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1. Phonetics and phonology (subdivision; langue x parole; phoneme, allophone, sound; RP; accent x dialect); differences between RP and General American in terms of pronunciation.
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds, and their physiological production, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. It‟s Articulatory, acoustic and auditory. Phonology is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. Just as a language has syntax and vocabulary, it also has phonology in the sense of a sound system. Whereas phonetics is about the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning. Langue – abstract system of rules, language as a social phenomenon, every native speaker has in their heads; it describes how you should use the language correctly; prescriptive Parole – concrete manifestation, individual phenomenon, describes how we use the language; descriptive Phoneme – smallest meaning-distinguishing linguistic unit with contrastive property Allophone – phonetic variant of phoneme; its realization Sound – acoustic branch of phonetics – sound waves, how it travels in space, how it is produced; In English sound doesn‟t match with written letters (in Czech does) RP – Received Pronunciation – accent of standard British English, called also BBC English accent – a form of pronunciation dialect – a form of vocabulary and grammar as well as pronunciation While there is not any single formal definition of General American, various features are considered to be part of it, including rhotic pronunciation, which maintains the coda [ɹ] in words like pearl, car, and court. Unlike RP, General American is characterized by the merger of the vowels of words like father and bother, flapping, and the reduction of vowel contrasts before [ɹ]. General American also generally has yod-dropping after alveolar consonants. Other phonemic mergers, including the cot-caught merger, the pin-pen merger, the Mary-marry-merry merger and the wine-whine merger, may be found optionally at least in informal and semiformal varieties.
in English sound doesn‟t match with written letters (in Czech does) Speech organs produce the many sounds needed for language. Relationship between speech and writing. The visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language.typewritten or printed form. . hard palate (tvrdé horní patro). tongue. transcription. the process of matching the sounds of human speech to special written symbols. phonation. of a spoken-language source. speech organs. velum (soft palate – měkké horní patro). The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet (such as the International Phonetic Alphabet). Organs used include the lips.php 2.net/pages/school. uvula (čípek) and glottis (vocal folds and space between hlasivky). teeth. so that these sounds can be reproduced later.http://hlavsa. Phonation (voicing) – the process in which the vocal folds produce certain sounds through quasiperiodic vibration Transcription . speech – temporary – we can and probably will forget writing – retrievable (we can read it again and again) . alveolar ridge (dáseň). using a set of exact rules.
may change the quality twice closing dipththongs + centring schwa eɪə. diphthongs and triphthongs.short. close front ʊ . close-mid central/back e – short.long u: . aʊə .short.net/pages/school. open-mid central ɒ .php 3. ɔɪə.long ɑ: . open back – tongue far back and down i – close front e – close-mid front ɛ . open front ʌ . back vowel are called dark – vowel colour the position of soft palate – nasalized x oral vowels rounded lips -> rounded vowel monophthongs (pure vowels) – single vowel sound with relatively fixed beginning and the end.open-mid front a – open front u . aʊ centring: ɪə.http://hlavsa. close-mid front ə . English pure vowels (colour. aɪə.long dipththongs – two sound vowels. central æ – short.short. aɪ.open back front vowels are called bright.long ɜ: .long ɔ: . ʊə thripththongs – three sound vowel – monosyllabic vowel. length. ɔɪ. cardinal vowels – key tongue positions (close front – tongue far in front and up. open-mid(close to open open) back i: . əʊ.short.close back o – close-mid back ɔ . change quality during pronunciation – glide up or down closing: eɪ. cardinal vowels). eə.open-mid back ɑ . əʊə.short. does not glide up or down ɪ .
manner → place ↓ bilabial labiodentals dental alveolar post-alveolar palate-alveolar palatal velar glottal k. dʒ δ. place and manner of articulation. ʃ.between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus) .approximant – very little obstruction . fricatives. s. dʒ.palate-alveolar – between the middle of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge .net/pages/school. v. but releaseses as fricative . j.plosive – closing → compression → release . z ʃ. (w) consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.dental .glottal . θ s.velar . v.post-alveolar . j.between the front of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge . d.labiodentals – between the upper teeth and lower lip .http://hlavsa. h tʃ . g. θ. z. t. n dʒ . g h plosive p.voiceless) lenis: d. places of articulation – where obstruction occurs .palatal . s. approximants) x obstruents (plosives.between the back of the tongue and the soft palate (the velum) . v t. voicing – change from voiceless to voiced voiceless: p. English consonants generally (voicing.affricate – begins like a plosive.lateral – pronounced along sides of the tongue consonants sorted by produced force: fortis: t.partially voiced h – voiceless glottal fricative.between the front of the tongue and the top teeth . r.at the glottis manner of articulation – describes how speech organs are involved in making the sound . z.alveolar . f. ʃ. b f. w. r. k. w (.aspirated voiced: b. ʒ. takes on the quality of the following vowel sonorants (nasals. affricatives) . δ. θ. ʒ.between the middle of the tongue and the hard palate .voiced) voiceless consonant – when larynx does not vibrate. lateral. tʃ (. b. d tʃ. ʒ j ɳ w n l r affricate fricative nasal m approx. p.fricative – continuous frication at the place of articulation . δ.nasal – complete blockage of the oral cavity . f.php 4.bilabial – between the lips . k. g. fortis/lenis).
g b. t. nasal. but initial and final plosive is usually devoiced (like g in fog). g δ. v nasal m approx. g (lenis) is usually voiced. inaudible.velar .strong burst of air that accompanies the release after initial fortis. dʒ k.alveolar . lateral release).. .. d. manner → place ↓ bilabial labiodentals dental alveolar post-alveolar palate-alveolar palatal velar glottal plosive p.dⁿn] or that night [δætⁿ naɪt] Lateral release – before lateral consonant l. z ʃ.bilabial – between the lips .pill [pʰɪl] . (w) t. b affricate fricative f.net/pages/school.php 5. suchem x s uchem . English plosives (aspiration.between the back of the tongue and the soft palate (the velum) fortis – p. θ s.time [tʰaɪm] . ʒ n l r j ɳ h w Manner of articulation has 3 stages – closing. compression and release Place of articulation . k lenis – b. the air flows along the sides of the tongue puddle [pʌd'ļ] or that light [δæt' laɪt] Glottal stop – a closure of vocal folds between two consonants kočku x k očku. d. sudden [. d tʃ. Aspiration .http://hlavsa.between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus) .cat [kʰæt] Inaudible release (aka Incomplete) – the release stage is moved to the second consonant that table [δæt˺teɪbļ] or doctor [dɒk˺tə] Nasal release – the velum is lowered and air escapes through the nose during the release wooden.
dʒ δ. j. ʃ. z.aspirated voiced: v. Joint articulation of homorganic fricatives: this similarity. of fine . debris. θ. δ. manner → place ↓ bilabial labiodentals dental alveolar post-alveolar palate-alveolar palatal velar glottal k. h tʃ . d tʃ. English fricatives and affricates. ʒ. b f. v t. dʒ (. ʃ.alveolar . θ s. s.net/pages/school. ʃ. Sibilants: s.glottal . ʒ j ɳ w n l r nasal m approx. n dʒ . θ. s. δ. w.a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract (all vowels and fricatives ARE continuants. r.voiceless) lenis: v. fricative – continuous frication at the place of articulation affricate – begins like a plosive.http://hlavsa. ʒ. z. tʃ (. z. (w) affricate fricative Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. z ʃ.between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus) . They are stronger/lauder than other fricatives. ʒ. hour. takes on the quality of the following vowel A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate consonant. but releaseses as fricative places of articulation – where obstruction occurs .labiodentals – between the upper teeth and lower lip .partially voiced h – voiceless glottal fricative.palate-alveolar – between the middle of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge .at the glottis fricatives and africates sorted by produced force: fortis: f.between the front of the tongue and the top teeth . g h plosive p. tʃ. honour Continuants . made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel in the vocal tract towards the sharp edge of the teeth.voiced) voiceless consonant – when larynx does not vibrate voiceless: f.dental .php 6. dʒ S and H are often silent: island.
fly) .http://hlavsa. law and order . folk.. b f.between the middle of the tongue and the hard palate . ʒ j ɳ w n l r affricate fricative nasal m approx.between the back of the tongue and the soft palate (the velum) syllabic n – instead of [ən] devoiced /m. lenis – pronounced everywhere in rhotic languages (GA. Canadian. t. colonel R – post-alveolar approximant. lowered soft palate → all the air flows through the nose places of articulation – where obstruction occurs . snake silent /m. here and there . t/ at the beginning of stressed syllable: play. fry J. English nasals. n/ when a voiceless consonant precedes: smart. castle . W – semi-vowels.bilabial – between the lips . lenis (voiced) . Holmes. would. n/ .net/pages/school. v t.dark before consonants or at the word‟s end (bold. talk. autumn alveolar lateral approximant – L . d tʃ. f/ in the initial position: slide. dʒ δ.velar .syllabic: middle. flow .devoiced after /p. calm.alveolar .linking: silent /r/ is pronounced – far away. g h plosive p.) only before vowels . manner → place ↓ bilabial labiodentals dental alveolar post-alveolar palate-alveolar palatal velar glottal k.post-alveolar . walk. k. f/ at the beginning of the stressed syllable – press. bottle.vanilla ice. Scottish). should.palatal . θ s. climb /s. z ʃ. Australian.intrusive: after /ə. ɑ:. in non-rhotic accents (GP.between the front of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge . NZ.devoiced: after /p.clear/bright before vowels (lady. (w) complete closure in the mouth. lateral and approximants.mnemonic. could. palm.php 7. ɔ:/ .between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus) .silent in: calf half. cream. tell) – a spoon-like shape of a tongue .
try [traɪ].before cons. k / and nasals /m. teaching pronunciation (Volín ch. ʒ / and affricate / dʒ / .net/pages/school. n/ after /s/ . 6) An allophone is a variant of a phoneme determined by its position in a string of segments. marked by / ̥ / under devoiced cons. smell [smell].at the beginning or the end of the word . pen [ pæ̃n ]. hang [ hæ̃ɳ ].day [deɪ]. fricatives / v. When babies learn to use language.the velum makes anticipatory gesture before the oral articulation of the nasal consonant starts . j / may lose their voicing after / p.mainly in lenis obstruents – plosives / b. .clear/bright / l / before vowels (lady. z. the vowel forming the peak is nasalized dim [ dɪm ]. t.[měɪt] x [meɪd] shortened long vowels (omg) are marked with one dot /a·/ instead of /a:/ aspiration – the most noticeable allophonic variation strong burst of air that accompanies the release after initial fortis.time [tʰaɪm] . r. Allophonic variations. but keep their lenis character. or at the word‟s end (bold. they must learn not to hear allophonic variations labialized consonants /k/ in quite is realized as [kw] – lip rounding starts early → /k/ becomes labialized /s/ in soup [su:p] may become [sw] – depends on the speaker in most cases.http://hlavsa.approximants / l. consonant followed by /w/ will be labialized consonant followed by /ɔ:/.dark/velarized / ɫ / elsewhere . g /. fly) . d.cat [kʰæt] (partial) devoicing – based on alignment between oral gestures and the voice onset . /u:/. ten [ tẽn ] x net [ net ] ̃ .lateral alveolar approximant .they get devoiced.pill [pʰɪl] . play [pl̥ eɪ] ̥ ̥ ̥ clear and dark /l/ . δ.php 8. . tell) a spoon-like shape of a tongue most people notice dark / ɫ / only when it‟s missing in a foreigner‟s accent nasalization – if syllable has a nasal coda. /ʊ/ or /ɒ/ may be also labialized → [jwu:sfl twu:l] vowel duration vowels are shorter before fortis consonants and longer before lenis consonants write [raɪt] is much shorter than ride [raɪd] – same phoneme /aɪ/ the short phoneme may be symbolized with / ˘ / .
Dracula [drækjələ] ̟ ̟ .symbol / ̰ / .keen [ ki:n ]. suchem x s uchem Dental alveolars – dental place of articulation of alveolars without changing a phoneme . to the palate .dⁿn] or that night [δætⁿ naɪt] Lateral release – before lateral consonant l.net/pages/school. j / or sometimes even / ɪ. it becomes fronted – place of articulation moves forward.http://hlavsa.you simply touch the upper teeth instead of alveola with your tongue . the air flows along the sides of the tongue puddle [pʌd'ļ] or that light [δæt' laɪt] Glottal stop – a closure of vocal folds between two consonants kočku x k očku. ɪə /. sudden [.symbol / + / ..php Stop releases Inaudible release (aka Incomplete) – the release stage is moved to the second consonant that table [δæt˺teɪbļ] or doctor [dɒk˺tə] Canonical release – nasal and lateral Nasal release – the velum is lowered and air escapes through the nose during the release wooden.your tongue moves forward .in that case [ ɪn˺ δæt ˈkeɪs ] ̰ Fronted velars – when velar plosive is followed by / i:..
d.http://hlavsa. ʒ/ don‟t you [dəʊnt jʊ] → [dəʊntʃʊ] would you [wʊd jʊ] → [wʊdʒʊ] as you wish [æz jʊ wɪʃ] → [æʒʊ wɪʃ] Elision Omission of one or more sounds in a word or phrase which make the result easier to pronounce. d. coalescent assimilation) . interesting/vegetables (reducing syllables)./t. j/ → palatoalveolar this shop [δɪs ʃɒp] → [δɪʃ ʃɒp] this year [δɪs jɪə] → [δɪʃ jɪə] . dʒ. g/ → velar that cat [δæt kæt] → [δæk kæt] good girl [gʊd gɜ:l] → [gʊg gɜ:l] o /s.of voice o progressive: grammatical endings likes [laɪks]. elision.of place (regressive) o /t. . stopped for lunch /t/ elided .of manner – most rapid colloquial speech o regressive: good night [gʊd←naɪt] → [gʊn naɪt] o progressive: in the [ɪn→δə] → [ɪn nə] . m/ → bilabial fat boy [fæt bɔɪ] → [fæp bɔɪ] red ball [red bɔ:l] → [reb bɔ:l] o /t. assibilation. n/ before /p. restricted to weak forms and certain stabilised words of course [əv kɔ:s] → [əf kɔ:s] have to [hæv tʊ] → [hæf tʊ] voicing is never passed across the word boundary back door [bæk] x never [bæg] nice dress [naɪs] x never [naɪz] leave never with [f] Assibilation (aka. lies [laɪz] o regressive: across word boundaries – only voicelessness is passed. Assimilation – often in rapid colloquial speech .omission of /ə/ in unstressed syllables forever. n/ before /k. z/ before /ʃ. loves [lʌvz]. tonight. d/ within a consonant cluster next day . d.simplifying complex consonant clusters she acts like [ækts] → [æks] texts [teksts] → [teks] . z/ + /j/ → /tʃ. . ʒ. b. s. Connected speech: assimilation./t.php 9./t/ elided between /ks/ and /d/ reached Paris.net/pages/school. ʃ.
ɑ:.overuse of glottal stops .length – only 2 length degrees in Czech .və.ˈpɪl. instead of inaudible release . speakers often introduce /j/ to ease the transition to the following vowel sound o I agree [aɪ(j)əgri:]. “ch” sound – pill = pchil .no devoicing of /r.insufficient reduction of vowels in unstressed syllables. hjůmen Rhythm . consonant-to-vowel → pseudo-resyllabification oneˬevening. Czech has syllable timed – same length of syllables Flat pitch range in intonation. I hatedˬit..plosives released before another plosives. ɑ:. after /ə.zɔ:. l.net/pages/school. used to avoid glottal stop o vanilla ice.php 10. intrusive) /w/ when word ends with /u:/ or dipththong with /ʊ/./δ. That is what the transcription without word boundaries is about. but there are no spaces at all between words in real speech.wrong assimilation of voicing: begboun. The units separated in speech are called stress-groups or feet – from one stressed syllable to another. ʊ . you out [ju:waʊt]. e .ˈləʊ. who is [hu:wɪz] - Common pronunciation mistakes of Czech speakers vowels .lenis consonants in final position often neutralized with fortis counterparts .. I’mˬanˬaccountant in fast speech [ˈbɒk. Czech speakers lack linking and overuse the glottal stop. Linking Glottal stop – a closure of vocal folds between two consonants. ə replaced by e consonants . ʌ . We are used to see spaces between words.fully voiced /h/ in initial positions..English has stress timed rhythm.colour – no distinction preserved between ɪ . w/ after fortis consonants in the onsets of stressed syllables o Cry > kráj . speakers often introduce /w/ to ease the transition to the following vowel sound o go on [gəʊwɒn]. longer. tonis tress not prominent enough . diz van (this one ) . ɔ:/. j. ɪ / or a diphthong with /ɪ/. excluding it.ˈpleɪs] vowel-to-vowel linking linking /r/: silent /r/ is pronounced before vowels – far away. θ/ replaced with d. here and there intrusive /r/: between two vowels with no written /r/../g/ in words like finger. ɒ .sɪ. t. the most common pronunciation problems of Czech speakers of English.δə. I am [aɪ(j)əm] transient (linking. he tookˬaˬlot of. Connected speech: linking.u: .zəf. dz . law and order transient (linking.aspiration – not used or wrongly produced. intrusive) /j/: when word ends with /i:.æ.i:.http://hlavsa. strongest .ɔ:. Symbol [?].
h. cannot be /ɳ/ peak – little or no obstruction.a close back rounded vowel /u/ o weak /u/ comes from neutralization of /u:/ and /ʊ/ unstressed you.mostly in rhotic accents. with different quality . coda (pre-final. do .if preceding consonant is alveolar it‟s dark /l/ bottle [bɒtl̹ ].http://hlavsa. sp + /l. its universal – exists in all languages. postinitial). eg. louder. j. and vowel sequences. Syllable – unit at higher level than phoneme. r.net/pages/school.a syllabic consonant o syllabic /l̹ / .all 3 cons.php 11. phonetical point of view onset – before peak consonants. busy [bɪzi] . starts with /s/. shorter.a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. full vowel quality Weak syllables – always unstressed. weak and strong syllables. initial. distinguished from that of the word or morpheme.3) There must be a peak in every syllable. Phonotactics . cannot be /w. texts – maximum coda o peak + coda = rhyme o 2 and more consonants = cluster onset clusters . j/ st + /r. peak. final. post-final1. weaker.a close front unrounded vowel /i/ o weak /i/ comes from neutralization of /i:/ and /ɪ/ easy [i:zi]. wanderer [wɒndrə] ̹ ̹ . to.onset (pre-initial. j/ sk + /l. ɳ/ . Phonotactics defines permissible syllable structure. yet. r.the vowel ə (schwa) – most common . into. w/ maximum phonological structure of syllable: ccc|v|cccc . syllabic consonants. → vowel coda – after peak consonants.2. Strong syllables – strong peak. tunnel [tʌnl̹ ] – lateral release o syllabic /n/ .most frequent syllabic nasal ̹ students [stju:dnts] – treated like with a vowel between /d/ and /n/ ̹ o syllabic /m. j/ maximum is ccc|v|cccc. phonotactics. Syllable. consonant clusters.only in assimilation or elision process ̹ o syllabic /r/ . not common in non-rhotic ̹ history [hɪstri].
morphology – simple. free in English depends on .http://hlavsa. but carries secondary stress. l̹ . phonological structure .primary – pitch. CARgo syncope /sɪɳkəpi/ . complex. adMIRE o trailing syllables (after stress) – longer.origin . adjectives: if the second syllable is strong.number of syllables. if there is a syllable between the negative prefixe and main stress dis-. im-. stress shift. it is stressed. inter-. ultra-.prefixes o negative – unstressed when standing immediately before the main stress. pre-. uno separable – usually carry secondary stress anti-. ɪ. mis-. necessary Stress placement – fixed in Czech. n/ ̹ o leading syllables (before stress) – rushed. the first one is stressed Stress in complex words .php 12. full vowel quality) . de-. factory.perception (stressed syllables are more prominent) o prominence factors loudness length pitch full vowel quality Levels of stress . drawn out PILLow. shortened beGIN.context Stress in simple words nouns: if the second syllable contains short vowel. length. if it‟s weak.unstressed syllable → vowel reduction → /ə. over-. under-. otherwise the second will verbs. re-. Word stress (its nature and influence on the vowel quality). arch-. noun (1st syllable) x verb (2nd syllable) .more than one trailing syllable → the vowel of the penultimate (předposlední) syllable is shortened or it disappears completely family.secondary – length. full vowel quality) . compound . ir-.net/pages/school. i.word class – eg. first will be stressed. vice- .production (more muscular energy is used) . stress in complex and compound words. mal-. The nature of stress . loudness. u. in-. il-. out-. non-.
ly(adj. for verb /mænt/ Stress in compound words – fixed expressions made up of more than one word. -wise. -ion. -like. -ful. the ˌBBˈC. ual. -ian. -illa. -less.the primary stress when another stressed word follows ˌautoˈmatic → ˌautomatic deˈvice Chiˈnese → ˌChinese ˈpeople . the ˌYMCˈA Stress shift – both complex and compound words may lose stress in connected speech . two words (washing mashine) or with a hypen (home-made). ical. the ˌUSˈA. secondary stress on the first) o adjective + noun/ing form: ˌhot poˈtato. -ness. ˈwarm-up o abbreviations the ˌUˈK. cake.http://hlavsa. -ee. -logy. -ing. -el. ˌself-ˈwhatever o compound numerals with –teen: ˌnineˈteen o personal names: ˌJamesˈBrown o when first is material the second part is made out of: ˌgoldˈwatch not applied on juice. -eer. rules are unstable . -egraphy.net/pages/school. ˌeasy-ˈgoing. -aque. water. “street” is never stressed: ˈOxford Street o phrasal verbs – stress on the first particle ˌcall ˈback. -ique. /ət/ or /ɪt/. -ache. -ale. -ese. -oon o attracting primary stress on the preceding syllable -eous. ˈflute ˌplayer. -ice. -ous. ˈfucking ˌhell o noun + -ing form: ˈtime-ˌconsuming. -ial. -esque. for verb /eɪt/ -ment – for noun /mənt/. ible. -age. ˌgrow ˈout off nouns formed from phrasal verbs !early stress!: ˈcheck-in. -ment. it usually carries secondary stress) – most common o meaning of the second constituent restricted by the first ˈbirthday. ˈairport. ˈorangeˌjuice o place names: ˌHydeˈPark. -ify. ˌcentralˈheating o most compound adjectives: ˌwell-ˈdressed. bread: ˈcheescake.) o special -ate – for noun or adj. -y. -ine. ˈfire exˌtinguisher o –ing form + noun: ˈdining ˌroom. -ette.the secondary stress when another stressed word precedes ˌgood-ˈlooking → ˌvery good-ˈlooking . if the compound is longer or separated by a space. -fy. -ete. ious. -en (adj. ˈbrain-ˌwashing o denoting a single idea rather than the combination of two original constituents ˈgreenhouse x ˈgreen ˈhouse. ˈblackbird x ˈblack ˈbɜ:rrraulght! late stress (primary stress on the second element. can be written with one word (flowerpot). -ly. -ive o neutral – do not affect stress placement -able. -ain. -al (verb→noun). -aire. -ish. -itude. -ic.→verb).early stress (primary stress on the first element. -ity.php suffixes o carrying primary stress -ade.
in demonstrative function [δeə(r)].. words this. adjectives.. o emphasis o other individual exeptions Weak forms . strong and weak forms of grammatical words.usually stressed words become unstressed o second items of compound words Have you ˈheard the ˈflute player? o rhythmic reasons: the intermediate stress in a phrase disappears ˈJohn went aˈway. [n] after /t. lexical verbs. o individual exeptions We ˈneed (ˈ)more exˈperienced ˈworkers. should. usually unstressed words become stressed o auxiliary and modal verbs in following cases: imperative sentence: ˈDo ˈcome! followed by “n‟t”: It ˈwasn’t.php 13. different meaning when stressed adverbs in phrasal verb when followed or preceded by a stressed object ˈPut on your ˈcoat.. when final: I ˈasked them where they ˈwere. z.forms that may be used when words have no stress the: [δə] before consonant. [ər] before vowel she [ʃi] || he [i]. must [məs(t)]. does have. [tu:] is not used as a strong form || as [əz] → [æz] some [səm]. [ən] before vowel and: [ən]. / It was ˈnot. do. auxiliary and modal verbs . ellipsis of the lexical verb (short answers): ˈYes.nouns. Sentence stress.conjunctions (long can be stressed). all but interrogative pronouns Exceptions . [hi] at the beginning of the sentence || we [wi] || you [ju] him [ɪm] || her [ə]. has. that.. x ˈPut it ˈon. numerals .net/pages/school. could [kən][kəd] → [kæn][kʊd]|| shall. [δi] before vowel || a. are. s.http://hlavsa. an: [ə] before cons. d. adverbs. had [əv][əz][əd] (+h if initial) → [hæv][hæz][hæd] || am. [hə] at the beginning || them [δəm] || us [əs] the following words are strong when they are final in the sentence: at [ət] → [æt] || for [fə(r)] → [fɔ:] || from [frəm] → [frɒm] || of [əv] → [ɒv] to [tə/tu] → [tu]. they are always strong in their negative forms (-n‟t) and as final can. Usually stressed words: content or lexical words . ʃ/ || but: [bət] || than [δən] || his [ɪz]. A ˈvery good ˈthing.. were . in final position [δə] or [δeə] all auxiliary verbs.articles. before countable noun and as final [sʌm] || there [δə(r)]. [hɪz] at the beginning ̹ that – only in a relative clause: [δət]. those Usually unstressed words: grammatical words .interrogative pronouns. prepositions. I ˈhave. was. as demonstrative always in strong form her [ə] before consonant.
eg. stress-timed English x syllable-timed Czech.http://hlavsa. foot (aka stress group) – the main unit of rhythm – it is a stretch of speech from one stressed syllable to another. twinkle twinkle little star Strategies to achieve regularity in everyday speech (remedial strategies) . This refers to an underlying tendency for stressed syllables (whether prominent or accented) to occur at roughly equal intervals of time. excluding it eurhythmy – tendency towards regular rhythm. syllable-timed rhythm o /Každé/ráno/touto/dobou/vysíláme/pravidelnou/nabídku/našich/dopoledních/pořadů . All syllables (stressed or not) tend to occur at relatively regular intervals and the time between stressed syllables will be shorter or longer in proportions to the number of unstressed syllables. strategies to achieve regularity. eurhythmy. The vowel reduction is rare. regardless of the number of unstressed syllables in between. Rhythm regularity. Rhythm. Czech is syllable timed language.net/pages/school. alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables stress-timed rhythm o /Walk/down the/path to the/end of the ca/nal.playing with word order (tidy and neat >>> neat and tidy) . nursery rhymes (perfect regularity) nursery rhyme is used for „traditional‟ songs for young children. the quality of all vowels is preserved. .stress timing – usage of weak forms → compression of unstressed syllables .dropping the stress English is stress timed language.php 14.
accentual and discourse Tone languages – the tone itself influences the meaning While in English “mother” means mother in any tone.̄ma means “mother”. Form of intonation (tone-unit and its internal structure). the tone makes difference in meaning. doubt. The most important factor is pitch.the syllable that carries a tone is called a tonic syllable. uncertainty or response with reservation o It’s possible. brown. it can be true. It exists in all languages.net/pages/school. ˎma = “scold” and ̗ ma = “hemp” Thai.. tone-unit . in most cases the only syllable carrying a pitch movement o the tail – syllables following the tonic syllable . green or blue? used for encouragement: It won’t hurt. BUT! It makes a difference to meaning. Vietnamese. - - - fall-rise tone shows limited agreement.the structure of tone-unit o the head – the part of tone-unit from the stressed syllable up to the tonic syllable (excluding it) o the pre-head – all of the unstressed syllables preceding the head or when there is no head (no stressed syllables before tonic stress) o tonic syllable – the most prominent syllable.falling tone . Wrong intonation causes misunderstanding and it is said that the intonation is as important as word choice. attitudinal.rising tone usually regarded as more or less neutral yes/no answeres.php 15. the stress is called tonic stress . in West African Kono or Chinese. yellow.http://hlavsa. Intonation languages – the tone doesn‟t influence the meaning . disapproval or surprise o It’s impossible! He is honest! level tone almost always when saying something routine. (but they were not home) used while making general question (yes/no) used while listing: Do you want red. tone x intonational languages. when there is nothing more to add gives an impression of finality gives an impression that something more is to follow o I phoned them.. uninteresting or boring functions of intonation – grammatical. African languages. Intonation is about how we say things rather than what we say. five basic tones and their major functions. rise-fall tone used to convey strong feelings of approval. Ch .pre-head | head | tonic syllable | tail Five basic tones: .
different tone unit boundary (princip české čárky) . doubt. – non-restrictive and The Conservatives | who like the proposal | are pleased. attitudes and emotions like anger. subject – verb relationship fall-rise for polite correction Attitudinal function of intonation expresses our feeling. Gramatical function of intonation helps the listener recognize the grammar and the syntax structure of what is being said by using information contained in the intonation. gestures and body movements types of attitudinal intonation . . brown. when there is nothing more to add gives an impression of finality . uncertainty or response with reservation o It’s possible.fall-rise intonation shows limited agreement. green or blue? used for encouragement: It won’t hurt. it can be true. different voice qualities for different attitudes different pitch range in different ways different keys: high key.rise-fall intonation used to convey strong feelings of approval. The tone-unit boundary placement can indicate the grammatical structure to the listener. (but they were not home) used while making general question (yes/no) used while listing: Do you want red.net/pages/school.rising intonation gives an impression that something more is to follow o I phoned them. yellow. .http://hlavsa. – restrictive relative clauses John (|) said his brother | had gone to school. mid key. Grammatical and attitudinal functions of English intonation. x Those who sold quickly | made a profit. Those who sold | quickly made a profit. boredrom. disapproval or surprise o It’s impossible! He is honest! . low key one may use different facial expressions.falling intonation usually regarded as more or less neutral yes/no answeres.php 16. . gratefulness and so on.modification The Conservatives who like the proposal | are pleased..
However in the context of a discourse. attention focusing – the tonic stress is placed on the appropriate syllable of one particular word in the tone unit – on the word that is most important. The placement of stress is determined by intonation. most native speakers would place the tonic on the subject noun - - . In conversation. It can indicate some sort of contrast or link with information in another tone unit. information content – the stress is placed on the words with highest information content o take the dog for a walk. He went to the drawing-room. o She went to Scotland. Intonation is carried entirely by the stress syllables of the tone unit. Any syllables after the tonic stress in a falling tone remain at low pitch. it can convey to the listener what kind of responce is being expected from him. Accentual function of intonation refers to accent.net/pages/school.php 17. the focus is often shifted when the speaker highlights the new information or puts a special contrastive focus on an earlier word in the tone unit.http://hlavsa. The tonic stress falls on the stressed syllable of the focused word. Accentual and discourse functions of English intonation. cases where it is difficult to explain tonic placement in terms of information or importance o Your coat is on fire. English is called a language with the end-weight principle – the tonic stress is carried usually by the last content word. take the dog to the vet. Discourse function of intonation implies what is to be taken as new information and what is already given.
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