# INTERFERENCE

1. Define a wave front. What are the shapes of wave fronts in a homogeneous medium due to a (i) Point source? (ii) A line source?

2. What do you mean by a plane wave front? How can this be realized in practice? 3. With whom is the energy of the wave associated during propagation? 4. Discuss the two methods by which the energy from a wave front can be removed partly? 5. Discuss the theory of interference, considering the superposition of two simple harmonic waves of same frequency and wavelength, in the same state of polarization? 6. Define optical path. How is it connected with the geometrical path? 7. If a1 & a 2 are the amplitudes of two interfering waves, what is the ratio of amplitudes and intensities at maxima and minima? 8. Does the interference phenomenon violate energy conservation principle? Explain. 9. Show mathematically that the average intensity at a point in the region of interference is equal to sum of the intensity at that point due to individual waves. 10. Draw the graph showing the intensity distribution with phase difference for two waves of equal amplitudes. 11. Discuss the theory of interference fringes in Young’s double slit experiment and hence obtain the expression for fringe width. 12. 13. Discuss Huygens’s wave theory of light. Discuss the conditions for a highly resolved, good contrast, sustained interference pattern.

14. What do you mean by coherent sources? Discuss why two independent sources of light of the same wavelength can’t be coherent? 15. 16. 17. What happens when two incoherent sources of light superpose? What do you mean by visibility of fringes? What happens when:

a. The source in young’s double slit experiment is brought closer to the two slits? b. If the distance between the two slits is decreased? c. If one of the slits is covered up?

24. discuss the shape of fringes in young’s double slit experiment. a phase jump π occurs whereas no such phase jump is resulted while reflecting from a rarer medium. With necessary theory. When seen by reflected light. 27. Keeping 2d. 31. 34. Show that with monochromatic light. the interference patterns of reflected & transmitted light are complementary. . 21. Why do wide slits cannot produce interference? What are the limitations of young’s double slit experiment? 22. With necessary theory.d. If the slit separation 2d is less than wavelength of light λ. 28. Why in the practical bi-prism experiment. discuss the phenomenon of interference in thin parallel films when observed by transmitted light. 33. explain why broad source of light is needed to observe the interference phenomenon in thin films. What will happen to fringe width if the young’s setup is immersed in water? 18. If a red color source is replaced by blue color? e. D & wavelength unchanged. With suitable diagrams. why an excessively thin film appears to be perfectly black? How an excessively thin film appears by transmitted light if it is illuminated by white light? Why do colours appear in a thin film when illuminated by white light? Why a thick film seen by reflected light shows no colours but appears white? With a neat diagram discuss the theory of formation of Newton’s rings in reflected light. the fringes appear straight? 23. If 2d is made very large in comparison to wavelength? f. 26. In young’s double slit experiment if one slit is covered with blue transparent paper and the other with red. Show that this method can be used to obtain thickness of a mica sheet. Show that when light reflects from a denser medium. If white light is used instead of monochromatic sources? h. then can you expect interference of light? 19. 32. then can you expect interference pattern? 20. 25. 29. Calculate the displacement of fringes when a thin transparent lamina is introduced in the path of the interfering beams. discuss the phenomenon of interference in thin parallel films when observed by reflected light. Discuss the two classes of interference phenomena with suitable examples. if the source slit is widened? g. 30. With necessary theory.

How the deviations from perfect plainness of two surfaces in wedge shaped film can be easily determined? 44. for which colour the fringe width is maximum? 43. What happens to fringe width of Newton’s rings if red colour source is replaced by blue colour? 49. Measure the wavelength of a monochromatic source. we see white centre instead of dark centre. The lens is slowly lifted off the flat glass plate? 38. if the light is incident at an angle instead of normally? 48. Why are the dark rings here not perfectly dark? 45. b. Why is good contrast not obtained in Newton’s ring interference pattern by transmitted light? 46. What will happen if : a. What do you mean by fringes of equal inclination & fringes of equal thickness? . Radius of curvature of the convex side of Plano-convex lens. Discuss the theory of formation of Newton’s rings by transmitted light. 39. 36. Account for the perfect blackness of central spot in Newton’s rings. With a necessary theory. Why? 50. Prove that in reflected light : a. 41. What will happen if the plane glass plate is replaced by a mirror or a silvered perfectly reflecting plate? 40.35. b. 47. What are the factors on which the fringe width in wedge shaped film depends? 42. discuss the phenomenon of interference of light in wedge shaped film by refracted light. in practical experiments of Newton’s ring by reflected light. Refractive index of a liquid. White light is used in formation of Newton’s rings? b. c. Describe with necessary theory how Newton’s ring method can be used to : a. Many times. Calculate the expression for fringe width. What will be the shape of fringes in Newton’s rings experiment by reflected light. The diameters of dark rings are proportional to the square roots of odd numbers. With necessary theory discuss the phenomenon of interference of light in wedge shaped film by reflected light. 37. The diameters of bright rings are proportional to the square roots of odd numbers. If the wedge shaped film is successively illuminated by light of different colours.

the separation between the slits is 1mm.The fringe width is 0.Find the radius of the 20th ring in problem no ‘6’. (b) The distance of the 2nd bright fringe from the central one. (c) The distance of the second dark fringe from the central maximum. the fringe width is 0. Find the radius of curvature of the lens if diameter of the 16th bright ring is 12. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid.Newton’s rings are formed using a lens of radius of curvature 100 cm.In a given Young’s double slit arrangement. Do they produce destructive or constructive interference? 5.12 cm2.In a young’s double slit experiment. 4. On introducing a liquid between the lens and the plate. this value changes to 0. 12-In a Newton’s ring experiment. What is the intensity of light at a point where path difference is λ/3? 6. the difference of squares of diameters of nth and (n+10) th rings is 0. the intensity of light at a point on the screen where path difference is λ. the difference of squares of diameters of successive dark rings is 0.In Young’s double slit arrangement.4mm when observed on a screen placed at a distance of 80 cm from the slits. Calculate the diameter of the 20th bright ring with λ=5900Å. 2.NUMERICALS: 1. 8. (a) Determine the wavelength of the source.2 ×10-4 cm and superpose. . What will be the angular width of the fringe if the entire experiment is immersed in water? Take refractive index of water to be 4/3.Newton’ rings are formed by light of wavelength 5431Å.In Young’s double slit experiment using monochromatic light of wavelength λ.Two coherent beams of wavelengths 6000Å travel along different optical paths with path difference 1. (a) λ is changed to 4840Å. is K units.01mm when slit-screen distance is 40cm. 10-In the question ‘2’ the source of light is replaced by one with λ=4800Å.20 on a screen placed at 1m away.16cm2. The wave length of light used is 600nm.22cm2. Find the ratio between the fringe widths in the two cases. What is the diameter of the 20th bright ring? 11-In a Newton’s ring experiment with air film. What will be the fringe width when slit-screen distance is 40cm? 3. monochromatic sources with wavelengths 4200Å and 6300Å were used one after another. 9. it is observed that with light of λ=5890Å.In a double-slit experiment the angular width of a fringe is found to be 0. 7. What happens to the quantity if.2mm.

Two coherent sources of wavelength 5000Å interfere at a point to produce an intensity of 0. (c) The radius of curvature of the Plano-convex lens is doubled.42 is introduced between the lens and glass.++++++++++++++……………………………………. the diameters of nth and (n+5) th dark rings are 0.A pair of sources may be coherent if they emit light waves of (a) Same amplitude ©Same wavelength (b) Constant phase difference (d) same frequency 2.00 units and 1. What will be the order of the dark ring which will have double the diameter of the 20th dark ring? 15-A source of light emitting two wavelengths λ1=6000Å and λ2=4500Å is used in a normal set up for Newton’s rings. MCQ: 1. 16. Find the diameters of (n-5) th and (n+10) th rings.(b) A liquid of µ=1. find the path difference between them.In the phenomena of interference.When interference of light takes place at some region the light energy is (a) Created (b) destroyed (c) redistributed 4. 14-Newton’s rings are formed by sodium light with a normal arrangement.114 cm and 0. …………………………………………. It is found that the nth dark ring due to λ1 coincides with (n+1) th dark ring for λ2. The ratio of the maximum to minimum intensity is equal to (a) 10:8 (b) 9:1 (c) 4:1 (d) 2:1 5. the law of conservation of energy is (a) Never violated (b) always violated (c) sometimes violated (d) violated depending on frequency 6. 13-In Newton’s ring experiment.Two waves having the intensities in the ratio 9:1 produce interference. If the radius of curvature of the convex surface is 100cm. find the diameter of the nth dark ring for λ2.142 cm respectively.44 units at the point.The wave nature of light is evidenced by (a) Black body radiation (c) Radioactive emission (b) Photoelectric effect (d) Interference phenomena 2.90 units. If the individual waves would produce intensities of 4.Two light waves interfere constructively at a point if their path difference is (a) Odd multiple of λ/2 (b) even multiple of λ/2 (c) fraction of λ/2 (d)none of these .

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