinguish between anomalous dispersion caused
by some approximate derivation of the equation being studied and that caused by the underly-
ing physical situation. The presence of frequency-dependent attenuation confuses the issue even
further.
6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 139
Problem 6.7 A Continuous Eigenfunction Expansion
Continue to consider the problem just solved, with the excitation (6.63). Use
the cosine transform

u
3
(ξ, x
2
, t ) =


0
u
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) cos(ξ x
1
)dx
1
, (6.78)
followed by the Laplace transform

¯ u
3
(ξ, x
2
, p) =


0

u
3
(ξ, x
2
, t )e
pt
dt, (6.79)
to find an ordinary differential equation in x
2
. Find

¯ u
3
and begin to invert the
transforms. It is perhaps easier to set

¯ v
3
(ξ, x
2
, p) = p

¯ u
3
(ξ, x
2
, p) where v
3
is the particle velocity. Find

v
3
(ξ, x
2
, t ) =
1
2πi

+i ∞
−i ∞

¯ v
3
(ξ, x
2
, p)e
pt
dp (6.80)
and then approximate
v
3
(x
1
, x
2
, t ) =
2
π


0

v
3
(ξ, x
2
, t ) cos(ξ, x
1
)dξ (6.81)
for large x
1
, with x
1
/t held fixed, using the method of stationary phase. This
integral can also be inverted exactly.
The reader may be surprised to find that his or her expression for v
3
contains
both forward and backward propagating waves. This is because we have chosen
toworkwitha cosine transform. Whywouldone not workwitha sine transform?
At what point has the reader imposed the condition that waves be outgoing from
the source? Can the reader express (6.81) as a sum of waves propagating solely
in the positive x
1
direction?
6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide
We next return to the layered antiplane structure, sketched on the left in Fig. 6.3,
to calculate the wavefield radiated by a harmonic line source placed at (0, x
20
),
where x
20
< 0. Except for the absence of a source, the equations of motion
and the boundary conditions are given by (6.38) and (6.39). This problem
may be solved by constructing the solution by using eigenfunction expansions.
However, as we have done previously, we shall construct the radiated wavefield
by superposing collections of partial waves. This method of construction will
show how ray representations and modal expansions are related to one another.
Our discussion follows a very similar one in Brekhovskikh (1980).
140 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
6.4.1 The Wavefield in the Layer
We begin by representing the wavefield radiated by a line source as a spectrumof
plane waves, using the result of Problem 4.1. Equation (4.19), with α replacing
ξ, is here rewritten by expanding cos(θ −α) to give
u
i
3
=−
i F
0

C
e
i k(x
1
cos α+|x
2
−x
20
| sin α)
dα. (6.82)
F
0
= A/k, where A is a dimensionless constant. The expression (6.82) gives
the free space, particle displacement u
i
3
excited by a line source at (0, x
20
). The
contour C begins near π −i ∞and ends near i ∞. How then does each plane
wave in the integral, (6.82), behave in the layered environment?
Consider an arbitrary observation point (x
1
, x
2
) in the layer, where x
1
> 0 and
x
2
> x
20
. Given that the x
1
dependence must be of the form e
i k cos α x
1
, in both
the layer and half-space, to ensure phase matching, we ask what partial waves
can reach the point (x
1
, x
2
) and, when added together, satisfy the boundary
conditions. By sketching rays and wavefronts, as suggested in Fig. 6.6, we
find that there are four distinct partial waves that reach (x
1
, x
2
) and that all the
subsequent partial waves can be constructed from these four by successively
reflecting them in the planes x
2
=0 and x
2
=−h.
e
i k[x
1
cos α+sin α(x
2
−x
20
)]
, R(α)e
i k[x
1
cos α−sin α(x
2
+x
20
)]
,
e
i k[x
1
cos α+sin α(x
2
+2h+x
20
)]
, R(α)e
i k[x
1
cos α−sin α(x
2
−2h−x
20
)]
. (6.83)
The first partial wave reaches (x
1
, x
2
) without reflection, the second after being
Fig. 6.6. A sketch showing the first four partial waves reaching the observation point
(x
1
, x
2
). The dashed lines indicate the propagation paths and the solid ones indicate the
wavefronts passing through (x
1
, x
2
).
6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 141
reflected once at the x
2
=0 boundary, the third after being reflected from the
x
2
=−h boundary, and the last after being reflected first from the x
2
=−h
boundary and second fromthe x
2
=0 boundary. All subsequent reflected partial
waves can be constructed from these four. The reflection coefficient at x
2
=−h
is 1 and at x
2
=0 is R(α), where R(α) is given by (6.44), with γ =k sin α
and ¯ γ =
¯
k sin ¯ α. Or it can be gotten from (3.21) and (3.23) by noting that
α =π/2 −θ
0
. The angles α and ¯ α are related by the phase-matching condition,
namely k cos α =
¯
k cos ¯ α. Note that the argument of the function R is now
given as α (rather than as γ or θ
0
) in keeping with the structure of the present
calculation.
By adding these four partial waves and all the subsequent reflections and
invoking superposition, we construct the response of the layer to the excitation.
It is given by
u
3
= −
i F
0

C
e
i k cos αx
1

e
i k sin α(x
2
−x
20
)
+ R(α)e
−i k sin α(x
2
+x
20
)
+e
i k sin α(x
2
+2h+x
20
)
+ R(α)e
−i k sin α(x
2
−2h−x
20
)

×

m=0
[R(α)]
m
e
i k sin α(2mh)
dα (6.84)
To understand this representation further, we approximate one of the terms
by the method of steepest descents. We consider m =0, the fourth term,
namely
u
04
3
=−
i F
0

C
R(α)e
i k[cos α x
1
−sin α (x
2
−2h−x
20
)]
dα. (6.85)
The geometry is shown in Fig. 6.7. By setting x
1
=r
04
cos θ
04
and x
2
−2h −
x
20
=−r
04
sin θ
04
, we put (6.85) in a form previously studied in Section 5.4.
Its asymptotic approximation is therefore
u
04
3
= −
i F
0

C
R(α)e
i kr
04
cos(α−θ
04
)
dα ∼


kr
04

1/2
F
0

R(θ
04
)e
i kr
04
e
i π/4
.
(6.86)
This term then appears as a cylindrical wave radiated by an image source at
(0, 2h +x
20
). The actual path of the ray is indicate by the dashed line within
the layer in Fig. 6.7. Approximating each term in (6.84) by the method of
steepest descents gives an infinite sum of terms such as (6.86). This is a ray
representation of the wavefield in the layer.
142 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
Fig. 6.7. Asketch of the geometry for the steepest descents approximation of the fourth
partial wave.
Problem 6.8 Ray Representation
Verify the statements just made by asymptotically approximating each term
in (6.84) to give
u
3

l=0
4

j =1
u
l j
3
, (6.87)
where each termis similar to that given by (6.86). Is this a useful representation,
and, if so, in what circumstances?
By summing the series in (6.84), the wavefield can be recast as
u
3
= −
i A
4kπ

C
e
i k cos α x
1
[e
i k sin α x
2
+ R(α)e
−i k sin α x
2
]
×

e
−i k sin α x
20
+e
i k sin α (2h+x
20
)

1 − R(α)e
i k sin α(2h)
dα. (6.88)
F
0
= A/k has been used to indicate the dimensions of u
3
. Recall that we have
assumed x
2
> x
20
. When x
2
< x
20
, the two coordinates in the above expression
are interchanged.
To understand this representation we must examine the complex α plane.
However, the discussion will be clearer if we first examine the β plane, where
β =k cos α. Recall that this is the Sommerfeld transformation and that it was
this transformation that lead us to (6.82). Figure 6.8 shows the β plane with
its branch cuts and several poles. The transverse wavenumbers γ and ¯ γ were
given in (6.43). These radicals are defined so that (γ ) ≥0 and ( ¯ γ ) ≥0 ∀β.
6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 143
Fig. 6.8. A sketch of the complex β plane, showing the branch cuts and poles that have
emerged onto the physical sheet. The physical sheet is the one for which (γ ) ≥0 and
( ¯ γ ) ≥0 ∀ β. In the various quadrants the real parts take values as follows: quadrants
1 and 2, (γ ) >0 and ( ¯ γ ) >0; quadrants 3 and 4, (γ ) <0 and ( ¯ γ ) <0. These
quadrants correspond to their primed counterparts in the α plane in Fig. 6.11.
This is the Riemann sheet, as we have seen in Sections 3.4.4 and 5.4, that
ensures that the waves radiate or decay away from their source (satisfy the
principle of limiting absorption). We call this the physical sheet and the others
the unphysical ones. Figure 6.9 shows the α plane and the contour C. The branch
points are now given by ¯ α and π − ¯ α, where ¯ α is defined by
¯
k =k cos ¯ α.
Fig. 6.9. The α plane. The poles tothe left are α
1
andα
2
; those tothe right are π −α
1
and
π −α
2
. The two branch points are ¯ α and π − ¯ α. Poles on the lower sheet progressively
move to the physical sheet, popping through the branch points as ¯ ω is increased.
144 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
Fig. 6.10. The dispersion relation and the points on it that correspond to the poles
shown in Figs. 6.8 and 6.9.
Noting that γ =k sin α, we see that the poles of the integrand in (6.88) are
given by the dispersion relation
e
−2i γ h
= R(α), (6.89)
which is a restatement of (6.49). The poles of the integrand therefore give us
the trapped modes of the waveguide. For a given ω = ¯ ω, there is a pair of poles
on the physical sheet of the β or α plane corresponding to each guided mode
that is trapped in the layer. In Figs. 6.8 and 6.9, there are two pairs, ±β
1
and
±β
2
or (α
1
, π −α
1
) and (α
2
, π −α
2
). These points are shown on the dispersion
curves in Fig. 6.10. The modes that could radiate into the interior correspond
to poles that lie on an unphysical sheet. These are indicated by the crosses in
Fig. 6.8. As ¯ ω is increased, these poles move from the unphysical sheet to the
physical one, popping up through the branch point ¯ α in the α plane. The next
problem indicates how the residues from the poles on the physical sheet, in the
integrand of (6.88), become part of a modal sum, similar to that for a closed
waveguide.
Problem 6.9 Modal Representation
Show that the residue contributions of (6.88) give the Love waves of (6.51)
through (6.53). Do this by deforming the contour C to that shown in Fig. 6.11.
Note that there will be a branch cut integral as indicated in the figure. The sum
of residues gives the waves trapped in the layer or the sum over the discrete
6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 145
Fig. 6.11. The deformed contour for Problem 6.9. Propagation to the right is being
considered. The quadrants 1

, 2

, and 4

correspond to quadrants 1, 2, and 4 in the β
plane in Fig. 6.8.
eigenfunctions, whereas the branch cut integral gives the wavefield that can ra-
diate into the lower half-space or the sum over the continuous eigenfunctions.
The combination is the modal expansion of the wavefield in the layer.
Ray representations are useful for observation points near the source, whereas
modal representations are most descriptive a considerable distance from it, at
points where the wavefield has lost some sense of how it was excited and
has adapted to its propagation environment. The modal representation can be
derived directly from (6.84) by using the Poisson sum formula, discussed in
Section 1.3. This is true even when we cannot sum the series (6.84).
6.4.2 The Wavefield in the Half-Space
The wavefield in the half-space is constructed in much the same way as was
that in the layer. The two fundamental partial waves reaching (x
1
, x
2
) are
T(α)e
i k cos α x
1
e
−i k sin α x
20
e
i
¯
k sin ¯ α x
2
, T(α)e
i k cos α x
1
e
i k sin α (x
20
+2h)
e
i
¯
k sin ¯ α x
2
.
(6.90)
The remainder can be constructed fromthese two. Integrating over all the partial
waves gives
u
3
= −
i F
0

C
T(α)e
i k cos α x
1
e
i
¯
k sin ¯ α x
2

e
−i k sin α x
20
+e
i k sin α (2h+x
20
)

×

m=0
[R(α)]
m
e
i k sin α (2mh)
dα. (6.91)
If each term were approximated by the method of steepest descents, then this
representation would give a ray series for the wavefield in the half-space. By
146 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
carrying out the summation, we can recast the representation as
u
3
= −
i A
4kπ

C
T(α)e
i k cos α x
1
e
i
¯
k sin ¯ α x
2
×

e
−i k sin α x
20
+e
i k sin α (2h+x
20
)

1 − R(α)e
i k sin α (2h)
dα. (6.92)
F
0
= A/k has been used to indicate the dimensions of u
3
. The poles and branch
cuts of the integrand also give rise to a modal representation.
6.4.3 Leaky Waves
We continue to consider propagation solely to the right. Figures 6.8, 6.9, and
6.11 indicate how the β plane is structured and how it relates to the α plane.
Moreover, we continue to assume that there are two real roots, β
1
=k cos α
1
and
β
2
=k cos α
2
, present on the physical sheet. To the left of the ω/β = ¯ c line, in
Figs. 6.4 and 6.10, there are also roots to the dispersion relation if β is allowed
to be complex. They lie on the (γ ) ≥0, ( ¯ γ ) ≤0 sheet, an unphysical sheet of
the β plane, and therefore on the unphysical sheet in the α plane. Their positions
are approximately indicated by the crosses in both Figs. 6.8 and 6.11. To ensure
that waves radiate away from their source, we take (β) >0 so that the waves
in the layer radiate or leak into the interior as they propagate to the right. We call
them leaky waves or leaky modes. Note that ( ¯ γ ) >0 for propagation to the
right, but that ( ¯ γ ) <0 so that these waves increase exponentially with depth.
That is why they do not lie on the physical sheet of the Riemann surface. They
can, however, influence the solution if they come close to the branch cut or if the
branch cut is moved. These waves can be quite important for some observation
points. This issue is discussed at greater length in DeSanto (1992).
6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous, Closed Waveguide
We have considered both open and closed waveguides whose geometry has con-
formed to a rectangular coordinate system. Moreover we have only considered
a very simple variation in the propagation environment with depth, namely the
layer on a half-space. This last example of waveguiding considers a propagation
environment that changes slowly in the propagation or lateral direction. We con-
sider a slow variation, with respect to wavelength, in the thickness of a closed
guide whose unperturbed geometry is that given in Fig. 6.1. We construct an
asymptotic approximation that makes use of rays to describe the propagation in
the lateral direction and modes to take account of the variation in the transverse
one.
6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous, Closed Waveguide 147
The equation of motion remains (6.1). To clarify the scales we introduce
scaled coordinates ¯ x
1
=kx
1
and ¯ x
2
=kx
2
. The slow variable y
1
=δkx
1
is in-
troduced to describe the slow lateral variation. Also we set ¯ u
3
=ku
3
. Having
scaled the problem, we omit the overbar and reintroduce the variables x
2
and
u
3
with the understanding that these are now scaled variables. The equation of
motion becomes
δ
2


2
u
3
/∂y
2
1

+


2
u
3
/∂x
2
2

+u
3
=0. (6.93)
The boundary conditions require the vanishing of the normal traction. This is
the second way in which the small parameter δ enters the problem. The top and
bottom surfaces are given by
x
2
=±H
±
(x
1
) =±h
0
+h
±
(y
1
). (6.94)
[H
±
(x
1
+2π) − H
±
(x
1
)]/2π ≈δ[dh
±
/dy
1
], where we assume that dh
±
/
dy
1
= O(1); δ then measures the change in the thickness of the guide over
a wavelength. The outward unit normal vectors are
ˆ n
±
=

−δ
dh
±
dy
1
ˆ e
1
±ˆ e
2
+O(δ
2
)

. (6.95)
We now seek an asymptotic solution in the form
u
3
∼e
i θ(y
1
)/δ

ν≥0
A
ν
3
(y
1
, x
2

ν
, (6.96)
where
A
ν
3
(y
1
, x
2
) =

n≥0
a
n
ν
(y
1
) u
n
3
(y
1
, x
2
), (6.97)
and u
n
3
(y
1
, x
2
) is the nth mode for a waveguide whose thickness is determined
at y
1
. This asymptotic construction is often called the JWKB technique. Note
that the expansion has the formof a modulated group such as we encountered in
(6.74). For simplicity, assume from now on that the guide is symmetric so that
h
±
=h and H
±
= H. Then the u
n
3
(x
2
, y
1
) are the cosine or sine functions first
given in (6.3), with h replaced by H(x
1
) and γ
n
replaced by kγ
n
, γ
n
=nπ/2H.
The boundary conditions at x
2
=±H become
µ

−δ
2
dh
dy
1
∂u
3
∂y
1
±
∂u
3
∂x
2

=0. (6.98)
Note that the boundary conditions are homogeneous, so that this equation is
exact.
148 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
Now (6.96) is substituted into (6.93) and (6.98), and the coefficient of each
power of δ set to zero. We are then led to the sequence of equations

L−


dy
1

2

A
ν
3
+i

d
2
θ
dy
2
1
+2

dy
1

∂ A
ν−1
3
∂y
1
+

2
A
ν−2
3
∂y
2
1
=0, (6.99)
with their accompanying boundary conditions. We have introduced the opera-
tor L, where L :=∂
2
/∂x
2
2
+1, to make the structure of the equations clearer.
The terms for which the superscripts are negative are zero. The equation corre-
sponding to ν =0 is
L

A
0
3


2
n
A
0
3
, (6.100)
with
∂ A
0
3
∂x
2
(y
1
, ±H) =0. (6.101)
To arrive at (6.100) we have set
(dθ/dy
1
)
2

2
n
. (6.102)
This is an eikonal equation, similar in some respects to (2.43).
Equations (6.100) and (6.101) constitute an eigenvalue problem, identical to
that solved in Problem 6.1. Note that β
n
of (6.4) has become kβ
n
and that now
β
n
=

1 −γ
2
n
(y
1
)

1/2
, (6.103)
where γ
n
=nπ/[2h
0
+2h(y
1
)]. Further,
u
n
3
(y
1
, x
2
) = N
n
cos
sin

n
x
2
), (6.104)
where N
n
are constants, often determined by a normalization condition. The
solution to (6.100) and (6.101) is then A
0
3
=a
n
0
(y
1
)u
n
3
(y
1
, x
2
), with β
2
n
as the
corresponding eigenvalue. Note that y
1
enters β
n
through h(y
1
). The reader is
asked to recall the earlier comments in Problem 6.1 as to what the eigenvalue
of interest is. The eikonal equation, (6.102), is integrated to give θ(y
1
).
To find a
n
0
we need to go to the next order in δ. This equation is
−L

A
1
3


2
n
A
1
3
=i
d
2
θ
dy
2
1
A
0
3
+2i


dy
1

∂ A
0
3
∂y
1

, (6.105)
6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous, Closed Waveguide 149
with boundary conditions, at x
2
=±H,
±
∂ A
1
3
∂x
2
=i
dh
dy
1

dy
1
A
0
3
. (6.106)
We shall not seek terms of order higher than ν =0 here. Burridge and Weinberg
(1977) indicate how higher-order terms are gotten.
Examining (6.105) and (6.106), we note that to have a bounded solution for
A
1
3
it must not resonate with the A
0
3
forcing term. That is, it must be orthogonal
in some sense to u
n
3
. We use this fact to find a
n
0
. First we introduce the inner
product
[a, b] :=
_
H
+
H

a(x
2
) b

(x
2
)dx
2
(6.107)
and agree to normalize the eigenfunctions such that [u
n
3
, u
m
3
] =δ
nm
. The N
n
are
then given by
N
n
={
n
[h
0
+h
1
(y
1
)]}
−1/2
(6.108)
with
n
=2 for n =0, and
n
=1, otherwise. Calculating the inner product
[L(A
1
3
), u
n
3
] and using (6.105) and (6.106) gives the following transport equation
for a
n
0
, namely

dy
1
da
n
0
dy
1
+
1
2
a
n
0
d
2
θ
dy
2
1
+a
n
0

dy
1
_
_
∂u
n
3
/∂y
1
, u
n
3
_
+
1
2
dh
dy
1

¸
u
n+
3
¸
¸
2
+
¸
¸
u
n−
3
¸
¸
2
_
_
=0, (6.109)
where the superscript plus and minus signs mean that these terms are evaluated
at x
2
=±H, respectively. Note that
_
u
n
3
,
∂u
n
3
∂y
1
_
=−
_
∂u
n
3
∂y
1
, u
n
3
_

dh
dy
1

¸
u
n+
3
¸
¸
2
+
¸
¸
u
n−
3
¸
¸
2
_
. (6.110)
Taking the complex conjugate of (6.109) and adding the two gives the much
simpler equation
1
2
d
dy
1
ln
_

dy
1


dy
1
_
+
d
dy
1
_
a
n
0
a
n∗
0
_
=0. (6.111)
From this it follows immediately that
¸
¸
¸
¸

dy
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
n
0
¸
¸
2
=constant. (6.112)
150 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
Equation (6.112) is a statement of energy conservation. In other words, to lowest
order, no waves are reflected by the slowly changing width. The unknown
constant would be determined from an initial condition at x
1
=0.
To determine the argument θ
n
0
of a
n
0
=|a
n
0
|e
i θ
n
0
, substitute this into (6.109).
It is readily determined that θ
n
0
is a constant. Thus
a
n
0
=c
n
0
e
i θ
n
0

β
1/2
n
, (6.113)
where c
n
0
is a real constant. Bringing the pieces together, we find the approximate
expression for the nth mode is
u
3
∼exp

i
δ

y
1
β
n
(s) ds

a
n
0
(y
1
)N
n
(y
1
)
cos
sin

n
x
2
). (6.114)
The β
n
is given by (6.103), N
n
by (6.108), and a
n
0
by (6.113).
This particular approach can be extended to inplane elastic waves (Folguera
and Harris, 1999). Among several newer features, arising when this is done is a
reformulation of the inplane eigenvalue problemand the use of an inner product
for the orthogonality condition that is not the norm of the space in which the
problem is set.
6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity
6.6.1 Causes of Dispersion
We first encountered dispersion in the study of a periodic structure and then
later in the study of guided waves. The periodic structure could be imagined to
be a rod possessing a periodic microstructure represented by the concentrated
masses. It is the microstructure, in combination with the additional length scale
introduced by it, that causes the dispersion. In fact, we could have examined
the periodic structure by beginning with the equation

2
1
u
1
=

1 +
M
ρ

−∞
δ(x
1
−nL)

1
c
2
b

2
t
u
1
. (6.115)
In the end we should have solved it much as we did, but writing the equation
in this form exhibits exactly how the microstructure enters the equation.
For guided waves the dispersion is caused by the geometrical or kinematical
constraint that the waves must reflect from the boundaries in such a way that
they reinforce one another to form a sustained wavefield. By considering only
6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 151
the nth waveguide mode for a closed waveguide, written as
u
3n
= A
n
cos[(nπ/h)x
2
]P
n
(x
1
, t ), (6.116)
we find, by substituting this into the equation of motion, (6.1), that the propa-
gating term P
n
(x
1
, t ) satisfies
c
−2

2
t
P
n
−∂
2
1
P
n
+(nπ/h)
2
P
n
=0. (6.117)
Note that (6.2) is automatically satisfied and that this equation captures the
dispersive propagation.
The equation (6.117) is the Klein–Gordon equation, (6.27), and both (6.115)
and (6.117) have the same form as do the Klein–Gordon equation and that for
the flexural motion for a rod, (6.28). In Problem6.2 the reader showed that both
these latter equations led to dispersive propagation.
Continuing, recall that in Section 6.1.2 we showed that the energy in the
nth mode propagates at the group velocity C
n
, and that in Section 6.3.2, using
the method of stationary phase, we showed that the group velocity is that with
which each ω
ns
propagated to a point (x
1
, t ). While it would be misleading to
assert that the energy in all wavefields or that the information encoded in them
always propagates at the group velocity, this does occur for many wavefields.
In this section, we study dispersion by focusing our attention on the meanings
given the group velocity in the context of one dimensional, dispersive equations
having a form such as (6.115) or (6.117).
Dispersive propagation is an extraordinarily rich subject. In addition to the
work of Lighthill (1965) and Whitham (1974), which we introduce here, the
reader is referred to Sommerfeld (1964a) and Brillouin (1960) for extended
discussions of the dispersion of electromagnetic waves in dielectric materials.
6.6.2 The Propagation of Information
We consider a signaling problem. The wave, amplitude u(x, t ), begins at x =0
as a square pulse modulating a harmonic carrier and propagates outward in the
positive x direction. It is described at x =0 by
u(0, t ) =(t ) cos ω
0
t, (6.118)
with the modulation described by
(t ) = H(t +T) − H(t −T). (6.119)
152 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
As in previous instances, H(t ) is the Heaviside function. The dispersion relation
has been found by seeking a solution in the form Ae
i (kx−ωt )
and solving for
k =k(ω). We construct a solution to the signaling problem as
u(x, t ) =

π


0

u(0, ω)e
i [k(ω)x−ωt ]
dω, (6.120)
where the transform of u(0, t ) is given by

u(0, ω) =
sin[(ω−ω
0
)T]
ω−ω
0
+
sin[(ω+ω
0
)T]
ω+ω
0
. (6.121)
Note that (1.36) has been used to write (6.120). If ω
0
T is large,

u(0, ω) is
concentrated within intervals near ±ω
0
. In particular, the major contribution to
the integral, (6.120), comes from ω ∈ (ω
0
−π/T, ω
0
+π/T). In this interval
we can approximate the dispersion relation as
k(ω) ≈k(ω
0
) +
dk


0
)(ω−ω
0
), (6.122)
provided the derivative of k(ω) is well behaved and does not vanish. We can
thus approximate (6.120) as
u(x, t ) ≈

π

e
i (k
0
x−ω
0
t )
M

t −
x
C

, (6.123)
where
M

t −
x
C

ω
0
+π/T
ω
0
−π/T

u(0, ω)e
−i (ω−ω
0
)(t −x/C)
dω, (6.124)
provided ω
0
T is large; k
0
=k(ω
0
) and C
−1
=dk/dω(ω
0
). Using the change of
variable =ω−ω
0
, we can write (6.124) as
M(t −x/C) ≈

π/T
−π/T

()e
−i (t −x/C)
d, (6.125)
where

() is the Fourier transform of (t ). Therefore, provided

u(0, ω) is
concentrated near ω
0
, the modulation (t ) ≈ M(t ) propagates at the speed C,
the group velocity.
This is essentially the kinematic argument put forward by Stokes
(Sommerfeld, 1964b) to demonstrate that information propagates at the group
velocity. There are shortcomings to this argument. The principal one is that

u(0, ω) must be concentrated in the neighborhood of the carrier frequency
ω
0
, in order that there be a well-defined modulation. This, however, may not
6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 153
always be the case, and that raises the question as to whether or not the concept
of group velocity has a more general significance.
6.6.3 The Propagation of Angular Frequencies
Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) give a more general meaning to group
velocity that is motivated by the stationary phase condition. However, they
consider an initial value problem rather than a signaling problem so that their
formulation is given in terms of a local wavenumber. Problem6.10 suggests why
they take this approach. They propose both a kinematic theory describing the
propagation of a local wavenumbers as well as a kinetic theory describing the
evolution of a group. Little more than a dispersion relation and the assumption
that far from from the source a wavefield evolves into a form described by
u(x, t ) ∼[A(x, t )e
i θ(x,t )
] is required.
Recall that following (6.74) we interpreted the group velocity as that with
which a given local angular frequency, one that characterizes a group, propa-
gates. We chose to describe the local angular frequency, rather than the local
wavenumber, because we were workingwitha signalingproblemand, therefore,
it was natural to express the solution as a Fourier transform over the angular
frequency ω. Nevertheless, the ideas of Whitham and Lighthill prove just as
adept at describing the evolution of the local angular frequency and the group
it characterizes.
A Signaling Problem
We again consider the signaling problem whose solution is given by (6.121).
However, we now assume that ω
0
T is such that

u(0, ω) is slowly varying. We
approximate (6.120) for large x, assuming that t /x is fixed, using the stationary
phase approximation (5.69). This gives
u(x, t ) ∼

π

(2π)
1/2
[x|d
2
k/dω
2
|]
1/2

u(0, ω)e
i [k(ω)x−ωt ±π/4]

. (6.126)
The stationary phase condition is dk/dω =t /x. The solution to this equation
3
gives ω =ω(x, t ), and k =k(x, t ) through the dispersion relation k =k(ω). We
noted previously, following (6.73), that the stationary phase condition, written
as
C(ω) = x/t, (6.127)
3
The argument is really x/t rather than the more general (x, t ). However, this latter notation will
permit some generalizations in the subsection that follows.
154 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
is a mapping, for propagating waves, fromthe t plane to the ω plane for fixed x.
In this calculation we emphasize this aspect of the stationary phase condition
and have dropped the subscript s that was used previously to designate an ω
satisfying this condition. The term d
2
k/dω
2
is given by
d
2
k

2
(ω) =−
1
C
2
(ω)
dC

(ω). (6.128)
We assume that dC/dω > 0 and take the minus sign in (6.126). If dC/dω < 0,
then the reasoning remains the same, though signs change here and there.
Moreover, we are, throughout, assuming that dC/dω =0. Thus, u(x, t ) ∼
[A(x, t )e
i θ(x,t )
], where
A(x, t ) =
1
π

(2π)
1/2
[x|d
2
k/dω
2
|]
1/2


u(0, ω)e
−i π/4
(6.129)
and
θ(x, t ) =k(ω)x −ω(x, t )t. (6.130)
A Kinematic Theory
Assuming that we know θ(x, t ) and a dispersion relation k =k(ω), we can
define a local angular frequency and a local wavenumber as
ω(x, t ) =−∂
t
θ, k(x, t ) =∂
x
θ. (6.131)
If these definitions are to be consistent with one another,

t
k +∂
x
ω =0, (6.132)
or, by using the dispersion relation,

t
ω+C(ω)∂
x
ω =0, (6.133)
where C =dω/dk. This is a partial differential equation for the angular fre-
quency ω. Note that (6.132) has the form, defined by (6.30), of a conservation
equation, and that (6.133) captures the idea suggested by the stationary phase
condition that the frequency ω propagates at the group velocity C.
Equation (6.133) is solved by the method of characteristics (Whitham, 1974;
Zauderer 1983). Provided the characteristics do not intersect, the solution can
be gotten quite simply.
1. Assume that there exists a curve S in the (x, t ) plane such that along S,
dt /dx =C
−1
. Then (6.133) becomes dω/dt =0 along this curve.
6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 155
2. ω(x, t ) is therefore constant along S and, because C is constant if ω is, S is
given by t = x C
−1
(ω) +t
0
, where t
0
is the intercept with the t axis. Hereafter
we write S(t
0
) to identify that member of the family of curves with inter-
cept t
0
.
3. Assume that an initial distribution of frequencies ω(0, t
0
) = f (t
0
) is given.
Along each S(t
0
), ω(0, t
0
) =ω(x, t ). It follows then that ω(x, t ) = f [t −
x C
−1
(ω)] along S(t
0
). Variation of t
0
gives a solution throughout (x, t ).
It is not an explicit solution for ω. Nevertheless, it indicates its evolution. Lastly,
if we assume that f (t
0
) is localized near the origin so that t
0
/x 1 for x large
and t /x fixed, we recover the stationary phase condition, (6.127).
We can also define a local phase velocity. Assume θ(x, t ) =θ
0
, a constant.
Implicit differentiation gives
c(x, t ) =−∂
t
θ/∂
x
θ, (6.134)
where the phase velocity c =dx/dt . Thus c =ω/k where ω and k are the local
frequency and wavenumber defined by (6.126).
We call lines of constant angular frequency group lines and those of constant
phase phase lines. Reverting to the notation of Section 6.3.2, we again consider
the stationary phase approximation to the transiently excited waves in a closed
waveguide. The local angular frequency determined by the stationary phase
condition is given by (6.129). That expression, rewritten here, is
ω
n
(x
1
, t ) =
(cnπ/h)
[1 −(x
1
/ct )
2
]
1/2
. (6.135)
The phase, given by the argument of the cosine in (6.72), is
θ
n
(x
1
, t ) =−
x
1

h

ct
x
1

2
−1

1/2
. (6.136)
For both expressions ω
n
∈ (cnπ/h, ∞). The group lines or curves of constant
local angular frequency ω
n

n0
are given by
x
1
ct
=

1 −

cnπ
ω
n0
h

2

1/2
. (6.137)
The curves of constant phase θ
n

n0
are given by
c
2
t
2
−x
2
1
=

θ
n0
h

2
. (6.138)
156 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
These two families of curves are quite different so that, once again, we note
that a phase and a group evolve differently in a dispersive environment.
A Kinetic Theory
Previously, we explicitly showed that for a closed waveguide the averaged
energy of a particular mode propagates with the group velocity for that mode,
(6.25). Auld (1990) uses a reciprocity relation to prove this result in somewhat
greater generality. Lighthill (1965) gives a general argument showing that, for
any wave structure or environment that can be characterized by a Lagrangian
and for which equipartition of energy occurs, the group velocity is the velocity
with which the average energy propagates. Aki and Richards (1980) give a
restricted version of this argument that is applicable to waveguide modes. Here
we continue to follow Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) and advance an
argument using the stationary phase condition.
We define a quantity Q as follows.
Q(x) =

t
2
t
1
A(x, t )A

(x, t )ω
2
(x, t )dt, (6.139)
where t
2
>t
1
. This is reminiscent of an energy term. For a time harmonic, plane
wave and wave system for which equipartition of energy occurs, this term is
proportional to the time-averaged energy density. Recalling our earlier comment
that (6.127) is a mapping from t to ω, we change the variable of integration in
(6.138) to ω. Noting that
dt = −
x
C
2
(ω)
dC

(ω)dω, (6.140)
we see that (6.139) becomes
Q(x) =
2
π

ω
1
ω
2
|

u(0, ω)|
2
ω
2
dω (6.141)
For dC/dω >0, ω
1

2
. This is a remarkable result. It indicates that for a sig-
nal, such as a fragment of speech, the energy contained within a given frequency
band is constant when the frequency band remains between the two group lines
identified by t
i
= x C
−1

i
), where i = 1, 2. This then is a generalization of the
idea that time-averaged energy propagates at the group velocity.
While the kinematic and kinetic descriptions of group velocity put forward by
Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) appear quite complete, they assume that
attenuation is not present. When dispersion arises from material properties,
it is very often accompanied by frequency-dependent attenuation. The same
References 157
physical mechanisms are responsible for both dispersion and attenuation so that
they cannot be easily disentangled, unless the attenuation is quite weak. The
propagation of linearly viscoelastic waves (Hudson, 1980) is an example that
indicates the tangling of these two effects. In such cases, attributing a meaning
to group velocity can become much more difficult. An ab initio calculation may
be the only guide (see also footnote 2).
Problem 6.10 Dispersion 2
As we indicated previously, Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) use an
initial value problem to advance their ideas about group velocity. Thus they
write that the wavenumber propagates at the group velocity and that the energy
confined between two group lines defined by two fixed k
i
is constant. The
following two problems indicate why they develop their ideas in this way.
Problem 1. Consider once again the Klein–Gordon equation, (6.27). Solve
the initial value problem for this equation, given the initial conditions
ϕ(x, 0) =δ(x), ∂
t
ϕ(x, 0) =0. (6.142)
For t < 0

, ϕ and ∂
t
ϕ are identically zero. Thus show that the appropriate
solution is
ϕ =
1
π


0
cos(kx) cos[ω(k)t ]dk, (6.143)
where ω =ω(k) is the dispersion relation. Note that (6.143) is to be interpreted
as a generalized function or distribution. Note that k, and not ω, is the transform
variable.
Using the method stationary phase, show that this solution for t →∞, with
x/t positive and fixed, can be put into the form
ϕ ∼

A(x, t )e
i θ(x,t )

. (6.144)
Give explicit expressions for A(x, t ) and θ(x, t ).
Problem 2. Repeat Problem 1 for the equation for flexural motion in a rod,
(6.28).
References
Aki, K. and Richards, P.G. 1980. Quantitative Seismology, Theory and Methods,
Vol. 1, pp. 286–292. San Francisco: Freeman.
158 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion
Auld, B.A. 1990. Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, 2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 203–206.
Malabar, FL: Krieger.
Brekhovskikh, L.M. 1980. Waves in Layered Media, 2nd ed., pp. 299–325. New York:
Academic.
Brillouin, L. 1960. Wave Propagation and Group Velocity, 2nd ed. New York:
Academic.
Burridge, R. and Weinberg, H. 1977. Horizontal rays and vertical modes. In Wave
Propagation and Underwater Acoustics, pp. 86–152, ed. J.B. Keller and
J.S. Papadakis. New York: Springer.
Dai, H.-H. and Wong, R. 1994. A uniform asymptotic expansion for the shear-wave
front in a layer. Wave Motion 19: 293–308.
deSanto, J.A. 1992. Scalar Wave Theory, pp. 162–179. New York: Springer.
Folguera, A. and Harris, J.G. 1999. Coupled Rayleigh surface waves in a slowly
varying elastic waveguide. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A 455: 917–931.
Friedman, B. 1956. Principles and Techniques of Applied Mathematics. New York:
Wiley.
Hudson, J.A. 1980. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves,
pp. 188–222. Cambridge: University Press.
Lighthill, M.J. 1965. Group velocity. J. Inst. Maths. Appl., 1: 1–28.
Miklowitz, J. 1978. The Theory of Elastic Waves and Waveguides, pp. 178–200 and
409–466. New York: North-Holland.
Sommerfeld, A. 1964a. Optics, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Vol. IV,
pp. 273–289. Translated by O. LaPorte and P.A. Moldauer. New York: Academic.
Sommerfeld, A. 1964b. Mechanics of Deformable Bodies, Lectures on Theoretical
Physics, Vol. II, pp. 184–191. Translated by G. Keurti. New York: Academic.
Tolstoy, I. and Clay, C.S. 1987. Ocean Acoustics, Theory and Experiment in
Underwater Sound, pp. 76–80 and elsewhere. New York: American Institute of
Physics.
Whitham, G.B. 1974. Linear and Nonlinear Waves, pp. 363–402. New York:
Wiley-Interscience.
Zauderer, E. 1983. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics,
pp. 35–77. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Index
κ, defined, 40
κ
r
, defined, 55
Abelian theorem, 82, 90, 107
allied function, 46
angular frequency
defined, 9
angular-spectrum; see plane-wave, 24
asymptotic approximation of integrals, 86–96
end point contribution, 95
Fresnel integral, 119
integration by parts, 87
stationary phase, 94–95
contour, 92
waveguide modes, 136
steepest descents, 90–94
branch cut contribution, 99
contour, 91, 98
pole contribution, 99
Stokes’ phenomenon, 119
uniform, 108
Watson’s lemma, 82, 87–90
wavefront approximation, 82, 95
asymptotic power series, 30
asymptotic ray expansion, 28–34, 112
compressional, 29
shear, 33
average
for a closed waveguide mode, 126
Lagrangian density, 126
time average for a plane wave, 23
boundary layer; see matched asymptotic
expansion, 109
branch cuts, defining, 52–55
buried harmonic line of compression, 82–86,
96–101
asymptotic approximation of the scattered
compressional wave, 98
asymptotic approximation of the scattered
shear wave, 99
Cagniard–deHoop technique, 77–82
contour, 81
inversion, 79–82
caustic, 31, 85, 100
center of compression
three-dimensional, 61
two-dimensional, 62
complex unit vector, 23
compressional wave, defined, 5
critical angle
incidence, 43
reflection, 44
refraction, 43
cut-off frequency, 125, 133
cylindrical wave, 34
diffraction at an edge, 101–119
diffracted wave, 108
diffraction coefficient, 110
diffraction integral, 108; see Fresnel
integral
geometrical theory, 110
dispersion; see velocity, group, 13
and stationary phase, 136
anisotropic medium, 128
anomalous, 138
causes of, 150
closed waveguide, 122, 125
from the poles of an integral
representation, 144
geometrical, 150
microstructure, 150
159
160 Index
dispersion (cont.)
open waveguide, 130, 131
periodic structure, 18
eigenvalue problem, 122
eigenfunction
continuous expansion, 139
discrete or mode expansion, 134
eigenvalues, 123
discrete and continuous, 145
eigenvalues and eigenfunctions
discrete, 122
discrete and continuous, 131
eikonal equation, 30, 148
energy relations, 5
kinetic energy density, defined, 6
averaged for a closed waveguide mode, 126
averaged for a plane wave, 23
conservation law, 6, 127
energy flux during critical refraction, 45
energy flux during reflection, 41
energy flux, defined, 6
energy in a band of frequencies, 156
equipartition of energy, 126
for a transient plane wave, 22
for the flexural motion equation, 128
for the Klein–Gordon equation, 128
internal energy density, defined, 6
equations of motion, 1–6
boundary conditions, 2
dilitational motion, 2
one-dimensional, 3
rotational motion, 2
two-dimensional, 4
antiplane motion, 4
inplane motion, 4
extinction theorem, 75
farfield
compact source, 61, 65
of an edge, 114
Fermat’s principle, 101
flexural motion equation, 48, 127, 157
Fourier transform
space, 10
three-dimensional, 58
time, 7
frequency
defined, 9
local, 155
Fresnel integral, 109, 116–119
gamma function, 87
Gaussian beam; see plane-wave
representations, 25
geometrical theory of diffraction;
see diffraction at an edge, 111
Green’s function, 60, 62
method of images, 68
Green’s tensor, 58, 62
correct and incorrect, 66
elastic fluid, 74
stress, 60
three-dimensional, 58
guided waves; see waveguide, 121
Helmholtz theorem, 5
initial value problem, 157
inner expansion; see matched asymptotic
expansion, 71
integral equations, 67, 76
integral representation
scattering problem, 65–67
source problem, 64–65
JWKB asymptotic expansion
eigenvalue problem, 148
rays and modes, 147
Klein–Gordon equation, 127, 150, 157
Lagrangian density, 126
Lamb’s problem; see buried harmonic line of
compression, 82
Laplace transform
time, 7
two-sided, 78
leaky wave; see waveguide, open, 146
limitingabsorption, principle of, 62–63, 65, 135
and the Wiener–Hopf method, 104–108
outgoing wave, 58, 59, 79
line of compression; see center of compression,
83
longitudinal wave; see compressional, 22
Love wave; see waveguide, open, 131
matched asymptotic expansion, 112–116
boundary layer, 109, 111, 113
inner, outer coordinates, 71, 114
inner, outer expansion, 71, 114
matching, 115
Schrodinger equation, 114
stretching transformation, 114
nearfield of an edge, 72, 104, 110, 113
outer expansion; see matched asymptotic
expansion, 71
outgoing wave; see limiting absorption, 59
partial waves, 17, 123, 140, 145
periodic structure, 15–18
effective wavenumber, 18
Index 161
phase matching, 39–40
phase, its meaning, 29
plane wave
homogeneous, 22
inhomogeneous or evanescent, 22, 43, 96
time-dependent, 20
time-harmonic, 22
plane-wave representations, 24–28
cylindrical wave, 28, 140
Gaussian beam, 24
in an open waveguide, 142, 146
spherical wave, 27, 28
waves scattered from a surface, 84
Poisson summation formula, 11
polarization
change in a ray expansion, 33
defined, 20
potentials, displacement, 5
scalar potential, 5
vector potential, 5
propagation matrix, 16
radiation conditions, 65; see limiting
absorption, 65
ray; see asymptotic ray expansion, 30
defined, 30
fan of diffracted rays, 110
ray tube, 33
rays and modes, 146
Rayleigh wave, 48–52, 96, 101
Rayleigh function, 51
Rayleigh equation, 49
time-harmonic, 49
transient, 50
two-sided wave, 51
reciprocity, 57
reflection
antiplane shear coefficient, 44
antiplane shear wave, 42
compressional coefficient, 40
compressional wave, 38
from a layer, 133
from a plate in a fluid, 47
inplane shear coefficient, 40
inplane shear wave, 38
refraction
antiplane shear coefficient, 44
antiplane shear wave, 42
interfacial wave, 45
two-sided wave, 46
scalar potential; see potentials,
displacement, 5
scattering
Bragg, 17
from a lumped mass, 13
from a strip, 67
from an elastic inclusion, 72
scattering matrix, 14
shear wave, defined, 5
signaling problem, 151–157
defined, 24
slowness
defined, 20
surface, 39, 44
vector, 20, 39
Sommerfeld transformation, 27, 59, 84, 96, 142
spherical wave, 34
standing wave, defined, 9
stationary phase; see asymptotic approximation
of integrals, 94
steepest descents; see asymptotic
approximation of integrals, 90
strain tensor, defined, 2
stress tensor, defined, 1
surface wave; see Rayleigh wave, 51
guided by an impedance boundary, 51
Tauberian theorem; see Abelian theorem, 82
traction, defined, 1
transforms, Fourier and Laplace; see Fourier
transform, Laplace transform, 6
defined, 6–10
transmission coefficient; see refraction, 44
transmission matrix, 15
transport equation, 30, 149
transverse resonance principle, 124
transverse wave; see shear, 22
uniqueness in an unbounded region, 63,
68–72
edge conditions, 69, 104, 107
no edges, 68
vector potential; see potentials, displacement, 5
velocity
energy transport, 22, 24, 125
fastest, 137
group; see dispersion, 18
and stationary phase, 137
group lines, 155
kinematic theory, 154
kinetic theory, 156
periodic structure, 18
propagation of angular frequencies,
153–157
propagation of information, 151
propagation of wavenumbers, 153
waveguide mode, 125
phase
local, 155
phase lines, 155
waveguide mode, 125
vibration, not a wave, 11
162 Index
Watson’s lemma; see asymptotic approximation
of integrals, 87
wave kinematics, defined, 20
wavefront
curvature, 32
defined, 30
plane, spherical, etc., 20
waveguide
closed, 121
evanescent mode, 135
excitation, 134–139
harmonic excitation, 134
mode expansion, 134
transient excitation, 135
laterally inhomogeneous, 146
mode, 122
open, 129
excitation, 139–146
leaky modes, 146
modal representation, 144
plane-wave representation, 142, 146
ray representation, 141, 145
wavelength, defined, 9
wavenumber
complex, 22
defined, 8
effective, periodic structure, 18
lateral, 122
local, 155
transverse, 122
wavevector
defined, 22
real and complex, 22
Wiener–Hopf method, 104–108

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Linear Elastic Waves
Wave propagation and scattering are among the most fundamental processes that we use to comprehend the world around us. Whereas these processes are often very complex, one way to begin to understand them is to study wave propagation in the linear approximation. This is a book describing such propagation using, as a context, the equations of elasticity. Two unifying themes are used. The first is that an understanding of plane wave interactions is fundamental to understanding more complex wave interactions. The second is that waves are best understood in an asymptotic approximation where they are free of the complications of their excitation and are governed primarily by their propagation environments. The topics covered include reflection, refraction, propagation of interfacial waves, integral representations, radiation and diffraction, and propagation in closed and open waveguides. Linear Elastic Waves is an advanced level textbook directed at applied mathematicians, seismologists, and engineers. John G. Harris received an undergraduate degree (honors) in 1971 from McGill University, where he studied electrical engineering and gained a lasting interest in wave propagation. In 1979, he received a doctoral degree in applied mathematics from Northwestern University for a thesis on elastic-wave diffraction problems. Following this, he joined the Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Department at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), where he teaches dynamics and mathematical methods and carries out research on elasticwave problems at microwave frequencies. He has used asymptotic methods of analysis to explore diffraction and imaging, propagation and scattering of interfacial waves, and waveguiding.

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DAVIDSON Linear Elastic Waves JOHN G. O’MALLEY A Modern Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Water Waves R. M. JOHNSON The Kinematics of Mixing J. HARRIS . BARENBLATT A First Course in the Numerical Analysis of Differential Equations ARIEH ISERLES Complex Variables: Introduction and Applications MARK J. KING An Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics P. Instability and Chaos PAUL GLENDINNING Applied Analysis of the Navier–Stokes Equations C. ABLOWITZ AND ATHANASSIOS S. DRAZIN AND R. S. FOKAS Mathematical Models in the Applied Sciences A. G. BILLINGHAM AND A. OCKENDON Scaling. OTTINO Introduction to Numerical Linear Algebra and Optimisation PHILIPPE G. NAUGOLNYKH AND L. and Intermediate Asymptotics G. FOWLER Thinking About Ordinary Differential Equations ROBERT E. R. OSTROVSKY Nonlinear Systems P. CIARLET Integral Equations DAVID PORTER AND DAVID S. DRAZIN Stability. CHAPMAN Wave Motion J. OCKENDON AND J. S. HYDON High Speed Flow C. G. J. DOERING AND J. STIRLING Perturbation Methods E. JOHNSON Rarefied Gas Dynamics CARLO CERCIGNANI Symmetry Methods for Differential Equations PETER E. C. G. J.Cambridge Texts in Applied Mathematics Maximum and Minimum Principles M. A. R. MAUGIN Boundary Integral and Singularity Methods for Linearized Viscous Flow C. D. I. GIBBON Viscous Flow H. Self-Similarity. SEWELL Solitons P. HINCH The Thermomechanics of Plasticity and Fracture GERARD A. POZRIKIDIS Nonlinear Wave Processes in Acoustics K. C. J.

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Linear Elastic Waves JOHN G. HARRIS University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign .

28014 Madrid. South Africa http://www. USA 477 Williamstown Road. Cape Town 8001. The Waterfront. Trumpington Street. UK 40 West 20th Street. New York. NY 10011-4211.          The Pitt Building.cambridge. Port Melbourne. Cambridge. United Kingdom    The Edinburgh Building. VIC 3207. Cambridge CB2 2RU. Spain Dock House. Australia Ruiz de Alarcón 13.org © Cambridge University Press 2004 First published in printed format 2001 ISBN 0-511-04041-5 eBook (netLibrary) ISBN 0-521-64368-6 hardback ISBN 0-521-64383-X paperback .

To Beatriz .

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4.2 Periodic Structures References 2 2.2 Two-Dimensional Models 1.3.3 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves Time-Dependent Plane Waves Time-Harmonic Plane Waves Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations 2.1 One-Dimensional Models 1.1.1.3 A Wave Is Not a Vibration 1.Contents Preface 1 Simple Wave Solutions 1.2 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a Spherical Wave 2.3.1.1 Model Equations 1.1 A Gaussian Beam 2.2 2.4.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 2.4 Energy Relations 1.4.3.4 Dispersive Propagation 1.1 2.3 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a Cylindrical Wave 2.2 Shear Wave ix page xiii 1 1 3 4 5 5 6 11 13 13 15 18 20 20 22 24 24 26 28 28 29 33 .3 Displacement Potentials 1.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms 1.4.1.1 An Isolated Interaction 1.1 Compressional Wave 2.

2 Edge Conditions 4.1 4.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem 4.1 No Edges 4.5.2 4.4.1 Notes 4.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I 5.1 The Transforms 5.1 Phase Matching 3.3 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations Introduction Reciprocity Green’s Tensor 4.1.1.6.5 Integral Representation: A Source Problem 4.1.3.2 Transient Wave 3.1 Reflection of a Compressional Plane Wave 3.1.8 Scattering from an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid References 5 Radiation and Diffraction 5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals .2 Inversion 5.7.1 Notes 4.1 The Time-Harmonic Wave 3. Refraction.7.4. and Interfacial Waves 3.3 An Inner Expansion 4.2 Reflection Coefficients 3.3 The Rayleigh Function 3.1 Notes 4.x Contents 34 35 37 37 39 40 41 44 48 49 50 51 52 55 56 56 57 58 61 62 64 65 65 66 68 68 69 71 72 76 77 77 78 79 82 86 Appendix: Spherical and Cylindrical Waves References 3 Reflection.4 Branch Cuts References 4 4.4 The Rayleigh Wave 3.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region 4.4.4 Principle of Limiting Absorption 4.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves 3.1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space 5.2 Reflection and Refraction 3.4.7.

5.2 Method of Steepest Descents 5.1 Causes of Dispersion 6.4.3 Description of the Scattered Wavefield 5.2 The Scattered Compressional Wave 5.5.1 Partial Waves and the Transverse Resonance Principle 6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous.6.2 Transient Excitation 6.3.4.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide 6.4.1 Harmonic Excitation 6.2 The Propagation of Information 6.1 Partial Wave Analysis 6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 6.1.2.3.Contents 5.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide 6.2 The Wavefield in the Half-Space 6.3 Leaky Waves 6.4.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 6.2 Wiener–Hopf Solution 5.2.3 The Propagation of Angular Frequencies References Index xi 87 90 94 96 96 98 99 101 102 104 108 112 116 119 121 121 123 124 128 129 131 134 134 135 139 140 145 146 146 150 150 151 153 157 159 .3.1 Formulation 5.1 The Complex Plane 5.6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study Appendix: The Fresnel Integral References 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion 6.3.3.4.1 Watson’s Lemma 5.1.3 The Scattered Shear Wave 5.2 Dispersion Relation: A Closed Waveguide 6.3 Stationary Phase Approximation 5. Closed Waveguide 6.4.6.6.5.1 The Wavefield in the Layer 6.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II 5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 5.2 Dispersion Relation: An Open Waveguide 6.

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Preface

A wave builds up perhaps it says its name, I don’t understand, mutters, humps its load of movement and foam and withdraws. Who can I ask what it said to me?1

Wave propagation and scattering are among the most fundamental processes that we use to comprehend the world around us. While these processes are often very complex, one way to begin to understand them is to study linear wave propagation. This is a book describing such propagation. I use the equations of linear elasticity to form a context for my description of wave propagation. However, the reader’s knowledge of elasticity need not be very great, and experience with a related field theory, such as fluid mechanics or electromagnetic theory, is sufficient to understand what is written here. In many places I treat only the antiplane shear problem because I do not believe that the extra work needed to do the analogous inplane problem adds anything of significance to understanding the underlying wave processes. Nevertheless, where an inplane elastic problem introduces a unique feature, such as the presence of a nondispersive surface wave, that problem is treated. This is also a book describing the parts of applied mathematics that describe the propagation and scattering of linear elastic waves. It assumes that the reader has a good background in calculus, differential equations, and complex analysis. By this I mean that the reader should have studied most of the topics in
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Neruda, Pablo, Soliloquy in the Waves, pp. 185–186. In Isla Negra, a Notebook, translated by A. Reid. New York: Noonday Press. 1981.

xiii

xiv

Preface

Courant and John, Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, Vols. 1 and 2 (1989) and in Boyce and DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems (1992). Moreover, the reader should be able to look things up in Carrier, Krook, and Pearson, Functions of a Complex Variable (1983) or Ablowitz and Fokas Complex Variables, Introduction and Applications (1997) and Zauderer Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics (1998) and not feel lost. None of the mathematical analyses exceed, in sophistication or difficulty, those found in Courant and John (1989). I work almost entirely in Cartesian coordinates so that no knowledge of special functions or the transforms associated with them is needed. Some previous experience with asymptotic analysis would be helpful, but is not essential. All the asymptotic analysis needed is explained in the book. I have used two unifying themes throughout. The first is that an understanding of plane-wave interactions is fundamental to understanding more complex wave interactions. The second is that waves are best understood in an asymptotic approximation where they are free of the complications of their excitation and are governed primarily by their propagation environment. Therefore planewave spectral analyses and asymptotic approximations are the main techniques used to study the more complicated problems. The selection of problems for the reader is small and directed at engaging him or her in the development of the subject. The problems are an integral part of the book and most should be attempted. I have tried to avoid a menagerie of symbols. In general I use Cartesian tensors such as τi j , where the indices i, j = 1, 2, 3, or a boldface notation τ . The symbol ∂i is used to represent the partial derivative with respect to the ith coordinate. Similarly, sometimes I use dx f to represent d f /d x. Repeated indices are summed over 1, 2, 3 unless otherwise indicated. For problems engaging only two coordinates, subscripts using Greek letters such as α, β = 1, 2 are used so that a vector component would be written as u β and a partial derivative as ∂α . When these subscripts are repeated they are summed over 1, 2. At times I use symbols such as c L or cT when there is need to distinguish between parameters that relate to compressional or shear disturbances, but when that distinction is not important I drop the subscript. Constants such as A are used over and over again and have no special meaning. Professor Jan Achenbach was my research advisor. He taught me the subject. His influence is everywhere is this book. I thank him. I have been supported over the years primarily by the National Science Foundation, though recently also by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. I am very grateful for their support. Elaine Wilson typed the early parts of this manuscript and Mike

Preface

xv

Greenberg provided the illustrations. Don Carlson and Bill Phillips tolerated my complaints with humor; Eduardo Velasco prevented me from publishing a discussion of group velocity that was at best muddled. To everyone, thank you. The book undoubtedly contains errors, for which I alone am responsible. I anticipate that few if any are serious.

Books Cited
Ablowitz, M. J. and Fokas, A. S. 1997. Complex Variables, Introduction and Applications. New York: Cambridge. Boyce, W. E. and DiPrima, R. C. 1992. Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems, 5th ed. New York: Wiley. Carrier, G. F., Krook, M., and Pearson, C. E. 1983. Functions of a Complex Variable. Ithaca, NY: Hod Books. Courant, R. and John, F. 1989. Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Springer. Zauderer, E. 1983. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. New York: Wiley-Interscience. Evanston and Urbana, Summer 2000.

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Such structures are dispersive and therefore transmit information at a speed different from the wavespeed of their individual components. Only the basic equations are summarized. in 1 . propagation in onedimensional periodic structures is discussed. 1. τi j = τ ji . The most important feature of the model is that the force exerted across a surface. that is. both the model equations and some of the mathematical transformations. The conservation of angular momentum makes the stress tensor symmetric. A linear wave carries information at a particular velocity.1 Simple Wave Solutions Synopsis Chapter 1 provides the background. In order to introduce this aspect of wave propagation. and (2) a constitutive relation relating force and deformation. The conservation of mechanical energy follows from (1) and (2). The Poisson summation formula is also introduced and used to distinguish between a propagating wave and a vibration of a bounded body.1 Model Equations The equations of linear elasticity consist of (1) the conservation of linear and angular momentum. oriented by the unit normal n j . Both Fourier and Laplace transforms and their inverses are introduced and important sign conventions settled. which is characteristic of the propagation structure or environment. The conservation of linear momentum. without derivation. It is this transmitting of information that gives linear waves their special importance. needed to understand linear elastic waves. In the linear approximation density ρ is constant. by one part of a material on the other is given by the traction ti = τ ji n j . where τ ji is the stress tensor. the group velocity.

4) When the identity ∇ 2 u = ∇(∇ · u) − ∇ ∧ ∇ ∧ u is used. the boundary conditions are said to be mixed. followed e by substituting the outcome into (1. the underlying dependence of the deformation is upon the ∇u.2) where u i is ith component of particle displacement. ij (1. is expressed as ∂k τki + ρ f i = ρ∂t ∂t u i . One very common boundary condition is to ask that t = 0 everywhere on ∂R. .1).5) (1. Written in vector notation. the equation can also be written in the form (λ + 2µ)∇(∇ · u) − µ∇ ∧ ∇ ∧ u + ρ f = ρ∂t ∂t u. the equation becomes (λ + µ)∇(∇ · u) + µ∇ 2 u + ρ f = ρ∂t ∂t u. This models the case in which a solid surface is adjacent to a gas of such small density and compressibility that it is almost a vacuum. However. (1. Deformation is described by using a strain tensor. If ∂R is the boundary of a region R occupied by a solid.1) = (∂i u j + ∂ j u i )/2. linearly elastic solid. For a homogeneous. gives one form of the equation of motion.3) where λ and µ are Lam´ ’s elastic constants. special conditions are imposed such that a disturbance decays to zero at infinity or radiates outward toward infinity from any sources contained within R. isotropic. (1. Substituting (1. The symmetrical definition of the deformation ensures that no rigid-body rotations are included. When t is given over part of ∂R and u over another part. namely (λ + µ)∂i ∂k u k + µ∂ j ∂ j u i + ρ f i = ρ∂t ∂t u i .2 1 Simple Wave Solutions differential form. When R is infinite in one or more dimensions. The term f is a force per unit mass. (1. (1. stress and strain are related by τi j = λ kk δi j + 2µ ij. then commonly t and u are prescribed on ∂R.3).2) in (1.6) This last equation indicates that elastic waves have both dilitational ∇ · u and rotational ∇ ∧ u deformations.

9) . These are only models and are often inadequate. 2(λ + µ) (1. are continuous. 1.1. 1 and 2.3) becomes τ11 = E∂1 u 1 .1 One-Dimensional Models We assume that the various wavefield quantities depend only on the variables x1 and t. To briefly indicate some of the possible complications. but would experience a traction-free boundary condition when they pull apart (Comninou and Dundurs. all the stress components except τ11 are assumed to be zero. and ∂2 u 2 = ∂3 u 3 = −ν∂1 u 1 .2) combined with (1. and (1. while u 2 and u 3 are assumed to be zero.1) becomes E∂1 ∂1 u 1 + ρ f 1 = ρ∂t ∂t u 1 . For longitudinal strain. (1.1. The reader may consult Hudson (1980) for a succinct discussion of linear elasticity or Atkin and Fox (1980) for a somewhat more general view.7) For longitudinal stress. Now (1. but in many cases it is usual to assume that the traction and displacement. (1. Contact between solid bodies is quite complicated. One other simple continuity condition that commonly arises is that between a solid and an ideal fluid.3) becomes τ11 = (λ + 2µ)∂1 u 1 . consider two solid bodies pressed together. occupied by solids having different properties. 1977).8) τ22 = τ33 = λ∂1 u 1 . u 1 is finite. while the normal component of traction and the normal component of displacement are made continuous. the tangential component of t is set to zero. so that (1. Now (1.11) ν= λ . This produces a complex nonlinear interaction. t and u. This models welded contact. A (linear) wave incident on such a boundary would experience continuity of traction and displacement when the solids press together.1 Model Equations 3 Another common situation is that in which ∂R12 is the boundary between two regions.10) E =µ 3λ + 2µ . (1. Because the viscosity is ignored.1) becomes (λ + 2µ)∂1 ∂1 u 1 + ρ f 1 = ρ∂t ∂t u 1 . λ+µ (1.

(1. (λ + µ)∂α ∂β u β + µ∂β ∂β u α + ρ f α = ρ∂t ∂t u α . namely compressional and shear vertical. The initials P and SV are used to describe the two types of inplane motion. Stress components that vanish at the surface are assumed to be negligible in the interior. giving. and τ33 = λ∂γ u γ .12).8) and (1. t). is called antiplane shear motion. similar to (1. though they have somewhat different physical meanings. τ3β = µ∂β u 3 .16) This last equation is a vector equation and contains two wave types.17) (1.13) Greek subscripts α.11) are essentially the same.11). As a consequence. compressional and shear. respectively. 1. (1.4 1 Simple Wave Solutions Note that (1.2 Two-Dimensional Models Let us assume that the various wavefield quantities are independent of x3 .3) becomes ταβ = λ∂γ u γ δαβ + µ(∂α u β + ∂β u α ). β = 1. namely ∂β τβ3 + ρ f 3 = ρ∂t ∂t u 3 .8) or (1. whose character we explore shortly. It leads to problems of some complexity. is called inplane motion. (1. while the other two displacement components are generally nonzero. ∂β τβα + ρ f α = ρ∂t ∂t u α . The longitudinal stress model is useful for rods having a small cross section and a traction-free surface. The equation of motion remains (1.13). (1. or SH motion for shear horizontal. x2 . For this case (1. 2 are used to indicate that the independent spatial variables are x1 and x2 . that is.15) (1. The case for which the only nonzero displacement component is u 3 (x1 . (1. .12).14) Note that this is a two-dimensional scalar equation. µ∂β ∂β u 3 + ρ f 3 = ρ∂t ∂t u 3 .1.4). namely (1.18) (1. The case for which u 3 = 0. from (1.12) (1.1) breaks into two separate equations.

4 Energy Relations The remaining conservation law of importance is the conservation of mechanical energy. (1.19) The second condition is needed because u has only three components (the particular condition selected is not the only possibility).18). is relatively easy to implement. 1996) to express the particle displacement u as the sum of a scalar ϕ and a vector potential ψ.1.21) (1. and shear or transverse wavespeed. u = ∇ϕ + ∇ ∧ ψ. Substituting these expressions into (1. (1.6) are used. allows us to solve complicated problems in detail without being overwhelmed by the size and length of the calculations needed.4)–(1. Assume f = 0. in problems in which there are few boundary conditions.14). Again assume f = 0.6) gives 2 (λ + 2µ)∇ ∇ 2 ϕ − 1/c2 ∂t ∂t ϕ + µ∇ ∧ ∇ 2 ψ − 1/cT ∂t ∂t ψ = 0. while the vector potential describes a wave of shear motion.20) The equation can be satisfied if ∇ 2 ϕ = 1/c2 ∂t ∂t ϕ. This law can be derived directly from . (1. a boundary condition. L (1. Gregory. L 2 ∇ 2 ψ = 1/cT ∂t ∂t ψ. do we know u completely? Yes we do. respectively.1.1 Model Equations 5 These two-dimensional equations are the principal models used. 1. The scalar potential describes a wave of compressional motion. L 2 cT = µ/ρ.22) The terms c L and cT are the compressional or longitudinal wavespeed. ∇ · ψ = 0. Proofs of completeness. which in the plane-wave case is longitudinal.3 Displacement Potentials When (1. The scalar model. that is. One way to do this is to use the Helmholtz theorem (Phillips. which in the plane-wave case is transverse. 1933. However. while the vector model.1. 1. Knowing ϕ and ψ. (1. c2 = (λ + 2µ)/ρ. such as t = 0. along with related references. allows us enough structure to indicate the complexity found in elastic-wave propagation. it is often easier to cast the equations of motion into a simpler form and allow the boundary condition to become more complicated. are given in Achenbach (1973).

receiver.23) as 1 ∂ (ρ∂t u i ∂t u i 2 t + τki ki ) + ∂k (−τki ∂t u i ) = 0. ∂ j τ ji ∂t u i − ρ(∂t ∂t u i )∂t u i = 0. F. respectively.3). (1. Then (1. (1. where F is given by F j = −τ ji ∂t u i . consider an arbitrary region R. This gives.1). This representation imagines the transient signal decomposed into an infinite number of time-harmonic or frequency components. allows us to write (1.24) can be written as ∂E/∂t + ∇ · F = 0. The remaining term is the divergence of the energy flux.26) where E = K + U and is the energy density.23) Forming the product τkl kl . with surface ∂R. To better understand that the energy flux or power density is given by (1. .28) R ∂R Therefore.25) These are the kinetic and internal energy density.3) by taking the dot product of ∂t u with (1. it radiates outward ˆ across the surface ∂R at a rate F · n. 1.6 1 Simple Wave Solutions (1. One important reason for the usefulness of this representation is that the transmitter. using (1.27) over R and using Gauss’ theorem gives d dt E(x. (1. Integrating (1. as the mechanical energy decreases within R. This is the differential statement of the conservation of mechanical energy. (1. One useful representation of a transient waveform is its Fourier one.27) (1. t) d V = − ˆ F · n d S.1)–(1. where ω ji = (∂ j u i − ∂i u j )/2. The linearity of the problem ensures that we can work out the net propagation outcomes for each frequency component and then combine the outcomes to recreate the received signal. and making use of the decomposition ∂ j u i = ji + ω ji .2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms All waves are transient in time. 2 U = 1 τi j 2 ij. (1.26).24) The first two terms become the time rates of change of K = 1 ρ∂t u k ∂t u k . initially. and the propagation structure usually respond differently to the different frequency components.

(1. (1. p is a complex variable and its domain is such as to make u(x.32) where ≥ 0. t) dt. when t ∈ [0. (1. (ω) > 0 gives the initial domain of analyticity for ¯ u(x. t) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ ¯ e−iωt u(x. u(x.32). (1.30) and (1. p) dp. In practice we define the inverse transforms on contours that are designed to capture the physical features of the solution. ω) dω. for the present.31) ¯ As with ω. But. including the case in which the contour extends to infinity. are misleading.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms The Fourier transform is defined as ¯ u(x. Moreover. but the function can be analytically continued beyond this. It is usually used for initialvalue problems so that we imagine that for t < 0. Note that there is a specific sign convention for the exponential term that we shall adhere to throughout the book. This is not essential and its definition can be extended to include functions whose t-dependence extends to negative values. Note that p = −iω so that.29) The variable ω is complex. t) = 1 2πi +i∞ −i∞ ¯ e pt u(x. u is an analytic function within the domain of convergence. we shall work with these definitions. . ω). p) = 0 ∞ e− pt u(x. A closely related transform is the Laplace one. The domain is initially defined as ( p) > 0. and once known. (1. A large part of this book will deal with just how those contours are selected. are discussed in Titchmarsh (1939) in a general way and in more detail by Noble (1988). The expressions for the inverse transforms. ω). Its domain is such as to make the above integral ¯ convergent.1. ∞). t) is zero. The inverse transform is given by u(x.30) ¯ Thus we have represented u as a sum of harmonic waves e−iωt u(x. ω) = ∞ −∞ 7 eiωt u(x. 1 Analytic functions defined by contour integrals. t) dt. p) an analytic function of p. can be analytically continued beyond it.1 The inverse transform is defined as u(x. This transform is defined as ¯ u(x.

8

1 Simple Wave Solutions

Consider the case of longitudinal strain. Imagine that at t = −∞ a disturbance started with zero amplitude. Taking the Fourier transform of (1.8) gives
2 ¯ ¯ d 2 u 1 /d x1 + k 2 u 1 = 0,

(1.33)

where k = ω/c L and c L is the compressional wavespeed defined in (1.21). The parameter k is called the wavenumber. Here (1.33) has solutions of the form ¯ u 1 (x1 , ω) = A(ω)e±ikx1 . If we had sought a time-harmonic solution of the form ¯ u 1 (x1 , t) = u 1 (x1 , ω)e−iωt , (1.35) (1.34)

we should have gotten the same answer except that e−iωt would be present. In other words, taking the Fourier transform of an equation over time or seeking solutions that are time harmonic are two slightly different ways of doing the same operation. For (1.35), it is understood that the real part can always be taken to obtain a real disturbance. Much the same happens in using (1.30). In writing (1.30) ¯ we implicitly assumed that u(x, t) was real. That being the case, u(x, ω) = ¯ u ∗ (x, −ω), where the superscript asterisk to the right of the symbol indicates the complex conjugate. From this it follows that u(x, t) = 1 π
∞ 0

¯ e−iωt u(x, ω) dω.

(1.36)

The advantage of this formulation of the inverse transform is that we may proceed with all our calculations by using an implied e−iωt and assuming ω is positive. The importance of this will become apparent in subsequent chapters. Now (1.36) can be regarded as a generalization of the taking of the real part of a time-harmonic wave (1.35). Problem 1.1 Transform Properties ¯ ¯ Check that u(x, ω) = u ∗ (x, −ω) and derive (1.36) from (1.30). The reader may want to consult a book on the Fourier integral such as that by Papoulis (1962). When the plus sign is taken, (1.35) is a time-harmonic, plane wave propagating in the positive x1 direction. We assume that the wavenumber k is positive, unless otherwise stated. The wave propagates in the positive x1 direction because the term (kx1 − ωt) remains constant, and hence u 1 remains constant,

1.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms

9

only if x1 increases as t increases. The speed with which the wave propagates is c L . The term ω is the angular frequency or 2π f , where f is the frequency. That is, at a fixed position, 1/ f is the length of a temporal oscillation. Similarly, k, the wavenumber, is 2π/λ, where λ, the wavelength, is the length of a spatial oscillation. Note that if we combine two of these waves, labeled u + and u − , each going 1 1 in opposite directions, namely u + = Aei(kx1 −ωt) , 1 we get u 1 = Ae−iωt 2 cos(kx1 ). Taking the real part gives u 1 = 2|A| cos(ωt + α) cos(kx1 ). (1.39) (1.38) u − = Ae−i(kx1 +ωt) , 1 (1.37)

We have taken A as complex so that α is its argument. This disturbance does not propagate. At a fixed x1 the disturbance simply oscillates in time, and at a fixed t it oscillates in x1 . The wave is said to stand or is called a standing wave. Problem 1.2 Fourier Transform Continue with the case of longitudinal strain and consider the following boundary, initial-value problem. Unlike the previous discussion in which the disturbance began, with zero amplitude, at −∞, here we shall introduce a disturbance that starts up at t = 0+ . Consider an elastic half-space, occupying x1 ≥ 0, subjected to a nonzero traction at its surface. The problem is one dimensional, and it is invariant in the other two so that (1.8), the equation for longitudinal strain, is the equation of motion. At x1 = 0 we impose the boundary condition τ11 = −P0 e−ηt H (t), where H (t) is the Heaviside step function and P0 is a constant. As x1 → ∞ we impose the condition that any wave propagate outward in the positive x1 direction. Why? Moreover, we ask that, for t < 0, u 1 (x1 , t) = 0 and ∂t u 1 (x1 , t) = 0. Note that, using integration by parts, the Fourier transform, indicated by F, of the second time derivative is ¯ F [∂t ∂t u 1 ] = −ω2 u 1 (x1 , ω) + iωu 1 (x1 , 0− ) − ∂t u 1 (x1 , 0− ). (1.40)

In deriving this expression we have integrated from t = 0− to ∞ so as to include any discontinuous behavior at t = 0. Taking the Fourier transform of (1.8) gives

10

1 Simple Wave Solutions

(1.33). Show that the inverse transform of the stress component τ11 is given by τ11 (x1 , t) = P0 2πi
∞ −∞

ei(kx1 −ωt) dω. ω + iη

(1.41)

In the course of making this step you will need to chose between the solutions to the transformed equation, (1.33). Why is the solution leading to (1.41) selected? Note that, if the disturbance is to decay with time, η must be positive. Next show that τ11 (x1 , t) = −P0 H (t − x1 /c L )e−η(t−x1 /cL ) . (1.42)

Explain how the conditions for convergence of the integral, as its contour is closed at infinity, give rise to the Heaviside function. Note how the sign conventions for the transform pair, by affecting where the inverse transform converges, give a solution that is causal. Problem 1.3 Laplace Transform Solve Problem 1.2 by using the Laplace transform over time. Why select the solution e− px1 /cL ? How does this relate to the demand that waves be outgoing at ∞? The solution of Problem 1.2 suggests how we shall define the Fourier transform over the spatial variable x. Suppose we have taken the temporal transform ¯ obtaining u(x, ω). Then its Fourier transform over x is defined as

¯ u(k, ω) =

∞ −∞

e−ikx u(x, t) d x,

(1.43)

and its inverse transform is ¯ u(x, ω) = 1 2π
∞ −∞

¯ eikx ∗ u(k, ω) dk .

(1.44)

Again note the sign conventions for the transform pair. This will remain the convention throughout the book. Moreover, note that u(x, t) = 1 4π 2
∞ −∞ ∞ −∞

¯ ei(kx−ωt)∗ u(k, ω) dω dk .

(1.45)

This shows that quite arbitrary disturbances can be decomposed into a sum of time-harmonic, plane waves and thereby indicates that the study of such waves is very central to the understanding of linear waves.

A minimum amount of analysis is used.48) 1 |λ| ∞ −∞ e−ik2π (x/λ) f (x) d x. Proposition 1. . Consider a function f (t) and its Fourier transform f¯(ω). Vibration and wave propagation can be explicitly linked by means of the Poisson summation formula.46) where λ is a parameter. especially for asymptotically approximating sums. then knowing the Fourier transform of each term enables us to use an approximation based on the fact that λ−1 is large. ϕ = ∞ ik2π x . 1].1. Consider the function ϕ(x) given by ϕ(x) = ∞ m =−∞ f [(m + x)λ]. and no attempt at rigorous proofs is made. We assume that f (t) is such that ϕ(x) has a Fourier series.47) where the sum converges uniformly on x ∈ [0.46) may converge only slowly for a small λ. If we want to approximate the left-hand side of (1. The conclusions are usually valid under more general conditions than those cited. f |λ| k =−∞ λ (1.3 A Wave Is Not a Vibration 1. This formula relates a series to one comprising its transformed terms. This formula might better be termed a transform and is quite useful. Proof. Restrictions on f (t) are given below.3 A Wave Is Not a Vibration 11 A continuous body vibrates when a system of standing waves is established within it.46) for λ that is small.1. Its kth Fourier coefficient equals k=−∞ ck e 1 0 e−ik2π x ϕ(x) d x = 0 1 ∞ m =−∞ e−ik2π x f [(m + x)λ] d x (m+1) m = = 2 ∞ m =−∞ e−ik2π x f (xλ) d x (1. The left-hand side of (1. (1. The function ϕ(x) has period 1. both here and elsewhere. The Poisson summation formula states that ∞ m=−∞ f (mλ) = 1 ∞ ¯ 2π k . 2 This proof follows that of de Bruijn (1970).

47) converges uniformly. These conditions are more restrictive than needed. t) = −T δ(t). among others.51) n =−∞ δ(t + x1 − 2k) − T ∞ k=0 δ(t − x1 − 2k). t) = ∂t u 1 (x1 . set cb and ρ = 1 (cb = E/ρ). where we have taken one of these terms. 1]. This is a very useful way to express the answer. One usually considers a solution in this form as a vibration. and assume that for t < 0.46) to each term.11).12 1 Simple Wave Solutions (m+t) e−ikx f (xλ)d x → 0 as m → ± ∞. 1 e−imπ [t−(1−x1 )] = (π |t + x1 − 2|)−1 cos mπ m =−∞ × =2 The outcome to our calculation is τ11 = T ∞ k=1 3 ∞ ∞ n =−∞ ∞ ∞ e −∞ 2n −iω 1− |t+x −2| 1 dω δ(|t + x1 − 2| − 2n). To find these interactions we apply the Poisson summation formula to (1.50) Thus the rod is filled with standing waves. as the sum (1. The crucial intermediate step is the following. we get3 τ11 = iTH(t) ∞ n =−∞ e−inπ t sin[nπ(1 − x1 )] . τ11 (1. uniformly in Note that the integral m x ∈ [0. cos(nπ) (1. (1. But the individual interactions with the ends have been obscured. The governing 2 equation is (1. .50). (1. t) = 0. (1. indicates that the Poisson summation formula holds for a far more general class of functions than assumed here. Break up the sin[nπ(1 − x1 )] term into exponential ones and apply (1.49) By using a Fourier transform over t and solving the boundary-value problem in x1 . Assume f 1 = 0. t) = 0. The boundary conditions are τ11 (0. Lighthill (1978). assuming the pulse has reverberated within the rod for a time long with respect to that needed for one echo from the far end to return to x = 0. Consider the impulsive excitation of a rod of finite length 1.52) The reader should check that this is the solution. u 1 (x1 .

4 Dispersive Propagation 13 This is a wave representation.1 An Isolated Interaction A basic interaction of a wave with its environment is scattering from a discontinuity.52) would have been awkward to work with if. experiencing only a finite number of interactions. (1.4. x1 > L . In contrast. L). mapping the unending oscillatory motion into a disturbance confined both temporally and spatially.55) . A vibration therefore is defined and confined by its environment.53) ¯ We shall not indicate the possible dependence on ω of u 1 unless this is needed. The equation of motion (1. A period of time. instead of deltafunction pulses. Consider time-harmonic disturbances of the form ¯ u 1 = u 1 (x1 )e−iωt . (1. Nevertheless. Understanding how an individual wave interacts with its environment and tracking it through each of its interactions constitute the principal problems of wave propagation. is needed for the environment to settle into a steady oscillatory motion. returning to its source perhaps only once.54) Assume there is a region of inhomogeneity within x1 ∈ (−L . However. It is the outcome of waves reverberating in a bounded body. A2 e −ikx1 x1 < −L . while one works frequently with time-harmonic propagating waves.1. It is very useful for times of the order of the echo time.4 Dispersive Propagation 1. 2 τ11 = ρcb ∂1 u 1 . one usually assumes that at some stage a Fourier synthesis will be carried out. then τ11 = T δ[(t − 1) + (x1 − 1)]. Moreover. 1. the representation captures quite accurately the physical phenomena of a pulse bouncing back and forth in a rod struck impulsively at one end. we had had pulses of sufficient length that they overlapped one another. We have thus isolated the pulse returning from its first reflection at the end x1 = 1. Continue to consider waves in a rod by using the longitudinal stress approximation. (1.11) becomes 2 ¯ ¯ d 2 u 1 /d x1 + k 2 u 1 = 0. k = ω/cb . Incident on this inhomogeneity is the wavefield ¯ u i1 (x1 ) = A1 eikx1 . a wave is a disturbance that propagates freely outward. . Moreover. if t ∈ (1. sometimes a long one. the representation is not very useful for t that is large because it becomes tedious to work out exactly at what reflection you are tracking the pulse. the representation (1. 2). For example.

(1. the rod does not break. We next consider a specific example. The left-hand figure shows a single. t). . the scattered wavefield ¯1 u s (x1 ) = B1 e−ikx1 . Imagine that the rod has a crosssectional area 1 and that the inhomogeneity is a point mass M.57) The matrix S is called a scattering matrix and characterizes the inhomogeneity. more compactly. embedded. with the zeroth mass at x 1 = 0. x1 > L . .1 indicates the geometry. The masses are labeled 0. One or more point masses M are embedded in a rod of cross-sectional area 1. (1. as B = SA.56) is excited. . point mass. Note that the scattered waves have been constructed so that they are outgoing from the scatterer. Upon striking the inhomogeneity. The left-hand figure in Fig. Setting tan θ = k M/2ρ. 2. t) + τ11 (0+ . but the acceleration of the mass causes the traction acting on the cross section to be discontinuous.60) 2 x1 0 L 2L x1 Fig. .59) That is.14 1 Simple Wave Solutions where we have allowed waves to be incident from both directions. (1. 1. 1.1. (1. The right-hand figure shows an endless periodic arrangement of embedded point masses. (1.58) = S11 S12 S21 S22 A1 A2 . t). π/2). . t) = u 1 (0+ . The conditions across the discontinuity are u 1 (0− . at x1 = 0. we calculate the matrix S to be S= sin θ ei(θ +π/2) cos θ eiθ 0 cos θeiθ sin θ ei(θ +π/2) 1 . B2 e ikx1 x1 < −L . 1. M∂t ∂t u 1 = −τ11 (0− . each separated by a distance L. with θ ∈ (0. The linearity of the problem suggests that we can write the scattered amplitudes in terms of the incident ones as B1 B2 or.

1.4 Dispersive Propagation

15

It is also of interest to relate the wave amplitudes on the right to those on the left. This matrix T, called the transmission matrix, gives R = TL, where L = [A1 , B1 ]T and R = [B2 , A2 ]T . The matrix T is readily calculated from S and is given by T= 1 + i tan θ −i tan θ i tan θ 1 − i tan θ . (1.61)

Note that the amplitudes A1 and B2 are those of right-propagating waves, while B1 and A2 are those of left-propagating ones. Problem 1.4 Scattering From a Layer Imagine a layer of width d and properties (ρ, c L ) embedded in a material ¯ ¯ with properties (ρ, c L ). Let the x1 axis be perpendicular to the face of the layer and place the origin at the left face, so that the layer occupies x1 ∈ (0, d). A wave of longitudinal strain Aeikx1 is incident from x1 < 0. Calculate the reflection coefficient B/A and the transmission coefficient C/A, where the reflected wave is Be−ikx1 and the transmitted one is Ceik(x1 −d) . Treat the waves in the layer as a sum of a single right and left propagating wave, each with different amplitudes, and imagine that the amplitudes contain the effects of all the multiple reflections from each side of the layer. Similarly B and C contain the effects of all the reflections and transmissions from the layer into the outer material. The wavenumber k = ω/c L . For what values of d is the reflection minimized? Can you identify any of the components of the S matrix for the layer in terms of these coefficients?

1.4.2 Periodic Structures One of the more interesting aspects of wave-bearing structures is that they often contain several length scales. Propagation in such a structure often can only take place if the angular frequency ω is linked to the wavenumber – a term we must define a bit more carefully here – in a nonlinear way. To consider this possibility we use the matrix T, (1.61), to analyze propagation in a periodic structure. We imagine an infinite rod, cross-sectional area 1, in which equal point masses, M, are periodically embedded. The right-hand figure of Fig. 1.1 indicates the geometry and the how the masses are labeled. One such mass has the nominal position x1 = 0 and is labeled n = 0. Each mass is separated from its neighbors by a distance L. A cell of length L is thereby formed and is labeled n if the nth mass occupies its left end. There are thus two length scales, the wavelength

16

1 Simple Wave Solutions

λ = 2π/k and the cell length L. In this problem we do not concern ourselves with how the waves are excited, but only with the simpler question, What waves does this structure support? Consider the zeroth cell, where x1 ∈ (0, L). Within that cell the solution to (1.54) is ¯ u 1 (x1 ) = R0 eikx1 + L 0 e−ikx1 . (1.62)

At x1 = L − the wavefield is [R0 eik L , L 0 e−ik L ]T . This can be written as L1 = PR0 , with R0 = [R0 , L 0 ]T . The matrix P is called the propagator or the propagation matrix and is given by P= eik L 0 0 . e−ik L (1.63)

At x1 = L + , within the 1th cell, the wavefield amplitudes R1 = [R1 , L 1 ]T are R1 = TPR0 . This relation is readily generalized. If Rn = [Rn , L n ]T , then Rn+1 = TPRn . (1.65) (1.64)

The central feature of the propagation structure is that it has translational symmetry. The central feature of the disturbance we seek is that its phase changes from cell to cell in a way that represents propagation. Specifically consider propagation to the right. To capture these two features, the wavefield at a point within the (n + 1)th cell can differ from that at a point within the nth cell, where the two points are separated by a distance L, by at most a multiplicative phase factor. This kinematic constraint is expressed by the relation Rn+1 = eiκ L Rn , (1.66)

where κ is unknown. κ is positive, if real, and such as to cause decay, if complex. Combining (1.65) and (1.66) gives a 2 × 2 system of algebraic equations that has a nontrivial solution if and only if det(TP − eiκ L I) = 0. (1.67)

Recalling our previous definition of tan θ = k M/2ρ, we can write this equation compactly as cos κ L = cos(k L + θ )/cos θ. (1.68)

1.4 Dispersive Propagation

17

This is a nonlinear relationship between the angular frequency ω = cb k and the effective wavenumber κ, though it may not be apparent, as yet, that κ (and not k) is the wavenumber of interest. Note that if κ L ∈ [−π, π ] is a solution, then κ L ± 2nπ, for n = 1, 2, . . . is also a solution. Accordingly, we need only consider κ L ∈ [−π, π]. The term κ L is real provided | cos κ L| ≤ 1. Therefore the boundaries between real and complex κ L are given by cos(k L + θ)/ cos θ = ±1. (1.69)

When +1 is taken, the solutions are sin(k L/2) = 0 or tan(k L/2) = − tan(θ). That is, k L = 2nπ or k L + 2θ = 2mπ, where n and m are integers. When −1 is taken, the solutions are cos(k L/2) = 0 or cot(k L/2) = tan(θ). That is, k L = (2n − 1)π or k L + 2θ = (2m − 1)π , where, again, n and m are integers. All these cases are covered by k L = nπ or k L + 2θ = mπ . For k L ∈ [(n − 1)π, (nπ − 2θ)], κ L is real. These intervals are called passbands. Elsewhere κ L is complex, causing the disturbance to decay as it propagates, and the intervals are called stopbands. At the lower boundary of a passband, L is an integer number of half-wavelengths. If T were real, then all the reflected waves add constructively and little or nothing is transmitted. The actual situation is complicated by the complex T, but the constructive interference of the reflected waves is the basic physical mechanism giving rise to the stopbands. This phenomenon is referred to as Bragg scattering. Consider the interval x1 ∈ (n L , (n + 1)L). Then ¯ u 1 (x1 ) = Rn eik(x1 −n L) + L n e−ik(x1 −n L) = eiκ L Rn−1 eik(x1 −n L) + L n−1 e−ik(x1 −n L) ¯ = eiκ L u 1 (x1 − L) (1.70)

¯ This equation is a restatement of (1.66). Further, it indicates that u 1 (x1 ) must ¯ ¯ satisfy the functional equation u 1 (x1 + L) = eiκ L u 1 (x1 ) if the kinematic constraint is to be enforced. Within each cell there are nominally two waves, as indicated in (1.70), that we call partial waves. However, we seek a solution for the wave globally propagating to the right along the structure, as distinguished from the right- and left-propagating partial waves in each cell. With this in mind, the solution to the functional equation is ¯ u 1 (x1 ) = eiκ x1 ϕ(x1 ), (1.71)

3rd ed. Mech. J. Comninou. 4 This is a partial statement of Floquet’s theorem (Friedman. New York: Wiley.68) indicates that ω is a function of κ. 1970. ϕ(x1 ) is a periodic function and can be ¯ represented by a Fourier series. it is clear that it is κ. Amsterdam: North-Holland. pp. J. Principles and Techniques of Applied Mathematics. A relation such as this is called a dispersion relation. Quart. If we excited the structure with a pulse. Friedman. 339–345. then the pulse would be composed of an infinite number of such components. Equation (1. Note that shifting κ L by ±2mπ would not change this expression. Therefore. References Achenbach.D. ω) propagates at a different speed for each ω. Hence what we have inferred is that dispersion can cause the distortion of or loss of information from a signal. Writing κ ¯ as ω/c(ω). Hudson. Each component would then propagate at its own speed and the pulse would become dispersed. de Bruijn. and Dundurs. Appl.. H. That is. whereas a sinusoid is not. Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids. B. 356: 509–528. Reflexion and refraction of elastic waves in the presence of separation.G. Lond. Amsterdam: North-Holland. R.18 1 Simple Wave Solutions where ϕ(x1 + L) = ϕ(x1 )4 .J. Helmholtz’s theorem when the domain is infinite and when the field has singular points.36). 1980. or κ a function of ω. u 1 (x1 ) becomes ¯ u 1 (x1 ) = ∞ −∞ cn ei x1 (κ−2π n/L) . 49:439–450. R. pp. Proc. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Atkin. More importantly. 1956.72) ¯ The time-harmonic wavefield u 1 (x1 )e−iωt is thus a consequence of an infinite number of space harmonics. We shall explore this topic further in Chapter 6. 65–67. Gregory. Asymptotic Methods in Analysis. whose coefficients are cn . A. 273–308. Unidirectional Wave Motions. we see that u 1 (x1 . An Introduction to the Theory of Elasticity. J. 1956). (1. Math. as indicated by (1. and a reader seeking to learn more may wish to read this work further. and Fox. N. through the term ei(κ x1 −ωt) . 52–56. and elsewhere. R. 1978. London: Longman. 1973. pp. There are many fascinating aspects to propagation in periodic structures. . that is the wavenumber. 1980. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves. 1977. M. N.A. A pulse is information. Cambridge: University Press. The discussion here has followed parts of Levine (1978). J.D. Soc.. 1996. Levine.

J. 182–196. Cambridge: University Press. The Fourier Integral and its Applications.C. 67–71. 1978. 11–27. New York: Chelsea. 85–86. 2nd ed. pp.References 19 Lighthill. Papoulis. Vector Analysis. pp. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1939..B. Fourier Analysis and Generalized Functions. Phillips. Methods Based on the Wiener-Hopf Technique. H. 1933. M. pp. E. 1962. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1988. pp. . A. The Theory of Functions. B. Noble. Titchmarsh. New York: Wiley.

when one writes little about how a wavefield is excited and concentrates primarily upon the geometrical description of a wavefield’s propagation. Accordingly. The equation s · x = t − C. it is reasonable to label this as such. is a parametric representation of a family of planes. As t is incremented.2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves Synopsis A wave equation is an equation of motion. (2. The normal to the plane is s. The present chapter describes the kinematics of waves in a propagation environment without boundaries. where each value of parameter t gives a different member of the family. it is then 1 The circumflex indicates a unit vector. where C is a constant. However. then x must be incremented along s if the argument t − s · x is to equal the constant C. t) = d u(t − s · x). 2. Setting s = s p so that p is the unit normal to each plane.1) ˆ where d is a constant unit vector1 called the polarization and s is a constant vector called the slowness. Descriptions of a plane wave are emphasized because they form a canonical kinematical object from which more complicated solutions can be constructed. The wave’s name then arises from this fact and the plane is called a ˆ ˆ wave front. u retains a constant value over each plane defined by t provided this plane advances along the normal s as t increases. The time is t and the position vector is x. Figure 2.1 Time-Dependent Plane Waves A time-dependent plane wave is one whose form is ˆ u(x. so that a study of its solutions is perhaps more than just the study of the kinematics. 20 .1 sketches this relationship.

ˆ ˆ p · d = 0. (2. The position vector x identifies a point on the plane.1) into the equation of motion. gives 2 c2 s(s · ∂t ∂t u) − cT s ∧ s ∧ ∂t ∂t u = ∂t ∂t u. where t is a parameter identifying a particular plane.5) Thus either ˆ ˆ u = du(t − p · x/c L ). or ˆ ˆ u = du(t − p · x/cT ).2.6) . A sketch of the plane wavefront s · x = t − C. (2. s(s · A) − s ∧ s ∧ A = s 2 A.4) s · u = 0. for any vector A.2) (2. L or 2 s 2 = 1/cT s ∧ u = 0.1. L (2.3) implies that either s 2 = 1/c2 . straightforward to find that ˆ p · d x/dt = 1/s. 2. (2. ˆ so that s −1 is the speed of advance of the plane along p. Substituting (2.3) Because. (2. (2. the slowness vector s is normal to the plane and hence gives its orientation.1 Time-Dependent Plane Waves x3 21 x s x2 x1 Fig.7) ˆ ˆ p ∧ d = 0.6). (1.

6) or (2. (2. For these two plane waves the velocity of energy transport. multiply by e−iωt and take the real part of the expression. Because p · p = 1. we may take p = pr + i pi . are given by (1. ˆ As indicated previously. The energy density is E = K + U.22 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves The first is a longitudinal wave with its polarization parallel to its direction of propagation. time-harmonic wave. Writing (2. .9) where I = L or T . (2. If pi = 0. while the second is a transverse wave with its polarization perpendicular to this direction. with pr and pi both ˆ ˆ real. the internal energy.26). and ω is assumed real and positive. The overbar is no longer used unless explicitly needed.11) In the previous chapter we distinguished a time-harmonic wave from a time-dependent one by using an overbar.10) where the amplitude A = |A|eiθ and the wavenumber k = ω/c.25). but because we are working with the temporal transform. Calculating F for (2. 2 (2. the kinetic energy. The e−iωt is not given.7) gives ˆ F I = ρc I (∂t u)2 p. assume that the time dependence is e−iωt or that the wavefield has been transformed over time.3. A time-harmonic plane wave has the form2 ˆ ˆ u = Adeik p·x . the plane wave is an inhomogeneous or evanescent one. 2. while if pi = 0. To recover a real. where K. and F I and E I are the corresponding flux and energy density. for the present. and U. it is homogeneous. For the present. The real and imaginary components are perpendicular to one another. This has some interesting implications for the form of the corresponding time-dependent plane wave that we shall explore in Section 3. The combiˆ nation k p = ωs is the wavevector. unless explicitly needed.2 Time-Harmonic Plane Waves In one sense. pr · pi = 0.8) where I = L or T and F I is the corresponding flux.10) in detail gives ˆ u = Ade−kx· pi eikx· pr . C. time-harmonic plane waves are only a particular case of a general plane wave. (2. is ˆ C I = F I /E I = c I p. we have ˆ the additional flexibility of allowing p to be complex. The flux of energy F is given by (1.

It can be shown by direct calculation that (Aeiη ) (B iη ) = 1 2 (AB ∗ ).10) into the equation of motion.17) where G(t) is a real periodic function of t with period T . 1/2 (2. Substituting (2.16) ˆ where η I = k I (x · p − c I t). (2. That is.14) In the second it is inhomogeneous: ˆ ˆ ˆ u = Ade−k αx2 eikx1 p1 . L (2.2. statements imply that d ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The symbol pi is the ith component of p. just as it did in (2. (2.6).2 Time-Harmonic Plane Waves 23 An inhomogeneous plane wave propagates in the pr direction. ˆ .3).18) where A and B are the complex amplitudes and η has the form given previously. The instantaneous value is of less interest than the average value over a period T (= 2π/ω). ˆ | p 1 | < 1. Note that these ˆ may also be complex. (2. (1. Calculating the instantaneous energy flux gives ˆ F I = ρc I ω2 (i Aeiη I ) (i Aeiη I ) p. | p 1 | > 1. The implications of allowing the vectors p and d to be complex lead to many interesting results. (2. or p · d = 0 and c = cT . we shall assume that p is real. This average is defined as G = 1 T t+T G(τ ) dτ. gives.15) ˆ ˆ ˆ Here α = −i p 2 . and I = L or T . ˆ p2 = ˆ1 1 − p2 ˆ1 i p2 − 1 1/2 .13) In the first case the wave is homogeneous: ˆ ˆ ˆ u = Adeik(x1 p1 +x2 p2 ) . ˆ Then p 2 may be real or imaginary. 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ c2 /c2 p( p · d) − cT /c2 p ∧ p ∧ d = d. ˆ For the remainder of the section. That such waves arise in practice will soon become apparent. . either p ∧ d = 0 and c = c L . but decays in the pi direction. t (2. many of which are discussed by Boulanger and Hayes (1993). Assume that p 3 = 0 and p 1 is real.12) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Thus.

20) We consider a signaling problem. Here. 2.18) to (2.15) gives.19) ˆ Show that F I = c I E I p and F I and E I are the corresponding flux and energy density.1 Carry out the calculation leading to (2.24 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves Problem 2. 2 Problem 2. When a time-harmonic disturbance is assumed. and give the result for an antiplane shear. cylindrical wave. upon constructing the outcome of an interaction of a plane wave with an obstacle. because it is more easily motivated by starting from a radiation problem. (2. these waves can also be constructed from collections of homogeneous and inhomogeneous plane waves. Gaussian beam and a compressional spherical wave.2 (2.15). but write c rather than the awkward cT .16) gives ˆ F I = 1 ρc I ω2 A A∗ p. However. linearity allows us to use it to construct the outcome of an interaction with the same obstacle by a more general wavefield. The clarity of the plane-wave spectral technique is well demonstrated by Clemmow (1966) through the description and solution of several electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering problems. in a region where there are no sources of excitation.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations Spherical and cylindrical waves can be constructed directly from solutions to the equations of motion in the corresponding coordinate systems.18). These representations are called plane-wave or angular-spectrum representations. This is a problem wherein the source is given as a function of time over an initial plane – in the present case it is given as a . 2.3. This last construction is taken up in Problem 4. We shall continue to use u 3 for the particle displacement. Applying (2. we construct an antiplane shear.1. A summary of this approach is given in an Appendix. The advantage of these representations is that. (1.1 A Gaussian Beam Consider an antiplane shear wave whose equation of motion is (1. ∂α ∂α u 3 + k 2 u 3 = 0.

23) Defining the branches of the radical k1 is very important. As x1 → ∞.20) and hence begun the discussion at this point. this wavefield will remain Gaussian in cross section but spreads as it propagates outward. we use (2. 2 (2.2. x2 ) = Ae−(x2 /b) . To find U . That is. This will be discussed in Section 3. . to infinity. The solution to (2. Therefore u 3 (x1 . 2 (2. 2 2 1/2 Abe−(k2 b/2) .26) We have succeeded in taking a rather general wavefield and expressing it as an integral over a set of plane waves.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations 25 time-harmonic function along the x2 axis – and the excited wavefield is allowed to propagate outward.21) where A is a complex amplitude and b is a parameter that measures the initial width of the wavefield.4. (k1 ) ≥ 0. the integral is one over both homogeneous and inhomogeneous. ∞). (2. (2. the equation of motion becomes 2 2 d 2∗ u 3 /d x1 + k1 ∗ u 3 = 0.22) where 2 k1 = k 2 − k2 1/2 . When the spatial Fourier transform over x2 is used.4. time harmonic. hence the name plane-wave representation and the descriptive term plane-wave spectra. At x1 = 0. u 3 (0. x2 ) = 1 2π ∞ −∞ U (k2 )ei(k1 x1 +k2 x2 ) dk2 . u 3 (x1 . While it will not be clear from what we do here. Note that k1 takes both real and imaginary values as k2 ranges over (−∞. we ask that the wave be outgoing (there are no sources at infinity). (2. (2.22) that satisfies the outgoing condition is ∗ u 3 = U (k2 )eik1 x1 . plane waves. (k1 ) ≥ 0. but for the present we do not need to know in detail where the branch cuts are placed.21) to write U (k2 ) = A =π Therefore.25) e−(k2 b/2) ei(k1 x1 +k2 x2 ) dk2 . x2 ) = bA 2π 1/2 ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ e−(x2 /b) e−ik2 x2 d x2 .24) Note that we could simply have asserted that this was a solution to (2. usually in only one direction.

For the moment consider x3 ≥ 0. For r > 0. k2 ) = A k ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ eikρ −i(k1 x1 +k2 x2 ) d x1 d x2 . The potential ϕ satisfies (2. The energy flux is proportional to r −2 balancing the increase in surface area of the spherical wavefront as the wave propagates outward. The equation governing ϕ is (1. Applying the condition at x3 = 0. both in the physical and in the transform . at x3 = 0.1. (1. (2. (2. Clearly its wavefront is spherical. (2.26 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves 2.27) is ϕ = A(eikr /kr ). (k3 ) ≥ 0.32) Integrals of this form are most readily evaluated by transforming the coordinates of the integrand to polar ones. The term k3 has been defined so that the wavefield is outgoing.21) becomes ∂ϕ 1 ∂ r2 2 ∂r r ∂r + k 2 ϕ = 0. gives ∗ ϕ(k1 .27). (2. (2.29). Rather than consider the wave excited by a compact source. For r = 0 a solution of (2. (2. Note that we have moved directly to the step represented previously by (2.30) . The 2 2 2 only spatial dependence is upon r = (x1 + x2 + x3 )1/2 . Set ρ = (x1 + x2 )1/2 . (k3 ) ≥ 0.28) where A is an amplitude that may be complex.21). we suggest a possible source for such a spherical. k2 )ei(k1 x1 +k2 x2 +k3 x3 ) dk1 dk2 .2 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a Spherical Wave Consider a spherically symmetric compressional wave such that the particle displacement u is described by ∇ϕ. In Section 4. we pose a sig2 2 naling problem.27). while. compressional wave.31) This is a solution to (2. The potential ϕ can be represented as ϕ= with 2 2 k3 = k 2 − k1 − k2 1/2 1 (2π)2 ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ∗ ϕ(k1 . Note 2. e ρ (2. Again we assume that the disturbance is time harmonic.3.24).27) where we have written c to replace c L and k = ω/c to replace k L .29) As x3 → ±∞ we ask that the wave be outgoing. ϕ = A(eikρ /kρ).3.

Each plane wave in the integrand has the form eik·x . Had we assumed x3 negative.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations space. (2.2. where k is the complex wavevector and x the position vector. κ = k sin ξ. . The integral in (2. is explained in Section 4. would have to be changed. k3 (2. The first.33) 2 2 where κ = (k1 + k2 )1/2 and ρ was given previously.37) There are two points in this calculation that have not been explained clearly.31). It serves to indicate again the centrality of plane waves as kinematical objects. (2. (2.3 It is possible to do still more with this representation. The transformations are k1 = κ cos ψ. why we can assume that eikρ → 0 as ρ → ∞. x1 = ρ cos θ. can be represented as an integral. it is possible to imagine that a spherical wave could be constructed from a bursting of wavevectors from some compact source region.34) Performing the integration gives ∗ ϕ = 2πi A/kk3 .31) and replacing x3 with its absolute value. It is therefore enough to identify each wavevector with two angles. taken over both homogeneous and inhomogeneous waves. The second. is explained in Section 3.31). x2 = ρ sin θ. sometimes called the Sommerfeld transformation. Note that x3 has been replaced with its absolute value so as to give a spherical wave over all space. (2. the spherical wave. Written this way.4. 27 (2. Again let us momentarily assume that x3 > 0. Therefore. how the branch of a radical such as k3 is determined.4. Consider the following transformation.4.36) This then is the plane-wave representation of a spherical wave. k2 = κ sin ψ.35) where k3 is given by (2. given by ϕ= iA 2πk ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ ei(k1 x1 +k2 x2 +k3 |x3 |) dk1 dk2 .28). 3 k3 = k cos ξ. The outcome of assuming both x3 negative and changing the branch of k3 that is taken is equivalent to retaining the definition of (2.32) can now be written as ∗ ϕ= A k 2π ∞ dθ 0 0 eiρ[k−κ cos(ψ−θ )] dρ. (2. then the definition of the branch of the function k3 . with each wavevector piercing a spherical surface.

it must be such that the integral is convergent and represents an outgoing wavefield. To keep (k3 ) ≥ 0 we must have ξi vary from 0 to −∞.38) is called an angular-spectrum representation and succinctly captures the image of a spherical wave as a burst of wavevectors. However. an outgoing cylindrical wave is described by the (1) Hankel function.39) The contour C begins at −η + i∞ and ends at η − i∞. The expression (2. Born and Wolf (1986) give a concise introduction to ray theory for electromagnetic waves. We are integrating in the complex ξ plane so that a strict adherence to this contour is not essential. Carefully changing the variables of integration in (2. so that κ varies from 0 to k and (k3 ) ≥ 0.1.38) Note that k3 has has been removed by this transformation.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion A much older way to represent waves is by using rays. while Achenbach et al. inhomogeneous waves are also needed. where η ∈ (0. But the integration over ξ is more complicated because ξ must vary over both real and complex values to capture the full range of κ. C (2. we hold ξr = π/2 and let ξi vary to either +∞ or −∞. so that κ varies from 0 to ∞. Sommerfeld (1964) describes how to represent this function as an angular spectrum and gives the result (1) H0 (kρ) = 1 π eikρ cos ξ dξ. The variables k1 and k2 both vary from −∞ to +∞. Note that to fully achieve the spherical wavefront. with ξr and ξi both real. To have κ continue to ∞. it is easier to work from the equation of motion with a line force than to try to pose a signaling problem. (2. k3 must satisfy (2. π). The integration with respect to ψ goes from 0 to 2π. This is done in Problem 4.31). 2. (1982) provide a detailed asymptotic development of .3 An Angular-Spectrum Representation of a Cylindrical Wave To achieve a plane-wave or angular-spectrum representation of a cylindrical wave.28 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves where κ was given previously. Let ξr vary from 0 to π/2 and keep ξi = 0. 2. as indicated in the Appendix.36) gives ϕ= iA 2πk 2π π/2−i∞ dψ 0 0 eik·x sin ξ dξ.3. Then sin(ξr +iξi ) = sin ξr cosh ξi +i cos ξr sinh ξi and cos(ξr +iξi ) = cos ξr cosh ξi − i sin ξr sinh ξi . but the contour must begin at zero and end somewhere near π/2−i∞. Let ξ = ξr + iξi . Further. H0 (kρ). Moreover.

by examining the representations (2. (2. that controlled by the wavenumber k. we assume that ϕ can be expanded as ϕ(x) ∼ eik[S(x)−ct] (ik)−α−1 ∞ n=0 (ik)−n An (x). This is the approach taken by Hudson (1980) for elastic waves. to the exponential to aid in our subsequent discussions. that we can synthesize the timedependent case from this construction. However. should we need to.39). equivalently. lurking in the background. it is straightforward to construct that for the vector potential ψ and hence that for the particle displacement u. two ways to approach ray descriptions. (2. We have added the e−iωt . then. 4 The word phase has a rather confused meaning in wave propagation.41).10). at least.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 29 elastic-wave ray theory. . When the word phase is used in this book. In writing this expression.41) where α < 1 is a positive number (the term raised to the power α is added for generality). we note the argument of the amplitude A makes a contribution to the exponential term of a plane wave. First. The two approaches are connected by the fact that a discontinuity in a wavefront engages predominantly the highfrequency components of the temporal Fourier transform (Lighthill. we are using two ideas. There are. we note that any surface can be approximated by its tangent planes and hence locally any wavefield will have a propagating part or phase4 that behaves as does that of a plane wave. Second. left examining the equation ∇ 2 ϕ + k 2 ϕ = 0. A wave is permitted to have a discontinuity at its wavefront and the kinematics of the discontinuity is developed. We are. We expect ray descriptions to be useful only when the wavelengths are small with respect to any other characteristic length in the propagation environment. with the assumption. it refers to this latter term. As a generalization of a plane wave. 2. The one presented next builds upon the time-harmonic plane wave. it is also possible to use the fact that hyperbolic equations permit discontinuities to be transported along their characteristics.38) and (2. k S(x). Looking back at (2. we note that the exponential.2. referring to (2.1 Compressional Wave We begin by working with the scalar potential ϕ. Knowing the representation for ϕ. and in a more general context by Whitham (1974). However. 1978). we should expect that the amplitude of a wave with a curved wavefront depends in some way on k or. so that k = ω/c. is also called the phase. This contribution is sometimes called the phase. where t is time. the wavelength λ = 2π/k.40) where we have again written c for c L .4.

This equation is called the eikonal equation. it is not good workmanship to expand in a parameter with a dimension because the measure of large or small remains too vague.30 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves Therefore. .1). (2. (2. we suppress the L unless explicitly needed. The solution of the eikonal equation gives a family of curves along which the amplitudes An are transported.43)– (2. Lastly. Collectively. just as we did following (2. it is reasonable that the amplitude can be expanded as an asymptotic power series5 in the principal parameter λ.44) These last two equations are called the transport equations.42) where the An with negative subscripts are zero.41) into (2. for A0 = 0. We define a wavefront.43). It is tangent to one of the curves found from solving (2. (2. We begin the expansion with k −α−1 so that the approximation for the particle displacement will start as k −α .45) (2. The set {(ik)−n } is linearly independent. however.43) Note that |∇ S| = 1. Rather than introduce an extra parameter. and that it is k L that is very large. and that the approximation becomes increasingly accurate as λ → 0 or k → ∞. ∇ S · ∇ S = 1.45) provide a recursive scheme whereby the solution to one equation gives the missing information needed for the solution to the next. Accordingly. 5 Holmes (1995) and Hinch (1991) provide useful starting points for the reader to learn more about asymptotic and perturbation methods. In the present case the reader should imagine that k is multiplied by a distance representing that between interactions. 2(∇ S · ∇)An−1 + (∇ 2 S)An−1 = −∇ 2 An−2 . call it L. At n = 1 we have 2(∇ S · ∇)A0 + (∇ 2 S)A0 = 0. and.40) gives ∞ n=0 (∇ S · ∇ S − 1)An + [2(∇ S · ∇)An−1 + ∇ 2 S An−1 ] + ∇ 2 An−2 (ik)−(n−1) = 0. for n > 1. or equivalently k −1 . (2. We define a ray as the vector k∇ S. Substituting (2.

1990) give an interesting example of caustic formation in elastic materials. where t is a parameter giving each member of the family and C is a constant.47) to obtain s(x) and q(x) gives the equation for a wavefront as S(x) = s(x) + S(x 0 ). we imagine that x does not depend on q and suppress any reference to it until we need it. requires some substantial modification in these cases. q). . 2. by the implicit function theorem.41) becomes disordered. though their asymptotic analysis starts from integral representations. q2 ) constitute a coordinate system on the initial wavefront and define the point at which the ray is launched at t = t0 . where s(x) = c(t − t0 )6 . ˆ Direct differentiation and using (2.46) ˆ ˆ Setting p = ∇ S. Choi and Harris (1989.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 31 as the family of surfaces S(x) = ct + C. We have assumed that the equation for each curve x(s) can be inverted to give s as a function of x.43). (2. where t0 is an initial time.43) is p · ∇ S.2 we have sketched some aspects of the construction. while qualitatively correct for anisotropic or inhomogeneous materials.47) In Fig. Thus S(x) = s(x) + ct0 . To solve (2. Both these equations are assumed known or given.47). The vector x 0 (q) is the starting point for a ray identified by q on the initial wavefront S(x 0 ) = ct0 . We do not at present know x(s). we see that the left-hand side of (2. while q indicates each member of the family. q) define a family of curves that are orthogonal to each surface S(x) = ct + C. the expansion (2. (2. For the moment. Therefore the curves are straight lines whose equations are ˆ x(s. The variable s defines the arclength along the curve. d x/ds = ∇ S. By definition. In the neighborhood of these surfaces.43) indicate that d p/ds = 0 along a curve x(s. which is nothing more than the directional derivative d S/ds. 6 Note that this description of the rays.2. The components of the vector q = (q1 . Recall that (2. q) and pierce each wavefront perpendicularly. The rays propagate along and are tangent to x(s. let x(s. q) = x 0 (q) + s p(q). rather than ray expansions. Inverting (2. Surfaces at which this Jacobian vanishes are called caustics. where we have reinserted the q to indicate that we are now considering a family (a pencil) of such curves. is locally invertible if the Jacobian does not vanish.

Moreover. [(ρ01 + s)(ρ02 + s)]1/2 (2. (2. 2. 7 The difference in sign from that in Weatherburn arises because of how we have defined the signs of the radii of curvature. A ray is launched in a direction normal to an initial wavefront S(x 0 ) from the point q on S(x 0 ).49). (2. ds 2 ρ01 + s ρ02 + s This is a differential equation along each ray q. It is a straight line. The starting point of the ray is ˆ ˆ x 0 (q). it pierces the wavefront S(x). again in a normal direction. can be written as 1 1 1 dA0 + + A0 = 0. If the wavefront is contracting. and the normal to the surface points in the direction of expansion. . where p is a unit vector pointing along (tangent to) the ray Weatherburn (1939)7 shows that ∇ 2 S = 1/ρ1 + 1/ρ2 . the first transport equation. q) x0(q) ˆ sp S(x) q S(x0) Fig. If a wavefront is expanding. q) = x 0 (q) + s p. Accordingly. and its present position is x(s. ρ1 = ρ01 + s and ρ2 = ρ02 + s. its radii of curvature are positive. namely that of contraction. but the normal continues to point in the direction of propagation. because s is the distance along the straight lines orthogonal to each surface.2. After propagating a distance s along this line. These radii take a sign.50) (2.32 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves x(s.48) where ρ1 and ρ2 are the principal radii of curvature of the surface S(x) = s(x) + S(x 0 ). the radii of curvature are negative. where the ρ0i are the radii of curvature of the initial surface S(x 0 ) = ct0 . Its solution is A0 = A(q) .49) where A(q) is assumed to be given.

49). and whose amplitude decays geometrically such as to conserve energy (Problem 2. Interestingly. the tangent vector to the curve being a ray. (ik L )α [(ρ01 + s)(ρ02 + s)]1/2 (2. Provided we do not seek terms beyond the leading one.50). in which case our asymptotic approximation is no longer accurate. This is a remarkable expression. (2. Problem 2. to leading order. This happens on the caustic surfaces mentioned previously. The power α must also be given. Lastly. If conservation of energy were our only goal. note that the polarization of the leading-order term (2. The A0 can be complex and the solution to (2. 2. It captures our intuitive notions of a wave as an object whose phase steadily increases as we move along a curve. this equation establishes more than just the conservation of time-averaged energy.2 Shear Wave Next we consider a shear wave. (2.52) Integrate this over a tube formed from rays and. gives. by multiplying through by A0 . that the first transport equation. uL ∼ ˆ p A L (q) eik L [s(x)−cL (t−t0 )] .4 Conservation of Energy in a Ray Tube Show. The vector potential ψ is written as ψ(x) ∼ eikT [S(x)−cT t] (ik T )−α−1 ∞ n=0 (ik T )−n An (x). but this does not preclude the possibility that the higher-order terms could have different polarizations.54) . typically as part of the initial data for the problem. 0 (2. Recall that ∇ · ψ = 0. for an infinitesimal cross section. this implies that A0 · ∇ S = 0. Note also that the denominator may vanish. deduce the result.2.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion 33 Collecting the various pieces and noting that the compressional component of the particle displacement u L = ∇ϕ. (2. we should consider ∇ · (∇ S A0 A∗ ) = 0.53) where k T = ω/cT .51) is that of a longitudinal wave.4.4).51) where we have put back the subscript L to indicate that we have calculated the compressional component. The 0 reader is encouraged to do so. (2. can be written as ∇ · ∇ S A2 = 0.52) gives both its magnitude and its argument.

59) (2. A0 V d T H and A0 H d T V . Let us assume that there is only an . r cL (2.55) At this point the analysis given in the previous section applies to each component of A0 . the shear particle displacement is uI ∼ χ I d I A I (q) α [(ρ + s)(ρ (ik T ) 01 02 ˆ eikT [s(x)−cT (t−t0 )] . to leading order. the polarization can change as one proceeds to the higher-order terms. Hence. To begin. (2. we consider a wavefield whose only dependence is upon the radial coordinate r and whose only component of particle displacement u is in the radial direction.58) where f and g are arbitrary functions.34 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves The kinematic analysis here will be identical to that of the previous section so ˆ that p = ∇ S gives the direction of the rays. We select the unit vectors d I so that ˆ ˆ ˆ p ∧ dT V = dT H . The equation of motion becomes 2 ∂u 1 ∂ 2u 2u ∂ 2u + − 2 = 2 2. It takes the presence of a source or boundary to couple the waves together. The first term represents an outgoing wave and the second an incoming one. As with the compressional wave. we find that this equation reduces to 1 ∂ 2 (r ϕ) ∂ 2 (r ϕ) = 2 . Setting u = ∂ϕ/∂r . (2. Note that the radii of curvature ρ0i are different for the two wave types (2.56). ∂r 2 c L ∂t 2 and its solution is ϕ(r.56) + s)]1/2 where χ I = ∓1 as I = T H.51) and (2. ∂r 2 r ∂r r c L ∂t (2. t) = r 1 f t− r cL r 1 + g t+ . Appendix: Spherical and Cylindrical Waves The following is a summary of information about spherical and cylindrical waves.57) Such a wavefield could be excited by a uniformly pressurized spherical cavity. We find that. A0 will be orthogonal to p and have two linearly independent T ˆ T ˆ ˆ components. T V . which propagate along straight ˆ lines.

on the walls of a cylindrical cavity. θ direction.63) (2. a displacement in the angular. solely in the θ direction. We use a cylindrical coordinate system to describe it. and Wolf. (2. and Hayes.D. 77–88. Boston: Pitman. Note that the particle displacement u = ∂ϕ/∂r so that there are both r −1 and r −2 terms. Ray Methods for Waves in Elastic Solids. r 35 (2. The equation of motion is v 1 ∂v 1 ∂ 2v ∂ 2v − 2 = 2 2. 1986. + ∂ρ 2 ρ ∂ρ ρ cT ∂t (2. Boulanger.K.64) where the plus sign goes with the 1 and the minus sign with the 2.. pp. we get ¯ ¯ 1 ∂ ψ3 ∂ 2 ψ3 2 ¯ + + k T ψ 3 = 0. Born.2) solutions.. pp. References Achenbach. New York: Chapman and Hall.62) This is Bessel’s equation of order zero and has. Ph. Oxford: Pergamon.. 1982. The only component of particle displacement is v. E. There is no dependence on x3 . as two of its linearly independent (1. = 2 2 ρ ∂ρ cT ∂t 2 ∂ρ Taking the temporal transform. we find that this equation reduces to 1 ∂ψ3 1 ∂ 2 ψ3 ∂ 2 ψ3 + . we see that H0 (k T ρ) represents an outgoing wave and H0 (k T ρ) an incoming one. The asymptotic behavior of these functions is (1. M. Next we consider inplane. .61) Such a wavefield could be excited by a traction. Recall that the particle displacement is v = −∂ψ3 /∂ρ. Setting v = −∂ψ3 /∂ρ. 6th (corrected) ed. Bivectors and Waves in Mechanics and Optics. M. Then we get ϕ= ¯ f¯ (ω) ik L r e . the Hankel functions H0 (k T ρ).28). J. 2 ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ (2. H. A. k T ρ → ∞. and McMaken. The only dependence is upon the polar.60) in agreement with (2. 109–127. rotary shear motion. From this (1) (2) behavior. Gautesen. Principles of Optics.2) H0 (k T ρ) ∼ (2/πk T ρ)1/2 e±i(kT ρ−π/4) .References outgoing wave and take its temporal transform. radial coordinate ρ. 1993.

A. Clemmow. pp. Lectures on Theoretical Physics. 1939. Hinch.G. VI. 1980. G. J. Weatherburn.C. Fourier Analysis and Generalized Functions. and Harris. H.G. J.C.J. New York: Cambridge Sommerfeld. Oxford: Pergamon. Vol. A. The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields.E. Lighthill. M. New York: Cambridge. Whitham. Perturbation Methods. 1964. 46–57.36 2 Kinematical Descriptions of Waves Choi. Wave Motion 12: 497–511.C.B. New York: Wiley-Interscience. Holmes. Choi. pp. P. 1974. Straus. Cambridge: University Press. Wave Motion 11: 383–406. Scattering of an ultrasonic beam from a curved interface. J.G. Hudson. 1966. M. New York: Academic. Translated by E. 1. 1995. pp. Introduction to Perturbation Methods. and Harris. 1990. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves. C. Cambridge: University Press. Linear and Nonlinear Waves. New York: Springer. 225–227. 1991. Vol. E. 84–101.J. . Differential Geometry of Three Dimensions. Focusing of an ultrasonic beam by a curved interface.H. 1989. H. Partial Differential Equations in Physics. 1978.

36) will carry the resulting expressions into corresponding time-dependent ones. Refraction. we discuss how branches of the function (k 2 − z 2 )1/2 . in many cases. 37 (3. a traction-free elastic surface is special in that a wave can be excited on such a surface and not require an interior wavefield to sustain it. (3. and Interfacial Waves Synopsis Chapter 3 describes reflection and refraction at an interface between two materials having different densities and wavespeeds.3 Reflection. which describes both the polarization of the wave and its direction of propagation.1 Reflection of a Compressional Plane Wave We consider a longitudinal or compressional plane wave incident to a tractionfree surface. while decaying perpendicularly away from it. Further. Figure 3.1) ˆ where the unit vector p 0 . These waves. are selected and how these selections manifest themselves in the physical domain.2) . However. The incident wave u0 is described by ˆ ˆ u0 = A0 p 0 eik L p0 ·x .1 indicates the geometry of the problem along with a schematic representation of the interaction. but suppress the e−iωt unless it is explicitly needed. must be continuously renewed from a wavefield in the interior of one or both the materials to sustain their propagation. we assume that the disturbance is time harmonic. Extending this connection. 3. as we have previously noted. where z is the complex variable and k a parameter. is given by ˆ ˆ ˆ p 0 = sin θ0 e1 + cos θ0 e2 . Moreover. We do so knowing that using (1. the chapter describes waves that propagate along an interface. There is an intimate relation between the topography of the complex wavenumber plane and the physical manifestation of the propagating wavefield.

Any wavefield that penetrates a shadowed region is a diffracted one. 3. Refraction.3) ˆ where the vector p 1 is given by ˆ ˆ ˆ p 1 = sin θ1 e1 − cos θ1 e2 . 1 (3. . Therefore any waves excited at the boundary must also be inplane. ˆ The angle θ0 is indicated in Fig. The amplitude A0 is real and positive. it is reflected. 3. (3. A compressional plane wave is incident to the surface in the ˆ direction p 0 . because both wave types can have matching phase components along the surface.38 3 Reflection. The reflected shear wave is described by ˆ ˆ u2 = A2 d 2 eikT p2 ·x . As in previous work. otherwise. and Interfacial Waves Fig.4) (3. and the ei are the unit vectors along the xi axes (i = 1. The reflected compressional wave is described by ˆ ˆ u1 = A1 p 1 eik L p1 ·x . k L = ω/c L .6) I use the phrase scattered wave or scattered wavefield to describe almost any disturbance that is returned from or perturbed by an obstacle struck by an incident wave. the scattered wavefields generally break into reflected and diffracted ones. Further.1. (3. When the obstacle is impenetrable. the incident wave is plane so that it imposes a projection of its phase everywhere on the surface. The elastic solid fills the x2 < 0 half-space.1. 2). The incident polarization has no antiplane component. The surface is free of tractions. while x2 > 0 is a vacuum.5) where the propagation direction is given by ˆ ˆ ˆ p 2 = sin θ2 e1 − cos θ2 e2 . We therefore expect both compressional and shear plane waves to be reflected1 from the boundary.

ˆ s 1 = p 1 /c L . The surface is translationally invariant and the disturbance at one point differs from that at another only by an exponential phase term that indicates propagation. that the wavespeeds along the surface be identical. because ω is common to all the k I . Auld (1990) gives an account of these surfaces and of their use in determining phase-matching. something physically interesting will happen. rather than a kinetic one. This can happen only if θ0 = θ1 and s L sin θ0 = sT sin θ2 . 3.1 defines the angles θ1 and θ2 . The amplitudes A1 and A2 may be complex. Note that both reflected waves propagate away from the surface.1.1 Reflection of a Compressional Plane Wave but the polarization direction by ˆ ˆ ˆ d 2 = e3 ∧ p 2 . In fact it is a kinematical condition. And as in previous work. . In the 2 Slowness surfaces for isotropic materials are always spheres (circles really. The phase-matching condition is stated as the condition that the s1 components of each slowness vector must be equal. equivalently. These two conditions I are called the phase-matching condition.2 as the parameter θ0 is varied through 2π . Direct application of these boundary conditions can be tedious.9) The tip of each slowness vector describes a circle. but for anisotropic materials they can become very elaborate indeed.” Phase matching is nothing more than a demand that the projections. where s I = c−1 is the slowness.3. Phase matching is a fundamental principle of linear wave propagation. However. ˆ s 2 = p 2 /cT .8) This condition must hold for all x1 . 3. This is shown in Fig. We define the slowness vectors ˆ s 0 = p 0 /c L .66). and. because only two dimensions are involved).1 Phase Matching The boundary conditions at x2 = 0 are that τ22 = τ21 = 0. There is a very useful diagram that geometrically represents the phasematching condition. Also note that the polarization of the reflected ˆ ˆ ˆ shear wave is chosen so that p 2 ∧ d 2 = e3 . in this case to the right. This is a similar condition to that used to derive (1. a slowness surface. of the various wavelengths be equal or. k T = ω/cT . The phrase phase-matching is often used as a verb in the sense that “the reflected waves phase match to the incident one. We have indicated this by the vertical dashed line. on the surface x2 = 0. (3.2. (3. whenever it occurs.7) Figure 3. 39 (3. a little thought indicates that they must take the form (· · ·)A0 eik L sin θ0 x1 + (· · ·)A1 eik L sin θ1 x1 + (· · ·)A2 eikT sin θ2 x1 = 0.

13) .40 3 Reflection.2.11) These terms must be supplemented with the condition s L sin θ0 = sT sin θ2 . θ2 must be real and less than π/2. even in the limit that θ0 = π/2.2 Reflection Coefficients Problem 3. For many materials. 3. Refraction. When this is done the reader will find that R L (θ0 ) = A− (θ0 )/A+ (θ0 ). (3. The slowness surfaces for an isotropic elastic solid. RT (θ0 ) = 2κ sin 2θ0 cos 2θ2 /A+ (θ0 ). κ is close to 31/2 . The auxiliary functions are A∓ = sin 2θ0 sin 2θ2 ∓ κ 2 cos2 2θ2 .12) (3. (3. for real θ0 .1 asks the reader to calculate the longitudinal or compressional reflection coefficient R L (θ0 ) = A1 /A0 and the transverse or shear reflection coefficient RT (θ0 ) = A2 /A0 . where ν is Poisson’s ratio.1.10) (3. and Interfacial Waves s2 s0 s1 s1 s2 Fig. case we are examining here. The phase-matching condition is indicated geometrically by demanding that the horizontal components (projections on the surface x2 = 0) of the slowness vectors be equal. The term κ = c L /cT is given by κ = [2(1 − ν)/(1 − 2ν)]1/2 . 3.

3. Hence deduce (3. we replace cT .2 Conservation of Energy Show that the power flux into the surface equals that away from it. k. these reflection coefficients have no frequency dependence and hence can be used both for time-harmonic and time-dependent plane waves. we treat only one other. To simplify the notation.1 Reflection Coefficients Show that applying the boundary condition τ22 = 0 leads to λ + 2µ cos2 θ0 (A1 /A0 ) − κµ sin 2θ2 (A2 /A0 ) = − λ + 2µ cos2 θ0 . That is. (3. κ cos θ0 (3. k T and similarly labeled symbols by c. show that |R L |2 + |RT |2 cos θ2 = 1. Problem 3. namely the reflection and refraction of an antiplane shear wave at the interface between two contrasting materials.2 Reflection and Refraction We consider a plane.2 Reflection and Refraction 41 Note that.16) (3.10)–(3.3. Problem 3. It is clear that only an antiplane particle displacement can be excited at the interface by an .14) and that applying the condition τ21 = 0 leads to −µ sin 2θ0 (A1 /A0 ) − κµ cos 2θ2 (A2 /A0 ) = −µ sin 2θ0 . antiplane shear wave incident to an interface between two materials that are in welded contact. and so on.15) Hint.12). While there are several other problems of this general kind that could be considered. The calculation becomes straightforward once the reader realizes that he or she must be careful to use the same element of area at the surface to calculate both the flux into the surface and that away from it. provided θ0 is real. In this case both the traction and the particle displacement are continuous across the interface.

and the 0 that the wave is incident.2). The reflected wave. while in the x2 > 0 half-space the density is ρ.17) where the subscript 3 indicates the component and therefore the polarization.3.18) with its propagation direction given by (3. (3.42 3 Reflection. and Interfacial Waves Fig. Figure 3. antiplane shear wave is ¯ ¯ ¯ ˆ incident to the surface in the direction p 0 . incident wave with an antiplane polarization. so that the scattered waves must also be similarly polarized. the elastic ¯ ¯ shear modulus µ. The incident direction is given by (3.4). and the wavespeed c = (µ/ρ)1/2 . Refraction. ¯ (3.20) . and the wavespeed c = (µ/ρ)1/2 . (3. 3. The incident wave is described by ˆ u 30 = A0 eik p·x . is described by ˆ u 32 = A2 ei k p2 ·x . indicated by the additional subscript 2. is described by ˆ u 31 = A1 eik p·x .3 indicates the various angles. In the x2 < 0 half-space the density is ρ. A plane. The wave that is transmitted across the interface is said to be refracted.19) with its propagation direction given by ˆ ˆ ˆ p 2 = sin θ2 e1 + cos θ2 e2 . the elastic shear modulus µ. indicated with the additional subscript 1. (3. The refracted wave.

3. and the right the opposite one. The two possible cases are shown. the slowness diagrams indicate the occurrence of critical refraction. equivalently s < s.3 and the lower for the material of the lower half-space. More importantly. The left-hand side ¯ indicates the case c > c. the critical angle of incidence is θ0c . In principle the reverse can also occur. This gives rise to an inhomogeneous plane wave in the upper material but to no time-average flux of energy across the interface.4 the slowness surfaces for the two materials are arranged vertically in a pattern corresponding with the positions of the half-spaces in Fig. In Fig.2 Reflection and Refraction s2 s2 43 s1 s1 s2 s2 s1 s1 Fig. This wave.3.3. 3. The phase-matching condition is indicated by the dashed vertical lines. For ¯ ¯ the case c > c or. . as the solution to Problem 3. 3. The left-hand side indicates that when the upper material is faster and the right-hand side that when it is slower. is propelled along it by the waves in the lower material.4. This occurs when a wave incident to the interface from the slower material excites a wave skimming along the interface in the faster material. θ0 = θ1 and s sin θ2 = s sin θ0 . Of course θ0 can be greater than θ0c . Phase matching demands that the s1 components of the slowness vectors be equal. The upper slowness surface is that for the material of the upper half-space in Fig. that ¯ is. in which case θ2 must be complex to satisfy the phase-matching condition. clinging to the interface.4 indicates. ¯ where s sin θ0c = s . 3.

reflection coefficient R(θ0 ) and the antiplane shear. The reader may be surprised by the large number of occurrences of critical reflection and refraction. critical phenomena occur frequently in elastic-wave scattering. ¯ ¯ (3. T (θ0 ) = 2 cos θ0 /C+ (θ0 ). Problem 3. interesting wave processes occur.21) (3. refraction or transmission coefficient T (θ0 ). namely R(θ0 ) = C− (θ0 )/C+ (θ0 ).3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves Our discussion of critical refraction indicates that we do not need to consider the angle of refraction as real. In this case sin θ2 = cosh β and cos θ2 = ∓i sinh β. Critical reflection. of the slowness surfaces for inplane motion. as Problem 3.22) 3. Draw diagrams. We must then regard reflection and transmission coefficients as functions of a complex variable. Let us continue to consider the problem of Section 3.44 3 Reflection. we find that the particle displacement in x2 > 0 becomes u 32 = |T (θ0 )|e−iϕ e±k sinh βx2 ei k cosh βx1 . To find its form we set θ2 = π/2 ± iβ. implying that R(θ0 ) = e−i2ϕ and T (θ0 ) = |T (θ0 )|e−iϕ .23) (3.2 and work with the ¯ case of c > c.3 Slowness Surfaces Figure 3. where β is real and positive. 3. θ2 must be complex to permit sin θ2 > 1. In fact.21)–(3. we shall find in Chapters 5 and 6 that where the complex plane is punctured by the poles or cut by the branches of these coefficients. The auxiliary functions are ¯ c C∓ = cos θ0 ∓ (µc/µ¯ ) cos θ2 . analogously to critical refraction. (3. Consider both an incident compressional plane wave and inplane shear one. Moreover. and Interfacial Waves Applying the continuity of traction and particle displacement at the interface gives the antiplane shear. Consider all the possibilities for critical reflection and critical refraction. Here ϕ is the argument of C+ (θ0 ).24) . Setting A0 = 1.23) and note that |R(θ0 )| = 1. arises when a wave skimming along the interface or surface of a material is excited by a slower wave incident to the interface from the same material. Refraction. Next we look back at (3. When θ0 > θ0c .4 shows how we can place slowness surfaces above one another to work out the phase-matching conditions and the various critical angles. similar to Fig.3 has indicated.4.

26) T (θ0 ) = |T (θ0 )|e−iϕ sgnω . It was to handle such situations that we rewrote the inverse temporal Fourier transform in the form of (1. −1. we must select θ2 = π/2 − iβ to ensure that the wavefield decays as x2 → ∞.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves 45 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ where p 2 has been written in full as p 2 = cosh β e1 ∓ i sinh β e2 .27) Thus there is no flux of energy to x2 → ∞ and energy is continually returned to the slower material. Assuming ¯ that k is positive. When critical refraction takes place there is a frequency dependence that distorts how a pulse reflects and refracts.36). When θ0 < θ0c the reflection and transmission coefficients have no frequency dependence and therefore a plane pulse reflects and refracts exactly as a timeharmonic. The argument ϕ is determined when ω is positive. (3. (3.3. However. In choosing the minus sign we assumed that k and thus ω was positive. namely ˆ u 30 (t − p 0 · x/c) = 3 1 π ∞ 0 ˆ A0 (ω) e−iω(t− p0 ·x/c) dω. show that the time-average flux of energy in x2 > 0 is given by ˆ ¯ ¯ F = 1 µωk|T (θ0 )|2 e−2k sgnω sinh β x2 cosh β e1 . ¯ There remains one subtle point. (3. this particular frequency dependence is rather interesting because it depends only on the sign of ω. Problem 3. 2 ¯ (3. note that the wave would not exist unless a plane wave were continuously incident to the interface from x2 < 0 sustaining it. where sgn ω = 1. plane wave.24) is an example of both an inhomogeneous plane wave and of a wave that clings to the interface. . ω < 0. Therefore.28) This argument has been taken from Friedlander (1947). we must write R(θ0 ) = e−i2ϕ sgnω .25) to take account of this ω dependence. We call the wave an interfacial one. If ω were negative then we must choose θ2 = π/2 + iβ to ensure decay. Thus (3. Moreover. when θ0 ≥ θ0c .4 Flux of Energy in the Upper Material For the case of critical refraction. To explore this further3 we construct an incident plane-wave pulse. ω > 0.

and Interfacial Waves where we have used the fact that A0 (ω) = A∗ (−ω) because u 30 is real. π t (3. To make this a little more concrete we examine an incident pulse of the form u 30 (t) = H (t)− H (t −a).46 3 Reflection. (3.32) The incident pulse is reflected with a diminished amplitude and a new pulse has been excited. but can now be an arbitrary amplitude with a frequency dependence. The refracted pulse is rather more complicated.34) a−t 1 ln . The function v is called the allied function (Titchmarsh. From the linearity of the problem it follows that the reflected pulse is given by ˆ u 31 (t − p 1 · x/c) = 1 π ∞ 0 ∞ 0 ˆ A0 (ω)e−i2ϕ e−iω(t− p1 ·x/c) dω. Its allied function is v(t) = The reflected pulse then becomes ˆ ˆ u 31 (t − p 1 · x/c) = cos 2ϕ u 30 (t − p 1 · x/c) + sin 2ϕ ˆ t − a − p 1 · x/c 1 ln .29) while the refracted pulse is given by u 32 (x. . A0 (ω) is 0 no longer simply a positive real constant. where H (t) is the Heaviside function and a measures the length of the pulse.31) where ˆ v(t − p 1 · x/c) = 1 π ∞ 0 ˆ A0 (ω) e−iω(t− p1 ·x/c) dω.33) Note that the second pulse is present for all time and appears to arrive before the incident pulse. ˆ π t − p 1 · x/c (3. (3. Refraction. This is an example of a two-sided wave. (3.30) The reflected pulse retains many of the features of the incident pulse and most importantly the argument indicating that the wave is plane. It cannot exist alone and must be part of a more extended disturbance. 1948). (3. We rewrite the reflected pulse in the form ˆ ˆ ˆ u 31 (t − p 1 · x/c) = cos 2ϕ u 30 (t − p 1 · x/c) + sin 2ϕ v(t − p 1 · x/c). t) = |T (θ0 )| 1 π c c A0 (ω)e−iϕ e−ωx2 sinh β/¯ e−iω(t−x1 cosh β/¯ ) dω.

However.3. The origin of this phenomenon is the cos θ2 in the expressions for C∓ . therefore. at the interface and must somehow satisfy the boundary condition.34). the second term in (3.36) τ λ − tan−1 τ −a λ . Critical refraction. It does so by shedding a reflected pulse into the slower material that appears before the incident one arrives. plane acoustic wave from a thin elastic plate. (3. 3.23). Problem 3. while the time-harmonic disturbance decays exponentially. t) = |T (θ0 )| 1 π cos ϕ tan−1 + where c τ = t − x1 cosh β/¯ . the region near the interface. or.5 Reflection of an Acoustic Wave from a Plate Consider the reflection of a time harmonic. c (3. the incident pulse excites a disturbance in the faster material. Moreover. We assume that the fluid has no viscosity so that the incident acoustic wave excites predominantly flexural motions in the thin plate. Moreover. as the distance from the interface increases. of the incident pulse.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves 47 To explain this anomalous behavior we must consider the transmitted pulse. The refracted pulse continually reradiates into the slower. lower material. u 32 decays as 1/x2 rather than ¯ as e−kx2 sinh β . Therefore the precursor in the upper material gets ahead of the trace of the wavefront. the main disturbance ¯ moves along the interface at c/ cosh β = c/ sin θ0 . once we recall that the upper material is faster than the lower and that the incident plane pulse has been exciting the upper material from t → −∞. then in fact the phenomenon arises from the definition of the branch of the ¯ ¯ function (k 2 − z 2 )1/2 (= k cos θ2 ) that appears in the reflection and transmission coefficients. and reflection.3.35) (τ − a)2 + λ2 1 sin ϕ ln 2 τ 2 + λ2 Clearly the refracted pulse is also two sided and present for all time. no energy is permanently carried into the upper material. (3. manifest themselves as branch cuts in the complex plane. we assume that the fluid below the plate is sufficiently dense that the elastic . It is also interesting to note that. ¯ This disturbance propagates along the interface at c and fills the whole upper material. Carrying out the necessary integrations gives u 32 (x. at least. This is not as anomalous as it might at first appear. At the far left. so that the pulse decays algebraically. c But cos θ2 = [1 − (¯ /c)2 sin2 θ0 ]1/2 . If we regard (ω/c) sin θ0 as a complex variable z. λ = x2 sinh β/¯ . at x1 → −∞ (θ0 > 0) in Fig.

h. Water and air.4 The Rayleigh Wave We have seen that critical refraction produces a wave in the faster material that clings to the interface. The density of the fluid is ρ.38) where k 4 = ω2 ρ p h/D. Speculate about the form of a reflected pulse. strikes the plate and is reflected.37) where ϕ is the velocity potential. 3. the particle displacement is continuous so that −iωw(x1 . incident from the fluid. and a time dependence of the form e−iωt is assumed but suppressed. The pressure p = iωρϕ and the particle displacement is −iωu = ∇ϕ.48 3 Reflection. x3 ) = ∂ϕ/∂ x2 . ˆ ˆ The incident and reflected waves are ϕ0 = A0 eik p0 ·x and ϕ1 = A1 eik p1 ·x . plate and the fluid can interact. Refraction. In contrast there are waves that . and the elastic constant for the plate. Note that |R(θ0 )| = 1 so that R(θ0 ) = −ei2α . flexural motion of the plate is described by (∂1 ∂1 )2 w − k 4 w = p(x1 . Note that phase matching must take place so that the x1 dependence of w is determined by the incident wave. and Interfacial Waves Fig.5. A thin elastic plate separates a dense fluid such as water from a tenuous one such as air. However. The one dimensional. respectively. respectively.5 indicates the geometry of the problem. satisfy these assumptions. At x2 = 0. Figure 3. Equation (3. A time harmonic. but that the fluid above the plate is sufficiently tenuous that it can be treated as a vacuum. p (3. which we model as a vacuum. Find the reflection coefficient R(θ0 ). 3. this wave could not exist without being continuously sustained by a wave from the interior. plane acoustic wave. In the fluid ∇ 2ϕ + k2ϕ = 0 (3. k = ω/c. Find α. The terms ρ p . p the thickness. 0)/D. respectively.38) then gives a boundary condition connecting p and ϕ at x2 = 0. and D are the density per unit area.

Note that γ L and γT must be real if we are to have decay into the interior. To satisfy (1. in the time-harmonic approximation. 2 2 D 2 − cr cT (3. thus 0 < cr < cT .22) for the potentials. the condition for a nontrivial solution. or an insignificant modification of it. (3. called a Rayleigh wave.3. (3. 3. We seek a time-harmonic wave whose particle displacement is inplane and that decays in the positive x2 direction. Both here and in Chapter 5. D 0 (3. it is demonstrated that this latter surface wave.41) we find that −2iγT C = . Returning to (3.40) The boundary conditions at x2 = 0 are τ22 = τ21 = 0. 3. It has a real positive solution c = cr . giving the wavespeed of the surface wave.3). and assume that ϕ = Ce−βγL x2 eiβx1 . It is one of the distinctive features of linear elasticity that a traction-free surface guides such a wave.1 The Time-Harmonic Wave We consider an elastic half-space with the x1 coordinate lying along the surface and the positive x2 coordinate pointing into the interior (the reverse of that shown in Figs. γL = 1 − c2 c2 L 1/2 . We examine it momentarily.19) is then automatically satisfied]. γT = 1 − c2 2 cT 1/2 .42) This equation. To satisfy these boundary conditions. Their particle displacement decays exponentially with distance away from the surface or interface.4 The Rayleigh Wave 49 cling to a surface or interface that are self-sustaining. Such waves are also referred to as surface or interfacial waves. We use a scalar potential ϕ and a single component ψ3 of the vector potential [the divergence condition (1. 2 2 − c2 /cT −2iγ L 2iγT 2 2 − c2 /cT C 0 = .1 and 3.4.21) and (1. is called the Rayleigh equation. (3.39) where β = ω/c and c is the unknown wavespeed along the surface x2 = 0. and ones similar to it. ψ3 = De−βγT x2 eiβx1 .43) .41) Setting the determinant of the matrix to zero. gives 2 2 − c2 cT 2 − 4γ L γT = 0. arises from a pole rather than a branch point.

x2 ) = 1 π ∞ 0 − 2− 2 cr −(ω/cr )x2 γT −iω(t−x1 /cr ) dω.45) where A0 (ω) has the same form as in (3. For simplicity we take A0 (ω) = πC.28)–(3. e e 2 cT −1 A0 (ω)eiπ/2 γT 2γ L γT e−(ω/cr )x2 γL A0 (ω) 2e−(ω/cr )x2 γL − 2− u 2 (t − x1 /cr . where C is a constant. Note the eiπ/2 in u 2 . x2 ) = 1 π ∞ 0 2 cr −(ω/cr )x2 γT −iω(t−x1 /cr ) dω.4. Performing the integrations gives u 1 (t − x1 /cr . x2 ) = − + 2 2 C 2 − cr /cT [(x2 /cr )γT ] 2 (x2 /cr )2 γT + (t − x1 /cr )2 . x2 ) = 2C (x2 /cr )γ L 2 (x2 /cr )2 γ L + (t − x1 /cr )2 − u 2 (t − x1 /cr . 2γT cT (3.50 3 Reflection. the transient displacement components are given by u 1 (t − x1 /cr . e e 2 cT (3. 2C (t − x1 /cr )γ L 2 (x2 /cr )2 γ L + (t − x1 /cr )2 2 2 C 2 − cr /cT (t − x1 /cr ) . 2 cT 2 −βr C cr 2γ L γT e−βr γL x2 − 2 − 2 e−βr γT x2 eiβr x1 . and Interfacial Waves With the use of (1. Much the same thing happens when a time-harmonic Rayleigh wave is mapped into the time domain.30).2 Transient Wave Previously we have seen that a critically refracted wave becomes a two-sided wave in the time domain. 2 γT (x2 /cr )2 γT + (t − x1 /cr )2 (3. Rayleigh wave.30) and would be set by the source. This then is the form of the time harmonic. In this case the frequency dependence enters through the terms e−βr γL x2 and e−βr γT x2 .28)–(3. Proceeding as we did in (3. the particle displacement components are u 1 = iβr u2 = 2 cr C 2e−βr γL x2 − 2 − 2 e−βr γT x2 eiβr x1 .44) where βr = ω/cr .46) .19). 3. Refraction.

3.48) where k = ω/c. To do so it is more convenient to work with R(s). may find it interesting to show that the u 2 component is essentially the allied function of the u 1 component. Setting s = s L sin θ0 = sT sin θ2 . A pole in the reflection coefficient implies that a surface wave exists. we have implicitly assumed that the leading wavefront. consider the same general geometry as shown in Fig. so that sin θ0 = s/s L > 1. is its imaginary part such that the surface wave is physically meaningful.47) where s = 1/c and s I = 1/c I . where c L > cT > cr .3 The Rayleigh Function We are thus left with examining the roots of (3. having noted the presence of the eiπ/2 in (3. the boundary . and. 3. has already propagated everywhere along the surface. (3. (3.42). This function. sometimes called the Rayleigh function. The question then is whether the pole is real or complex. which is that of a compressional pulse. The slownesses are ordered as s > sT > s L for a surface wave to exist. and thus θ0 must be complex. Also note that the exponential decay of the timeharmonic disturbance has become an algebraic decay. x2 ) that satisfies ∂1 ∂1 u + ∂2 ∂2 u + k 2 u = 0. a slightly modified version of (3. Further. This feature is not accidental. The most important feature of this equation is that the function on the left-hand side contains two radicals whose branches must be defined with care. We have a two-sided wave. but with the plate replaced by an impedance.45).3.4 The Rayleigh Wave 51 Because of our choice of A0 . Note that there is no leading wavefront. Lastly. but nevertheless they exhibit the basic features of interest. Using our approximations. the reader. we find that A+ (θ0 ) = R(s L sin θ0 )/(s L sT )2 . given in (3.6 A Surface Wave Supported by an Impedance Consider a time harmonic disturbance u(x1 .12). Problem 3.5. The compressional pulse was excited at t → −∞ and propagates outward at wavespeed c L . A homogeneous plane wave striking a traction-free boundary cannot excite a surface wave.42). if complex. That is. is given by 2 R(s) = 2s 2 − sT 2 2 − 4s 2 s 2 − s L 1/2 2 s 2 − sT 1/2 . these pulses are more singular than real ones. Recall that the denominator of the reflection coefficient for the inplane reflection is A+ (θ0 ).4.

using the curves (γ 2 ) = 0 and (γ 2 ) = 0. What restrictions must R and X satisfy for a surface wave to exist? Find a and b in terms of a Z that permits a surface wave to exist. Setting α = σ + iτ . where |ki /kr | sidering a plane wave propagating in the positive x direction with wavenumber k. Thus we may. (3. The curves (γ ) = 0 therefore define the branch cuts.50) is also a solution. . eikr x e−ki x . (3. Perturbing α slightly. That is. we find that (γ 2 ) < 0 between the 4 I first learned of this argument from Mittra and Lee (1971). we see that kr and ki must both be positive. as shown in Fig 3. say θ0s . we want to define the branches of the radical. set k = kr + iki . By conis propagating is slightly lossy. Next show that the surface wave u = Ce−b|x2 | eiax (3.4 Branch Cuts The Rayleigh function contains two radicals of the form γ = (α 2 − k 2 )1/2 .6. (3. Accordingly. by imagining that the material in which the wave 1. we note that for a surface wave (γ L ) ≥ 0 and (γT ) ≥ 0. we can write γ 2 as 2 γ 2 = (σ 2 − τ 2 ) − kr − ki2 + 2i(σ τ − kr ki ). Almost always. but somewhat easier to begin by working4 with γ 2 . and as the reflected wave u 1 one identical to (3.50).18). 3. and Interfacial Waves condition at x2 = 0 becomes ∂2 u = ik Z u. k is a wavenumber. namely. Using this θ0s .4. The impedance may depend upon ω. C is a constant. Taking as the incident wave u 0 one identical to (3. the response at a given point on the boundary does not depend upon the response of the surrounding points. Z = R + i X. but not upon the angle of incidence of the wave. It is hard to work with γ directly.39) and (3.51) where α is the independent variable and k is known.40). calculate the reflection coefficient. For this same Z show that the reflection coefficient has a pole at a particular θ0 . Looking back at (3. Refraction. show that the reflected wave takes the form of the surface wave. (3.49) with Z the impedance. a and b are positive and real.52) We next partition the α plane.17). so that (γ ) ≥ 0 ∀ α.52 3 Reflection.

As well. then |θ| < π/2 and thus |2θ| < π. therefore must lie along the curves 2θ = ±π. we arrive at the branch cuts shown in Fig.7. To investigate this branch.7 indicates from what reference the angles are measured. In the limit as ki → 0. 1/2 (3. That is along (γ 2 ) = 0. express γ as γ = (r1r2 )1/2 cos where (α − k)1/2 = r1 eiθ1 /2 . Expressing γ as |γ |eiθ . (γ ) = 0.53) (α + k)1/2 = r2 eiθ2 /2 .54) Figure 3. 3.6 overlain with the wavy line.6. (3. These are the curves in Fig. two curves (γ 2 ) = 0. . we note that. we must first move into the fourth and then poke through the gap at the origin into the second. and remain on the same Riemann sheet. 3. while (γ ) > 0 in the first and third quadrants and negative in the other two. note that to go from the first to the second quadrant.3. 1/2 θ1 + θ2 2 + i sin θ1 + θ2 2 . Note that (γ ) ≥ 0 ∀ α. 3. From these curves we select the branch cuts indicated by the wavy overlying line on the curves (γ 2 ) = 0. The complex α plane with a sketch of the curves (γ 2 ) = 0 and (γ 2 ) = 0. if (γ ) > 0. The branch cuts. where (γ 2 ) < 0. while (γ 2 ) < 0 between the two curves (γ 2 ) = 0.4 The Rayleigh Wave 53 Fig.

(γ ) ≥ 0 ∀ α on the Riemann sheet exhibited in the drawing. exists. do the roots on the other Reimann sheets ever manifest themselves? Yes. actually solving for sr is less so. they do when they lie close to a branch cut. (sγT ) ≥ 0 ∀ s and cut as just indicated. First. Hence the Rayleigh function R(s) is defined as that branch occupying the Riemann sheet (sγ L ) ≥ 0. and Interfacial Waves Fig. R(s) becomes negative. Recall that s = 1/c. This can be proven conclusively by using a theorem sometimes called the argument principle (Ablowitz and Fokas. note that if sr is a root then so is −sr . This theorem allows one to systematically calculate the number of poles and zeros of a function by performing a contour integral of its logarithmic derivative. does R(s) have any other roots on this Riemann sheet? The answer is no. This point is discussed in Aki and Richards (1980) in their description of the reflection of spherical waves from a traction-free surface. We next seek a root or roots to R(s) = 0 on this Riemann sheet. Achenbach (1973) does this in some detail. Both radicals are defined as just indicated. Refraction. Thus a real root sr . However. Third. (3. These are the appropriate branch cuts for the product. By symmetry a root −sr also exists. R(s) > 0 but as s → ∞ along the positive real s axis. 3. and one connecting −s L and −sT . Second. 1997). with sT < sr < ∞. the product is only discontinuous across a branch cut connecting s L and sT . Returning to the Rayleigh function R(s). It can be calculated . While knowing that only the Rayleigh slownesses ±sr exist on the Reimann sheet of interest is important.7.54 3 Reflection. The complex α plane as ki → 0. Lastly.47). though the original argument may be found in Cagniard (1962). at s = s L and at s = sT . we note that there are two 2 2 radicals appearing as the product (s 2 − s L )1/2 (s 2 − sT )1/2 .

Dix. pp.G. 1973.9. the contour in (2. passes below the branch cut.S. pp. and Fokas. 20–23. The two are connected by ξ = iγ . pp. Introduction to the Theory of Fourier Integrals. In particular.31) were selected as just indicated. and Lee. Mittra. New York: Macmillan.A. Flinn and C. 1–57. On the total reflection of plane waves. P.C. I.J. J. 147–148. Achenbach.12ν)/(1 + ν) 55 (3. M. Translated and revised by E. rather than as that in (3. Only when considering the Cagniard–deHoop integration technique in Section 5. S.1 do we select a different branch. B.G. the complex k2 plane is cut so that (k1 ) > 0 ∀ k1 . Quantitative Seismology. and ends at +∞.31). 2. The radicals we encounter will often present themselves in the form ξ = (k 2 −α 2 )1/2 .References to good accuracy by using the formula κr = (0. 1962. Quart. Auld. 1. For many materials κr is close to 0. E. Aki. and Richards. 42–49. 119–121. in the case of (2.W. References Ablowitz. Cagniard. F. pp. R. corresponding exactly with the branch of γ just selected. Reflection and Refraction of Progressive Seismic Waves.H. pp. Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids. Theory and Methods. 1997. 2nd ed.23) and k3 = iγ in (2. 1990. 2nd ed. and elsewhere. 1980.A..24) starts at −∞ in the second quardant.86 + 1.. Vol. 1: 379–383. Complex Variables. However. Math. 189–191. 1948. 319–333. K. New York: Cambridge. 1971.D. pokes into the fourth quadrant. San Francisco: Freeman. . note that k1 = iγ in (2. Appl. Malabar.51). Amsterdam: North-Holland. 259–265. The branches of (2.23). FL: Krieger. Friedlander. pp. A.55) The term κr = sT /sr and ν is Poisson’s ratio. Vol. Oxford: Clarendon Press. J. Analytical Technique in the Theory of Guided Waves. Further. Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids. pp. Titchmarsh. 1974. New York: McGraw-Hill. passes above the branch cut. Mech.23) and (2.

We continue with this general theme. This is needed for time-harmonic problems because the disturbance. 4. it is straightforward (straightforward is not a synonym for easy) to seek its representations (Friedlander. 1958. indicating as we do so both the role of the principle of limiting absorption and that of specifying an edge condition. When the wavefield is time dependent. both far more general representations and ones in physical space rather than in wavenumber space. 1980). 56 .3. Two constructions are used: the reciprocity identity and the Green’s tensor for a full space. in a sense.1 Introduction In Chapter 2 we moved away from discussing plane waves to an introduction of plane-wave spectral representations in Section 2. Hudson. 1973. This allowed us to discuss more general wavefields and to understand their propagation characteristics in terms of those of plane waves. Moreover. We must work in a four-dimensional space. but construct. we establish a uniqueness result. in this chapter. A general survey of many useful representation results is provided by deHoop (1995). For these representations for an infinite domain to be derived. this material is very important because it is the basis for formulating elastic-wave problems in a form suitable to be analyzed numerically. has been going on forever. Achenbach. the principle of limiting absorption is introduced. Though we make limited use of it in the chapters that follow. resulting in no initial wavefront being present.4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations Synopsis In Chapter 4 we discuss the formulation of integral representations of solutions to rather general problems in elastic-wave propagation. The chapter closes with an example that uses these ideas to develop an integral representation for the scattering of an acoustic wave by an elastic inclusion.

(4.1) with the particle displacement of its reciprocating wavefield and subtract. (4.3). . even for a finite positive time. Nevertheless.2 Reciprocity 57 the fourth dimension being time.3) equals ∂ j (τi1j u i1 −τi2j u i1 ).2 Reciprocity Proposition 4. Then Rx f i2 u i1 − f i1 u i2 ρd V = ∂Rx u i2 ti1 − u i1 ti2 d S. we have imagined that the wavefield was excited at the time minus infinity. In this chapter we use the principle of limiting absorption as the technical device to achieve these outcomes. (1.2 + ρω2 u i1.2 = τ ji n j . This gives 2 1 ρ f i2 u i1 − f i1 u i2 = −u i1 ∂ j τ ji + u i2 ∂ j τ ji . filled all of space. unambiguously identified value. 4.2 ˆ ˆ The tractions on ∂Rx are ti1. over which integrals are being taken. In constructing representations for various wavefields. at some stage we must send the outer surfaces. the wavefield propagates outward from its sources at a finite speed and thus for a finite time it occupies a region that is bounded.1. we note that τ ji ∂ j u i2 = 2 τ ji ∂ j u i1 so that the right-hand side of (4. When working with a time-harmonic wavefield. a representation in this form is less useful than it might seem because both the source and receiver of the wavefield have their own frequency behaviors.2) Proof.2 ∂ j τ ji + ρ f i1.2) follows after integration. In a bounded region Rx with surface ∂Rx . say.1) 1.2 = 0. (4. its time-dependent response to a sudden impulse is of greater use. Moreover. However. we must unambiguously identify waves that are outgoing from their source of excitation. though we need only work with regions in three-dimensional space.3) 1 Using the relation between stress and strain. indicated by the superscripts 1 and 2. (4. the equations of motion in the time-harmonic approximation for two reciprocating elastic wavefields. Thus we consider almost exclusively time-harmonic wavefields. The unit normal n to ∂Rx is outward. and to incorporate those effects in an overall propagation model the Fourier component of the wavefield rather than. and it has thus. to infinity and must be assured that these integrals either go to zero or a finite. We take the scalar product of each equation in (4.4. are 1.

5) This is a straightforward generalization of (1. (4. as x → ∞. (4.” 4.7) where G(k I x) = (1/4π x)eik I x .44). |x| = x. The differential in physical space d x = d x1 d x2 d x3 and that in the transform space dk = dk1 dk2 dk3 .2 = ai1. is related to G G G G ˆ u i by u i = a k u ik . Here a is a constant unit vector giving the direction of the ˆ G point force at the origin. (4.43) and (1. (4.2 δ(x − x 1.58 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations There is one special case of (4.2. with u ik given by G u ik = 1 2 2 k T cT 2 ∂i ∂k [−G(k L x) + G(k T x)] + k T δik G(k T x) .3 Green’s Tensor In the proposition to follow we shall use the three-dimensional Fourier transform pair given by ∗ u(k) = ∞ −∞ u(x)e−ik·x d x. 1 G It is possibly better to describe the pair (u ik . Then the reciprocity statement becomes ai2 u i1 (x 2 ) = ai1 u i2 (x 1 ). This is the origin of the careless statement “the source and receiver can be interchanged by reciprocity. where x is the position vector of the point of action of the delta function.2 are constant vectors.4) u(x) = 1 (2π)3 u(k)eik·x dk.6) subject to the condition that. Proposition 4. T. jk . The particle displacement u iG is the solution to G ˆ (λ + µ)∂i ∂k u k + µ∂ j ∂ j u iG + ρω2 u iG = −ρ a i δ(x).8) Note that we may replace x with the more general vector x − x . Let us assume that the integral over ∂ Rx vanishes and that f i1.2 ). the solution represent an outgoing wavefield. ∞ −∞ ∗ (4. where the ai1. The Green’s tensor1 for a full space. I = L . τiG ) as a Green’s state. u ik .2) of interest.

From the definition of u iG .6) in all three spatial variables and solving the resulting algebraic equations give ∗ G ui =− 2 2 ˆ ˆ 1 k L − k 2 a i + 1 − cT /c2 ki kk a k L . all that we have to do is evaluate integrals of the form II = 1 (2π)3 ∞ −∞ eik·x dk. and with some rewriting.33) and (2. The transformation is defined as k1 = k sin ξ cos ν.11) can then be expressed as II = 1 (2π)3 ∞ 0 0 π 0 2π k 2 sin ξ ikx cos ξ e dkdξ dν. . the contour of the integral must pass above the 2 Contrast how we have used a three-dimensional transform in this problem.13) The integrations over the angles are readily done. in transform space. to the coordinate transformation (2. Note that this is identical.14) Recall that ei(k I x−ωt) is an outgoing wave. but have used a twodimensional one for the very similar problem of constructing a plane-wave representation of a spherical wave in (2. ν). 2 Fourier transforming (4. and we are left with evaluating II = −i (2π)2 x ∞ −∞ keikx dk. a spherical coordinate system (k. (4. to transform (4. k3 = k cos ξ. k2 − k2 I (4. where the azimuthal axis is chosen in the direction x and ξ is the azimuthal angle.4. k2 − k2 I (4.11) To evaluate (4. apart from the change in symbols.3 Green’s Tensor 59 Proof. 2 − kT (4.36). k2 − k2 I (4.10) to physical space.37) used to construct an angular spectrum representation of a spherical wave. ξ.9) where k 2 = k · k.10) Note that ∂i in physical space transforms to iki in transform space and vice versa. k2 = k sin ξ sin ν. Therefore. 2 2 2 k2 − k2 cT kL − k T (4. Thus to satisfy the condition that waves be outgoing as x → ∞.12) The integral (4. we arrive j at ∗ G u ik = 1 ki k k 2 2 cT k T k2 1 1 − 2 2 2 − kL k − kT + k2 δik .11) we introduce.

6). The integral representation of the Hankel function H0 (kρ) (1) G (Sommerfeld.8) with G(k I x) = I I . These last two equations are simply restatements of (1. 3 The right-hand side of this equation should be multiplied by c−2 . C (4. The corresponding Green’s stress τiG is calculated by using jk G τiG = ci jlm ∂l u mk . Problem 4.18) reduces to G u 3 (ρ) = − i 4π eikT ρ cos(θ −ξ ) dξ.1 Two-Dimensional Green’s Function In this problem we ask the reader to calculate the time harmonic.7) follows. |x2 | = ρ sin θ. u 3 .19) Most importantly show that C is a contour beginning near π − i∞ and end(1) ing near i∞. jk (4. x1 = ρ cos θ. . gives an outgoing wave and hence gives (4. Then closing the contour in the upper half of the k plane. At infinity u 3 represents an outgoing wave.3). x2 ). where the integral is convergent. Thus (4. and show that (4. The equation to be solved3 is G G ∂α ∂α u 3 + k 2 u 3 = −δ(x).3. if the reader wants its dimensional form to be identical to (4.18) How are the branches of the radical k2 defined? Next introduce the transformations. cited in Section 2. In fact it will turn out to be identical to the angular spectrum representation of a cylindrical wave.15) where ci jlm = λδi j δlm + µ(δil δ jm + δim δ jl ). k2 (4. k1 = k T cos ξ.17) G where x has components (x1 . antiplane G shear Green’s function.60 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations pole at −k I but below that at k I .3. G Show that u 3 can be expressed as G u 3 (x) = i 4π ∞ −∞ ei(k1 x1 +k2 |x2 |) dk1 .16) (4. 1964b) is such that u 3 = (i/4)H0 (kρ). (4.

As before. e pi pk 4π x c2 L 1 eikT x −ikT p·x ˆ ˆ ˆ e (δik − pi p k ) . ˆ (4.7). 2 4π x cT (4. (4.1 Notes 61 1. I = L or T . p = x/x.26) Each of the above expansions is carried out only to O[(k I x)−1 ] in the amplitude ˆ while the additional term (ik I p · x ) is retained in the exponential terms. |x| = x.25) (4.21) where G u ik L = 1 eik L x −ik L p·x ˆ ˆ ˆ .20).3 Green’s Tensor 4.15) and (4. For future work we shall need the farfield results.16). using (4. ˆ 4π x 2 (4.27) ˆ where x is set to zero. Here we consider one such construction.23) Further. (4. and p is defined in (4. namely G G GT u ik ∼ u ik L + u ik .4. splits into two parts. . (4. Consider a special (three-dimensional) body force.22) GT u ik = (4. we have G GL GT ˆ ˆ ˆ τ jik p j ∼ τ jik p j + τ jik p j .24) where GL G ˆ τ jik p j = ik L (λ + 2µ)u ik L .3. 2. (4. The farfield is that |k I x| and |k I x| 1. There are a number of very localized sources that can be constructed from point forces and their derivatives (Hudson. GT GT ˆ τ jik p j = ik T µu ik . Approximating |x − x | by region for which |k I x | using the law of cosines gives ˆ |x − x | ∼ x − ( p · x ). The character of a wavefield is more sharply determined by its phase than by its amplitude. the center of compression. with x replaced by |x − x |.20) With this approximation. 1980). namely f = −c2 F(t)∂x L δ(x) p.

Problem 2. 4π x cL (4.2 A Causal Green’s Function Problem 1. in . 4. and. subject to the condition that the wave be outgoing from the source. as x → ∞. therefore. Here (4. How do we ensure that this happens? As we indicated in Section 4. This particular source is useful because it excites only compressional waves.28) over a small sphere of radius . is ϕ=− x 1 F t− .4 Principle of Limiting Absorption Figure 4. Then integrate the equation of motion.28) and the vector potential ψ = 0. Equation (4.29) is the solution to (4. In two dimensions. will be sources of waves. S and R.29) is the free-space causal Green’s function for (4. (1) How do we determine unambiguously which waves are outgoing from these sources? (2) In the arguments that follow we shall ask that the integrals over ∂Rx vanish or approach some finite known value as x → ∞. taking the limit as → 0. Find the response ϕ for a two-dimensional center of compression or line of compression. (4. for x = 0.1 shows a typical region Rx within which we shall work. It is a large spherical region with radius x. The solution to (4. Begin by showing that xϕ = f (t − x/c L ) is a solution. will eventually pass into a region that the wavefield has not reached. centered at the origin. Two questions arise. this issue does not arise in the timedependent case because any outgoing wavefield will propagate toward infinity at a finite speed and. Show that (4.29) The center of compression can be thought of as a small uniformly pressurized cavity or as three dipoles without moment. identify f (t).28). for a finite t the surface ∂Rx .28). Both the bounded subregions contained within Rx .62 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations The scalar potential ϕ satisfies 1 δ(x) 1 ∂x (x 2 ∂x ϕ) − 2 ∂t ∂t ϕ = F(t) x2 4π x 2 cL (4.28) if F(t) = δ(t). satisfying the condition that the wave be outgoing from its source. However.1. the term in brackets becomes δ(x)/(2π x). x2 ). Problem 4.27) is a three-dimensional body force. (x1 .

(4.1.4. This device of setting ω = ω0 +i to determine which wavefields are outgoing as x → ∞ and hence to select which particular solutions to a problem give outgoing waves is called the principle of limiting absorption. where k I 0 = ω0 /c I . In several of the arguments x → ∞. often never appears explicitly in the calculation. We solve this problem by demanding that ω = ω0 + i . we are imagining that the wavefield started abruptly at t = −∞ and thus it now fills all space. It in no sense indicates a temporal instability. while the second is a scatterer. has a radius |x| = x. so that the wavefield is forced to zero. The large spherical region Rx . Though. The first contains sources that excite an incident wavefield. 4. (4. The unit normal n points out from Rx\R. lim t→−∞ f (x)ei(kx−ωt) = 0. . with surface ∂R. In Proposition 4. if we want the wavefield to go to zero as x → ∞. This gives the missing initial conditions. Moreover. In particular we have implicitly used this principle when evaluating the contour integral. for x fixed. limx→∞ f (x)ei(k I x−ωt) = 0 provided f (x) remains bounded. we must use the exponential term eik I x in combination with e−iωt . Within are two bounded subregions. and all previous contour integrals. t will always be taken as finite and. are consistent with this principle. 4 Here we are invoking the law of permanence of functional equations (Hille. with surface ∂Rx . Stated somewhat differently. Therefore. That is. Once we have completed our calculation we may invoke analytic continuation4 and. as t → ∞ the wavefield becomes unbounded. where ω0 and > 0 are real. by letting → 0. 1973). That is.4 Principle of Limiting Absorption 63 Fig. recover the result for the case of real ω.14). for t fixed. there is no initial wavefront because we have imposed no initial conditions. and reject e−ik I x as a possible solution. Note that the sign conventions leading to the evaluation of the contour integral. Hence. S and R.14). k I = k I 0 + i /c I . in a time-harmonic problem. note that the wavenumber k I = ω/c I .5 we shall find that this choice of ω and hence of k is needed to ensure a unique solution. ˆ the time-harmonic case.

u ik (x − x ) = u ik (x − x). τiG (x− jk G ˆ x )a k ].1. with the region R absent. After ∂Rx is sent to infinity.34) G G By inspection. (4.32) reduces to ˆ u i (x )a i = S G ˆ f i (x)u ik (x − x )a k d V (x).32) where Ik = ∂Rx G G ˆ u ik (x − x )τ ji (x) − u i (x)τ jik (x − x ) n j d S(x). we use the asymptotic results of (4.2) becomes Rx G ˆ ˆ ˆ δ(x − x )u i (x)a i − f i (x)u ik (x − x )a k ρd V (x) = Ik a k . S is a bounded subregion containing time harmonic. after a relabeling of the independent and integration variables. (4. Therefore (4.3. the solution u i can be represented as u k (x) = S G f i (x )u ik (x − x ) d V (x ). τi j ) and as 2 the triple [δ(x−x )a i . shown in Fig. Consider the region Rx .31).64 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations 4. Ik ∼ 1 eik L x c2 4π x L + ∂Rx ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ [τ ji n j − ik L (λ + 2µ)u i ]n i n k e−ik L n·x d S(x ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ [τ ji n j − ik T µu i ](δik − n i n k )e−ikT n·x d S(x ).30) The wavefield satisfies the principle of limiting absorption as x → ∞. 4.31) G where u ik is given by (4. we select as reciprocating waveˆ G ˆ field 1 the triple ( f i . / (4.35) 1 eikT x 2 cT 4π x ∂Rx . f i . that excite the wavefield u i in Rx .7). u ik (x−x )a k . Proof. body forces per unit mass. as x → ∞. (4. Hence we are lead to (4.5 Integral Representation: A Source Problem Proposition 4.33) We shall subsequently show that limx→∞ Ik = 0. where u ik is given by (4.7) and also satisfies the principle of limiting absorption. u i .26) to show that. Starting with the bounded region Rx . f i (x) = 0. (4. but S present.22)–(4. Returning to the question of how Ik behaves. u i is the solution to (λ + µ)∂i ∂k u k + µ∂ j ∂ j u i + ρω2 u i = −ρ f i (x). x ∈ S. Then (4. (4.

When the principle of limiting absorption is invoked. First. through its use.4. In place of the phrase outgoing.31) asymptotically approaches the form u i ∼ Ai (x) eik L x eikT x + Bi (x) . The principle thus serves to determine the solution uniquely. 4.37) provided S is bounded. Note that (4. When thinking through the argument just given. From this it is possible to show that limx→∞ Ik = 0 (Achenbach et al. (4.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem 65 Note that we have relabeled the variables from those used in (4.5. Within it we imagine that the total wavefield u it = u ii + u i . integrals such as Ik can be shown to approach zero without having to make detailed asymptotic estimates of how they behave as x → ∞. kL x kT x x → ∞.36) x→∞ ∂R x lim ˆ ˆ ˆ |[τi j n j − ik T µu i ](δik − n i n k )|2 d S(x ) = 0. we now ask that the wavefield satisfy the principle of limiting absorption and thus approach zero as x → ∞. Therefore we must choose the solution that behaves as eikx and not e−ikx . This is one way of stating the elastodynamic radiation conditions. That is one having the form f (x)eik I x . limx→∞ Ik = 0. In this case S is said to be a compact source because the support for f i (x) is compact or bounded.1.33). reexamining the argument leading to the Green’s tensor. Note that they would only be satisfied by an outgoing wave. As an alternative to using the principle of limiting absorption.1 Notes 1. We next perform a slight of hand whereby we imagine that the subregion S . (4. Irrespective of the geometry of the source. 4. 2. provided it is compact. the wavefield must evolve into two separate spherical waves with radiation patterns given by Ai and Bi . we could have demanded that x→∞ ∂R x lim ˆ ˆ |[τi j n j − ik L (λ + 2µ) u i ]n i |2 d S(x ) = 0. 4. Second. 3.. 1982).6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem We continue to consider the region Rx shown in Fig. where u ii is the wavefield excited by the sources in S in the absence of the subregion R and u i is that scattered by R. recall that we demanded that the waves be outgoing. note that two issues have been settled by using the principle of limiting absorption.

(4. we consider R to be an empty cavity and ask that the traction vanish on ∂R.15). G τ jik . In fact we have used the incorrect Green’s tensor for this problem. Note. 4. (4. It follows then that as the radius x → ∞. in (4.38) forms the starting point for many useful approximations. Consider the region Rx shown in Fig. 4. Select as reciprocating wavefield 1 the triple (0. u i satisfies the principle of limiting absorption as x → ∞. but R present.1 with the region S absent. with the right-hand side set to zero. that with respect to x .38) ∂R G G The prime given τ jik indicates that the x is differentiated when τ jik is calculated by using (4. i i ˆ ˆ but τ ji n j = −τ ji n j .1 Notes G is calculated from u ik (x − x ) by differentiating 1. We now formulate a boundary-value problem for u i . relabeling the independent and integration variables and noting that again limx→∞ Ik = 0. Then we define the region Rx\R as that contained in Rx excluding R. Lastly.38). but containing the boundary points ∂R. On ∂R.4. with ti = −tii on ∂R acting as a source. by the principle of limiting absorption.6.39) ∂R Using the boundary condition on ∂R. u i is unknown. We should have calculated a G ˆ Green’s tensor for which τ jik n j = 0 on ∂R.66 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations is removed from Rx so that the scattered wavefield u i does not interact with the sources in S. Within Rx \R the time-harmonic wavefield u i is a solution to (4.30). Nevertheless.38). u ik (x − x )a k . τi j ) and as 2 the G ˆ ˆ ˆ triple [a i δ(x − x ). It is useful at this point to define R as an open region so that it does not contain its boundary points ∂R. u i . Note that (4. we obtain (4. Proof. This is usually far from easy to do. u i can be represented as u k (x) = − 1 ρ G i G ˆ u ik (x − x )τ ji (x ) + u i (x )τ jik (x − x ) n j d S(x ). Moreover. Proposition 4. the second argument of the combination (x − x ). (4. 2. Using (4.2) and proceeding jk as we did with Proposition 4. τiG (x − x )a k ]. we arrive at ˆ ρu i (x )a i = G G ˆ ˆ ˆ u ik τ ji − u i τ jik a k n j d S(x) + Ik a k .38) is not a solution to the boundary-value problem because the integral contains the unknown u i evaluated on the boundary.3. where τ ji is known.

Then divide this latter 3 3 wavefield again into two parts. Outline of the Solution to Problem 1 1. This forces the particle displacement at the surface to go to zero there. several of the formulas given previously. Integral equations are sometimes easier to solve numerically than are differential ones. An elastic half-space is clamped at the surface x2 = 0 by a rigid strip over |x1 | < a. One book describing the numerical solution of integral equations is that by Delves and Mohamed (1985). Problem 1. and their solution lends insight that direct numerical methods often do not. while within a slot |x1 | < a the surface is free of traction. x2 )| − ∞ < x1 < ∞. determine an integral equation for the scattered wavefield.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem 67 3. −∞ < x2 ≤ 0}. The integral representation for u i (x) can be used to construct an integral equation. as Problem 4. u s = u r + u 3 . x2 ). for the half-space satisfying a homogeneous boundary . Determine an integral equation for the scattered wavefield. as x approaches the surface. Use the method of images to find the antiplane shear. the elastic half-space is described by {(x1 .40) is normally incident to the rigid strip and adjacent free surface. Problem 2. In both the problems that follow. How does u 3 behave at ∞? At ±a? 2. Problem 4. and ∂2 u 3 = 0 on |x1 | > a. Divide the total particle displacement u t3 into the sum of two parts. For |x1 | > a the surface is free of traction. x2 |x1 . Kevorkian (1993) gives an introduction to how to examine the consequences of these singularities within his discussion of integral equations in potential theory. where u s is the scattered wavefield. namely. In forming the integral equation care must be taken because.4. namely. Show that u 3 satisfies the time-harmonic wave equation and the following boundary conditions along x2 = 0: u 3 = −2A on |x1 | < a. in this simpler context. antiplane shear problems designed to ask the reader to derive directly. Green’s function G u 3 (x1 . An antiplane shear wave u i3 = Aeikx2 (4. where u r is the plane 3 3 3 wave reflected from the surface with no strip present and u 3 is that caused by the presence of the rigid strip. Now assume that the region |x1 | > a is clamped by rigid sheets.3 Integral Equation Problems These are two dimensional.3 suggests. u t3 = u i3 + u s . For the same incident wave. the Green’s tensors become singular.

in [−a. Taking as one reciprocating wavefield the Green’s function and as the other u 3 . 4. 0) and the prime indicates that the derivative is taken with respect to x2 . τi2j ) that satisfy 1. τ ji n j = τ ji n j . Repeat the above steps for the second problem. and µ are 1 2 ˆ ˆ real parameters. making appropriate changes G where necessary. this particular equation can be reduced to one that is no more singular than that of the first problem (Sommerfeld. Consider the region Rx shown in Fig. 4. In particular use a Green’s function that satisfies u 3 = 0 at x2 = 0.42) Note that I (x1 ) is the unknown to be solved for.1. The . x2 |x1 . Hint. Consider two timeharmonic wavefields (u i1 . Note that on this occasion the integrand is more singular than in the previous case. The tractions on ∂R are equal. Describe the nature of the singularities.7. Derive the reciprocity identity for two reciprocating. and the principle of limiting absorption as x → ∞.68 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations G condition ∂2 u 3 = 0 at x2 = 0. that is. After I (x1 ) is found. x2 ) = − a −a G u 3 (x1 . The reader may find the results of Problem 4.43) in Rx \R.2 ∂ j τ ji + ρ f i + ρω2 u i1.2 and used in Propositions 4. Use the boundary conditions satisfied by u 3 to derive the integral equation 2A = i 2 a −a (1) H0 (k|x1 − x1 |)I (x1 )d x1 .41) where I (x1 ) = ∂2 u 3 (x1 . show that u 3 (x1 . 0)I (x1 )d x1 .1 useful. τi1j ) and (u i2 . ρ.5. the Green’s tensor derived in Proposition 4. While one can work with singular integral equations.3 and 4.1 No Edges Proposition 4.2 = 0.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region 4. a].41) is used to calculate u 3 throughout the region of interest. 4. the representation (4. Note that what is needed is the Green’s function for this problem. (4. 1964a). 3. antiplane shear wavefields.4 was that for a region without boundaries and not the correct Green’s tensor for the scattering problem just discussed. In contrast. The force f i = 0 for x ∈ S but is zero elsewhere. (4. possessed by the integrand. λ. (4.

that uniqueness is not lost by taking the limit → 0. giving a contradiction. Set u = u1 − u2 and τi j = τi1j − τi2j . the superscript asterisk indicates the complex conjugate.1 and hence all the subsequent propositions). Therefore the right-hand side equals zero. In accord with the principle of limiting absorption.44) with u i . in fact. (4. to prove Proposition 4. The integrand is either everywhere zero or positive.44) in Rx\R. Subtracting one from the other and using (1.2 Edge Conditions To prove uniqueness (or. then the integral cannot be zero. 4. Proof.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region 69 wavefields are sufficiently continuous on ∂ R that Gauss’ theorem may be used. In Fig. it was essential that we be able to use Gauss’ theorem. If positive somewhere.46) Rx\R ∂R∪∂Rx ˆ The right-hand integral is zero because τi j n j = 0 on ∂R and the integral over ∂Rx goes to zero as x → ∞. in cross section. ω∗ = ω. . Then (u i . The wavefield is singular there. Hence. Take the scalar product of (4. so that the left-hand integral must equal zero. Kellogg.45) Integrating this result gives [(ω2 )∗ − ω2 ] ρu l∗ u l d V = ∗ ˆ (τ ji u i∗ − τ ji u i )n j d S. by the principle of limiting absorption. Then the two wavefields are identically equal in Rx\R. 4. 1989. The 5 Note that the analytic continuation of a function is unique. τi j ) satisfies ∂k τkl + ρω2 u l = 0 (4. Therefore u i and hence τi j must be zero throughout Rx\R5 . In addition. 1970). ω = ω0 + i so that both wavefields go to zero as x → ∞.4.2 a sketch of the region R. with a lancet-shaped singularity whose edge is perpendicular to the page. by the principle of limiting absorption. Thus the wavefields must have a certain measure of continuity on the surfaces. gives ∗ [(ω2 )∗ − ω2 ]ρu l∗ u l = ∂ j (τ ji u i∗ − τ ji u i ).3). In the simpler proofs one asks that the partial derivatives be continuous apart from finite jumps (Courant and John. is given. (4. when the unique solution is determined by setting ω = ω0 + i . Moreover.44) with u i∗ and the scalar product of the complex conjugate of (4. As was done previously. τi∗j ) satisfies the same equation with ω2 replaced by (ω2 )∗ . (u i∗ .7. the stress–strain relation.

However. 4.47) Q ∂Q To complete the uniqueness proof we must ask additionally that lim ˆ τ ji u i∗ n j d S = 0. A condition such as this is called an edge condition.1 and thereby recall that R and R are both contained within Rx . The edge is surrounded by a cylindrical region R with a radius .48) →0 ∂R Then the right-hand side of (4. to satisfy (4. At such an edge the wavefield is singular.70 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations Fig. an element of surface area S of ∂R is O( ). Therefore. Now (4.48) being satisfied. The surface ∂Q = ∂Rx ∪ ∂(R ∪ R ). This region does not intrude into (is disjoint from) R. typically u i ∼ O( α ) and τi j ∼ O( α−1 ). Both regions are contained within Rx . for an edge. (4. The subregion R is drawn. However.48) is satisfied. To investigate what happens at this edge.2. we surround it with a region R whose surface is ∂R . Again it is useful to define R and R as open regions that do not contain their boundary points. it is more usual to enforce the edge condition by asserting the nature of the singularity that will be permitted at the edge so that (4. Moreover. (4.48). Gauss’ theorem may be applied to the region Q = Rx\(R ∪ R ). And the uniqueness argument proceeds as before. Next we shall work through a specific case. but its derivatives are singular. particle displacement is usually bounded even continuous. Thus Gauss’ theorem is inapplicable near this edge without a certain amount of care being taken. . The reader should look back at Fig.47) goes to zero subject to (4. It is important to realize that this singularity must be specified before the scattering problem is solved and is as important in achieving a unique solution as is specifying a boundary condition or invoking the principle of limiting absorption.46) is written as [(ω2 )∗ − ω2 ] ρu l∗ u l d V = ∗ ˆ (τ ji u i∗ − τ ji u i )n j d S. we demand α > 0. in cross section. 4. with a lancet-shaped singularity whose edge is perpendicular to the page. where α < 1.

3. in the time-harmonic approximation and expressed in polar coordinates. The edge is perpendicular to the page. x3 )| − ∞ < x1 ≤ 0.3 An Inner Expansion We now consider a specific case of a scatterer with an edge. Though R is no longer bounded. We seek a solution to (1. is free of traction.49) where k is the wavenumber. ∂θ u 3 = 0. semi-infinite slit or crack and ∂R becomes its two surfaces. The subregion R has been collapsed to a infinitesimally thin. However. θ) and w. 4. Therefore we should use a coordinate expansion in kr for u 3 beginning with (kr )α . 0 < α < 1. the upper and lower surfaces of the crack. semi-infinite slit or crack defined by {(x1 . Setting ρ = r/ and w = u 3 /U (U is a maximum particle displacement). θ)(k )n . Its surface ∂R.49) in terms of (ρ. For simplicity. with the assumption that kr → 0. It is surrounded by a cylindrical region R with a radius that is smaller than a wavelength. Figure 4.3 shows the region R collapsed to a infinitesimally thin. r = 0. namely 2 (1/r )∂r (r ∂r u 3 ) + (1/r 2 )∂θ u 3 + k 2 u 3 = 0. (4. our previous arguments are readily extended to this case.15). θ) ∼ (k )α n≥0 wn (ρ. 4. we take the wavefield to be an antiplane shear one.3. Asymptotically expanding w as w(ρ. extending inward and outward to infinity. −∞ < x3 < ∞}. we reexpress (4. a bit more insight is gained by introducing the length scale shown in Fig. where k 1. We wish to find the wavefield in the neighborhood of the edge to determine the nature of the wavefield’s singularity there. We do not intend to solve a global problem but merely to explore possible solutions in the neighborhood of r = 0.50) . (4. 4. upper and lower.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region 71 Fig.7.4. At θ = ±π.

for a problem with the geometry of Fig. 1. θ) = (Aρ β + Bρ −β ) sin βθ. 1995). (4. The unit normal n points out of R (in contrast with our previous convention).51) The wavefield near the edge is essentially equivalent to the static field.51). 4. 4.48).1 indicates the geometry. the outer expansion.3. . The elastic inclusion occupies a region R with surface ∂R. . Subject to the boundary condition stated previously. reverberate within it. Thus ku 3 ∼ (kr )1/2 A sin(θ/2)+ O[(kr )3/2 ] as kr → 0. (4. Figure 4.52) where β = (2n+1)/2. The inner expansion connects the source – in this case the crack tip – with the propagating wavefield. To satisfy (4. but this is the minimum such value and hence determines the most singular term allowable. and then reradiate. B = 0 and α = β = 1 . 2. if we imagine that the radius x → ∞ and the region S is absent. that ku 3 = O[(kr )1/2 ] as kr → 0 to ensure that we arrive at a unique solution. Therefore. when we first formulate the problem. 1991. and A and B are undetermined constants. (4.8 Scattering From an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid To convince the reader of just how powerful and general the foregoing results can be.4. We indicate by ˆ ∂R+ the surface approached from outside R and by ∂R− that approached from within. This further illustrates the principle that a wave has to propagate several wavelengths.50) is called an inner expansion. This calculation is based on the work of Wickham (1992) and Leppington (1995). in this closing section we extend slightly these results to develop an expression for the total wavefield present in an ideal fluid that contains an elastic inclusion.72 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations we find that the lowest-order term satisfies 2 (1/ρ)∂ρ (ρ∂ρ w0 ) + (1/ρ 2 )∂θ w0 = 0. we must specify. The elastic inclusion. in contrast to the empty cavity of Proposition 4. To indicate when a position vector x identifies a . This expansion will contain an unknown constant that can be found by matching it to an outer expansion. . freeing itself of its source. a few wavelengths away.6. n = 0. has solutions of the form w0 (ρ. before its propagating character becomes manifest. Waves enter it. We again take the time dependence as harmonic. is penetrable. This method of analysis is called matching asymptotic expansions (Hinch. An expansion such as (4. Holmes. Larger values of β also give acceptable 2 solutions. We shall continue with this analysis in Section 5.

58) The symbol [· · ·] indicates the jump in going from ∂R+ to ∂R− . x ∈ R. arising because the motion is irrotational. the elastic fluid. The elastic fluid is compressible but cannot withstand shearing. (4. The total wavefield u(x) = [1 − χ (x)]ui (x) + us (x). x ∈ R. (4. equals ¯ ¯ ¯ −λ∂k u k .56) (4.4. 0. The equations of motion for an elastic fluid are given by those of linear elasticity when the shear coefficient is set to zero. where p. Taken together.55)–(4.8 Scattering From an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid point in R. ¯ pi = ω(ρ − ρ)u i . there is another equation of motion. respectively. We express these conditions as ˆ ˆ [u sj ]n j = −u ij n j . we define the function χ(x) as χ(x) = 1. The parameters ρ and λ are the density and bulk modulus. k (4. otherwise 73 (4.55) Next we imagine that an incident wavefield ui scatters from the elastic inclusion. (4. with the departure of the . ˆ ˆ ˆ ¯ ∂k u s δi j n j = −∂k u ik δi j n j + σ ji n j /λ.57) x ∈ R. (4. namely ∇ ∧ u = 0. We write the equation of motion for the particle displacement u in the elastic solid in such a way that the solid’s inertial and elastic properties appear as a body force within the region R. Lastly.53) We treat the inclusion as a linearly elastic solid embedded in a linearly elastic (ideal) fluid. of the elastic fluid. The equation is thus written as ¯ ¯ λ∂i ∂k u k + ω2 ρu i = −∂ j σ ji − ωpi . the acoustic pressure. The right-hand terms are given by ¯ σi j = (λ − λ)δi j ∂k u k + µ(∂i u j + ∂ j u i ).54) The stress tensor is given by τi j = − pδi j . As before.58) capture the concept that the elastic solid is an inclusion within a host material. f is the body force per unit mass. Across the surface ∂R the normal components of particle displacement and traction are continuous and the tangential components of traction vanish. The equation of motion for the particle displacement u is ¯ ¯ ¯ λ∂i ∂k u k + ω2 ρu i = −ρ f i . giving rise to the scattered wavefield us .

Next we apply arguments identical to those used in Propositions 4. u = us .2 and is given by G u ik = 1/k 2 c2 [−∂i ∂k (eikx /4π x) + ∂m ∂m (δik /4π x)]. The outcome is u s (x)[1 − χ(x)] = −c2 m u G (x − x )∂k u s (x ) jm k (4. which function is the response to a mass flux at a single point. namely G G ¯ ¯ ¯ λ∂i ∂k u km + ρω2 u im = −ρδim δ(x). but now within R itself. provided x = 0. However.62) R + c2 ∂R− G ˆ − u sj (x )∂k u km (x − x ) n j d S(x ). (4.74 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations properties of the solid from those of the fluid expressed as body force terms on the right-hand side of (4.59) It is calculated exactly as outlined in Proposition 4. The outcome is u s (x)χ(x) = m 1 ρ ¯ [∂i σi j (x ) + ωp j (x )]u G (x − x )d V (x ) jm u G (x − x )∂k u s (x ) jm k (4. The unit normal n points out of R rather than out of its compliment. it is the correct Green’s tensor when one considers the fluid as elastic and seeks its ˆ response to a force acting at a single point.3. Next consider the region R.55) and in the conditions across ∂R.3 and 4.2–4. Again the reciprocity relation is applied. To do so we need the Green’s tensor for the elastic fluid. Arguments that combine those used in both Propositions 4. Our goal is to use Propositions 4. The prime indicates that the derivative is taken ˆ with respect to x .6).62) to obtain the following .61) and (4. ¯ ¯ The wavespeed c = (λ/ρ)1/2 . or a slight variation of them. to give an integral representation for u as a volume integral over R that contains σi j and pi .58). For a point force in the direction a. Recall that within R. G ˆ the reader is asked to verify that u ik a k is irrotational. (4. We add (4. This satisfies an equation analogous to (4.61) ∂R+ G ˆ − u sj (x )∂k u km (x − x ) n j d S(x ). The reciprocity relation is applied to the complement of R. The Green’s tensor is one reciprocating wavefield and us the second.60) Note that this is not the usual Green’s function for linear acoustics.4.4 and then in 4.4 are used. The Green’s tensor is one reciprocating wavefield and us the second. (4.

6 and it indicates that the surface integral vanishes for observation points x outside R.63) from (4. (4. We now subtract (4.8 Scattering From an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid representation for us .63) As it stands. (4.58). are present in the integral over ∂R. The superscripts ± on ∂R have served their purpose and are omitted from now on. First note that the departure of the properties of the elastic solid from the host elastic fluid appears as a body force ˆ ˆ term in the integral over R. shown that the 6 The expressions (4. u s (x) = m 1 ρ ¯ [∂i σi j (x ) + ωp j (x )]u G (x − x )d V (x ) jm u G (x − x ) ∂k u s (x ) jm k 75 R − c2 ∂R G ˆ − u sj (x )∂k u km (x − x ) n j d S(x ). jm This is a very satisfying outcome. but we are still left with a surface integral. Second note that the jumps [u sj ]n j and [∂k u s ]δi j n j .65) R ∂R G u im (x We are almost done.64) This in itself is a interesting result.64) to obtain u m (x) = u im (x) + 1 − ρ ¯ 1 ρ ¯ [∂i σi j (x ) + ωp j (x )]u G (x − x )d V (x ) jm − x )σi j (x ) n j d S(x ). We have.61) and (4. (4. Noting the divergence term in the volume integral. . Now we imagine that the region R contains only the incident wavefield ui and use the reciprocity relation along with the Green’s tensor to write u im (x)χ(x) = c2 G u im (x − x )∂k u ik (x )δi j ∂R G ˆ − u ij (x )∂k u km (x − x ) n j d S(x ).4. we make one more application of Gauss’ theorem to give u m (x) = u im (x) − 1 ρ ¯ σi j (x )∂i u G (x − x ) jm (4. this is a remarkable expression. through successive applications of the Green’s tensor in combination with the reciprocity relation.66) R − ωp j (x )u G (x − x ) d V (x ). It is called an extinction theorem. k given by (4.62) are also examples of extinction theorems.

75–105. pp. Friedlander. New York: Springer. pp. and McMaken.D.L. Vol. the elastic fluid. O. which cannot be calculated without knowing u within R. Introduction to Calculus and Analysis. J. J. 1985. J. Translated by O. 1995. Lectures on Theoretical Physics.. 84–121. 96–110. 1989. However. Analytic Function Theory. S. pp. LaPorte and P. Introduction to Perturbation Methods. Hinch. Courant. Nondestr. IV. and John. 1992. Cambridge: University Press.K. 1964a. Optics. . Manchester: Ph. E. New York: Academic. 1970.G. 64–75 and 94–99. it can be made the basis for deriving a system of integral equations for σi j and pi . J. II. A. Gautesen. pp. VI. Cambridge: University Press. A. Kevorkian. E. R.D. F. pp. These are σi j and pi .T. and Mohamed. London: Academic.57) to enforce self-consistency (Leppington.D.J. Thus this expression is only a representation and not a solution to the problem. Kellogg. The University of Manchester. 52–101. Perturbation Methods. 1980.66) is not a solution to the boundary-value problem for us . Hille. 1958. 1973. L. Sommerfeld. 106–109. Computational Methods for Integral Equations.D. 1995. 1995). One uses (4.G.R. 1993. New York: Frederick Ungar. 1973. 597–602. Moldauer. Vol. Vol. pp. Partial Differential Equations in Physics. 84–101. New York: Springer. 22–27 and 34–38. F. New York: Academic. A polarization theory for scattering of sound at imperfect interfaces. Leppington. II.M.38). pp. Boston: Pitman.A. deHoop. 1982. New York: Chapman and Hall. pp. 1995. Semi-Infinite Thick Elastic Plate. pp. 1964b.A. J. New York: Cambridge. Holmes.56) and (4. 11: 199–210. A. Handbook of Radiation and Scattering of Waves.H.J. Cambridge: University Press. (4. 273–289. Dissertation. A. Eval. However.76 4 Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations total wavefield u outside R equals the incident wavefield ui plus a scattered wavefield us whose source is the departure of the inertial and elastic properties of the solid inclusion from those of its host.. Vol. Delves. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Partial Differential Equations. pp. New York: Chelsea. M. Lectures on Theoretical Physics. Translated by E. G. Ray Methods for Waves in Elastic Solids. 1991. 47–104. Achenbach. Just as with (4. the integral contains unknown terms. pp. The Scattering of Sound by a Fluid-Loaded. Hudson. pp. Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids. 31–36. Wickham. Foundations of Potential Theory. Straus. J. Sommerfeld. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves. H. References Achenbach.66) in (4. Sound Pulses.

We begin by calculating the transient.1) . antiplane radiation excited by a line source at the surface of a half-space. This problem is solved exactly by using the Wiener– Hopf method and approximately by using matched asymptotic expansions. we extend our knowledge of plane-wave interactions by calculating the diffraction of a time harmonic. On the surface x2 = 0. We then return to considering how plane waves and a knowledge of their interactions can be used to construct more general wavefields. At the origin a line load is applied to an otherwise traction-free surface. The Cagniard–deHoop method is used to invert the integral transforms. antiplane shear wave by a semi-infinite slit or crack. Plane-wave spectral techniques are used and the resulting integrals are approximated by the method of steepest descents. inplane radiation. An Appendix describing the reduction of the diffraction integral to Fresnel integrals is included.14). Lastly. 5. 77 (5. This method is discussed in detail.5 Radiation and Diffraction Synopsis Chapter 5 summarizes the basic propagation processes that are encountered when studying radiation or edge diffraction. The equations of motion are given by (1.1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space We consider an elastic half-space. Three problems of progressive difficulty are studied. µ∂2 u 3 = −µδ(x1 ) f (t). The x1 coordinate stretches along its surface and the positive x2 coordinate extends into the interior. from a two-dimensional center of compression buried in a half-space.15) combined with (1. plane. We calculate the time harmonic. The line load is a tangentially acting force very localized in x1 and directed from −∞ to ∞ in the x3 direction.

First.2) where the overbar indicates the temporal transform.1. the simplest way to understand the technique is to use a one-sided Laplace transform over time and a two-sided one over space. the amplitude term being adjusted almost as an afterthought. (5. p) = ∞ −∞ ¯ e− pαx1 u 3 (x1 . x2 . 5. χ = (s 2 − α 2 )1/2 . with the restriction that the transform variable p remain real and positive.43). x2 . The inverse of (5.31) is taken. it is only a slight modification of the Fourier transform of (1. And the transform merely provides a shell within which the mapping lives.78 5 Radiation and Diffraction The half-space is quiescent for t < 0 so that f (t) ≡ 0 and u 3 ≡ 0 for t < 0. (5. The essence of the technique. and subsequently the integration contour. Note that p is used to scale the spatial transform variable α. now referred to as the Cagniard–deHoop technique. we can analytically continue the transform into the complex p plane. is the mapping of the phase term. p) = p 2πi +i∞ − −i∞ ¯ e pαx1 ∗ u 3 (α.4) . the onesided transform over time (1. x2 . Moreover. As we have done previously. Arguably. This is not a serious restriction because we shall not need to invert this transform. What is most satisfying about the technique is that it shifts the burden of inverting the transform to understanding a mapping that primarily affects the phase term.2) is ¯ u 3 (x1 . α is complex. of the spatial inverse transform into a form that allows one to immediately identify the inverse temporal transform. Though we have not used this transform previously. The waves are outgoing from the source.1 The Transforms Cagniard (1962) developed a very instructive way to invert the integral transforms arising in transient wave problems. p) dα. if necessary. ∗ ¯ u 3 (α. we take the two-sided Laplace transform over the spatial coordinate. (5. the subscript T is dropped. x2 . Applying the transforms over t and x1 leads to the ordinary differential equation 2 ¯ ¯ d 2∗ u 3 d x2 − p 2 χ 2 ∗ u 3 = 0. Second. that is.3) where ≥ 0. p) d x1 . DeHoop (1960) popularized Cagniard’s method by making it more readily understood.

will give an outgoing wave for x2 > 0 in the integrand of (5.5) where the centered asterisk indicates a convolution in t.7). 5.1. x2 . Enforcing the transformed boundary condition at x2 = 0 gives A(α. 5. x2 .1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space 79 The slowness s = 1/c is used instead of the wavespeed c.7). 1 In the absence of propagation. the contour will pass above and below the branch cuts in such a way that − pχ . θi ) are defined in Fig. (γ ) ≥ 0 ∀ α and the branch cuts shown in Fig.4. p) = 2πi +i∞ − −i∞ e pαx1 e− pχ x2 dα. as indicated in the caption to Fig. This can ¯ be achieved by asking that1 (χ) ≥ 0 ∀ α and taking as the solution ∗ u 3 = A(α. p)e− pχ x2 . this choice will give us the freedom to distort. . with p = −iω and ω > 0. (5. 2π) and θ2 ∈ (−π. Thus. 5.5. x2 .2 Inversion To make further progress we must decide how to cut the α plane. Note that χ = −iγ . For p that is real and positive. Nevertheless the reasoning is identical to that given in Section 3. where γ is given by (3.6) f¯( p) 2πi +i∞ − −i∞ e pαx1 e− pχ x2 dα.1 follow. we are asking that the components of the disturbance decay toward infinity. 5. The cuts are not the same as those indicated previously. the spatial inversion contour in the complex α plane.7) The has been added to the inversion contour in (5. we are left with inverting the integral 1 ¯ I (x1 .8) where (ri . x2 .3). almost anywhere. π). χ (5. t). Inverting in α by using (5. so that should the contour be rotated to give a standard Fourier transform. (5. for (χ) ≥ 0 ∀ α. p) = f¯( p)/( pχ). t) = f (t) ∗ I (x1 . p) = Next. Note that the sign of (χ) varies from quadrant to quadrant. The angle θ1 ∈ (0. Hence.4.1.1. because we are now using a Laplace rather than a Fourier transform.51). Here χ is given as χ = (r1r2 )1/2 eiθ1 /2 eiθ2 /2 e−iπ/2 . χ (5. inverting in time gives u 3 (x1 . and hence (5. The solution must be selected in such a way that the outgoing condition is enforced.3) gives ¯ u 3 (x1 .

Eliminating the parameter t shows that the curve is a hyperbola with asymptotes (α ± )/ (α ± ) = ∓ tan θ.2 indicates the answer to the former question.1. The original contour is shown by the heavy.9) The variable t traces out a contour in the complex t plane as α ranges from (− − i∞) to ( + i∞). we use (5. This contour is the Cagniard–deHoop .we set t(α) = −αx1 + χ x2 . A quadratic equation for α is arrived at. along what contour in the α plane is t real and positive.7) is convergent throughout the particular Riemann sheet we are working on. dashed line and the new one by the solid line. Setting x1 = r cos θ and 2 2 x2 = r sin θ. and in quadrants 3 and 4. and can we distort the current contour to that one? The answer to the latter question is yes.9) to find α as a function of t. where r = (x1 + x2 )1/2 . where α± = −s cos θ. with p real and positive. 5. the integral (5. The magnitude ri and argument θi for each radical are shown.80 5 Radiation and Diffraction Fig. We start by mapping the variable of integration from α to t.7. (5. The new contour has two branches evinced by the subscripts plus and minus attached to the α. rather than look at the t plane. for x2 > 0. because. That is. Contrast this figure with Fig. The parameter t starts at sr . (χ) > 0.10) We next ask. However. without assigning any physical meaning to t. Figure 5. and when solved gives the two roots t t2 α± = − cos θ ± i sin θ 2 − s 2 r r 1/2 . 3. (χ) < 0. we find that it is simpler to continue examining the α plane. In quadrants 1 and 2. The complex α plane cut so that (χ) ≥ 0 ∀ α. (5. and goes to ∞ along each branch α± .

dt r r [(t /r ) − s 2 ]1/2 Equation (5. contour. 5. x2 . 2 (s 2 − α+ )1/2 (5.14) ∞ sr e− pt dα+ /dt dt.13) where H (x) is the Heaviside function. dashed lines) to the Cagniard–deHoop contour and the angle θ. The burden of the inversion has rested with the mapping from the α plane to the t plane by using (5. I (x1 .1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space 81 Fig. Recall.10).12) Noting that one component of the integrand is the complex conjugate of the other. x2 . we rewrite the integral as 1 ¯ I (x1 .9) and its inverse (5. p) = 2πi ∞ sr (5. 2 1/2 dt 2 − α 2 )1/2 dt (s (s − α− ) + (5. the example just . 2 (s 2 − α+ )1/2 (5. x2 .7) can now be written as 1 ¯ I (x1 . A sketch of the original contour (heavy. Note how the angle θ is defined.6) must still be evaluated. that a convolution integral (5. p) = π Thus. One last term is needed. Also shown are the asymptotes (light. by inspection. dashed line) and the Cagniard– deHoop contour (solid line) in the complex α plane.2.5.11) e− pt e− pt dα+ dα− − 2 dt. however. Moreover. t) = H (t − sr ) 1 π dα+ /dt . namely 1 t sin θ dα± = − cos θ ± i 2 2 2 .

using Watson’s lemma. (5. Determine u 3 (x1 .15) f (t) ≡ 0 for t < 0. t) for t near sr . The integrand of the inverse spatial transform will have a pole and two branch points. we should find that in doing so the leading term is determined by the nature of the singularity in the dα+ /dt of the integrand. to the antiplane traction τ23 = −µ H (x1 )d f /dt (5. at x2 = 0.1. It is also of interest to note the form of (5. Ewing et al.1980b). This is called a wavefront approximation. we can construct an approximation to I (x1 . (1957) and Cagniard (1962) are primary references to these problems. It is precisely of the form needed to approximate it. It is also briefly explored in Problem 5.13). by Knopoff and Gilbert (1959) and is used extensively by Harris (1980a. Determine the particle displacement u 3 (x1 . x2 . though all the books on elastic waves cited previously discuss them. 1950).3. A simple variation to Problem 1 is to consider exactly the same problem except that (5. With a bit of exploring. t) in the interior by using the Cagniard–deHoop technique to invert the transforms.16) . Using a Tauberian theorem (van der Pol and Bremmer. x2 ≥ 0}. x2 )| − ∞ < x1 < ∞. where a is a constant. It is usually called Lamb’s problem.3. something we discuss in Section 5. x2 . Problem 5. and indeed Cagniard (1962) should be explored for more complicated cases. for large p. x2 .1 Half-Plane and Strip Problems Problem 1. Problem 2. We limit our discussion to calculating the response of an elastic half-space to a time-harmonic line of compression (a two-dimensional center of compression) by using the planewave spectral approach.82 5 Radiation and Diffraction given is a particularly simple instance of this mapping.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I Finding the response of an elastic half-space to a point or line load applied either at its surface or buried just below it is possibly the most studied problem in elastic waves. This technique is described. It is subjected. t) for this case. within the context of elastic waves. 5. Identify the waves represented by the pole term and by the integral taken along the Cagniard–deHoop contour.15) is replaced by τ23 = −µ d f /dt [H (x1 + a) − H (x1 − a)]. Consider the half-space {(x1 .

respectively. γL (5. ui is given by ui = F0 4π Cβ (β e1 − γ L e2 ) ei[βx1 +γL (h−x2 )] ˆ ˆ dβ . The radical γT = (k T − β 2 )1/2 .1. For x2 < h. We ask that by (3.1 and explored further in Problem 4.3 (imagine the branch cuts for γ L and γT lying on top of one another). the incident plus scattered wavefields.3. where γ is the radical defined 2 2 . The contour Cβ is also shown. and we suppress that dependence.18) gives the solution to (5.19)–(1. The total particle displacement ut = ui + u. is defined in the same way.18) becomes ui = − 2 k L F0 4π C ˆ p 0 (α)eik L p0 ·x eik L h sin α dα. The potentials are divided into two parts. the solution is ϕi = −i F0 4π ei(βx1 +γL |x2 −h|) Cβ dβ .20) γ L is the radical noted at the end of Section 3.37).5. with k L replaced by k T . identical to that discussed in Section 5. h).51) (γ L ) ≥ 0 ∀ β. γ L = k L sin α first introduced in (2. The source is time harmonic. The outcome of that problem suggests that the present calculations are most easily begun by working with potentials. It is sometimes useful to set F0 = A/k L . A source of this kind was introduced in Section 4. ˆ (5.17). The term ϕ i satisfies 2 ∂α ∂α ϕ i + k L ϕ i = F0 δ(x)δ(y − h). The constant F0 has the dimensions of 2 length squared. 5. but with no source term on the right-hand side. Note that γ L = iγ . with a line of compression located at (0. The vector potential ψ = ψ e3 .44 and there labeled ξ . The potentials ϕ and ψ satisfy the same equation. γL (5. Written here using a different notation. which will soon be needed. Note that (4.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I 83 We consider an elastic half-space.19) We next introduce the Sommerfeld transformation β = k L cos α. where A is a dimensionless constant.18) 2 The radical γ L = (k L − β 2 )1/2 . . (5. namely ϕ t = ϕ i + ϕ and ψ t = ψ.2. The terms ϕ t and ψ t are the total compressional and shear potentials. so that the divergence condiˆ tion is automatically satisfied. Then (5. and in the equation governing ψ. This leads to the complex plane structured as indicated in Fig. The potentials and their governing equations are given by (1.17). The term ϕ i is that excited by the line of compression in the absence of the traction-free surface and the terms ϕ and ψ are the compressional and shear potentials scattered from the surface.17) an equation almost identical to (4.22).

as well as the condition that the scattered wavefields be outgoing. where ˆ ˆ p 0 (α) = cos α e1 − sin α e2 .3. These wavefields are given by us L = − usT = − k L F0 4π k L F0 4π C ˆ p 1 (α)R L (α)eik L p1 ·x eik L h sin α dα. The complex β plane cut so that (γ I ) ≥ 0 ∀ β. where I = L . Using as the integrands the reflected plane. T .21) is identical to (3. we can construct the scattered wavefields such that the boundary condition is satisfied. In quadrants 1 and 2. (γ I ) > 0. compressional and shear waves calculated in Section 3.23) .1.1. with the contour C. where the first term represents the scattered compressional wavefield and the second the scattered shear wavefield. though we now use α as the independent variable. (5.4. The α plane. The contour Cβ is shown. is shown in Fig. 5. we have used a notation very similar to that of Section 3. and in quadrants 3 and 4. (γ I ) < 0. 5. ˆ (5.84 5 Radiation and Diffraction Fig. compressional wave incident to the traction-free surface x2 = 0.20) is a plane.22) C ˆ ˆ d 2 (α)RT (α)eikT p2 ·x eik L h sin α dα. The total scattered wavefield u = us L + usT . as are the Rayleigh poles at ±kr . The integrand of (5.4. Here (5. ˆ (5. We discuss its topography further in Section 5.2) with θ0 = π/2 + α.20).21) In writing (5.

the saddle point θ1 . the two Rayleigh poles αr and π − αr . The two reflection coefficients R L (α) and RT (α) are also given by (3. The complex α plane. (5. 5.26) (5.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I 85 Fig. are also indicated. and the contour of steepest descents Cs .1 by (3. This is indicated by the dashed portion of the contour. with the understanding that c−1 cos α = cT cos α is used to relate ¯ L α to α. 5. Moreover.28) .24) (5.4). we have ¯ ¯ R L (α) = A− (α)/A+ (α).5. Expressing the reflection coefficients in terms of α and α. (5.10)–(3. ˆ and ˆ ˆ ˆ d 2 (α) = e3 ∧ p 2 (α). ˆ ˆ ˆ ¯ˆ ¯ˆ p 2 (α) = cos α e1 + sin α e2 . The several unit vectors are given by p 1 (α) = cos α e1 + sin α e2 . RT (α) = 2κ sin 2α cos 2α/A+ (α). when θ0 = π/2 + α and θ2 = π/2 + α.4. Quadrants 1 and 2 of Fig. (3.27) (5.3 are mapped into quadrants 1 and 2 .7). and the contour C are indicated. Note how part of the contour of steepest descents passes onto the other Riemann sheet.25) These are identical to the unit vectors defined in Section 3.6) and ¯ (3. with its asymptotes at θ1 ± π/2.12). The independent variable is −1 taken as α. The branch cuts with branch points αT and π − αT . for the compressional wave.

R(β) 2 (5. the reader will need τ12 and τ22 expressed in terms of the potentials. The scattered shear wave does not appear to come from a virtual line source. Accordingly. The function R(β) is the Rayleigh function. multiplied by ω4 to account for the change in scaling.22) as eik L p1 ·X .30) (5. Note that [d2 ∗ ϕ i ]h+ = F0 . ˆ e Defining X = x1 e1 + (x2 + h)ˆ 2 . 2γ L (5. Problem 5.33) and find a similar expression for (β). implying that the scattered compressional wave appears to come from a virtual line of compression at (0. We indicate subsequently that its virtual source is a caustic.2 Lamb’s Problem The problem of a buried line of compression is often solved differently from the method we have just used. The phase of the integrand of (5. Are the radicals γ I identical to those defined previously? Expressing the traction terms as τitj = τiij + τi j .47). τ22 = λ∂α ∂α ϕ + 2µ(∂2 ∂2 ϕ − ∂2 ∂1 ψ). scattered potentials are given by ∗ ϕ = (β)eiγL x2 and ∗ ψ = (β)eiγT x2 . we can write the phase of the integrand of ˆ (5. The present problem indicates this more common method. .86 with 5 Radiation and Diffraction ¯ ¯ A∓ = sin 2α sin 2α ∓ κ 2 cos2 2α (5. show that τ12 = µ(2∂1 ∂2 ϕ + ∂2 ∂2 ψ − ∂1 ∂1 ψ). (3.17) and solve the ordinary differential equation in x2 . the boundary conditions at i i x2 = 0 become τ12 = −τ12 and τ22 = −τ22 . To apply the boundary conditions.29) and κ = c L /cT . Thus show that h− ∗ i ϕ (β.23) is complicated by the term eik L h sin α . (5. −h).32) Show that the transformed. x2 ) = − i F0 iγL |x2 −h| e . Enforce the boundary conditions in the transform domain to show that (β) = i F0 iγL h e 2γ L 2 k T − 2β 2 − 4β 2 γ L γT .31) Take a Fourier transform in x1 of (5. Continue to work with the potentials.

3. calculate the x1 component of the scattered particle displacement.5. We define the gamma function4 as ∞ (z)! := 0 3 e−t t z dt. as well as those undertaken in the previous chapters. positive and large. We now consider their asymptotic approximation when k I r → ∞. 1 5.22) or (5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 87 Lastly. x2 ). We are then concerned with integrals of the form I (κ) = f (z)eκq(z) dz. Asymptotic approximations give a satisfying interpretation to these integrals as ray fields. x2 ) + iv(x1 .4. u 1 = u s L + u sT .3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals The calculations of the previous section. Harris (1987) indicates how these decisions can effect approximating diffraction from an aperture.1 Watson’s Lemma To facilitate our work we need to study briefly the gamma function and two of its friends. when the distance r is many wavelengths long. (5. (z)! is also written as (z + 1). This scaling and identification depends a good deal on the situation of interest. have indicted how readily one arrives at integrals such as (5. though the approximations can (with care) be analytically continued to sectors of the complex κ plane. that is. Also note that I (κ) is also dependent on the contour of integration C1 . though that dependence is seldom explicitly indicated.34) (5.37) 4 The first step in asymptotically approximating an integral is to scale the variables so that the large parameter κ can be clearly identified. 5. Cβ (5.23).36) where q(z) = u(x1 . while Carrier et al. C1 2 2βγT k T − 2β 2 . (1983) indicate how they affect the asymptotic approximation of a Hankel function. This is a another way of generating asymptotic approximations such as those discussed in Section 2.35) (5. Show that 1 1 u sT = 1 where U sT = Find the expression for u s L . R(β) F0 2π U sT (β)ei(βx1 +γT x2 ) eiγL h dβ. The parameter3 κ. . is assumed to be real. which is often k I r .

We begin by considering (5. (a − n)! x → ∞.41) To estimate the magnitude of the remainder term.88 5 Radiation and Diffraction the incomplete gamma function as γ (z. x). We assume that dz q = 0 even at the end point z 1 . (a − n)! (a − N − 1)! (5. Equation (5. though the functions can be analytically continued to (z) < 0.40) where a and x are real and positive. we note that (a − 1)! (a − N − 1)! < = ∞ x ∞ x e−t t a−N −1 dt e−t dt (5.36) with a contour C1 that begins at a finite point z 1 and extends to ∞ in a sector of the complex plane wherein the integral is convergent. (a. x) := 0 x e−t t z−1 dt. Proof The following proof is from Copson (1971).39) becomes (a. . x) := (z − 1)! − γ (z. namely integration by parts. (5.39) These definitions are for (z) > 0.40) follows. After N such integrations (5. (a − N − 1)! for N > (a − 1).42) (a − 1)! x a−N −1 (a − N − 1)! (a − 1)! x a−N −1 e−x . We take x as real and positive. = x ∞ e−t t z−1 dt.38) and the complement to the incomplete gamma function as (z. (5. but it is repeated here both for completeness and because it illustrates a very simple but useful way to generate an asymptotic approximation to an integral. Lemma. x) = e−x N n=1 (a − 1)! (a − 1)! a−n + x (a − N . x) ∼ e−x n≥1 (a − 1)! a−n x . x). We look for a contour C2 from z 1 to ∞ along which q(z) < q(z 1 ) and q(z) = q(z 1 ). (5.

where g(s) is analytic at s = ¯ 0 (z = z 1 ) with a radius of convergence r . The term s λ includes any singularity at s = 0 either from f (z) itself or as a result of mapping to the s plane.47) .43) we introduce the function G(s) = − f (z)/dz q and write G(s) as G(s) = g(s)s λ .3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals First. 89 (5. The integral J (κ) is written as J = 0 r∗ e−κs s λ (a0 + a1 s + a2 s 2 + · · · + am s m ) ds r∗ 0 + e−κs s λ Rm+1 (s) ds + ∞ r∗ g(s)s λ e−κs ds. one seldom works directly in the s plane. though we do not include such contributions here. (1983). Any poles or branch cuts encountered during the deformation must be appropriately surrounded and their contributions added to the asymptotic approximation of the integral.43) Second.r ∗ ]. (5. (5. we deform the contour in the s plane to one along the real s axis from zero to ∞. κ λ+n+1 κ → ∞. (5. Carrier et al. Then J (κ) ∼ n≥0 an (λ + n)! .44). where J (κ) is given by (5. Ablowitz and Fokas (1997) and Wong (1989) with greater generality and weaker assumptions than those stated here.5. r is the radius of convergence for g(s) and r ∗ < r .1 (Watson’s Lemma). As with the Cagniard–deHoop contour. The integral now assumes the form exp[κq(z 1 )]J (κ).44) arrived at by the change of variables described in the preceding paragraphs. Let real constants K and b exist so that |g(s)| ≤ K ebs as s → ∞. With the change of variables of (5. λ > −1.45) ¯ ¯ with |Rm+1 (s)| ≤ Cs m+1 . g(s) = a0 + a1 s + a2 s 2 + · · · + Rm+1 (s). Proposition 5. Consider the integral J (κ) = 0 ∞ g(s)s λ e−κs ds. Let g(s) be analytic at s = 0 so that for s ∈ [0.46) Proof This is proven in Copson (1971). (5. Rather it is the contour C1 in the z plane that is deformed to a new contour C2 in that plane. we map the z plane into the s plane by using s = q(z 1 ) − q(z).

46) follows. κr ∗ ). The asymptotic approximation (5. With the use of (5.52) All the the bounds are taken as κ → ∞. . (5.45) as s → 0. and the previous Lemma. (κ − b) ∗ (5. say that with index n.49) Noting that the integral on right-hand side is (λ + n + 1.39) and the previous Lemma. is such that ∞ r∗ e−κs an s λ+n ds = e−t t λ+n dt. we conclude from the previous Lemma that each term of this second integral is ∞ r∗ e−κs an s λ+n ds = O e−κr κ ∗ . using |g(s)| ≤ K ebs . The integral from zero to ∞ is readily evaluated. It also demonstrates the principle that how a function behaves at its origin is projected into how its transform behaves at infinity and vice versa. (5. (5.38). the incomplete gamma function. as s → ∞. Lastly. after a change of variables.51) = Oκ −(λ+m+2) where we recognize that the integral on the right is.50) With |Rm+1 (s)| ≤ Cs m+1 . This fact and Watson’s lemma are the starting point for the various Abelian and Tauberian theorems found in Doetsch (1974) or van der Pol and Bremmer (1950). the second integral in (5. (5.48) Each term of the second integral. λ+2 κ κ an κ λ+n+1 ∞ κr ∗ (5. giving a0 λ! κ λ+1 + a1 (λ + 1)! (λ + m)! + · · · + am λ+m+1 .90 5 Radiation and Diffraction The first integral is again split into two parts by being written as one from zero to ∞ minus one from r ∗ to ∞.47) is such that r∗ 0 e−κs s λ Rm+1 (s) ds C κr ∗ 0 ≤ κ λ+m+2 e−t t λ+m+1 dt . we find that ∞ K r∗ e −s(κ−b) λ e−r (κ−b) s ds = O . the ordering follows. One simple weakening of the assumptions of this proposition follows immediately by noting that g(s) need only have the asymptotic behavior exhibited by (5.

36) with a contour C1 that stretches across the complex plane.20) are examples. and that dz q = 0 but dz q = 0 at z s . we parameterize the contour Cs with the arclength r so that the directional derivative of u along this contour is dr u = ∂1 u cos α + ∂2 u sin α. assuming. Viewing (5. beginning in one sector of the complex plane at infinity and ending in another sector at infinity. x2 ) + iv(x1 . 1974). The stationary point z s is therefore a saddle point and its neighborhood a col or saddle (Courant and John. x2 ) = C. of course. The contours Cβ and C defining integrals (5.3.2 Method of Steepest Descents 91 We next consider (5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 5. where C is a constant. is positive along the x1 axis. or v(x1 . x2 ) near its stationary point z s . x2s ) the curvature of the surface u(x1 . Figure 5. Thus. We then deform the contour C1 into a contour Cs passing through this point and defined by q(z) ≤ q(z s ) and q(z) = q(z s ).54) in Q so that u and v are harmonic functions.53) The Steepest Descents Contour To fix our ideas more precisely.55) where dr x1 = cos α and dr x2 = sin α. if at (x1s . the principal contribution to the new integral comes from z s and I (κ) takes the approximate form I (κ) ≈ f (z s )eiκv(x1s . x2 ) = C.x2 ) dz.56) .55) as a function of α. Pole and branch cut contributions arising from deforming C1 to Cs must be added to the contribution made by the new integral over Cs . it is negative along the (perpendicular) x2 axis.x2s ) eκu(x1 . Assume that (q) has a stationary point at z s . (5. that such a deformation is possible. (5. We assume that q(z) is 2 analytic in region Q containing z s . though they are not explicitly included in the present discussion. To investigate this neighborhood and the contour Cs . Cs (5. ∂2 u = −∂1 v (5. If f (z) is analytic and slowly varying near z s .5 sketches the topography in the neighborhood of z s . we examine the topography of the function q(z) = u(x1 . the direction of maximum change in u is given by d(dr u)/dα = −∂1 u sin α + ∂2 u cos α = 0. The function q(z) satisfies the Cauchy–Riemann equations ∂1 u = ∂2 v.5.19) and (5. Our discussion follows a similar one given in Felsen and Marcuvitz (1994).

(5. This then is the contour Cs we seek. eκu decreases most rapidly and eiκv remains constant for ψ = ±π/2. The contour Cs along which v is constant but along which u decreases most rapidly is called the path of steepest descents.5. . Expanding q(z) about z s gives 2 exp[κq(z)] ≈ exp[κq(z s )] exp (κ/2) dz q(z s )(z − z s )2 . 5.58) indicates that.58) where 2 ψ = arg(z − z s ) + 1 arg dz q(z s ) . as we move away from the saddle point z s . this equation becomes dr v = 0. These latter contours are paths of stationary phase or stationary phase contours. or the steepest descents contour. 2 (5. Therefore v is constant along the same contour on which u changes most rapidly. for ψ = ±π/4 or ±3π/4. eκu remains constant and eiκv oscillates most rapidly. locally. However.59) Examining (5.92 5 Radiation and Diffraction Fig. A three-dimensional sketch of the topography of (q) = u near z s . (5. With the use of the Cauchy–Riemann equations. there are two such contours and we need to select that one along which u decreases. eκu increases most rapidly and eiκv again remains constant. its arclength r .57) or exp[κq(z)] ≈ exp[κq(z s )] 2 × exp (κ/2) dz q(z s )(z − z s )2 (cos 2ψ + i sin 2ψ) . For ψ = 0 or π. and the angle it makes with the x1 axis as it passes through z s are shown. The contour Cs . To determine this contour. we examine the behavior of q(z) in the neighborhood of z s . the stationary point.

62) . x2 ) be analytic in a region Q containing z s . Proof We again use a mapping that captures the essential topographical features of the phase function q(z) in the neighborhood of the stationary point.60) 2 The argument of [−2/dz q(z s )]1/2 is defined by the argument of ds z at z s .3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 93 Note that we could shift the steepest descents contour to pass through a point higher up the ridge.2. the integral I (κ) is now given by I (κ) = eκq(zs ) ∞ −∞ G(s)e−κs ds. Then I (κ) ∼ (−2π)1/2 2 κ dz q(z s ) 1/2 f (z s )eiκq(zs ) + O κ −3/2 . therefore.5 suggests how the contour Cs might look in the z plane. but dz q(z s ) = 0. there could be cancellations. Proposition 5. 2 (5. We map from the z plane to the s plane by using s 2 = q(z s ) − q(z). Let the function q(z) = u(x1 . The point z s is a saddle point. Assume that the contour C1 has been deformed into the steepest descents contour Cs defined previously. That is.5. Any of the references cited when Watson’s lemma was discussed also discuss the method of steepest descents from various points of view. (5. Let the function f (z) be analytic in a region R containing z s such that f (z s ) = 0. Moreover. this would mean that the exponential in the integrand would oscillate and. voiding the assumption that the maximum contribution to the integral comes from this point. An Isolated First-Order Saddle Point With the following proposition we put the knowledge just gained into a more precise form. n ≥ 2. κ → ∞. (5. dz q(z) as |z| → ∞ in sectors of the complex plane where Cs begins and ends. Figure 5. z traces the steepest descents contour from beginning to end.61) We define the inverse mapping so that. With this change of integration variable. the conditions cited are stronger than they have to be. let there be constants K and b such that 2 f (z)[q(z s ) − q(z)]1/2 < K eb[q(z)−q(zs )] . x2 ) + iv(x1 . and it is isolated and n first order. As with previous propositions. dz (z s ) = 0. However. as s varies from −∞ to ∞.

Therefore G(0) = f (z s ) dz ds . Thus G(s) is analytic in a region containing s = 0 and can be expanded in a ¯ power series with a radius of convergence r . follows. ds z is also analytic in a region containing s = 0 (the singularity is removable).63) Note that at z = z s . This is what is meant by the phrase that f (z) be slowly varying near z s . At this point we follow a procedure almost identical to that used to establish Proposition 5.67) Estimating the contributions of the various integrals is identical to that used previously in (5. G(s) = G(0) + ds G(0)s + ds2 G(0)(s 2 /2) + · · · + R2(m+1) (s). s=0 dz ds = s=0 −2 2 dz q(z s ) 1/2 . ds G(0) is the first nonzero term.61) expanded in a power series in z − z s must be inverted to give z = z(s) as a power series in s. 2 Moreover. . setting G(s) = g(s)s. |R2(m+1) (s)| < Cs 2(m+1) . 5 2 If.65) The differential element ds is real and positive along the path of integration. where C is a constant. 2 +2 e−κs R2(m+1) (s) ds + ∞ r∗ (5. Note how r ∗ enters the calculation. we note that by hypothesis |g(s)| < K ebs as |s| → ∞.66) Because G(s) is analytic. However.52). Setting I (κ) = exp[κq(z s )]J (κ). the pattern of the proof is unchanged. (5.1. ds (5.60). s=0 (5. We have assumed that f (z) is analytic in a region containing z s . (5. so that at s = 0. arg dz ds = arg(dz)z=zs = α.64) ¯ where |s| ≤ r ∗ < r .48)–(5. The asymptotic approximation. Copson (1935) describes how to invert a series. it is usually enough to calculate only the first term G(0)5 .94 where 5 Radiation and Diffraction dz −2s = . Moreover. so that we want it to be at least O(1). we write J = r∗ −r ∗ e−κs r∗ 0 2 G(0) + · · · + ds2m G(0) 2 s 2m ds (2m)! g(s)s e−κs ds. If r ∗ is small we have not really achieved very much. This expansion is seldom easy to calculate because (5. ds dz q(z) G(s) = f (z) dz . (5. say. ds z becomes indefinite so that a limit must be taken as z → zs .

Consider an integral having the form given by (5. and κ is real. The contour is thus a stationary phase contour.68) is asymptotically approximated by the sum of the contributions given by (5. The contributions from the end points x1 and x2 are I (κ) ∼ f (x1 ) iκ p(x1 ) f (x2 ) iκ p(x2 ) 1 − e e .60). Consider the integral given by (5.70) The integral (5. The angle θ is that shown in Fig. we find the contribution from xs is I (κ) ∼ 2π 2 p(x ) κ dx s 1/2 f (xs )ei[κ p(xs )±π/4] . positive. The references cited in connection with Watson’s lemma discuss the stationary phase approximation from various other viewpoints and provide more detailed discussions.7). (5. (5. The integration contour is then deformed to a path of steepest descents passing through xs .3. iκ dx p(x2 ) dx p(x1 ) κ → ∞. we use the method of steepest descents.70). p) ∼ p 1/2 p → ∞.69) and (5. I (x1 . 5.1 and Watson’s lemma. Show that the Cagniard–deHoop contour is one of steepest descents and that α = −s cos θ is a saddle point. x1 < x2 .13). x2 . Problem 2.2.3.71) .3 Asymptotic Approximations of Integrals Problem 1. Using (5. Problem 5.5.3 Asymptotic Approximation of Integrals 5.3 Stationary Phase Approximation 95 The stationary phase approximation is usually applied to integrals of the form I (κ) = x2 x1 f (x)eiκ p(x) d x. and assumed large.68) where p(x) is a real function when x is real. The end point contributions are estimated by using the method outlined in Section 5.69) 2 2 The plus sign is taken for dx p(xs ) > 0 and the minus sign for dx p(xs ) < 0. We assume i p(z) is analytic in region containing xs so that the stationary point becomes a saddle point. To asymptotically approximate this integral. (5. (5. We assume that there is a first-order stationary point xs between x1 and x2 . κ → ∞. Use Watson’s lemma to show that the first term of an asymptotic expansion in p is a0 (−1/2)! − psr ¯ e .

23) mean. Moreover. Sketch the contour and show that the integral converges provided it begins and ends in the sectors containing these points. x2 . respectively.23) therefore have poles at αr and π − αr .23). (5.4. recall Figs. These poles give rise to oppositely directed Rayleigh surface waves. In particular.4. .4 and (5.74) −1 ¯ where c−1 cos α = cT cos α and γ I = (k 2 − β 2 )1/2 . ¯ (5.4 where the features of the β plane and the α plane. Problem 3. namely ¯ β = k L cos α = k T cos α.22) and (5. Consider the change of integration variable τ = 21/2 eiπ/4 sin[(θ − α)/2]. provided the definition of α given in the paragraph preceding (5. are described. 5. γT = k T sin α. π). as are their β-plane counterparts in Fig.1 The Complex Plane We begin by recalling the Sommerfeld transformation used to arrive at (5. Speculate on the structure that P(cos α) might be permitted in order that an asymptotic approximation of the integral be successful. Consider the values of α to the left of the vertical line through π/2. 1950 to learn why) and is therefore sometimes called a wavefront approximation. The integrands of (5.72) C where θ ∈ (0.3. t). The contour C begins at π − i∞ and ends at i∞. 5.3 L I and 5.3 points out that A+ (α) is identical to the Rayleigh function. that describe the wavefield scattered from the traction-free surface.27) is used.96 5 Radiation and Diffraction Find a0 . 5. These are indicated in Fig. 5.20). it is useful to ask what Fig.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II We now turn to the asymptotic approximation of the integrals. Section 3. γ L = k L sin α.73) Show that a deformation of the contour to one along which τ is real gives an integral along the path of steepest descents Cs . 5. the contours Cβ and C are indicated there. 5. Before continuing. This approximation is accurate as t → sr (consult Doestch. (5. Invert this to approximate I (x1 . Consider an integral of the form I (kr ) = P(cos α)eikr cos(θ −α) dα.22) and (5.22) and (5. 1974 or van der Pol and Bremmer. (5.4.

22) as us L = − k L F0 4π ˆ p 1 (α)R L (α)eik L r cos(α−θ1 ) dα. respectively. α1 → ±π/2 + θ1 . They decay toward the surface. shear plane waves are still being reflected at the L real angle α. we must first ascertain where the contour of steepest descents Cs begins and ends. From π/2 to zero the incident compressional wave is composed of plane waves. as α takes on imaginary values from zero to a critical angle αT . by cos(α1 − θ1 ) cosh α2 = 1. Note that the Rayleigh wave could not be excited unless the incident disturbance contained inhomogeneous waves. −1 defined by c−1 cos αT = cT . we quite quickly encounter the Rayleigh pole at αr . incident inhomogeneous plane waves are added to the overall incident wavefield. The function q(α) = i cos(α − θ1 ) and the stationary point.5. α2 = −(α1 − θ1 ).75) C To approximate this integral for k L r large. The contour Cs is described by [q(α)] = 1. Expressing α as α = α1 + iα2 . and end in α1 ∈ (θ1 − π.76) For the integral (5. Because we want [q(α)] to achieve a maximum along Cs at θ1 .22) and (5. θ1 ). or.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II 97 Those to the right have a very similar meaning. (5.76). Further. and what it looks like near the stationary point. for |α| large. At the limiting (imaginary) angle αT a shear wave grazing the ¯ surface is excited. Reciprocally they scatter into compressional inhomogeneous plane waves that decay away from the surface. .77) Near α = θ1 . is given by α = θ1 .4. where α2 > 0.75) to converge. note that as we climb beyond αT . we express (5. Lastly. 5.23) when it is enclosed. This term must be included in our evaluation of (5. from (5. That is. cos(α − θ1 ) = cos(α1 − θ1 ) cosh α2 − i sin(α1 − θ1 ) sinh α2 . a saddle point. (5. π + θ1 ). They are reflected into plane compressional and shear waves propagating away from the surface at α and α. (5. [cos(θ1 − α)] > 0 so that Cs must begin and end in a region of the α plane where sin(α1 − θ1 ) sinh α2 < 0. As α climbs the ¯ imaginary axis. However. the contour must begin in a region α1 ∈ (θ1 . where α2 < 0. For values of α beyond αT the scattered shear plane waves are now also inhomogeneous and decay away from the surface. each incident at the angle α in this range. Cs is described by α2 = ±(α1 − θ1 ).2 The Scattered Compressional Wave Setting x1 = r cos θ1 and (x2 + h) = r sin θ1 .

and this contribution asymptotically approximated. From (5.23). Note that this has given us a representation of the kind investigated in Section 2. where we have added the subscript r to indicate this special value. k L r → ∞.4 asks the reader to evaluate the contribution from αr . which is repeated in the following equation. The overall structure of (5. we find that us L ∼ A 4πk L 2π kL r 1/2 ˆ p 1 (θ0 )R L (θ0 )eik L r e−iπ/4 . then the contour Cs must instead be wrapped around the branch cut. Suppose that θ1 is such that in distorting C to Cs the pole at αr is enclosed. This is equivalent to the condition that cos θ1r = cr /c L . no Rayleigh wave is present. Thus for values of θ1r < θ1 < π/2.79) C . 5. Occasionally one must also be careful that one does not forget to include any pole contributions that may arise from poles on this other sheet.3 The Scattered Shear Wave Equation (5. usT = − k L F0 4π ˆ ˆ d 2 (α)RT (α)eikT p2 ·x eik L h sin α dα. Harris and Pott (1985) discuss such contributions.78) is that of a farfield expression for a cylindrical wave radiating from a virtual source at (0.60) is to settle what the argument of the square root is.4.4 indicates the contour Cs passing through the saddle point θ1 .78) 2 where F0 = A/k L has been used. r = h/ sin θ1 is the radius of curvature of the reflected cylindrical wave as it is just about to form. −h).4. (5. If we inverted our result in time we should find that this is equivalent to asserting that the Rayleigh wave cannot be excited before the incident compressional disturbance strikes the surface. the condition for this first to happen is that cos θ1 cosh(−iαr ) = 1. in agreement with what we indicated previously. When one cannot reemerge onto the Riemann sheet of physical interest. One must be careful to ensure that when this happens that one can reemerge onto the Riemann sheet of physical interest. Putting the various pieces together. 5. Following the rule set out in Proposition 2 5. is a somewhat harder integral to approximate. Note that depending upon θ1 .98 5 Radiation and Diffraction Figure 5. The remaining issue before using the steepest descents result (5.2 .77). Note also that Cs passes onto the other Riemann sheet – the dashed portion in Fig. Problem 5. (5. as well as the two limiting lines at α1 = ±π/2 + θ1 . arg[−2/dα q(θ1 )]1/2 = 3π/4.4 – over part of its path. the poles at αr and π − αr may or may not be enclosed. At the surface x2 = 0. on the physically meaningful Riemann sheet. should they be enclosed by this excursion.

5.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II 99 The complexity arises from the mixing of wave types: an incident compressional wave whose phase lingers in the term eik L h sin α and the scattered shear ˆ wave whose phase is eikT p2 ·x . We have sketched this possibility in Fig. the key to understanding (5. The compressional ray originates at (0. Instead. The first clue can be found by examining (2. −h). then from a point on a virtual caustic. We have seen that the reflected compressional wave (5.51) and (2.78) appears to originate at the virtual source point (0. Let s0 be the distance the compressional ray propagates from (0. That is.6. We therefore know approximately what Cs looks like and can apply (5. h) and propagates a distance s0 . In a similar way we should expect that the reflected shear wave will appear to originate. The radius of curvature ρT measures the distance from a point on the virtual caustic to a point on the surface x2 = 0 at which the scattered shear wave is starting to form. striking the surface at an angle θ0 .56). It appears to originate from a point on a virtual caustic located by extending the ray backward a distance ρT . 5.6. Finding Cs and investigating it in the neighborhood of the stationary point is similar to that for the compressional case. The scattered shear ray emerges at an angle θ2 . A sketch of the shear ray scattered from the surface when struck by an incident compressional ray. the radius of curvature has its origin either at a point on a caustic surface or at a single point. We know from (5.79) can be found by considering the geometry of the rays. . if not from a virtual source point.78) that a steepest descents approximation will give phase terms that are those of a ray theory. h) to this same point on the surface and s2 be the distance the reflected shear ray propagates from this point to the Fig. These expressions are singular when the distance along the ray is the negative of the radius of curvature. 5.60) without working out Cs in detail.

(5. 5. x2 ).4 The Rayleigh Wave Calculate the Rayleigh-pole contributions to us L and usT . after some algebraic manipulation. along with a continuous distribution of eigenvalues.79) must contain the term (1 + s2 /ρT )1/2 in its denominator so that we can identify ρT from the final asymptotic expression. that the phase-matching condition c−1 cos θ0 = cT cos θ2 gives a fourth L relation. could be distorted so as to wrap around the Rayleigh pole and the branch cuts. and the ratio κ = c L /cT . we express (5. κ is given in terms of Poisson’s ratio by (3.100 5 Radiation and Diffraction observation point (x1 . as −1 well. and θ2 . Problem 5. Thus we may solve for the unknowns in terms of what is given. Setting (x1 − s0 cos θ0 ) = s2 cos θ2 and x2 = s2 sin θ2 .81) k L F0 4π ˆ d 2 (α)RT (α)e(kT s2 +k L s0 )q(α) dα.3. This gives.79) as usT = − where q(α) = i k L s0 k T s2 cos(α − θ2 ) + i ¯ cos(α − θ0 ).83) and s0 . We have enough information at this point to approximate (5. Fig. Note. In closing we note that the contour in the β plane. Cβ . and hence the Rayleigh wave excited by a harmonic line of compression at (0. The unknowns at this point can be taken as s0 . a saddle point. x2 and h (= s0 sin θ0 ) can be considered as given. and θ2 are determined in terms of x1 . θ0 . h. The stationary point. We do not at present have an analytic expression for ρT . while x1 . cT sin2 θ0 (5. the contribution of the Rayleigh pole. h).80) Cs The parameter (k T s2 + k L s0 ) is large. The radius of curvature ρT is given by ρT = s0 c L sin2 θ2 . usT ∼ 2π A 4πk L (k L s0 )(1 + s2 /ρT ) 1/2 ˆ × d 2 (θ0 )RT (θ0 )ei(kT s2 +k L s0 ) e−iπ/4 . However. This would give a representation of the wavefields us L and usT that corresponds to an eigenfunction expansion. θ0 . (k T s2 + k L s0 ) (k T s2 + k L s0 ) (5. There are a .80) by using (5. is given by α = θ2 and α = θ0 . (5. s2 . s2 . we know that the asymptotic expansion of (5. This is a manifestation of Fermat’s principle that ¯ the ray path is an extremum.82) 2 where again F0 = A/k L has been used. the contribution from the branch cuts. x2 .60). Of particular interest is the fact that the spectrum has a discrete eigenvalue.13). nor do we have one for the virtual caustic. k T s2 + k L s0 → ∞.

Figure 5. The rippled arrows indicate their directions of propagation. and the reflected and transmitted geometrical waves. Specifically. On both sides. in regions 1.7 indicates the geometry of the problem.23). antiplane shear wave normally incident to a semi-infinite slit or crack. the traction acting on the surfaces of the crack is zero. The complications came about not only because both compressional and shear wavefields were scattered from the surface. As we have done previously when dealing with antiplane shear waves. with the corresponding time-harmonic equation being given by (2. we consider a time harmonic.15).2. transition. 5. and 3.22) and (5. The crack lies along the positive x1 axis. In this section we consider a related problem: one in which the scatterer has an edge that excites a full spectrum of plane waves. I should likely begin with (5. we simplify the notation by dropping 2 5 3 x1 Crack 4 1 x2 Fig.7. Separating the diffracted and geometrical wavefields.14) and (1. though the incident wave is a single plane one. or boundary layers. the cylindrical diffracted wave emanating from the crack tip.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge The previous problem has considered scattering of a cylindrical wave from an infinite traction-free surface.20).5. . 5. The equations of motion are given by (1. but also because the incident wavefield was composed of a complete spectrum of plane waves. labeled regions 4 and 5. but this is not the only starting point.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 101 number of starting points. are parabolic shaped. A sketch of the crack.

85). 0− ). 5. x1 > 0. The total wavefield u t3 = u ts + u ta . The total wavefield u t3 = u i3 + u 3 . From the symmetry. respectively. Reflecting the symmetric problem in the plane x2 = 0 leaves the particle displacement unchanged. where u 3 is the scattered wavefield. We next set the scattered wavefield u 3 = u s + u a where 3 3 3 3 u s is symmetric and u a antisymmetric with respect to x2 = 0. (5. where u ts and u ta are the symmetric and antisymmet3 3 3 3 ric components. (5. x1 < 0. respectively.86) so that u i3 = u is + u ia . u t3 (x1 . while reflecting the antisymmetric one multiplies it by −1. u i3 = (A/2k)(eikx2 + e−ikx2 ) + (A/2k)(eikx2 − e−ikx2 ). separately satisfies the boundary and continuity conditions (5. This and the condition that 3 the scattered wavefield propagate outward imply that u s ≡ 0. each wavefield. ∂2 u s = 0 ∀ x1 at x2 = 0. The constant A is dimensionless. symmetric and antisymmetric. The symmet3 3 ric scattered wavefield is excited by the incident symmetric one and the antisymmetric scattered wavefield by the incident antisymmetric one.1 Formulation The plane wave u i3 . The boundary and continuity conditions to be satisfied at x2 = 0 are µ∂2 u t3 (x1 . and that it therefore satisfy the principle of limiting absorption (Section 4. Note that x2 = 0 is a plane of reflection symmetry for the problem. we divide the incident wavefield into symmetric and antisymmetric components as follows.85) The superscripts ± indicate that the boundary is approached through positive or negative values of x2 . having been made so by dividing by k. We consider the symmetric problem. Also we ask that the scattered wave be outgoing from its source. 0± ) = 0. one symmetric and one antisymmetric with respect to this plane. Therefore the 3 symmetric part of the incident wavefield remains unaffected by the presence of . ∂2 u is = 0 ∀ x1 at x2 = 3 0.84) is incident to the crack. 0+ ) = u t3 (x1 . The problem has therefore been divided into two separate ones. described by u i3 = (A/k)eikx2 .5.102 5 Radiation and Diffraction the subscript T and use c and k = ω/c as the wavespeed and wavenumber. the wavenumber. As a way to formulate the problem for the scattered disturbance. respectively. the problem is divided into two. By construction. Lastly. (5. To begin.4). the crack.

has been explicitly added to k in (5. 0) = −i Ae− x1 (5. we 3 are led to reformulate the problem. We could solve this problem by formulating an integral equation for the scattered wavefield following the ideas outlined in Problem 4. to solve the problem directly with the Wiener–Hopf method as used by Jones (Jones. it is easier. we must also append to these equations an edge condition as explained in Section 4. We should then find that the integral equation can be solved by using the Wiener–Hopf method (Titchmarsh. and perhaps just as informative. However.7.5. it is not needed for other angles of incidence. at x2 = 0. −x2 ).3. (5. u 3+ . However. because the incident wave strikes the crack normally. 0 < 1. 5. (5. Noble. but noting that u 3 = u a .2 Wiener–Hopf Solution We begin by setting u 3 (x1 .87). ∂α ∂α u 3 + (k + i )2 u 3 = 0. as with the incident wave. do not vanish as |kx1 | → ∞ unless this artifice is used. kr → 0.89) 2 2 where r = (x1 + x2 )1/2 .2. ∂2 u 3 (x1 . 1988). Lastly.5.3 to demand that ku 3 = O (kr )1/2 . This condition is essential to ensure that the solution be unique. (5. for the scattered wavefield u 3 as follows.87) . In this particular problem.7. the condition that u 3 be outgoing and satisfy the principle of limiting absorption is enforced.90) . We set k = k + i . x1 < 0.88) As well. The complete problem is then equivalent to the antisymmetric one and the scattered wavefield is antisymmetric in x2 . with k taken as real and positive. It is for this latter reason that the i . in the half-space x2 > 0. u 3 (x1 .5. The scattered wavefield for x2 < 0 is found by using the fact that u 3 (x1 . 0) = 0. Reasserting the decomposition u t3 = u i3 + u 3 . subject to the conditions. 1948).5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 103 the crack in its path of propagation. 0) = 0. the scattered wavefield will contain geometrically reflected waves that. x1 < 0. x1 > 0. x1 > 0. as we indicate in Problem 5. In fact we use the analysis of Section 4. x2 ) = −u 3 (x1 . The addition of the e− x1 in the boundary condition is an artifice also needed to enforce the principle of limiting absorption. 1952.

92) where γ = (k 2 − β 2 )1/2 . propagating normally away from the Fig. τ+ = −i Ae− x1 .3. Imposing the conditions at x2 = 0 on (5. Recall that x2 > 0 so that the β plane is cut such that (γ ) ≥ 0.8. 5.8 shows the branch points with the accompanying cuts. We seek a solution to (5. The transform ∗ u 3+ remains to be determined.92) and using (5.93) With some thought.90) gives the following: ∗ u 3+ = 0 ∞ u 3+ (x1 )e−iβx1 d x1 . ∀ β. (5. pole at i . (5. to the right along the crack in Fig.87) by using a representation very similar to that used previously in Section 2. This is the same choice of Riemann sheet as was taken in Section 5. The complex β plane showing the branch cuts. x1 > 0.91) Our strategy in solving the problem for the scattered wavefield is to find a functional relation between the two unknowns τ− and u 3+ .6.4. one realizes that.104 5 Radiation and Diffraction ∂2 u 3 (x1 . 5. As → 0 the pole will approach a position just above this contour.4. 0) = τ− . The contour for the inverse transform initially lies within this strip.1 (the roles of x1 and x2 are interchanged). we set u3 = 1 2π ∞ −∞ ∗ u 3+ ei(βx1 +γ x2 ) dβ. x1 < 0.2 and first explicitly discussed in Section 3. That is. and strip of common analyticity 2 wide. (5. . the dominant wavefield is a plane one. Figure 5.

.94) = −A . Further we define the transform ∗ τ− as ∗ τ− = 0 −∞ τ− (x1 )e−iβx1 d x1 .91). This gives iγ ∗ u 3+ = [−A/(β − i )] +∗ τ− . (β − i ) Note the pole at i . A cylindrical scattered wave is emitted from the tip. we find that ∗ τ+ = 0 ∞ τ+ (x1 )e−iβx1 d x1 (5. Thus τ− = O(e− |x1 | ) as kx 1 → −∞. The goal of the next few paragraphs will be to rearrange this expression so that one side is analytic in the region (β) > − . We demand that ∂2 u 3 calculated from (5. but that all parts are analytic in the common strip (β) ∈ (− .5. Noble (1988) discusses in some detail the conditions needed to ensure that a transform is an analytic function of its independent variable. x2 = 0 has been built into ∗ u 3+ . (5. Thus ku 3+ = O(e− x1 ) as kx1 → ∞.92) be consistent with that represented by (5.96) which is the functional relation we are looking for.95) at x2 = 0.94) and (5. while Titchmarsh (1939) discuses this somewhat more generally. In essence. but one that is forced to decay as x1 → ∞ because of the e− x1 placed in the first of (5. from which it follows that ∗ u 3+ is an analytic function of β for (β) < . the final answer must be checked to ensure that it is consistent with these assumptions. because k = k + i . while the other is analytic in the region (β) < . (5. Note that different parts of it are analytic in different parts of the complex β plane. The two sides will 6 We need to guess at the kinematics of the scattered wave to deduce where ∗ u 3+ and ∗ τ− are analytic. Also note that the condition that u 3 = 0 for x1 < 0. However. Any other wave present will originate from the crack tip. the transform is an analytic function of its variable β for those regions of the complex β plane wherein the integral is uniformly convergent. from which it follows that ∗ τ− is an analytic function of β for (β) > − . Working next with (5.95) The crack tip is the only possible source for a scattered wave in x1 < 0.6 That part grazing the crack face will also decay as e− x1 because k = k + i .5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 105 crack. ). Experience with similar problems is how this is done.88).

The right side is almost one for (β) > − . . ). The function is entire and its nature is determined by its behavior at infinity.106 5 Radiation and Diffraction be equal in the common strip and hence will be different representations of the same function. The two sides are thus the analytic continuations of one another. + 1/2 (k + i )1/2 (β − i )(k + β) (k + β)1/2 We have succeeded in achieving our goal.98) ∗ (k + i )1/2 − (k + β)1/2 τ− . The left side is analytic for (β) < and the right side for (β) > − . 1939) it follows that the entire function must be identically zero. The outcome is i(k − β)1/2 ∗ u 3+ + = −A A (β − i )(k + i )1/2 (5. which function must then be entire. is the simplification introduced by Jones (1952). This process is the Wiener– Hopf method. Using Liouville’s theorem (Titchmarsh. This is the condition that tells us how the entire function behaves at infinity.97) so that its left side becomes an analytic function for (β) < . Proceeding to this relation directly from the transforms.96) as i(k − β)1/2 ∗ u 3+ = ∗ −A τ− + . (β − i )(k + i )1/2 (k − β)1/2 (5. but for the presence of the pole at i . To isolate the pole term we add and subtract the residue multiplied by (β − i )−1 . rather than through first forming an integral equation. 1/2 (β − i )(k + β) (k + β)1/2 (5. From this we may infer that τ− = O[(k|x1 |)−1/2 ] as k|x1 | → 0.99) Note how the edge condition was essential to the determination of a unique solution. Recall that we asked that ku 3+ = O[(k|x1 |)1/2 ] as k|x1 | → 0. Therefore ∗ u 3+ = iA . while the two sides are equal in the common strip (β) ∈ (− . Adapting an Abelian theorem k 2 ∗ u 3+ = O(k 3/2 |β|−3/2 ) and that k ∗ τ− = O(k 1/2 |β|−1/2 ) as k −1 |β| → ∞. We next write (5. We have still not used the edge condition. and together they represent a function analytic everywhere in the finite β plane.

101) where k = k + i and > 0. namely u3 = iA 2π k 1/2 ∞ −∞ ei(βx1 +γ x2 ) dβ.102). Problem 5. can the restriction be removed? Show that the scattered wavefield u 3 is given by u3 = i A sin θ0 eik(cos θ0 x1 ) 2πk 1/2 (1 + cos θ0 )1/2 ∞ −∞ ei(βx1 +γ x2 ) dβ. Include the pole term when it it is needed and note when the asymptotic approximation breaks down.6. from the pole in the integrand of (5. Calculate an asymptotic approximation to (5. The integral (5. plus the integral itself. In closing.5 An Arbitrary Angle of Incidence Problem 1.100) where the contour passes below β = 0. β(k − β)1/2 (5. In region 1 the wavefield u 3 is composed of a residue term. calculated when one parameter is large. because in that case we can no longer argue that the integrand. We are thus left with an integral expression for the scattered wavefield. (5.102) Problem 2. When we calculate a steepest descents approximation to (5.5. The incident wave is given by u i3 = (A/k)eik (cos θ0 x1 +sin θ0 x2 ) . Initially assume that θ0 < π/2. (β − k cos θ0 )(k − β)1/2 (5. The . Integrals of this form or of the form achieved after using the Sommerfeld transformation are sometimes referred to as diffraction integrals.5. 5. is said not to be uniform. Repeat the calculations leading to (5. An asymptotic approximation.102) has a pole at β = k cos θ0 . aside from the exponential term. each of which has a somewhat different wavefield.102) that is not uniform. is slowly varying. we recall that this is the solution to the scattered wavefield only for x2 > 0.100) for an arbitrary angle of incidence θ0 . we must take care that the stationary point does not lie near the pole. Why might this be a useful restriction? Once the solution is obtained. in this case the angle of incidence θ0 .3 Description of the Scattered Wavefield We have indicated five regions in Fig.100) at β = 0. It is uniform when the approximation is accurate for all values of the second parameter. 5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 107 At this point has served its purpose and we take the limit → 0. that becomes disordered for certain values of a second parameter.

the scattered wavefield makes a transition from solely a diffracted wave to a diffracted plus geometrical wave. thereby producing a complicated wavefield. θ ∈ (0. This reduction is described in detail in the Appendix. −π]. The Fresnel integral is defined as ∞ F(z) := z eiξ dξ.100) is calculated in Felsen and Marcuvitz (1994). . The outcome of the calculations described in the Appendix is that u3 = e−iπ/4 A −ikr cos(θ −π/2) θ − π/2 e F (2kr )1/2 cos π 1/2 k 2 − e−ikr cos(θ +π/2) F − (2kr )1/2 cos θ + π/2 2 . Regions 4 and 5 are transition or boundary layers. the residue contribution gives the wave reflected from the crack. For x2 > 0. though the total wavefield would include u i3 as well. θ). Moving from left to right through these layers. but propagate independently elsewhere. equivalently. while the integral with the pole term becomes a Fresnel integral. These regions are characterized by Fresnel integrals. −x2 ) to calculate u 3 for x2 < 0.108 5 Radiation and Diffraction residue contribution cancels the u i3 so that the crack casts the region behind it into partial silence.125).7 However. π]. A uniform asymptotic approximation to (5. The integral with no pole term in its integrand is approximated in the usual way. In region 3 the wavefield u 3 is again composed of a residue term plus the integral itself. namely that u 3 (x1 . Note that (5. The integral represents a diffracted wave that appears as a cylindrical one radiating from the crack tip.100) contains both the diffracted wave and geometrical terms. most of the manipulations undertaken to do so are no more difficult than those needed to reduce (5. note that in using the antisymmetry. In region 2 the wavefield u 3 consists solely of the integral representing the diffracted wave. while for x2 < 0. as we subsequently demonstrate. The incident wave u i3 must be added to this to produce the total wavefield.100) to an exact combination of Fresnel integrals. 2 (5. However. Within these regions the diffracted wave comes close to phase matching to the geometrical wave so that the two kinds of waves strongly interact.104) It is important to note that this expression assumes that x2 > 0 or. This is the only wave that penetrates the silence. One way to do this is to subtract and add the integrand of (5. (5. x2 ) = −u 3 (x1 . θ ∈ (0. while the integral continues to represent the diffracted wave.103) We introduce the polar coordinates (r. where x1 = r cos θ and x2 = r sin θ. 7 The calculation is done by separating a term that contains the pole from the rest of the integrand.

41). Problem 5. Its arguments are intended to suggest that a ray incident to the crack tip at an angle π/2 excites a diffracted ray that leaves the tip at an angle θ. as Problem 5. (5.106) can also be approximated for kr 1.89). (5. is. given by u t3 = e−iπ/4 A −ikr cos(θ −π/2) θ − π/2 F (2kr )1/2 cos e 1/2 k π 2 + e−ikr cos(θ +π/2) F (2kr )1/2 cos θ + π/2 2 . for θ ∈ (0. Problem 5. . (5.107) and the earlier expansion (2. Babiˇ and c Buldyrev (1991). and Jull (1981).109) This reproduces the edge condition we enforced in (5. there are a whole fan of such rays as θ is allowed to take on all its values. e H (−x1 ) + D(θ. π]. after adding u i3 to (5.107) We find a very similar expression for θ ∈ (0. −θ). In fact.104).5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge 109 θ ∈ (0.108) 2(2π)1/2 cos[(θ − π/2)/2] cos[(θ + π/2)/2] A ikx2 A eikr . kr → 0. (5.106) For kr 1 these integrals can be asymptotically approximated. Any singular behavior as kr → 0 is contained entirely within u 3 . π ]. The integrals of (5. π/2) = 1 1 eiπ/4 + . we use the fact that u 3 (r.7 describes the asymptotic approximations to the Fresnel integral. The interested reader can pursue this theory further in books by Achenbach et al. for θ ∈ (−π. The coefficient D(θ.105) The total wavefield u t3 . whose approximation in this limit is ku 3 = O[(kr )1/2 ]. These coefficients play an important role in the geometrical theory of diffraction for edges. −π]. π/2) is called a diffraction coefficient.7 indicates. Note the similarity in structure between the expansion (5. we use the following property of the Fresnel integral: F(z) + F(−z) = π 1/2 eiπ/4 . (5. To obtain an expression for x2 < 0. When this is done we find.6 introduces some of the ideas used in this description of diffraction. (1982). π/2) k k (kr )1/2 kr → ∞. π].5. θ) = −u 3 (r. that u t3 ∼ where D(θ. To calculate the total wavefield.

Thus if (2kr )1/2 cos θ + π/2 2 ≤ 1.110) such an approximation is not accurate. we note that one or the other of the arguments of the Fresnel functions changes sign at these angles. The boundary of region 5 is simply the reflection in x2 = 0 of that for region 4. differ from Problem 5. Let us consider the neighborhood of π/2 so that it is the second Fresnel integral in (5. Taking the equality as forming the boundary of the region outside of which the asymptotic approximation is sufficiently accurate. 5. Estimate the wavefield diffracted by the strip by using what has been learned from the semi-infinite crack problem. we find that if θ is close to π/2 the argument of the Fresnel integral is too small to approximate it asymptotically. we find that the boundary is described by kr (1 − sin θ) = 1. Problem 5. formed by two semi-infinite cracks. Each crack tip ±b serves as the origin for one of the polar coordinate systems (si . Examining (5. Examining this argument.110). as shown in Fig. θi ). (5. A sketch of the strip indicated by the dashed line. The boundary layer lies within this boundary.6 The Geometrical Theory of Diffraction Consider an antiplane shear wave normally incident to the opening between two cracks.106) whose argument changes sign. despite kr being quite large. the equation of a parabola in polar form.9. . indicated by the solid lines.106). Here i = 1 at b and 2 at −b. How does this problem.107) breaks down near θ = ±π/2. 5. and its scale is set by the expression on the left in (5.110 5 Radiation and Diffraction The approximation (5.1? Fig. This then marks the boundary of region 4 with regions 1 and 2. aside from the fact that the time dependence is harmonic.9.

0± ) = 0. π/2) is given by (5. −b) ∪ (b. They grow in width as one moves away from the edges.113) . 0+ ) = x1 ∈ (−∞. Using this structure. b). but are not in any way essential.112) where the coordinates (s1 . why the following expression is a plausible asymptotic solution to this problem u t3 = A [H (x1 + b) − H (x1 − b)]eikx2 k π A eiks2 π + D π − θ2 . At what point do they choke off the geometrical term given by the first term of (5. stating all the conditions that must be satisfied. In this closing section we construct an asymptotic solution that captures this idea mathematically. (5.111) u t3 (x1 .7. x2 ). + D θ1 . θ1 ) and (s2 . (5. 2 k (ks2 )1/2 2 A eiks1 . 0− ).84). in x2 > 0. x1 ∈ (−b. u t3 (x1 . 5. Are the boundary and continuity conditions at x2 = 0 the following? µ∂2 u t3 (x1 . using what has been learned from the semi-infinite crack problem.9 and D(θ. the crack merely blocks the incident wave from reaching the other side. might seem a simple wave process. Explain. express the total wavefield as u t3 = u i3 + u 3 . Formulate the problem for the scattered wavefield u 3 .5. The incident wave is given by (5. ∞). This solution is best for 2kb 1.6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study 111 As before. After all. Why? Consider the boundary layers surrounding θ1. 5. to some leading order of approximation. in answering this last question.112)? The earlier parts of Harris (1987) might be useful. 5. we begin our analysis of the diffraction problem by assuming that the wavefield can be described with the asymptotic approximation u 3 ∼ eik S(x1 .4 we explored how waves could be approximated by a ray theory and provided an asymptotic structure that explained the connection. An exact analytic solution to this problem may not be possible. In writing this I have followed a similar discussion in Zauderer (1983) and benefited from a very detailed analysis of edge diffraction by Gautesen (1979). looking at Fig. In Section 2.6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study We have just undertaken a relatively complex solution to what.x2 ) n≥0 (−ik)−n An (x1 . k (ks1 )1/2 (5.108).2 = π/2. θ2 ) are defined in Fig.

7. Moreover. where the minus sign is used for x2 > 0 and the plus sign for x2 < 0. there is a nearfield or inner region that is not described by the asymptotic anzatz (5. In addition to the boundary layer. We then construct the solution to this equation so that it matches the surrounding wavefield to some order of approximation. Second. Therefore.    0.7. leading to the conclusion that An ≡ 0 for n ≥ 0. However. from our analysis in Section 4. for the present we avoid this nearfield. region 1. region 2. To match the phase of the incident wave u i3 at x2 = 0. we know that very near the crack tip the wavefield is quasi-static. (5. to leading order the total wavefield u t3 is given by  (A/k)eikx2 . indicates that A0 can have at most an x1 dependence. and H (x1 ) is the Heaviside function. region 3. but does not capture the transition in regions 4 and 5. Such a procedure is called matched asymptotic expansions. The appropriate solution is A0 (x1 ) = ∓(A/k) H (x1 ).44). that we are about to examine.44) for A0 . It also follows that An ≡ 0 for n ≥ 1. x2 ) = ±x2 H (x1 ). 5. (2. The appropriate solution is S(x1 . This solution gives the geometrical part of (5. What we need to do is scale the problem in such a way that the boundary layer is opened up and an equation governing the wavefield within it found.3.112 5 Radiation and Diffraction This assumption leads to the eikonal equation (2. we might suspect that our asymptotic ansatz does not have enough structure to capture the effects of the rapid changes in the wavefield near x1 = 0 just from the apparent discontinuity there. the transport equation. we ask that S(x1 . with part of it behaving as (kr )1/2 . Both Hinch (1991) and Holmes (1995) discuss this technique thoroughly.84). The scaling needed to open the layer up is usually not known and must be found as part of discovering the governing equation.113). Even in the absence of an exact solution. Moreover.43) for S and the transport equation (2. given by (5. .   t u 3 (x1 . Knowing S. we consider the region x1 > 0.106). x2 ) = (A/k)(eikx2 + e−ikx2 ). recall that. We have encountered a boundary layer. 0) = 0 and that the scattered waves be outgoing from the crack.114) where the regions are those indicated in Fig. it must be such that the traction for the total wavefield vanishes on both sides of the crack. where the plus sign is used for x2 > 0 and the minus sign for x2 < 0. we consider the region x1 < 0. There are no boundary conditions to enforce. First.

The diffraction problem does not have a natural length scale. Examining (5. just as we did when examining the local field near the crack tip in Section 4.106).115) (5. we now omit the overbar. we set u 3 = w(x1 . we note that in this region a propagator term eikx2 always appears. so that we must introduce one somewhat artificially. 1991. Equation (5. x2 ) the outer coordinates.106). We then define the nearfield as that for which k 1 and the farfield as that for which k 1. ¯ ¯ We scale the problem by setting xi = xi / and w = wk/A (recall that A/k is a magnitude of the incident wave) and reexpress (5. Accordingly. In this case it is the first and third terms in (5. of the second Fresnel function in (5. . We are examining the wavefield in the region k 1 with θ near π/2.117) The argument. Holmes. (5. x2 )eikx2 and arrive at the following equation for w: 2 2 2ik∂2 w + ∂2 w + ∂1 w = 0.117) that balance. as it sets a gauge to measure large and small. (5. At this point we 2 note that if w varies rapidly in the neighborhood of x1 = 0. We have indicated previously that a length scale is very important. We set y1 = (k )β x1 with β = 1/2.116) has become 2 2 2i(k )∂2 w + ∂2 w + ∂1 w = 0.5. expressed in terms of the scaled (x1 . It might represent a wavelength at a reference frequency or a distance at which a measurement is made. The term 2ik∂2 w seems a likely candidate because it is multiplied by the large parameter k. We again take the length as a reference length.7. then ∂1 w may be very large and to solve the equation we shall need another term to balance it. 1995). This change of coordinate is called introducing a stretching transformation. x2 ) are called the inner coordinates and the (scaled) (x1 . that we do not in general know β and must determine it from the rescaled equation by balancing the various terms (Hinch. x2 ).3. Having done this. however. Note.116) We have stripped away the oscillatory part of the wavefield. namely −x1 (k /2x2 )1/2 .6 Matched Asymptotic Expansion Study 113 We consider the case that x2 > 0 so that θ is near π/2 and leave the case x2 < 0 to the reader.116) in terms of the scaled variables. The coordinates (y1 . suggests the scaling needed to open up the boundary layer.

1983).114 5 Radiation and Diffraction We next introduce an asymptotic expansion of the form w ∼ w0 (y1 . 1979). so that an asymptotic approximation there will not be accurate.122) This process of finding f (x1 ) is referred to as matching the inner and outer expansions. Recalling the fundamental or causal Green’s function for the diffusion equation (Zauderer.52) to (5. w0 ∼ 0 when x1 < 0 and w0 ∼ −1 for x1 > 0. The leading-order term is governed by the parabolic Schrodinger equation. This integral can be asymptotically expanded for large k . the function f (s) must vary rapidly near x1 = 0 if it is to capture the transition in the boundary layer.52) (Gautesen.119) This is the equation governing the behavior of the wavefield in the boundary layer. we find that w0 ∼ f (x1 )(2π )1/2 eiπ/4 . (5. provided f (s) does not vary rapidly near the stationary point s = x1 . However. for |x1 | > 0 we expect that the asymptotic approximation to (5. 2 2i(∂w0 /∂ x2 ) + ∂ 2 w0 ∂ y1 = 0. (5.119) as w0 = 1 1/2 x2 ∞ −∞ f (k )1/2 s ei(y1 −s) /(2x2 ) ds. Thus we find for x2 > 0 that f (x1 ) = −e−iπ/4 /(2π)1/2 H (x1 ). . Using the stationary phase approximation. That is. . x2 ) . At this point we could now match the nearfield expansion (4.69). (5. x2 ) + (k )γ w1 (y1 . However.120) To find the unknown f (x) we express this equation in terms of the outer variables as w0 = (k )1/2 1/2 x2 ∞ −∞ f (s)eik (x1 −s)2 /(2x2 ) ds. we write the solution to (5.121) should match our earlier approximation to u 3 . (5. 2 (5. (5. .120) to determine unequivocally that β = 1/2 and also to determine the unknown constant A in the nearfield expansion (4. .123) (5.121) The reader should recall that we are assuming x2 > 0. or the steepest descents approximation.118) where γ > 0.

β(k − β)1/2 (5. To include this possibility we should have allowed for fractional powers of k in positing (5.113) to match it.113) contains only the geometrical wavefield and not the diffracted one. Had we not known the solution nor suspected what was going on. The integral to be evaluated is (5. we use the antisymmetry of the scattered wavefield.100). Examining (5. x2 ) = −u 3 (x1 . which we rewrite here. e cos α (5. . which is a global property of the solution. Recall that the diffraction integral is evaluated along the contour Cβ that passes below the pole at β = 0.126) Note that the contour now passes above the pole at α = π/2. namely u 3 (x1 . the failure to match at higher order would have indicated that something was missing.103).104) reduces to this expression. The essence of its evaluation is to reduce it to one on its contour of steepest descents. Why? The ansatz (5. −x2 ).113) just as we did with the α in (2.41). We use the Sommerfeld transformation β = k cos α and γ = k sin α and introduce the coordinates (r. points that may coalesce for certain values of the physical coordinates. θ) by setting x1 = r cos θ and x2 = r sin θ to reduce (5. If we need a boundary layer solution for x2 < 0.104).125) to an integral over the contour C in the α plane.121) to a second term. (5. u3 = iA 2π k 1/2 ei(βx1 +γ x2 ) dβ. we should have encountered a term O[(k )−1/2 ] but found no similar term in the expansion (5.107).Appendix: The Fresnel Integral 115 Removing all the scaling so that we may compare our result with (5. Had we expanded (5.124) where F(z) is the Fresnel integral defined previously by (5. It is repeated here so that the calculation begun in Section 5. is called a diffraction integral. region 5. For x2 > 0 and x1 ≈ 0. namely u3 = − iA 21/2 πk C cos(α/2) ikr cos(α−θ ) dα. we see immediately that the missing term comes from the diffracted wavefield. Appendix: The Fresnel Integral Our purpose is to derive the expression (5. we find that u3 ∼ − Ae−iπ/4 −ikx2 k e F − x1 kπ 1/2 2x2 1/2 .104).5 can be completed. I follow the derivation given in Born and Wolf (1986). (5.125) Cβ An integral that has a pole and stationary point (usually a saddle).

This contour is shown in Fig.129) where (5. which we label I . is sketched on the right. showing the contour Cβ .127) 1 4 cos(α/2) cos[(θ − π/2)/2] ≡ cos α + cos(θ − π/2) cos[(α + θ − π/2)/2] + 1 . 5. The complex β plane for the diffraction integral. is sketched on the left.77).10.10. we consider the first of the two integrals. writing the symbol for the contour as −Cs (θ).127) has been used. We now distort the contour C to the steepest descents contour Cs described by (5. θ is the saddle point in the α plane.128) The second identity is a generalization of the first. The complex α plane. Setting aside the i A/(4πk).116 5 Radiation and Diffraction Fig.76) and (5. showing the contours C and −Cs (θ). We note that the calculation of the second is not different from that . cos[(α − π/2)/2] cos[(α + π/2)/2] (5. 5. cos[(α − θ + π/2)/2] (5. The position of the stationary point is indicated as an argument of this contour to underscore the structure of the contour. We next reverse the direction of integration. The following two identities are needed for the work to follow: 1 1 23/2 cos(α/2) ≡ + . cos α cos[(α − π/2)/2] cos[(α + π/2)/2] (5. The diffraction integral is now written as u3 = iA 4πk × eikr cos(α−θ ) −Cs (θ ) 1 1 + dα.

τ 2 − iη2 2 (5. cos α + cos(θ − π/2) (5.129).134) 2 = 2π η −ikr η2 F |η|(kr )1/2 . we find that η ∞ −∞ 2π 1/2 η −ikr η2 e−kr τ dτ = e τ 2 − iη2 |η| 2 ∞ |η|(kr )1/2 eiµ dµ (5. 2 (5. A third identity. giving I = 1 2 × eikr cos α −Cs (0) 1 1 + dα. (5. Using this (interchange the order of integration on the left-hand side). e |η| 1/2 ∞ where the Fresnel function F(z).136) . we can collapse this integral into the more symmetric form I =2 cos(α/2) cos[(θ − π/2)/2] ikr cos α e dα. (5.Appendix: The Fresnel Integral 117 of the first.131) −Cs (0) We now introduce yet another change of variables with the relation τ = 21/2 eiπ/4 sin(α/2) (recall Problem 5.135) We now return to (5. Note that this integral contains both a pole contribution and a part composed of Fresnel integrals.133) is needed. namely ∞ kr eiη 2 ζ ∞ −∞ e−ζ τ dτ dζ ≡ π 1/2 2 ∞ kr ζ −1/2 eiη ζ dζ. is F(z) := z eiξ dξ. Let u 3np represent the particle displacement that does not include the pole contribution and u 3 p the pole contribution itself. 2 (5. repeating the definition (5. Thus the integral I becomes I = −2e iπ/4 ikr e η ∞ −∞ e−kr τ dτ.128). We next change variables.3). Now u 3np is given by u 3np = e−iπ/4 A −ikr cos(θ −π/2) θ − π/2 e F (2kr )1/2 cos (1/2) k π 2 ± e−ikr cos(θ +π/2) F ± (2kr )1/2 cos θ + π/2 2 .130) cos[(α + θ − π/2)/2] cos[(α − θ + π/2)/2] Using (5.103).132) where η = 21/2 cos[(θ − π/2)/2].

2 (5. (b) Assume x < 0.139) as one from x to −∞ and one from −∞ to ∞. Problem 2. F(z) + F(−z) = π 1/2 eiπ/4 . Recalling (5. where x is real. The approach of part (a) must be modified.136) to give (5. Hence show that G(x) ∼ π 1/2 eiπ/4 e−i x + 2 i + O(x −3 ). π). π/2) and the minus sign for θ ∈ (π/2.137) we use it to combine (5. (5.105). 2x x → −∞.137) with the second term of (5.135) for z = x. Find the first term of an asymptotic expansion of the Fresnel integral for both positive and negative x.141) That the two approximations differ for x that is positive or negative is an example of the Stokes’ phenomena. (a) Assume x > 0 and consider the integral G(x) = e−i x Show that G(x) ∼ i + O(x −3 ).138).104). Write the integral as the difference between one from zero . Do not use (5.7 Asymptotic Approximations to the Fresnel Integral Consider the Fresnel integral (5.140) 2 ∞ x eiζ dζ. (5. Problem 5. 2x x → ∞. Here u 3 p is given by u 3 p = −(A/k)e−ikr cos(θ −π/2) H (π/2 − θ).118 5 Radiation and Diffraction where the plus sign is used for θ ∈ (0. Find the first term of an asymptotic expansion of the Fresnel integral for |x| 1.139) One way to do this is to deform the contour to one such that Watson’s lemma can be used. (5. Why? Write the integral in (5.138) (5. Problem 1.

References

119

to ∞ and one from zero to x. Expand the integrand of the second integral in a Taylor expansion. Hence show that F(x) ∼ π 1/2 eiπ/4 /2 − x + O(x 3 ), x → 0. (5.142)

References
Ablowitz, M.J. and Fokas, A.S. 1997. Complex Variables, pp. 411–513. New York: Cambridge. Achenbach, J.D., Gautesen, A.K., and McMaken, H. 1982. Ray Methods for Waves in Elastic Solids. Boston: Pitman. Babiˇ , V.M. and Buldyrev, V.S. 1991. Short-Wavelength Diffraction Theory. Berlin: c Springer. Born, M. and Wolf, E. 1986. Principles of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed., pp. 565–578. Oxford: Pergamon. Cagniard, L. 1962. Reflection and Refraction of Progressive Seismic Waves. Translated and revised by E.A. Flinn and C.H. Dix. New York: McGraw-Hill. Carrier, G.F., Krook, M., and Pearson, C.E. 1983. Functions of a Complex Variable, pp. 249–283. Ithaca, NY: Hod Books. Copson, E.T. 1935. An Introduction to the Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, pp. 121–125. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Copson, E.T. 1971. Asymptotic Expansions, pp. 13–14 and 48–62. Cambridge: University Press. Courant, R. and John, F. 1989. Introduction to Calculus and Analysis, Vol. II, pp. 345–350. New York: Springer deHoop, A.T. 1960. A modification of Cagniard’s method for solving the seismic pulse problem. Appl. Sc. Res., B 8: 349–356. Doetsch, G. 1974. Introduction to the Theory and Application of the Laplace Transform, pp. 218–230. New York: Springer. Ewing, W.M., Jardetzky, W.S., and Press, F. 1957. Elastic Waves in Layered Media. New York: McGraw-Hill. Felsen, L.B. and Marcuvitz, N. 1994. Radiation and Scattering of Waves, pp. 370–441. New York: IEEE and Oxford University Presses. Gautesen, A.K. 1979. On matched asymptotic expansions for two dimensional elastodynamic diffraction by cracks. Wave Motion 1: 127–140. Harris, J.G. 1980a. Diffraction by a crack of a cylindrical longitudinal pulse. Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 31: 367–383. Errata, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 34. Harris, J.G. 1980b. Uniform approximations to pulses diffracted by a crack. Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 31: 771–775. Harris, J.G. 1987. Edge diffraction of a compressional beam. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82: 635–646. Harris, J.G. and Pott, J. 1985. Further studies of scattering of a Gaussian beam from a fluid-solid interface. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78: 1072–1080. Hinch, E.J. 1991. Perturbation Methods, pp. 52–101. Cambridge: University Press. Holmes, M.H. 1995. Introduction to Perturbation Methods, pp. 47–104. New York: Springer. Jones, D.S. 1952. A simplifying technique in the solution of a class of diffraction problems. Quart. J. Math. 3: 189–196. Jull, E.V. 1981. Aperture Antennas and Diffraction Theory. London: Peter Peregrinus.

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Knopoff, L. and Gilbert, F. 1959. First motion methods in theoretical seismology. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31: 1161–1168. Noble, B. 1988. Methods Based on the Wiener-Hopf Technique, pp. 11–27 and 48–97. New York: Chelsea. Titchmarsh, E.C. 1939. The Theory of Functions, 2nd ed., pp. 85–86 and 99–101. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Titchmarsh, E.C. 1948. Introduction to the Theory of Fourier Integrals, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. van der Pol, B. and Bremmer, H. 1950. Operational Calculus, pp. 122–132 and elsewhere. Cambridge: University Press. Wong, R. 1989. Asymptotic Approximations of Integrals, pp. 20–31 and elsewhere. Boston: Academic. Zauderer, E. 1983. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics, pp. 653–658 and 403–405. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

6
Guided Waves and Dispersion

Synopsis Chapter 6 discusses guided waves and the dispersion they experience. Only the antiplane shear problem is treated. The guided waves are constructed by using partial waves and their dispersion calculated by using the transverse resonance principle. Both harmonic and transient excitations of a closed waveguide are studied by using an expansion of modes. The harmonic excitation of an open waveguide by a line source is also studied, though in this case by using both ray and mode representations. As a last example, we examine propagation in a closed waveguide with a slowly varying thickness, using an asymptotic expansion that combines features of both rays and modes. We close by examining how information and energy propagate at the group velocity.

6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide We consider a layer of infinite extent in the x1 direction and of finite thickness in the x2 direction. Within the layer, the coordinate x2 ∈ (−h, h) and the plane x2 = 0 is a plane of reflection symmetry. This structure is a waveguide or guide because the waves are forced to propagate in the x1 direction and the guide is closed because waves are completely trapped within the structure. We are interested in learning what kinds of antiplane waves propagate in the guide without, at present, seeking to know how they are excited. Accordingly, we seek possible solutions to the following antiplane problem. In the layer, u 3 must satisfy (2.20), which, rewritten here, is ∂a ∂a u 3 + k 2 u 3 = 0, and at the surfaces µ∂2 u 3 (x1 , ±h) = 0. 121 (6.2) (6.1)

in (x1 . transform variable β. can be reduced to an ordinary differential equation in x2 by seeking solutions of the form u 3 = f (x2 )eiβx1 . When this is done we find that the possible wavefields are described by u 3m = Am cos (γm x2 )eiβm x1 .4) where (βm ) ≥ 0 or (βm ) ≥ 0 for x1 > 0. in the x1 direction. Problem 6. 1 (6. the wavenumber and phase velocity in the propagation direction depend on ω (through k = ω/c). Problem 6. βm = ω/cm .4) is a dispersion relation and is similar to that found previously for propagation in periodic structures (there we used κ to represent the effective wavenumber). However. . The square root is defined so that. . This wave stands in the x2 direction.122 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion As in previous chapters the subscript T has been dropped. Introducing the term1 eiβx1 will reduce a linear partial differential equation. sin m = 0. with boundary condition (6.2).1 indicates how solutions to this problem can be found by reducing it to an eigenvalue problem in the transverse coordinate. In this particular case βm is either real or imaginary. though that problem may not be easy to solve. Thereafter this method of solution can be used to solve other guided wave problems without directly considering the underlying eigenvalue problem. (6. but it propagates in the x1 direction. For βm that is real.1). (6. . or its solution may not be particularly informative. 1. Thus (6. x2 ) to an eigenvalue problem in x2 for β. by examining the solution. The transverse wavenumbers for this mode are ±γm . we can learn to reconstruct it in a way that uses only the kinematical features of reflection and transmission of a plane wave at a boundary. 2. for imaginary values. Here βm is the lateral wavenumber for the mth mode.5) This is equivalent to taking the spatial Fourier transform. Cosine is used for m even and sine for m odd. or system of such equations. . but not complex.3). (6. where cm is the phase velocity of the mode. βm is given by βm = [k 2 − (mπ )2 /(2h)2 ]1/2 . the mode decays in its direction of propagation (x1 > 0). .1 An Eigenvalue Problem: A Closed Waveguide Equation (6.3) where u 3m is the mth (waveguide) mode for this guide.

1 – one propagating downward and one upward. . . they must interfere constructively to reconstruct themselves and form a sustained wavefield. (6. as the waves reflect back and forth within the guide. The dashed lines indicate the upward propagating set of plane waves. and that those antisymmetric to this plane are f 2n+1 (x2 ) = A2n+1 sin γ2n+1 x2 . where γ = (k 2 − β 2 )1/2 .6. Show that solutions symmetric with respect to the reflection plane are f 2n (x2 ) = A2n cos γ2n x2 . (6. The Am are constants. (6. as indicated in Fig.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide 123 Show that the differential equation in x2 leads to an eigenvalue problem for β 2 . The downward and Fig. 6. In this book β 2 is considered the eigenvalue.1. Usually the β is linked with γ . The members of each set are referred to as partial waves.6) and γ 2 or −γ 2 is considered the eigenvalue. . . . Note that phase matching must occur in the x 1 direction. 1. just as were the individual plane waves in each cell of the periodic structure examined in Section 1. 2.1 Partial Waves and the Transverse Resonance Principle The central feature of a waveguide is that the waves phase match in the propagation direction and stand in the transverse direction.7) where n = 0. while the solid lines indicate the downward propagating set.8) γ2n = nπ/ h.4.1. Those that propagate downward are indicated by the solid lines and those that propagate upward by the dashed ones. These rays are shown in the slowness diagram to the right. 6. There are two sets of plane waves in a guide. γ2n+1 = (2n + 1)π/(2h). 6. Equivalently stated.

. (6. Aeiγ h (6. Therefore. Beiγ h Be−iγ h = 1. Ae−iγ h = 1.15) for m = 2n. wherein partial waves are made to stand or resonate in the transverse direction. 1. For these two equations to hold simultaneously. . . (6. The dispersion relation .9) (6. n = 0. n = 0. The terms A and B are constants.16) for m = 2n + 1. .2 Dispersion Relation: A Closed Waveguide The most intriguing feature of guided waves is that the lateral wavenumber βm is a function of ω.124 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion upward propagating sets are u 3 = Aei(βx1 −γ x2 ) . 2. sin m = 0. given in Section 3.14) (6. and Am is 2A or 2i A. the following must be true: γ h = mπ/2. is referred to as the transverse resonance principle. 6. by a slight modification of that calculation. assumed only that (γ ) ≥ 0. 2. From our previous work. and A=B or A = −B Therefore u 3m = Am cos (γm x2 )eiβm x1 . (6. . . (6. . show that the reflection coefficient at x2 = ±h is one.10) respectively. The term γ is given by (6. 2. This method of finding the dispersion relation.4). we can. . . u 3 = Bei(βx1 +γ x2 ) . We have. .2.6).4).13) where βm is given by (6. alternatively ω is a function of βm . 1.12) respectively. at this stage. 1. γm = mπ/2h.1.11) (6. at the upper and lower boundaries. or. Each upward propagating wave must be reflected into a downward propagating one and vice versa. (6. .

For the mth mode. (6. namely Cm = dω/dβm . The phase velocity cm for the mth mode is cm = ω/βm . (6. Here we demonstrate the first assertion and leave to Section 6. (6.6 the demonstration of the second. A sketch of the dispersion relation for antiplane shear modes in a closed waveguide. when the frequency is a free variable.6. The normalized angular frequency is plotted as a function of the normalized lateral wavenumber. (6. it is usual to consider ω as a function of βm . x2 )d x2 dτ. 6.20) . Unlike cm .2.19) The group velocity is both the velocity of energy propagation and the velocity with which information propagates. there is no propagation for (2hω/c) ≤ mπ and the frequency ωm = mπc/2h is called the cut-off frequency.2. x2 ) for the mth waveguide mode is defined as Gm = 1 T t+T t h −h Gm (βm x1 − ωτ. can be written as 2hβm = [(2hω/c)2 − (mπ )2 ]1/2 . however. 6. While the βm may be thought of as a function of ω.18) The velocity of real interest.17) A sketch of this relation is shown in Fig.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide 125 Fig. The time average of a wavefield quantity Gm (βm x1 − ωt. Cm for the mth mode is given by the slope of the mth branch of the dispersion relation. is the group velocity Cm .

we find that its average is 2 2 Em = 1 ρcm hβm Am A∗ . instead of proceeding directly as we just did. K and U. Direct calculation shows that Fm / Em = c2 /cm = Cm . t) in the mth mode is Fm = −µ∂1 u 3m ∂t u 3m .18). 2 2 and. m 2 (6. were first defined by (1.22) For propagation βm is real.18). therefore. m 2 (6. where the kinetic and internal energy densities.126 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion The average Gm does not depend upon x1 or t because at a given x1 . as it does with a waveguide. It follows then that K = U . and the average flux is 2 Fm = 1 µcm hβm Am A∗ . . the ratio Fm / Em . t) in the mth mode is Em = 1 ρ ∂t u 3m ∂t u 3m + 1 µ ∂a u 3m ∂a u 3m . (6.20) with (2. Dispersion need not arise from a geometrical constraint.26) Using (6.20) can also be used to demonstrate the equipartition of energy. The instantaneous flux of energy density Fm (x1 . (6. The instantaneous energy density Em (x1 .20) we readily find that L = 0. though care is required because not all equations describing wavefields exhibit equipartition. as the following problem demonstrates. for the mth mode. Clearly. a fact noted previously when deriving (2. x2 . the argument βm x1 − ωτ is simply a translation of the argument ωτ .25) The average (6.25).21) (6.23) (6.24) The velocity of energy propagation along the axis of the waveguide for the mth mode is. the converse is also true. usually reduces the amount of calculation needed. Using this principle when calculating the average energy density. x2 . The Lagrangian density L for antiplane shear motion is given by L= 1 2 ρ(∂t u 3 )2 − 1 2 µ[(∂1 u 3 )2 + (∂2 u 3 )2 ]. using (6. but can arise from the structure of the equation itself.

28). Consider the following two differential equations. Assume that the wave propagates to the right. multiply each of (6. so that you can calculate their average values.28) by ∂t ϕ and configure the result to coincide with (6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide Problem 6. where c = ω/k and C = dω/dk.27) and the equation for flexural motion in a rod. To find a conservation law. (6.32) (6. and the third.28) The terms a and b are constants. the second the instantaneous flux. Demonstrate that the group velocity is the velocity of time-averaged energy transport. show that the instantaneous energy density for the equation for flexural motion is 2 E = (∂t ϕ)2 /2 + a 2 ∂x ϕ 2 2 (6.29) where A is a constant. One way to find these is to construct conservation laws directly from (6.27) and (6. on the right-hand side.31) Also.30) The first box is the instantaneous energy density. To do so you will need to know both the instantaneous energy density and instantaneous flux. (6. For the equations being studied here. Calculate the phase and group velocities c and C.30).27) and (6. 2 ∂t2 ϕ − a 2 ∂x ϕ + b2 ϕ = 0.33) .2 Dispersion 1 127 Problem 1. the right-hand side is zero. Such laws have the form ∂t + ∂x =− . (6. 4 ∂t2 ϕ + a 2 ∂x ϕ = 0. (6. a dissipative term. the Klein– Gordon equation. show that the instantaneous energy density for the Klein–Gordon equation is E = (∂t ϕ)2 /2 + a 2 (∂x ϕ)2 /2 + b2 ϕ 2 /2 and the instantaneous flux is F = −a 2 (∂t ϕ)(∂x ϕ). In both cases find a dispersion relation in the form ω = ω(k) by seeking a wave solution of the form ϕ = Aei(kx−ωt) . (6.6. Thus.

The equation describing acoustic waves in a wind having speed U (<c.35) find the dispersion relation. (6. where c is the speed of sound) in the x1 direction is given by (∂t + U ∂1 )2 ϕ = c2 ∇ 2 ϕ.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide We continue to consider an antiplane problem having the governing equation. We now consider a layer on a half-space. (6. Using a solution of the form ϕ = Aei(k·x−ωt) . 6. A slow-on-fast structure can support trapped waves in the layer. The vector k is needed because the propagation environment is anisotropic. Figure 6. Problem 2.36) (6.1). Drawing slowness diagrams for the layer and half-space indicates the condition for waves to be trapped in the layer. 6. namely that the vertical dashed line in the diagram to the right not intersect the lower slowness circle. (6.3 indicates the geometry.128 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion and the instantaneous flux is 3 2 F = a 2 (∂t ϕ) ∂x ϕ − a 2 (∂t ∂x ϕ) ∂x ϕ . where (x. Note that the positive x2 direction points into the interior.3.34) Using (2. t) is a fixed coordinate system. The interior of the Fig. .18). complete the demonstration.

waves launched in the layer phase match to waves in the half-space for which ¯ s 2 is real and are therefore not trapped. When s1 ≤ s < s. u 3 (x1 0− ) = u 3 (x1 0+ ). ∞). so that the corresponding slownesses ¯ ¯ are s and s. waves will remain trapped provided the wavespeed in the layer is less than that in the half-space. with the sign of s 2 selected so that decay takes place with depth. The equation of motion in the layer is (6.38) (6. ¯ A fast-on-slow structure (s < s) does not guide waves so that. −h) = 0. rewriting it once again.1). unable to radiate ¯ ¯ away. and at x2 = 0. we do not consider it. However.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 129 layer occupies x2 ∈ (−h. but may radiate into the half-space.3. 0− ) = µ∂2 u 3 (x1 . The wavespeed in the layer is c ¯ and that in the underlying half-space c. Therefore. 6. ¯ (6. To understand why waves are trapped. is ¯2 ∂α ∂α u 3 + k u 3 = 0. 0+ ). 0) and its wavespeed is c (k = ω/c). In Problem 6. the waves in the layer able to phase match to waves ¯ ¯ ¯ decaying into the half-space are those for which s1 = s1 > s. the upward and downward propagating sets of waves are u 3 = Bei(βx1 −γ x2 ) .4. If the waves are to phase match at x2 = 0.41) .39) (6. If the waves are to remain trapped in the layer. The interior of the half-space occupies x2 ∈ (0. respectively.1) with a different wavenumber. µ∂2 u 3 (x1 . s1 must be the same in both the layer and half-space. u 3 = Aei(βx1 +γ x2 ) . (6. The equation of motion in the half-space is also given by (6. This configuration is sometimes referred to as a slow-on-fast guiding structure. A slow-on-fast structure is one for which s > s.6. respectively.37) where µ and µ are the elastic constants for the layer and half-space. ¯ The layer is called an open waveguide because there is now the possibility that waves may not remain trapped.40) (6. µ∂2 u 3 (x1 . except in Problem 6.3 the problem is reduced to solving an eigenvalue problem in the x2 direction. s 2 must be imaginary. 6. At x2 = −h.2. The slow-on-fast structure is analyzed next by using partial waves and the transverse resonance principle. The equation. consider the slowness diagrams sketched in Fig. ¯ ¯ ¯ where k = ω/c and c is the wavespeed in the half-space.1 Partial Wave Analysis In the layer.

(6. at x2 = −h. ¯¯ (6.47) (6. in addition to being reflected.48) (6.42) The waves in the half-space decay or propagate downward. so that γ = i α. This statement is consistent with the principle of limiting absorption. γ = (k 2 − β 2 )1/2 . Ae−iγ h /Beiγ h = 1.43) where (γ ) ≥ 0 and (γ ) ≥ 0.44) (6. B/A = (µγ − µγ )/(µγ + µγ ). ¯¯ ¯¯ Moreover. we also have ¯ A/A = (2µγ )/(µγ + µγ ). ¯¯ (6. we see that (6. and at x2 = 0. In this case (6. be transmitted into those that decay or propagate away from the boundary. The reflection and transmission coefficients at x2 = 0 are.4.130 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion In the half-space the set of waves is ¯ u 3 = Aei(βx1 +γ¯ x2 ) . ¯ (6. ¯¯ ¯¯ T (γ ) = (2µγ )/(µγ + µγ ).4. R(γ ) = (µγ − µγ )/(µγ + µγ ). ¯¯ ¯¯ e−2iγ h = (µγ − µγ )/(µγ + µγ ). where α ≥ 0.50) Recalling (6.49) reduces to tan γ h = µα/µγ . We discuss the branches of these radicals more ¯ carefully in Section 6. in the case of the open guide.46) and (6. Exactly as in the case of the closed guide. From (6.22) by noting that β = ¯ ¯ ¯ k sin θ0 = k sin θ2 . The antiplane waves . albeit indirectly.45) The R(γ ) and T (γ ) are gotten from (3.21) and (3. respectively. γ = k cos θ0 . where β = ωs1 . ¯¯ (6.47) we find that for nontrivial solutions.43).49) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ The case of interest is s < s1 ≤ s. ¯ γ = (k 2 − β 2 )1/2 . given in Section 4.50) is the dispersion relation for the structure.46) These last two equations indicate that plane waves incident on the lower boundary must. (6. and γ = k cos θ2 . To satisfy the equations of motion. It gives ω = ω(β) or β = β(ω).49) or (6.

in combination with (6. These boundaries are denoted by c and c.4.50). 1956) in x2 by looking for solutions of the form u 3 = f (x2 )eiβx1 . ∞). though the slopes are 1 ¯ and c/c.53) where γ = i α.36).2. Show that solutions to the differential equation in x2 and its boundary conditions can be expressed as f (x2 ) = C cos[γ (x2 + h)]. x2 ∈ (0.6. The preceding analysis gives the discrete eigenvalues and eigenfunctions.30). To examine this dispersion relation.43). What condition stated previously in this problem must be modified to find the continuous eigenvalues and eigenfunctions? 6. can be reduced to a singular eigenvalue problem (Friedman. u 3 = g(x2 )eiβx1 . First we identify the boundaries between which β is real (assuming ¯ ¯ that c < c). gives either ω = ω(β) or β = β(ω). α ≥ 0. unless the reader is quite perceptive.50)? The problem just discussed is called a singular eigenvalue problem because it has a continuous spectrum as well as a discrete one. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Find the constant D in terms of C. and thus construct the wavefields in the layer and half-space.32). 0). Tolstoy and Clay (1987) will give the reader a reasoned physical explanation for the continuous spectrum. 6. ¯ we can find B and A in terms of A.52) Note that the form of the function in x1 has been chosen to give a wave propagating in the positive x1 direction and ensure phase matching at x2 = 0. Knowing the dispersion relation. (6. The transverse wavenumbers γ and γ are given by (6. will help the reader understand the underlying mathematics of singular eigenvalue problems. where three distinct regions are identified. Can you recover the dispersion relationship.3 A Second Eigenvalue Problem: An Open Waveguide Note that (6. mentioned previously. (6. Use the condition that g(x2 ) → 0 as x2 → ∞.31) and (6. Problem 6. (6. . x2 ∈ (−h. Friedman (1956). with boundary conditions (6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 131 guided by the layer are called Love waves. (6.29) and (6. ¯ g(x2 ) = De−αx2 . but gives one little information about the continuous spectrum.2 Dispersion Relation: An Open Waveguide The transcendental equation.51) (6. Note that the absence of a plane of reflection symmetry means that the modes do not divide into symmetric and antisymmetric ones. we begin with a diagram such as that shown in Fig.

54) Again it is clear that there is no solution for β that is real.55) approaches a finite limit or zero because the right side remains positive. There are three ¯ regions whose boundaries are formed by the two wavespeeds c < c. namely k/β → 1. Second. by allowing the layer to become an infinite number of wavelengths thick. We shall briefly discuss this possibility in Section 6. 2 /β 2 ) − 1]1/2 µ[(k 2 (6. In this case (6. A sketch of the dispersion relation for Love waves. Consider the following limits. The absence of roots for β real tells us that there are no trapped waves. and approaches zero or +∞.43) becomes tan(γ h) = −i µγ /µγ . where α and α are real and positive. 6. There is only one possibility. The normalized angular frequency is plotted as a function of the normalized lateral wavenumber. let βh move toward zero through ¯ region 2 and reason as before. exactly what we would expect for γ and γ both real. ¯¯ (6. First.4.50). In region 1. ¯ Solutions for real β are possible in region 2. In other words.132 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion Fig. γ = ±iα and γ = i α. For the lowest mode k/β → 1 as βh → 0 and .3. its response is no longer influenced by the presence of the half-space. let βh → ∞ within region 2. It ¯ ¯ ¯ is readily seen that no solution for real β is possible and therefore no trapped ¯ wave propagates in the x1 direction.4.55) The argument of the tangent in (6. as can be seen from examining (6.50) as tan βh[(k 2 /β 2 ) − 1]1/2 = ¯ µ[1 − (k /β 2 )]1/2 ¯ . though there are solutions for complex β. Write (6. In region 3 both γ and γ are real.

¯ The outcomes of the problem just described should be compared with those of the reflection problem that follows. for the higher modes k/β → 1. Make no assumption at present as ¯ to the relative magnitudes of c and c. (6. (6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide 133 ¯ ωh → 0.57) be incident to the layer from the half-space. namely R(θ0 ) = A1 /A0 . let the plane wave ¯ u 30 = A0 ei(βx1 −γ¯ x2 ) (6. The reader should contrast the two possible cases.58) ¯ ¯ ¯ The wavenumbers β = k sin θ0 and γ = k cos θ0 . where A∓ = cos θ0 cos(kh cos θ) ∓ i and ¯ sin θ/c = sin θ0 /c.56) where n is a positive integer.6. for some ω = ωn . how might a trapped wave be excited by using a disturbance incident from the half-space when the structure is slow on fast? Note that this reflection coefficient is frequency dependent. 6. µc ¯ (6. . However. Unlike the case of a closed waveguide. This frequency is also called a cut-off frequency. In the reflection problem the layer is viewed from the half-space. α = 0 and [(ωn h/βhc)2 − 1]1/2 βh = nπ.4 Reflection From a Layer Referring to the geometry of Fig. Keep in mind that we have. and we are no longer as concerned as we were here with whether the structure is a slow-on-fast or fast-on-slow one. fast-on-slow and slow-onfast. so far. calculate the reflection coefficient of the layer. the group velocity does not vanish at this point. The frequency ωn is that at which the waves move from being trapped to radiating into the half-space. If A1 is the unknown amplitude of the reflected wave. though the term transition frequency might be more appropriate. Show that R(θ0 ) = A− (θ0 )/A+ (θ0 ).59) ¯ µc cos θ sin(kh cos θ). In particular.3. Problem 6. restricted β to positive real values and have not defined the branches of γ and γ carefully. The viewpoint there is rather different. while βh and ωh remain ¯ finite. In this case.

As a minimum we need a means of calculating the coefficients of the expansion – an orthogonality relation – and some assurance that the expansion is complete. Far from the source.5 A Waveguide Mode Expansion In part. the antiplane modes are simply the terms of a Fourier series. βn is given by (6. .60) What condition should be imposed upon the forced disturbance as x1 → ∞? Noting the symmetry of the excitation. and. The frequency of excitation is ω. Problem 6. Using the orthogonality of the modes (eigenfunctions). while those in the second are evanescent.4).61) propagate. so that in this case these questions are settled.1.1 Harmonic Excitation We start by considering a closed waveguide that is harmonically excited by applying an antiplane traction at one end. One common way to solve such problems is to expand the wavefield in the guide in terms of its modes. Note that the modes in the first sum of (6. for n ≥ N . how might the forced wavefield be expanded? Show that a representation of the solution is u 3 (x1 . 1999). T (x2 ) = T (−x2 ). The geometry of the problem is now described by a layer similar to that shown in Fig. x2 ) = N −1 n=0 ∞ nπ nπ (−An ) An x2 eiβn x1 + x2 e−αn x1 . At x1 = 0 the waveguide is excited with a traction T (x2 ) symmetric in x2 so that µ∂1 u 3 = −T (x2 ). Folguera and Harris.62) is reversed.3. but starting at x1 = 0 and extending through positive values of x1 to infinity. (6. To do so requires that a mathematical framework be in place.2) specify the problem. While these questions have still not been satisfactorily answered for inplane elastic waves in a guide with an end (Miklowitz. 6.134 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion 6. (6. while the other extends to infinity.1) and (6. cos cos iβn h αn n n=N (6.61) where N is the smallest n for which the inequality nπ/ h < ω/c (6. only those that propagate make a significant contribution.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide 6. 1978. write down explicit expressions for the coefficients An . βn = iαn .

x2 .67). as well.6.64) Using (1. In Problem 6. t < 0. For a . we find the branch point is at c nπ/ h − i . Note that c nπ/ h is a cut-off frequency so that propagation has ceased when ω < cnπ/ h.5. Accordingly. we synthesize the transient response as u 3 (x1 . By symmetry. u 3 = ∂t u 3 = 0. the in (6.65) iβn Using the principle of limiting absorption. giving ∞ 0 ei(ω+i )(x1 /c−t) dω = −π c H (t − x1 /c). The integration contour in the ω plane must pass above the branch point cnπ/ h − i . Note. (6. i(ω + i )/c (6. Following the arguments in Section 3. (6. The integral to be evaluated is ∞ 0 ei x1 (βn −ωt/x1 ) dω. we have cut the plane so that (βn ) ≥ 0 for all ω. we approximate (6. The n = 0 term is easily inverted.3.3. 6. give the clearest description of the wavefield at points far from the source. the branch point is at −cnπ/ h + i .5 shows the complex ω plane and the branch cuts for n > 0.66) The n > 0 terms are less straightforward. t) = ∞ n=0 nπ (−An ) cos x2 π h ∞ 0 eit(βn x1 /t−ω) dω. where > 0.4. Integrals of the form of (6. that (βn ) > 0 in the first and third quadrants. we assume that the waveguide is quiescent until the excitation is applied.67) can be set to zero.67) by using the method of stationary phase described in Section 5. for ω < 0. Once the contour has been determined. Using the principle of limiting absorption for ω > 0.63) Moreover.2 Transient Excitation 135 We next consider a transient excitation. iβn (6.3. replace ω with ω + i . even when they can be evaluated in closed form.67) The left half of Fig. We fix t/x1 and let x1 be the large parameter. (6.4. That is. we replace (6.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide 6.60) with µ∂1 u 3 = −T (x2 )δ(t).36).

71) as x1 → ∞. ωns ) are real. x1 /ct < 1 for propagating waves and (βns .67). ωns ) as a function of (x1 .6). The contour extends from ω = 0 along the real axis. After some simplification. the particle . (6.5. The left-hand figure shows the complex ω plane. The integral.69) No signal can travel faster than c (Problem 6. (βn ) > 0 in the upper right quadrant of the ω plane. the stationary point is given by dβn /dω = t/x1 . c [1 − (x1 /ct)2 ]1/2 and βns = nπ h x1 /ct . (6. 6. ωns ). given point in (x1 .70) x1 /ct < 1. The right-hand figure shows the dispersion curve for the nth mode with the stationary point indicated by (βns . is then approximated as ∞ 0 c (2π)1/2 ei x1 (βn −ωt/x1 ) dω ∼ ei x1 (βns −ωns t/x1 ) e−iπ/4 . (βn ) ≥ 0 ∀ ω. t).136 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion Fig. (6.68) Solving this equation gives the stationary point (βns . while t/x1 is held fixed. t) (more precisely x1 /t). iβn (nπ/ h)(βns x1 )1/2 (6. [1 − (x1 /ct)2 ]1/2 x1 /ct < 1. namely nπ/ h ωns = . Therefore. (6.

t) the nth mode is approximated by an expression of the form An (x1 . with the ω plane cut as . a constant phase θ propagates at a rate cns = ωns /βns . Note that (6. Note that the stationary phase approximation breaks down for x1 /t near c. x2 .75) and note that.68) can be viewed as x1 /t = Cn (ωns ).3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide displacement of the nth mode is approximated as (−An ) nπ c cos x2 u 3n (x1 . t) = (βns x1 − ωns t) propagates outward. The higher-order modes therefore make a weaker contribution than do the lower-order ones. We have already noted in (6. note that as x1 /t sweeps through its values from zero to c.68) provides a one-to-one mapping from the t plane to the ω plane. Problem 6. x2 . show that no signal travels faster than c.25) that Cn is the velocity of time-averaged energy transmission.72) shows that the nth mode is O(n −1/2 ). (6. Further. This is not the velocity with which the phase θ(x1 .73) Examining (6. t). In fact. 6. Now we also note that it is the velocity with which the frequency ωns propagates to the point (x1 . ωs takes on all its values from cnπ/ h to infinity. t). for fixed x1 . x2 .72) u 3n (x1 . where Cn is the group velocity dω/dβn . in the upper right quadrant of Fig.6 No Signal Travels Faster than the Velocity c Using the problem just discussed.74) This is a group in the sense that it arises from a cluster or group of wavenumbers and frequencies in the neighborhood of (βns . Write each integral over ω as ∞ π e−iω(t−x1 /c) 0 ei(βn x1 −ωx1 /c) dω iβn (6. (6. At (x1 . t)ei(βns x1 −ωns t) . Dai and Wong (1994) give a correction for this case. t) ∼ A0 c H (t − x1 /c) + ∞ n=1 (6. (6. and the total particle displacement can be written as u 3 (x1 . t) ∼ π h (2h/n) x1 [(ct/x1 )2 − 1]1/2 1/2 137 × cos (nπ/ h)x1 [(ct/x1 )2 − 1)]1/2 + π/4 . x2 . ωns ).6.5. Rather.

indicating that no signal is present for t < x1 /c. 2 The dispersion is said to be anomalous when the group velocity exceeds the velocity of propagation of a harmonic plane wave in the medium (Sommerfeld. for t < x1 /c. thus reducing the partial differential equation to an ordinary one in x2 . In such cases a specific signaling problem must be worked through. In this case the group velocity is no longer a measure of the speed at which information or energy propagates. in reducing the partial differential equation to an ordinary one in x1 . though the modal expansion already contained the solution to the differential equation in x1 . Expanding the source in these eigenfunctions causes the equation in x1 to be forced by a coefficient of this expansion. Brillouin.76) Therefore. For separable problems.138 indicated. it is true generally. |ω|→∞ iβn lim (6. 1960). so that that step was leaped over. One must take care to distinguish between anomalous dispersion caused by some approximate derivation of the equation being studied and that caused by the underlying physical situation. rather than use a Fourier synthesis to construct the transient solution. 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion ei(βn x1 −ωx1 /c) = 0. it indicates that the group velocity does not exceed the wavespeed of the medium. show that the integral can be written as ∞ π ie p(t−x1 /c) 0 e−(αn x1 − px1 /c) dp.2 a result that is also generally true. such as the one discussed in Problem 6.7 the reader is asked to solve much the same problem by using a continuous eigenfunction expansion in x1 ∈ (0. Moreover. the anomalous dispersion may only be apparent and not real. The presence of frequency-dependent attenuation confuses the issue even further. (−αn ) (6. The domain of the transverse eigenvalue problem is finite and therefore the eigenvalues are discrete. Moreover. ∞).5. involving each mode separately. 1964a. Moreover. Lastly. . and velocities that characterize the speed at which information is propagated and at which energy is propagated must be defined as best one can. the reader is asked to use a Laplace transform. an expansion of the solution in the eigenfunctions of the transverse eigenvalue problem results. This is more or less what we did in solving Problem 6. In Problem 6. show that the integration contour may be distorted from one along the real ω axis to the one along the imaginary axis. after invoking the orthogonality of the eigenfunctions. While this result is the outcome of the analysis of a specific problem.77) This integral must be zero (why?).5.

. t) = 2 π ∗ v 3 (ξ.39).4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide We next return to the layered antiplane structure. using the method of stationary phase.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide Problem 6.79) ¯ to find an ordinary differential equation in x2 . the equations of motion and the boundary conditions are given by (6. with the excitation (6. This problem may be solved by constructing the solution by using eigenfunction expansions. Find ∗ v 3 (ξ. x2 . x2 . This is because we have chosen to work with a cosine transform. sketched on the left in Fig. Except for the absence of a source.6. x2 .3.78) followed by the Laplace transform ∗ ¯ u 3 (ξ. x2 . t) = 0 ∞ u 3 (x1 .38) and (6. as we have done previously. x2 . p) = p ∗ u 3 (ξ. t) cos(ξ. with x1 /t held fixed. (6. Our discussion follows a very similar one in Brekhovskikh (1980). x2 . to calculate the wavefield radiated by a harmonic line source placed at (0. x1 )dξ (6. x2 . t) cos(ξ x1 )d x1 . 6. The reader may be surprised to find that his or her expression for v3 contains both forward and backward propagating waves. where x20 < 0. t) = 1 2πi ∞ 0 +i∞ −i∞ ∗ v 3 (ξ. p) where v3 ¯ is the particle velocity.7 A Continuous Eigenfunction Expansion 139 Continue to consider the problem just solved. Find ∗ u 3 and begin to invert the ¯ transforms. p) = 0 ∞ ∗ u 3 (ξ. Use the cosine transform ∗ u 3 (ξ. x20 ). x2 .81) as a sum of waves propagating solely in the positive x1 direction? 6. However. x2 .80) and then approximate v3 (x1 .63). p)e pt dp ¯ (6. This integral can also be inverted exactly. It is perhaps easier to set ∗ v 3 (ξ. t)e pt dt. (6. x2 . Why would one not work with a sine transform? At what point has the reader imposed the condition that waves be outgoing from the source? Can the reader express (6.81) for large x1 . This method of construction will show how ray representations and modal expansions are related to one another. we shall construct the radiated wavefield by superposing collections of partial waves.

By sketching rays and wavefronts.82) F0 = A/k. x2 ) and.19). (6. 6. when added together. The contour C begins near π − i∞ and ends near i∞. C (6. eik[x1 cos α+sin α(x2 −x20 )] .83) The first partial wave reaches (x1 .6. is here rewritten by expanding cos(θ − α) to give u i3 = − i F0 4π eik(x1 cos α+|x2 −x20 | sin α) dα. where A is a dimensionless constant.1 The Wavefield in the Layer We begin by representing the wavefield radiated by a line source as a spectrum of plane waves. The expression (6.82). x2 ). to ensure phase matching. x2 ) and that all the subsequent partial waves can be constructed from these four by successively reflecting them in the planes x2 = 0 and x2 = −h. How then does each plane wave in the integral. x2 ). satisfy the boundary conditions. using the result of Problem 4. we ask what partial waves can reach the point (x1 . where x1 > 0 and x2 > x20 . eik[x1 cos α+sin α(x2 +2h+x20 )] . in both the layer and half-space. particle displacement u i3 excited by a line source at (0. x2 ) without reflection. behave in the layered environment? Consider an arbitrary observation point (x1 . as suggested in Fig. (6. 6. we find that there are four distinct partial waves that reach (x1 . R(α)eik[x1 cos α−sin α(x2 +x20 )] . The dashed lines indicate the propagation paths and the solid ones indicate the wavefronts passing through (x1 . x2 ) in the layer.4.6. Given that the x1 dependence must be of the form eik cos α x1 . . with α replacing ξ . R(α)eik[x1 cos α−sin α(x2 −2h−x20 )] . Equation (4. the second after being Fig.140 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion 6. x20 ). A sketch showing the first four partial waves reaching the observation point (x1 .1.82) gives the free space.

4. By setting x1 = r04 cos θ04 and x2 − 2h − x20 = −r04 sin θ04 . 6. 6. and the last after being reflected first from the x2 = −h boundary and second from the x2 = 0 boundary. where R(α) is given by (6. 2h + x20 ).86) This term then appears as a cylindrical wave radiated by an image source at (0. we approximate one of the terms by the method of steepest descents.84) C +e × ik sin α(x2 +2h+x20 ) ∞ [R(α)]m eik sin α(2mh) dα m=0 To understand this representation further. 4π (6. The angles α and α are related by the phase-matching condition.85) The geometry is shown in Fig. the fourth term. This is a ray representation of the wavefield in the layer. with γ = k sin α and γ = k sin α. The reflection coefficient at x2 = −h is 1 and at x2 = 0 is R(α). the third after being reflected from the x2 = −h boundary. It is given by u3 = − i F0 4π eik cos αx1 eik sin α(x2 −x20 ) + R(α)e−ik sin α(x2 +x20 ) + R(α)e−ik sin α(x2 −2h−x20 ) (6. By adding these four partial waves and all the subsequent reflections and invoking superposition. The actual path of the ray is indicate by the dashed line within the layer in Fig. We consider m = 0.21) and (3. Or it can be gotten from (3.84) by the method of steepest descents gives an infinite sum of terms such as (6. we construct the response of the layer to the excitation.7.86).6. namely u 04 = − 3 i F0 4π R(α)eik[cos α x1 −sin α (x2 −2h−x20 )] dα. we put (6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 141 reflected once at the x2 = 0 boundary. Note that the argument of the function R is now ¯ given as α (rather than as γ or θ0 ) in keeping with the structure of the present calculation. All subsequent reflected partial waves can be constructed from these four.85) in a form previously studied in Section 5. C (6.23) by noting that ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ α = π/2 − θ0 . ¯ namely k cos α = k cos α. Approximating each term in (6.7.44). . Its asymptotic approximation is therefore u 04 = − 3 i F0 4π R(α)eikr04 cos(α−θ04 ) dα ∼ 2π kr04 1/2 C F0 R(θ04 )eikr04 eiπ/4 .

These radicals are defined so that (γ ) ≥ 0 and (γ ) ≥ 0 ∀ β.86). if so.82). When x2 < x20 . and.84) to give u3 ∼ ∞ 4 u3 . the two coordinates in the above expression are interchanged.142 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion Fig. The transverse wavenumbers γ and γ were ¯ given in (6.7. Figure 6. lj (6. Is this a useful representation. ¯ . A sketch of the geometry for the steepest descents approximation of the fourth partial wave. Problem 6.43). Recall that we have assumed x2 > x20 .8 shows the β plane with its branch cuts and several poles. However. (6. the discussion will be clearer if we first examine the β plane.88) C −ik sin α x20 1 − R(α)eik sin α(2h) F0 = A/k has been used to indicate the dimensions of u 3 . the wavefield can be recast as u3 = − × iA 4kπ e eik cos α x1 [eik sin α x2 + R(α)e−ik sin α x2 ] + eik sin α (2h+x20 ) dα.84).8 Ray Representation Verify the statements just made by asymptotically approximating each term in (6.87) l=0 j=1 where each term is similar to that given by (6. Recall that this is the Sommerfeld transformation and that it was this transformation that lead us to (6. 6. where β = k cos α. To understand this representation we must examine the complex α plane. in what circumstances? By summing the series in (6.

11. that ensures that the waves radiate or decay away from their source (satisfy the principle of limiting absorption).6. We call this the physical sheet and the others the unphysical ones.4. showing the branch cuts and poles that have emerged onto the physical sheet. A sketch of the complex β plane. The α plane. quadrants 3 and 4. where α is defined by k = k cos α.4. 6. 6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 143 Fig. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Fig. (γ ) < 0 and (γ ) < 0.4 and 5. 6. This is the Riemann sheet. (γ ) > 0 and (γ ) > 0.9 shows the α plane and the contour C. The poles to the left are α1 and α2 . those to the right are π − α1 and π − α2 . The two branch points are α and π − α. The physical sheet is the one for which (γ ) ≥ 0 and (γ ) ≥ 0 ∀ β. Figure 6. These ¯ ¯ quadrants correspond to their primed counterparts in the α plane in Fig. Poles on the lower sheet progressively ¯ ¯ move to the physical sheet. The branch ¯ points are now given by α and π − α.9. In the various quadrants the real parts take values as follows: quadrants ¯ 1 and 2. ¯ . as we have seen in Sections 3. popping through the branch points as ω is increased.8.

88) give the Love waves of (6.51) through (6. Do this by deforming the contour C to that shown in Fig.8.144 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion Fig. 6. similar to that for a closed waveguide.9. Note that there will be a branch cut integral as indicated in the figure. in the integrand of (6. (6. Noting that γ = k sin α. these poles move from the unphysical sheet to the ¯ physical one. The poles of the integrand therefore give us the trapped modes of the waveguide. The next ¯ problem indicates how the residues from the poles on the physical sheet.8 and 6.49). In Figs. 6. there are two pairs. we see that the poles of the integrand in (6. π − α1 ) and (α2 .89) which is a restatement of (6. These points are shown on the dispersion curves in Fig. For a given ω = ω. 6.10.88) are given by the dispersion relation e−2iγ h = R(α). The modes that could radiate into the interior correspond to poles that lie on an unphysical sheet. 6. These are indicated by the crosses in Fig. As ω is increased.8 and 6.9. ±β1 and ±β2 or (α1 . 6. Problem 6.10.53). popping up through the branch point α in the α plane. 6.9 Modal Representation Show that the residue contributions of (6. The dispersion relation and the points on it that correspond to the poles shown in Figs.11. become part of a modal sum. there is a pair of poles ¯ on the physical sheet of the β or α plane corresponding to each guided mode that is trapped in the layer.88). The sum of residues gives the waves trapped in the layer or the sum over the discrete . π − α2 ).

and 4 correspond to quadrants 1. 2. The two fundamental partial waves reaching (x1 . (6.3.91) If each term were approximated by the method of steepest descents. whereas the branch cut integral gives the wavefield that can radiate into the lower half-space or the sum over the continuous eigenfunctions. 2 . By .4.9. Integrating over all the partial waves gives u3 = − × i F0 4π ∞ m=0 ¯ T (α)eik cos α x1 ei k sin α x2 e−ik sin α x20 + eik sin α (2h+x20 ) ¯ C [R(α)]m eik sin α (2mh) dα. whereas modal representations are most descriptive a considerable distance from it. The deformed contour for Problem 6. This is true even when we cannot sum the series (6. 6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide 145 Fig.11.2 The Wavefield in the Half-Space The wavefield in the half-space is constructed in much the same way as was that in the layer. Ray representations are useful for observation points near the source. 6. The combination is the modal expansion of the wavefield in the layer. discussed in Section 1.84).8. ¯ ¯ T (α)eik cos α x1 eik sin α (x20 +2h) ei k sin α x2 . ¯ (6. x2 ) are ¯ T (α)eik cos α x1 e−ik sin α x20 ei k sin α x2 .84) by using the Poisson sum formula.90) The remainder can be constructed from these two. The quadrants 1 . eigenfunctions. 6. then this representation would give a ray series for the wavefield in the half-space. The modal representation can be derived directly from (6. and 4 in the β plane in Fig. Propagation to the right is being considered. at points where the wavefield has lost some sense of how it was excited and has adapted to its propagation environment.6.

we can recast the representation as u3 = − × iA 4kπ e ¯ T (α)eik cos α x1 ei k sin α x2 ¯ C −ik sin α x20 + eik sin α (2h+x20 ) 1 − R(α)eik sin α (2h) dα.9. (γ ) ≤ 0 sheet. Figures 6. The poles and branch cuts of the integrand also give rise to a modal representation.11. Moreover we have only considered a very simple variation in the propagation environment with depth. Note that (γ ) > 0 for propagation to the ¯ right.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous. 6. They can. there are also roots to the dispersion relation if β is allowed to be complex.10. We call them leaky waves or leaky modes. 6. ¯ That is why they do not lie on the physical sheet of the Riemann surface. 6. in Figs. 6.4 and 6.4. They lie on the (γ ) ≥ 0. 6. Their positions are approximately indicated by the crosses in both Figs. To ensure that waves radiate away from their source. but that (γ ) < 0 so that these waves increase exponentially with depth. we take (β) > 0 so that the waves in the layer radiate or leak into the interior as they propagate to the right. we continue to assume that there are two real roots. β1 = k cos α1 and ¯ β2 = k cos α2 . and therefore on the unphysical sheet in the α plane. We construct an asymptotic approximation that makes use of rays to describe the propagation in the lateral direction and modes to take account of the variation in the transverse one. We consider a slow variation.146 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion carrying out the summation. To the left of the ω/β = c line.3 Leaky Waves We continue to consider propagation solely to the right. an unphysical sheet of ¯ the β plane.11 indicate how the β plane is structured and how it relates to the α plane. Closed Waveguide We have considered both open and closed waveguides whose geometry has conformed to a rectangular coordinate system. however. 6. and 6. Moreover. (6. present on the physical sheet. . in the thickness of a closed guide whose unperturbed geometry is that given in Fig. influence the solution if they come close to the branch cut or if the branch cut is moved. This issue is discussed at greater length in DeSanto (1992).8 and 6. This last example of waveguiding considers a propagation environment that changes slowly in the propagation or lateral direction. with respect to wavelength.92) F0 = A/k has been used to indicate the dimensions of u 3 .8. namely the layer on a half-space.1. These waves can be quite important for some observation points.

Then the u n (x2 . This asymptotic construction is often called the JWKB technique. y1 ) are the cosine or sine functions first 3 given in (6.98) Note that the boundary conditions are homogeneous. The boundary conditions at x2 = ±H become µ − δ2 dh ∂u 3 ∂u 3 = 0.1). . where we assume that dh ± / dy1 = O(1).3). Having scaled the problem. dy1 (6.96) where Aν (y1 .93) The boundary conditions require the vanishing of the normal traction. 3 (6. Also we set u 3 = ku 3 . (6. 3 (6.94) [H ± (x1 + 2π) − H ± (x1 )]/2π ≈ δ[dh ± /dy1 ]. The outward unit normal vectors are ˆ n± = − δ dh ± ˆ ˆ e1 ± e2 + O(δ 2 ) . To clarify the scales we introduce ¯ ¯ scaled coordinates x 1 = kx1 and x 2 = kx2 . x2 ) is the nth mode for a waveguide whose thickness is determined 3 at y1 . γn = nπ/2H . assume from now on that the guide is symmetric so that h ± = h and H ± = H . x2 ). so that this equation is exact.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous. The equation of motion becomes 2 2 δ 2 ∂ 2 u 3 /∂ y1 + ∂ 2 u 3 /∂ x2 + u 3 = 0. Note that the expansion has the form of a modulated group such as we encountered in (6. The top and bottom surfaces are given by x2 = ±H ± (x1 ) = ±h 0 + h ± (y1 ). with h replaced by H (x1 ) and γn replaced by kγn . ± dy1 ∂ y1 ∂ x2 (6. we omit the overbar and reintroduce the variables x2 and u 3 with the understanding that these are now scaled variables.6. (6. For simplicity. This is the second way in which the small parameter δ enters the problem.97) and u n (y1 . x2 )δ ν .74).95) We now seek an asymptotic solution in the form u 3 ∼ eiθ (y1 )/δ ν≥0 Aν (y1 . Closed Waveguide 147 The equation of motion remains (6. The slow variable y1 = δkx1 is in¯ troduced to describe the slow lateral variation. x2 ) = 3 n≥0 n aν (y1 ) u n (y1 . δ then measures the change in the thickness of the guide over a wavelength.

3 3 (6. with βn as the 3 3 corresponding eigenvalue. (6. similar in some respects to (2.1. The n 2 solution to (6.98). to make the structure of the equations clearer. where L := ∂ 2 /∂ x2 + 1.99) with their accompanying boundary conditions.148 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion Now (6. This equation is 2 −L A1 + βn A1 = i 3 3 d 2θ 0 dθ A + 2i 2 3 dy1 dy1 ∂ A0 3 . We have introduced the opera2 tor L.93) and (6.103) where Nn are constants.100) and (6. ∂ x2 To arrive at (6.102). sin (6. Note that βn of (6.101) is then A0 = a0 (y1 )u n (y1 .101) (6. Equations (6. n To find a0 we need to go to the next order in δ.4) has become kβn and that now βn = 1 − γn2 (y1 ) where γn = nπ/[2h 0 + 2h(y1 )].101) constitute an eigenvalue problem. 2 2 dy1 ∂ y1 dy1 ∂ y1 (6. Note that y1 enters βn through h(y1 ).105) . (6. x2 ) = Nn 3 cos (γn x2 ).1 as to what the eigenvalue of interest is.102) This is an eikonal equation. and the coefficient of each power of δ set to zero. The terms for which the superscripts are negative are zero. Further. u n (y1 . ±H ) = 0. often determined by a normalization condition. is integrated to give θ(y1 ).100) we have set 2 (dθ/dy1 )2 = βn .100) with ∂ A0 3 (y1 .96) is substituted into (6. (6. x2 ). The eikonal equation. The equation corresponding to ν = 0 is 2 L A0 = βn A0 .104) 1/2 .100) and (6. We are then led to the sequence of equations L− dθ dy1 2 Aν + i 3 d 2θ dθ ∂ Aν−1 ∂ 2 Aν−2 3 3 +2 + = 0.43). identical to that solved in Problem 6. ∂ y1 (6. The reader is asked to recall the earlier comments in Problem 6.

Calculating the inner product [L(A1 ). (6. ± dh dθ 0 ∂ A1 3 =i A .106).108) with n = 2 for n = 0. at x2 = ±H . Note that un . Burridge and Weinberg (1977) indicate how higher-order terms are gotten.105) and (6.109) and adding the two gives the much simpler equation dθ dθ ∗ 1 d ln 2 dy1 dy1 dy1 From this it follows immediately that dθ dy1 n a0 2 + d a n a n∗ = 0. namely n dθ da0 1 n d 2 θ + a 2 dy1 dy1 2 0 dy1 n + a0 dθ dy1 ∂u n /∂ y1 . 3 ∂u n ∂u n n dh 2 3 3 . Examining (6.107) and agree to normalize the eigenfunctions such that [u n . respectively.111) = constant. Closed Waveguide with boundary conditions. we note that to have a bounded solution for 1 A3 it must not resonate with the A0 forcing term.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous.6. We use this fact to find a0 . (6. otherwise. u n + 3 3 1 dh 2 u n+ + u n− 3 2 dy1 3 2 = 0. b] := H− a(x2 ) b∗ (x2 )d x2 (6. u m ] = δnm . First we introduce the inner 3 product H+ [a.106) We shall not seek terms of order higher than ν = 0 here.105) and (6. it must be orthogonal 3 n in some sense to u n .112) .106) gives the following transport equation 3 3 n for a0 . The Nn are 3 3 then given by Nn = { n [h 0 + h 1 (y1 )]}−1/2 (6.109) where the superscript plus and minus signs mean that these terms are evaluated at x2 = ±H . ∂ x2 dy1 dy1 3 149 (6. That is.u − u n+ + u n− =− 3 ∂ y1 ∂ y1 3 dy1 3 2 . and n = 1.110) Taking the complex conjugate of (6. (6. dy1 0 0 (6. u n ] and using (6.

Nn by (6. arising when this is done is a reformulation of the inplane eigenvalue problem and the use of an inner product for the orthogonality condition that is not the norm of the space in which the problem is set. Bringing the pieces together. no waves are reflected by the slowly changing width. n n n n To determine the argument θ0 of a0 = |a0 |eiθ0 .108). In other words. By considering only . that causes the dispersion. in combination with the additional length scale introduced by it.103). Thus n n 1/2 a0 = c0 eiθ0 βn .6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 6.109). 6. substitute this into (6.114) n The βn is given by (6. we could have examined the periodic structure by beginning with the equation 2 ∂1 u 1 = 1 + M ρ ∞ −∞ δ(x1 − n L) 1 2 ∂ u1. 1999). sin (6. but writing the equation in this form exhibits exactly how the microstructure enters the equation. we find the approximate expression for the nth mode is u 3 ∼ exp i δ y1 n βn (s) ds a0 (y1 )Nn (y1 ) cos (γn x2 ). Among several newer features.112) is a statement of energy conservation. It is the microstructure.115) In the end we should have solved it much as we did.6. The periodic structure could be imagined to be a rod possessing a periodic microstructure represented by the concentrated masses.1 Causes of Dispersion We first encountered dispersion in the study of a periodic structure and then later in the study of guided waves.113). n (6. For guided waves the dispersion is caused by the geometrical or kinematical constraint that the waves must reflect from the boundaries in such a way that they reinforce one another to form a sustained wavefield. The unknown constant would be determined from an initial condition at x1 = 0. This particular approach can be extended to inplane elastic waves (Folguera and Harris. 2 cb t (6.113) n where c0 is a real constant. In fact. n It is readily determined that θ0 is a constant.150 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion Equation (6. and a0 by (6. to lowest order.

written as u 3n = An cos[(nπ/ h)x2 ]Pn (x1 . (6. t).27). using the method of stationary phase. t). begins at x = 0 as a square pulse modulating a harmonic carrier and propagates outward in the positive x direction. While it would be misleading to assert that the energy in all wavefields or that the information encoded in them always propagates at the group velocity.117) have the same form as do the Klein–Gordon equation and that for the flexural motion for a rod. In Problem 6.1). which we introduce here.28). In this section.117) Note that (6. Continuing.6. by substituting this into the equation of motion. 6. Dispersive propagation is an extraordinarily rich subject.2 The Propagation of Information We consider a signaling problem. The wave.2 we showed that the energy in the nth mode propagates at the group velocity Cn . (6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity the nth waveguide mode for a closed waveguide.115) or (6. (6. we showed that the group velocity is that with which each ωns propagated to a point (x1 . (6. we study dispersion by focusing our attention on the meanings given the group velocity in the context of one dimensional.2) is automatically satisfied and that this equation captures the dispersive propagation.1. The equation (6. 151 (6.119) (t) cos ω0 t.116) we find. this does occur for many wavefields. It is described at x = 0 by u(0.2.117) is the Klein–Gordon equation.3. In addition to the work of Lighthill (1965) and Whitham (1974). t) satisfies 2 c−2 ∂t2 Pn − ∂1 Pn + (nπ/ h)2 Pn = 0. the reader is referred to Sommerfeld (1964a) and Brillouin (1960) for extended discussions of the dispersion of electromagnetic waves in dielectric materials. amplitude u(x.115) and (6. and both (6. and that in Section 6. (6.6. that the propagating term Pn (x1 .2 the reader showed that both these latter equations led to dispersive propagation.117). t) = with the modulation described by (t) = H (t + T ) − H (t − T ). recall that in Section 6.118) . t). dispersive equations having a form such as (6. (6.

152 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion As in previous instances.120).120) as u(x. comes from ω ∈ (ω0 − π/T. We can thus approximate (6. (6. If ω0 T is large. 1964b) to demonstrate that information propagates at the group velocity. (6. may not . in order that there be a well-defined modulation. ω)ei[k(ω)x−ωt] dω. ω) = sin[(ω − ω0 )T ] sin[(ω + ω0 )T ] + . ω)e−i(ω−ω0 )(t−x/C) dω. dω (6.120) 0 where the transform of u(0. t) is given by ∗ u(0. In particular. the group velocity. however. This. (6.36) has been used to write (6. The dispersion relation has been found by seeking a solution in the form Aei(kx−ωt) and solving for k = k(ω). ω) must be concentrated in the neighborhood of the carrier frequency ω0 .123) u(0.122) provided the derivative of k(ω) is well behaved and does not vanish.125) where ∗ ( ) is the Fourier transform of (t). H (t) is the Heaviside function. provided ∗ u(0. t) ≈ where M t− x C ≈ ω0 +π/T ω0 −π/T ∗ π ei(k0 x−ω0 t) M t − x C .124) provided ω0 T is large. ω) is concentrated near ω0 . the major contribution to the integral. the modulation (t) ≈ M(t) propagates at the speed C. (6. ω) is concentrated within intervals near ±ω0 . t) = ∞ π ∗ u(0. This is essentially the kinematic argument put forward by Stokes (Sommerfeld. Using the change of variable = ω − ω0 . ∗ u(0. The principal one is that ∗ u(0. ω − ω0 ω + ω0 (6.121) Note that (1. In this interval we can approximate the dispersion relation as k(ω) ≈ k(ω0 ) + dk (ω0 )(ω − ω0 ). ω0 + π/T ).124) as M(t − x/C) ≈ π/T −π/T ∗ ( )e−i (t−x/C) d . k0 = k(ω0 ) and C −1 = dk/dω(ω0 ). Therefore. (6. we can write (6.120). There are shortcomings to this argument. We construct a solution to the signaling problem as u(x.

t) through the dispersion relation k = k(ω). following (6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 153 always be the case. t). However. (6.126) The stationary phase condition is dk/dω = t/x. 6. However. therefore.10 suggests why they take this approach. We noted previously. written as C(ω) = x/t.120) for large x. using the stationary phase approximation (5.74) we interpreted the group velocity as that with which a given local angular frequency. .73). because we were working with a signaling problem and. A Signaling Problem We again consider the signaling problem whose solution is given by (6. Recall that following (6. They propose both a kinematic theory describing the propagation of a local wavenumbers as well as a kinetic theory describing the evolution of a group. Nevertheless. However.69). Little more than a dispersion relation and the assumption that far from from the source a wavefield evolves into a form described by u(x. it was natural to express the solution as a Fourier transform over the angular frequency ω. 3 (6. propagates. The solution to this equation3 gives ω = ω(x.6. ω)ei[k(ω)x−ωt±π/4] . we now assume that ω0 T is such that ∗ u(0.121). rather than the local wavenumber. the ideas of Whitham and Lighthill prove just as adept at describing the evolution of the local angular frequency and the group it characterizes.3 The Propagation of Angular Frequencies Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) give a more general meaning to group velocity that is motivated by the stationary phase condition. that the stationary phase condition. This gives u(x. t)eiθ (x. Problem 6. one that characterizes a group. t) ∼ [A(x.127) The argument is really x/t rather than the more general (x. this latter notation will permit some generalizations in the subsection that follows. and that raises the question as to whether or not the concept of group velocity has a more general significance.t) ] is required. and k = k(x. t) ∼ (2π)1/2 π [x|d 2 k/dω2 |]1/2 ∗ u(0. t). We approximate (6. assuming that t/x is fixed. ω) is slowly varying. they consider an initial value problem rather than a signaling problem so that their formulation is given in terms of a local wavenumber. We chose to describe the local angular frequency.6.

t) ∼ [A(x. t) = k(ω)x − ω(x. defined by (6.154 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion is a mapping. though signs change here and there. If dC/dω < 0. we can define a local angular frequency and a local wavenumber as ω(x.128) We assume that dC/dω > 0 and take the minus sign in (6. Then (6. then the reasoning remains the same. Zauderer 1983). 1. and that (6. Equation (6.132) where C = dω/dk.133) is solved by the method of characteristics (Whitham. we are. t) = ∂x θ. by using the dispersion relation. throughout.126).131) (6. 2 dω C (ω) dω (6.t) ].133) (6. Note that (6. dt/d x = C −1 . t) and a dispersion relation k = k(ω). Moreover. k(x. . (6. where A(x. A Kinematic Theory Assuming that we know θ (x.130) (2π)1/2 1 π [x|d 2 k/dω2 |]1/2 ∗ u(0. of a conservation equation. This is a partial differential equation for the angular frequency ω. t) plane such that along S. t) = and θ (x. or. t) = −∂t θ.133) becomes dω/dt = 0 along this curve. ∂t k + ∂x ω = 0.30). the solution can be gotten quite simply. In this calculation we emphasize this aspect of the stationary phase condition and have dropped the subscript s that was used previously to designate an ω satisfying this condition. (6.132) has the form. ∂t ω + C(ω)∂x ω = 0. Thus. 1974. for propagating waves.129) If these definitions are to be consistent with one another.133) captures the idea suggested by the stationary phase condition that the frequency ω propagates at the group velocity C. t)eiθ (x. from the t plane to the ω plane for fixed x. The term d 2 k/dω2 is given by 1 dC d 2k (ω) = − 2 (ω). Provided the characteristics do not intersect. Assume that there exists a curve S in the (x. t)t. assuming that dC/dω = 0. u(x. ω)e−iπ/4 (6.

It is not an explicit solution for ω. ω(x. [1 − (x1 /ct)2 ]1/2 (6. Assume θ (x. Variation of t0 gives a solution throughout (x. given by the argument of the cosine in (6. Reverting to the notation of Section 6.136) For both expressions ωn ∈ (cnπ/ h. t0 ) = f (t0 ) is given.134) where the phase velocity c = d x/dt. t) = θ0 .138) .2. t) = (cnπ/ h) . we recover the stationary phase condition. is θn (x1 . ω(0.137) The curves of constant phase θn = θn0 are given by 2 c2 t 2 − x 1 = θn0 h nπ 2 . where t0 is the intercept with the t axis. Hereafter we write S(t0 ) to identify that member of the family of curves with intercept t0 .6.3. The local angular frequency determined by the stationary phase condition is given by (6. (6.126). S is given by t = x C −1 (ω) + t0 .6 Dispersion and Group Velocity 155 2. ∞). It follows then that ω(x. a constant. Assume that an initial distribution of frequencies ω(0. because C is constant if ω is. t) = f [t − x C −1 (ω)] along S(t0 ).72). t) is therefore constant along S and. That expression. Along each S(t0 ).127). t) = − x1 nπ h ct x1 2 1/2 −1 . t). we again consider the stationary phase approximation to the transiently excited waves in a closed waveguide. it indicates its evolution. t). Lastly. (6. (6. (6. Nevertheless. 1 for x large if we assume that f (t0 ) is localized near the origin so that t0 /x and t/x fixed. is ωn (x1 . Implicit differentiation gives c(x.129). t) = − ∂t θ/∂x θ. The group lines or curves of constant local angular frequency ωn = ωn0 are given by cnπ x1 = 1− ct ωn0 h 2 1/2 . We call lines of constant angular frequency group lines and those of constant phase phase lines. rewritten here. t0 ) = ω(x.135) The phase. 3. We can also define a local phase velocity. (6. Thus c = ω/k where ω and k are the local frequency and wavenumber defined by (6.

Here we continue to follow Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) and advance an argument using the stationary phase condition. dω (6. Q(x) = t1 t2 A(x. For a time harmonic. they assume that attenuation is not present. (6. plane wave and wave system for which equipartition of energy occurs.127) is a mapping from t to ω. This is a remarkable result. We define a quantity Q as follows.156 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion These two families of curves are quite different so that.138) to ω. where i = 1.25). (6. we explicitly showed that for a closed waveguide the averaged energy of a particular mode propagates with the group velocity for that mode. ω1 > ω2 . When dispersion arises from material properties.139) where t2 > t1 . we change the variable of integration in (6. t)dt. While the kinematic and kinetic descriptions of group velocity put forward by Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) appear quite complete. t)A∗ (x. once again.140) |∗ u(0. Aki and Richards (1980) give a restricted version of this argument that is applicable to waveguide modes. It indicates that for a signal. we note that a phase and a group evolve differently in a dispersive environment. the energy contained within a given frequency band is constant when the frequency band remains between the two group lines identified by ti = x C −1 (ωi ). the group velocity is the velocity with which the average energy propagates. The same . Recalling our earlier comment that (6. this term is proportional to the time-averaged energy density. This then is a generalization of the idea that time-averaged energy propagates at the group velocity. ω)|2 ω2 dω (6. such as a fragment of speech. Lighthill (1965) gives a general argument showing that. it is very often accompanied by frequency-dependent attenuation. t)ω2 (x. for any wave structure or environment that can be characterized by a Lagrangian and for which equipartition of energy occurs. Auld (1990) uses a reciprocity relation to prove this result in somewhat greater generality. This is reminiscent of an energy term. Noting that dt = − we see that (6.139) becomes Q(x) = 2 π ω1 ω2 x C 2 (ω) dC (ω)dω.141) For dC/dω > 0. 2. A Kinetic Theory Previously.

K. 1980) is an example that indicates the tangling of these two effects. attributing a meaning to group velocity can become much more difficult. Thus they write that the wavenumber propagates at the group velocity and that the energy confined between two group lines defined by two fixed ki is constant. and not ω. Note that (6. show that this solution for t → ∞. 0) = 0. References Aki. ∂t ϕ(x. (6. The following two problems indicate why they develop their ideas in this way. (6. pp. t) and θ (x. Quantitative Seismology. An ab initio calculation may be the only guide (see also footnote 2). is the transform variable.143) where ω = ω(k) is the dispersion relation. ϕ and ∂t ϕ are identically zero. The propagation of linearly viscoelastic waves (Hudson. Using the method stationary phase. (6. San Francisco: Freeman. unless the attenuation is quite weak.28).G. Problem 6. t)eiθ (x. 1980.t) . Repeat Problem 1 for the equation for flexural motion in a rod. 286–292.References 157 physical mechanisms are responsible for both dispersion and attenuation so that they cannot be easily disentangled. 0) = δ(x).27). 0 (6.10 Dispersion 2 As we indicated previously. Problem 1. Theory and Methods. Vol. Problem 2.143) is to be interpreted as a generalized function or distribution. Whitham (1974) and Lighthill (1965) use an initial value problem to advance their ideas about group velocity.142) For t < 0− . with x/t positive and fixed. Solve the initial value problem for this equation. Consider once again the Klein–Gordon equation. and Richards. Note that k. given the initial conditions ϕ(x. (6. In such cases. can be put into the form ϕ∼ A(x. 1. P. Thus show that the appropriate solution is ϕ= 1 π ∞ cos(kx) cos[ω(k)t]dk. . t).144) Give explicit expressions for A(x.

Coupled Rayleigh surface waves in a slowly varying elastic waveguide. 1974. 1965. Horizontal rays and vertical modes. New York: Academic. Soc. 1994. Keurti.S. L.B. J. E. Papadakis. A. Malabar. R. 1964b. Optics. New York: Springer. Sommerfeld. Mechanics of Deformable Bodies. Wave Motion 19: 293–308. I. B. A. IV. 1964a. 2. 1956. 1999. 299–325. Miklowitz. L. 1977. 273–289. Moldauer. M. Group velocity. 162–179.A. Theory and Experiment in Underwater Sound. Maths. Folguera. Vol. Whitham. Waves in Layered Media. 1987. 1990. Inst. pp. 178–200 and 409–466. J. New York: Academic. Translated by G. pp. and Clay. Tolstoy. Scalar Wave Theory. The Theory of Elastic Waves and Waveguides. pp. Vol. Burridge. A uniform asymptotic expansion for the shear-wave front in a layer. H. R. 363–402.. 1983. Keller and J. Cambridge: University Press. Dai. R. New York: North-Holland.. J. 184–191. 203–206.A. Linear and Nonlinear Waves. pp. 35–77. pp. New York: Wiley. New York: Wiley-Interscience. 86–152. New York: Springer. J.B. J. FL: Krieger.A.G. 1: 1–28. Friedman. pp. Lighthill. In Wave Propagation and Underwater Acoustics. Hudson. Brekhovskikh. H. deSanto. . Brillouin. pp. Proc. and Wong. ed. 1980. pp. Lectures on Theoretical Physics. 1980. Ocean Acoustics.S.M. A 455: 917–931. 2nd ed. and Harris. Wave Propagation and Group Velocity. and Weinberg. J. pp. 1978. G. Translated by O.158 6 Guided Waves and Dispersion Auld. Sommerfeld. The Excitation and Propagation of Elastic Waves. Lectures on Theoretical Physics. Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids. New York: American Institute of Physics. 76–80 and elsewhere. New York: Academic. Zauderer. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. pp.A... New York: Wiley-Interscience. 2nd ed. II. pp. New York: Academic. Lond. 2nd ed. B.J. Vol. 188–222. LaPorte and P. Principles and Techniques of Applied Mathematics. 1960. 1992. C.-H. Appl. A.

136 anisotropic medium. 77–82 contour. 91. 122. see Fresnel integral geometrical theory. 9 angular-spectrum. 79–82 caustic. 100 center of compression three-dimensional. 96–101 asymptotic approximation of the scattered compressional wave. 125. 30 asymptotic ray expansion. see plane-wave. 46 angular frequency defined. 31. 94–95 contour. 44 refraction.Index κ. 28–34. 126 time average for a plane wave. 92 waveguide modes. 136 steepest descents. group. 101–119 diffracted wave. 128 anomalous. 82. 99 Cagniard–deHoop technique. defined. 24 asymptotic approximation of integrals. 98 pole contribution. 23 boundary layer. 90. 33 average for a closed waveguide mode. 112 compressional. 107 allied function. 29 shear. 86–96 end point contribution. 87–90 wavefront approximation. 108 diffraction coefficient. 43 reflection. 144 geometrical. 40 κr . 125 from the poles of an integral representation. 81 inversion. 126 Lagrangian density. 98 asymptotic approximation of the scattered shear wave. 13 and stationary phase. 82. 110 diffraction integral. 138 causes of. 62 complex unit vector. see matched asymptotic expansion. 90–94 branch cut contribution. 150 microstructure. 99 Stokes’ phenomenon. 43 cut-off frequency. 150 159 . 110 dispersion. defined. 87 stationary phase. 82–86. 52–55 buried harmonic line of compression. 119 integration by parts. 95 asymptotic power series. 23 compressional wave. 150 closed waveguide. 108. 85. 5 critical angle incidence. 61 two-dimensional. 95 Fresnel integral. defining. 109 branch cuts. 99 contour. 133 cylindrical wave. see velocity. 82. 108 Watson’s lemma. 119 uniform. defined. 55 Abelian theorem. 34 diffraction at an edge.

23 conservation law. 64–65 JWKB asymptotic expansion eigenvalue problem. 71 outgoing wave. see buried harmonic line of compression. 48.160 dispersion (cont. 128 for the Klein–Gordon equation. 114 matching. 145 periodic structure. 87 Gaussian beam. principle of. 6 energy in a band of frequencies. 65 of an edge. 59. 58 guided waves. 145 eigenvalues and eigenfunctions discrete. 82 Laplace transform time. 17. 114 inner. 122 discrete and continuous. 157 Lagrangian density. 66 elastic fluid. see matched asymptotic expansion. 104–108 outgoing wave. 114 nearfield of an edge. 127 energy flux during critical refraction. 139 discrete or mode expansion. 58 time. 6. 45 energy flux during reflection. open. 111 . 75 farfield compact source. 18 Index Green’s function. 157 inner expansion. 114 stretching transformation. 83 longitudinal wave. outer expansion. 114 Fermat’s principle. 146 limiting absorption. 68 Green’s tensor. 101 flexural motion equation. see limiting absorption. 58. 123. 126 averaged for a plane wave. 122 eigenfunction continuous expansion. 127. 10 three-dimensional. see matched asymptotic expansion. 2 two-dimensional. 109. 62–63. 60 three-dimensional. 131 matched asymptotic expansion. 22 Love wave. 121 Helmholtz theorem.) open waveguide. 58. 131 eikonal equation. 59 partial waves. 22 for the flexural motion equation. 30. 15–18 effective wavenumber. 5 initial value problem. 4 inplane motion. see diffraction at an edge. see compressional. 116–119 gamma function. 3 rotational motion. 147 Klein–Gordon equation. 71 integral equations. 65–67 source problem. see center of compression. 148 rays and modes. 65. see waveguide. 6 averaged for a closed waveguide mode. 25 geometrical theory of diffraction. 61. defined. 7 frequency defined. 127. 7 two-sided. 4 extinction theorem. 130. 76 integral representation scattering problem. see waveguide. 113 outer expansion. 5 kinetic energy density. 78 leaky wave. see plane-wave representations. 131 periodic structure. outer coordinates. 109. 110. open. 140. 135 and the Wiener–Hopf method. 113 inner. see waveguide. 156 equipartition of energy. 4 antiplane motion. 67. 9 local. 41 energy flux. defined. 123 discrete and continuous. 126 Lamb’s problem. 71. 18 eigenvalue problem. 74 stress. 2 one-dimensional. 155 Fresnel integral. 104. 111. 115 Schrodinger equation. 112–116 boundary layer. 62 method of images. 150. defined. 134 eigenvalues. 157 Fourier transform space. 126 for a transient plane wave. 62 correct and incorrect. 72. 6 equations of motion. 128 internal energy density. 71. 2 dilitational motion. 60. 148 energy relations. 1–6 boundary conditions. 79 line of compression.

2 stress tensor. 133 from a plate in a fluid. 20 potentials. 124 transverse wave. defined.Index phase matching. 96 time-dependent. 137 group lines. 104. 44 antiplane shear wave. 51 reciprocity. 146 spherical wave. 30 fan of diffracted rays. see refraction. 11 . 68–72 edge conditions. 6–10 transmission coefficient. 24. 34 standing wave. 42 compressional coefficient. 5 propagation matrix. 67 161 from an elastic inclusion. 156 periodic structure. 94 steepest descents. 68 vector potential. 39. 5 scattering Bragg. see asymptotic approximation of integrals. 22 uniqueness in an unbounded region. see asymptotic ray expansion. 39 Sommerfeld transformation. 96. 47 inplane shear coefficient. 1 surface wave. 24 slowness defined. 28 waves scattered from a surface. 16 radiation conditions. defined. displacement. 30 defined. 49 time-harmonic. 155 waveguide mode. 146 Rayleigh wave. 22 plane-wave representations. 22. 107 no edges. 96. 22 inhomogeneous or evanescent. 149 transverse resonance principle. 14 shear wave. 42 interfacial wave. 63. 84. 110 ray tube. 154 kinetic theory. 38 from a layer. displacement. see potentials. 38 refraction antiplane shear coefficient. defined. 5 signaling problem. 20 time-harmonic. 57 reflection antiplane shear coefficient. 51 guided by an impedance boundary. defined. see limiting absorption. 13 from a strip. 40 inplane shear wave. 20 surface. 5 scalar potential. 46 scalar potential. Fourier and Laplace. 101 Rayleigh function. 51 Rayleigh equation. 33 defined. 65. 22. 18 and stationary phase. displacement. 44 vector. 151–157 defined. 44 transmission matrix. 142 spherical wave. 20. 84 Poisson summation formula. 33 rays and modes. 6 defined. 44 antiplane shear wave. 11 polarization change in a ray expansion. 45 two-sided wave. 155 phase lines. see Fourier transform. 49 transient. 1 transforms. 39–40 phase. 15 transport equation. 51 Tauberian theorem. 90 strain tensor. 17 from a lumped mass. defined. 155 kinematic theory. Laplace transform. 30. 153–157 propagation of information. 43. 18 propagation of angular frequencies. 72 scattering matrix. see shear. 82 traction. 125 phase local. 59. 5 velocity energy transport. 125 fastest. 5 vector potential. not a wave. see dispersion. 24–28 cylindrical wave. see Abelian theorem. 27. 50 two-sided wave. 24 in an open waveguide. its meaning. see potentials. 40 compressional wave. 142. 28. 140 Gaussian beam. 27. see Rayleigh wave. 125 vibration. 69. 137 group. see asymptotic approximation of integrals. 9 stationary phase. 29 plane wave homogeneous. 151 propagation of wavenumbers. 153 waveguide mode. 48–52. 65 ray.

122 wavevector defined. spherical. 139–146 leaky modes. 8 effective. 134 mode expansion. 18 lateral. 142. 134 transient excitation. 134–139 harmonic excitation. defined. 129 .. 146 modal representation. 30 plane. 155 transverse. 22 real and complex. see asymptotic approximation of integrals. 121 evanescent mode. 20 wavefront curvature. 146 ray representation. 87 wave kinematics. 9 wavenumber complex. 146 mode. 141. 104–108 Watson’s lemma. 22 Wiener–Hopf method. 144 plane-wave representation. etc. 145 wavelength. 22 defined.162 Index excitation. 20 waveguide closed. 122 local. periodic structure. 135 excitation. 122 open. 135 laterally inhomogeneous. 32 defined. defined.

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