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CHEMISTRY
2006-AL-CHEM
ADVANCED LEVEL

This syllabus builds on the foundation of the HKCE Chemistry syllabus, a knowledge of which is assumed.

The syllabus has been designed for a two-year chemistry course at advanced level. It will adequately prepare candidates for further
studies in chemistry and related disciplines.

This syllabus is not a teaching syllabus and the order of the topics listed is not intended to suggest a teaching order. Explanatory notes
have been included in the syllabus as appropriate to indicate the scope and depth of treatment. However, the length of the notes on any
particular section should not be regarded as an indication of the time to be spend on that section.

Experiments suggested in the syllabus are more than enough. Some of these experiments are alternative ones which are similar in nature.
Teachers are advised to make discretionary choices as appropriate.

Other activities such as visits, projects, debates, etc. are suggested to stimulate candidates’ interest in chemistry and to promote skills in
reading, data collection, planning, presentation and problem solving.


2006-AL-CHEM
AIMS

The aims of the syllabus are to enable the candidates:

1. to develop an interest in the study of chemistry;


2. to develop an understanding of the facts and patterns in the empirical world;
3. to develop an understanding of the concepts and principles of chemistry;
4. to develop experimental skills and an awareness of safety problems;
5. to develop the ability to observe, to analyze and to interpret data objectively;
6. to develop the ability to communicate using the language of chemistry;
7. to develop the ability to solve problems and to make rational decisions;
8. to develop an appreciation of chemistry and its application in daily life; and
9. to develop an awareness of the social, economic, environmental and technological implications of chemistry.

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the examination are to test the following abilities:

1. to recall and understand chemical facts, patterns, principles, methods, terminology and conventions;
2. to understand the use of apparatus and materials in performing and planning experiments;
3. to handle materials, manipulative apparatus, carry out experiments safely and make accurate observations;
4. to analyze and interpret data from various sources, and draw relevant conclusions;


2006-AL-CHEM
5. to manipulate and translate chemical data and to perform calculations;
6. to apply chemical knowledge to explain observations and to solve problems which may involve unfamiliar situations;
7. to select and organize scientific information from appropriate sources and to communicate this information in an appropriate and
logical manner;
8. to understand the social, economic, environmental and technological implications of the applications of chemistry; and
9. to make decisions based on the examination of evidence and arguments.

THE EXAMINATION

The examination will consist of two written papers and one practical paper.

WRITTEN EXAMINATION (80% of the Subject Mark)

The duration of the two written papers is three hours each. The structure of the papers is as follows:

Paper 1 Section A (Short questions) 60%


Section B (Questions on practical chemistry) 20%
Section C (Essay questions) 20%

Paper 2 Section A (mainly based on topics 1-11 of the syllabus) 60%


Section B (mainly based on topics 12-14 of the syllabus) 40%


2006-AL-CHEM
In Paper 1 Sections A and B, all questions are compulsory; in Section C, a choice of 1 out of 2 questions will be allowed. In Paper 2, a
choice of 3 out of 4 questions is allowed in Section A, and a choice of 2 out of 3 questions is allowed in Section B. Some useful chemical
information, including characteristic infra-red absorption wavenumber ranges, will be provided for both papers 1 and 2.

PRACTICAL EXAMINATION (20% of the Subject Mark)

Candidates should be familiar with experiments illustrating the chemical systems and chemical principles in topics 1-14 of the syllabus and
the use of common laboratory apparatus. Besides, candidates should also be familiar with
(a) techniques and principles involved in quantitative volumetric analysis concerning acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction
reactions and equilibria studies in aqueous solution,
(b) observations and interpretations using qualitative analysis on a test tube scale.

(1) For school candidates, their practical abilities will be assessed internally by the teachers.
The following areas of ability of the candidates will be assessed:
Ability area A:
(a) to use apparatus and to demonstrate appropriate manipulative skills in carrying out experiments;
(b) to make accurate observations and measurements.
Ability area B:
(a) to record and to present data in an appropriate form;
(b) to interpret experimental results and to draw appropriate conclusions;
(c) to plan experiments.


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Ability area C : the candidate’s attitude towards practical chemistry.
Scheme of Assessment:
The minimum number of experiments performed in the first and second year are 18 and 10 respectively. Over the two years, not
less than 12 assessment marks are required.
In each year, the number of assessment marks for each of these areas is:
at least TWO assessment marks for ability area A,
at least TWO assessment marks for ability area B, and
ONE assessment mark for ability area C.
The regulations, guidelines and methods of assessment can be found in the ‘Handbook on the Teacher Assessment Scheme for
Practical Chemistry (TAS)’ issued by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority to participating schools.
(2) For private candidates, they may opt to sit the practical examination or to use their previous TAS marks to substitute the practical
examination. The practical examination (3 hours) will include
(a) an experiment on quantitative chemistry, and
(b) an experiment involving an observational and deductive exercise.
Candidates are assigned to take the examination in groups, and the questions for each group are not necessarily the same.
Candidates will be provided with the appropriate apparatus, and instructions will be given to candidates indicating what has to be
done and which critical observation must be made.
Candidates will be expected to show their ability to work accurately within the limits of the apparatus and chemical reactions
involved. Candidates will also be expected to perform chemical calculations and/or to draw conclusions from the observations.
(Note : Experiments may be set for which candidates are not expected to have had previous experience. In such cases, full
instructions will be given.)
No textbooks, notes etc. may be used in the examination.

All candidates (i.e. both school and private candidates) may be required to submit their laoratory books for inspection.
2006-AL-CHEM
NOTES
1. In general, SI units will be used.
2. In naming compounds, the useful references are “Guidelines for Systematic Chemical Nomenclature (2000)” by the Hong Kong
Examinations Authority, and “Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science” (1985) by the
Association for Science Education (U.K.). The overriding rule for the naming of compounds is clarity and lack of ambiguity rather
than adherence to strict rules.
3. “An English-Chinese Glossary of Terms Commonly Used in the Teaching of Chemistry in Secondary Schools” (1999) prepared by the
Curriculum Development Council, issued by the Education Department is a useful reference for the Chinese terms.

1. Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry

Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

1.1 The atomic structure Protons, neutrons and electrons as


constituents of the atom.
The relative masses and charges of a
proton, neutron and electron.
The atomic nucleus. Relative size of
the atom and atomic nucleus.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

1.2 Radioactivity Nature of α and β particles, and of γ


radiation.
Equations for nuclear reactions.
Uses of isotopes in leak detection,
radiotherapy, nuclear power and as
tracers. (Underlying principles and
instrumentation are not required.)

1.3 Relative isotopic, atomic and A brief account of the mass


molecular masses spectrometer in determining relative
isotopic, atomic and molecular
masses.
(Instrumental details and
mathematical treatment of the mass
spectrometer, and the use of
fragmentation in structure
determination are not required.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

1.4 The mole concept The mole and the Avogadro constant.
Molar volume of gases at R.T.P.
(room temperature and pressure) and
S.T.P. (standard temperature and
pressure).
Ideal gas equation, pV=nRT and its Determination of the relative molecular
application to relative molecular mass mass of a volatile liquid.
determination.
(Non-ideal behaviour of real gases
and kinetic theory are not required.)
Partial pressure of gas and its
relationship to mole fraction.

1.5 The Faraday and The Faraday as the quantity of A quantitative study of electrolysis.
the mole electricity of one mole of electrons.
Relationship between the mass
liberated and the quantity of
electricity passed in electrolysis.

1.6 Empirical and molecular Derivation of empirical formula using


formulae combustion data or composition by
mass. Molecular formula derived
from empirical formula and relative
molecular mass.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

1.7 Chemical equations and The stoichiometric relationship


stoichiometry between reactants and products in a
reaction.
Calculations involving
(i) reacting masses,
(ii) volumes of gases, and
(iii) concentrations and volumes Titrations involving
of solutions. (a) acid-base reactions, and
(b) redox reactions.

2. The Electronic Structure of Atoms and the Periodic Table

2.1 Atomic emission spectra and Characteristics of the emission


electronic structure of atoms spectrum of atomic hydrogen.
Interpretation of the spectrum
using the relationship, E = hν
leading to the idea of discrete
energy levels.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

2.2 Electronic structure, ionization Plots of the following graphs to


enthalpies, electron shells and introduce shells and subshells:
subshells (i) successive ionization
enthalpies for a
particular element, and
(ii) first ionization
enthalpies against
atomic numbers
(up to Z=20).
(Experimental determination of
ionization enthalpy is not
required.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

2.3 Atomic orbitals An awareness of the wave


nature of electrons, and that
electrons are not localized in
fixed orbits. An atomic orbital
as a representation of a region
within which there is a high
probability of finding an
electron. The designation of s,
p and d orbitals. The number
and relative energies of the s, p
and d orbitals for the principal
quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3,
and also of 4s and 4p orbitals.
Shapes of s and p orbitals only.
(The uncertainty principle is not
required.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

2.4 Electronic configurations of Building up of electronic


atoms configurations based on three
principles :
(i) electrons enter the
orbitals in order of
ascending energy
(Aufbau principle),
(ii) orbitals of the same
energy must be occupied
singly before pairing
occurs (Hund' s rule),
and
(iii) electrons occupying the
same orbital must have
opposite spins (Pauli' s
exclusion principle).
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Electronic configurations in Electronic configurations of


relation to the Periodic Table isolated atoms from H to Kr.
Electronic configurations of
atoms represented by
(i) notations using 1s, 2s,
2p, ... etc.,
e.g. Fe (ground state).
1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2
(ii) '
electrons-in-boxes'
diagram, e.g. Fe ground
state).

3d 4s
[Ar] ↑↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑↓

2.5 The Periodic Table and the The Periodic Table, showing the
atomic properties of the elements s-, p-, d- and f-blocks.
Interpretation of the trends of
ionization enthalpies and atomic
radii of the elements in the
Periodic Table.
3. Energetics
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

3.1 Energy changes in chemical Conservation of energy.


reactions Endothermic and exothermic
reactions and their relationship
to the breaking and forming of
bonds.

3.2 Standard enthalpy changes Enthalpy change, ∆H, as heat


change at constant pressure.
Standard enthalpy change of:
(i) neutralization,
(ii) solution,
(iii) formation, and
(iv) combustion.
Experimental determination of Determination of enthalpy changes of
enthalpy changes of reactions, neutralization, solution or combustion.
limited to simple calorimetric
method.
(Bomb calorimetry is not
required).
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

3.3 Hess'
s law Use of Hess' s law to determine Determination of the enthalpy change of
enthalpy changes which are not formation of CaCO3, MgCO3 or MgO, or
easily obtainable by experiment. the enthalpy change of hydration of
Enthalpy level diagrams. MgSO4.
Calculations involving enthalpy
changes of reactions.

4. Bonding and Structure

4.1 The nature of forces holding Electrostatic interactions


atoms together between electrons and nuclei
leading to different types of
bonding.

4.2 Ionic bonding Formation of ions – the


tendency for atoms of elements
in Groups I, II, VI and VII to
attain electronic configurations
of noble gases.
'Dot and cross'diagrams for
simple ionic compounds.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Energetics of formation of Born-Haber cycles for the


ionic compounds formation of ionic compounds in
terms of enthalpy changes of
atomization and ionization,
electron affinities and lattice
enthalpies.
(Electron affinity is the enthalpy
change when one mole of
electrons is added to one mole
of atoms or ions in the gaseous
state,
e.g., O(g) + e– → O–(g)
∆H = –141 kJ mol–1
O (g) + e– → O2– (g)

∆H = +791 kJ mol–1;
lattice enthalpy is the enthalpy
change when one mole of an
ionic compound is formed from
its constituent ions in the
gaseous state, e.g.
Na+(g) + Cl–(g) → NaCl(s)
∆H = –781 kJ mol–1.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Stoichiometry of ionic Consideration in terms of


compounds electronic configurations and
enthalpy changes of formation.

Ionic crystals Extended three-dimensional Display/Build lattice models of NaCl and


structures of ionic compounds CsCl.
limited to sodium chloride and
caesium chloride. Unit cells
and coordination numbers.
(Calculations involving ionic
radii in a unit cell are not
required.)

Ionic radii Comparison of sizes of ions


with their parent atoms.
Comparison of sizes of
isoelectronic particles.

4.3 Covalent bonding Formation of covalent bonding


− sharing of electron pairs.
The simple idea of the
overlapping of atomic orbitals.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

'Dot and cross'diagrams for


simple molecules, e.g. CH4,
NH3, H2O, HF. Octet rule and
its limitation, e.g. PCl5 and BF3.

Dative covalent bonding Treated as a special example of


covalent bonding, illustrated by
H3N→BF3. The simple idea of
the overlapping of an empty
orbital with an orbital occupied
by a lone pair of electrons.

Bond enthalpies, bond lengths Estimation of bond enthalpies


and covalent radii using data from energetics.
Bond enthalpies as a comparison
of the strength of covalent
bonds.
Relationship between covalent
bond enthalpies and bond
lengths as illustrated by
hydrogen halides.
Addition of covalent radii to
give approximate covalent bond
lengths as illustrated by simple
molecules.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

The shapes of covalent The shapes of simple molecules Display/Build models of simple molecules.
molecules and polyatomic ions and polyatomic ions explained
in terms of the repulsion
between electron pairs (as
illustrated by BF3, CH4, NH3,
H2O, PCl5, SF6, NH4+ and
NH2–). The directional nature
of covalent bonds. Bond
angles.

Multiple bonds Comparison of bond lengths and


bond enthalpies leading to the
idea of multiple bonds,
illustrated by ethene and ethyne.
Shapes of carbon dioxide and
sulphur dioxide molecules
explained in terms of repulsion
between electron pairs.

Covalent crystals Exemplified by diamond, Display/Build models of diamond, graphite


graphite and quartz. and quartz.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

4.4 Bonding intermediate between


ionic and covalent

Incomplete electron transfer in Comparison of the experimental


ionic compounds lattice enthalpies of e.g. silver
halides and zinc sulphide, with
the theoretical values calculated
on a completely ionic model
leading to the idea of
polarization of ions.
(Calculation of the theoretical
value of lattice enthalpy is not
required.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Polarity of covalent bond Displacement of an electron Investigation of the effect of a non-uniform


cloud leading to the formation electrostatic field on a jet of liquid.
of a polar covalent bond.
Dipole moment as evidence for
bond polarization in simple
molecules. (Calculation of
dipole moment is not required.)

Unequal sharing of bonded


electron pair(s) explained in
terms of the electronegativity
difference between bonded
atoms.
Electronegativity (Pauling' s
scale) introduced as an arbitrary
measure of an atom' s tendency
in a molecule to attract
electrons. (The formal
definition of electronegativity
and its experimental
determination are not required.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

4.5 Metallic bonding Metallic bonding illustrated by a


model of cationic lattice and
mobile valence electrons.
Simple explanation of the
metallic conduction of
electricity based on the model.
Strength of metallic bond in
terms of metallic radii and the
number of valence electron(s)
per atom.

Metallic crystals Close-packed and open Display/Build models of metal crystals.


structures: hexagonal and cubic
close-packed, and body-centred
cubic structures. Unit cells and
coordination numbers.
(Calculations related to atomic
radii in a unit cell are not
required.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

4.6 Intermolecular forces

van der Waals'forces Brief discussion of the origin of


van der Waals'forces in terms of
permanent, instantaneous and
induced dipoles.
Comparison of the covalent and
van der Waals'radii of
non-metals to indicate the
relative strength of covalent
bonds and van der Waals'forces.

Molecular crystals Exemplified by iodine and


carbon dioxide.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Hydrogen bonding A study of the boiling points and Determination of the strength of the
enthalpy changes of hydrogen bond formed between
vaporization of the hydrides of trichloromethane and ethyl ethanoate.
Groups IV, V, VI and VII and
compounds like alcohols and
carboxylic acids leading to the
idea of hydrogen bonding.
Nature of hydrogen bonding.
Relative strength of van der
Waals'forces and hydrogen
bonding.
Hydrogen bonding in ice,
proteins and DNA
(deoxyribo-nucleic acid).

4.7 The relationship between Differences in physical


structures and properties of properties (viz. melting and
materials boiling points, electrical
conductivity, hardness and
solubility) between ionic
compounds, covalent substances
and metals.
5. Chemical Kinetics
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

5.1 Rates of chemical reactions The meaning of the rate of a


chemical reaction.
Following a reaction by
chemical and physical methods,
viz. following the change in
amount of reactant/product by
titration, determining the
volume of gas formed, or
colorimetric measurement of
light intensity at different times.
(The theory of colorimetry is not
required.)

5.2 Factors influencing reaction Effects of concentration, Investigation of the following factors on
rate temperature, pressure, surface the reaction rate:
area, catalyst and light on (a) concentration: HCl/Mg
reaction rate. (b) temperature: HCl/Na2S2O3
(c) particle size: acid/marble chips and
acid/powdered CaCO3
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

(d) catalyst: MnO2 on decomposition


of H2O2
(e) light: Br2/hexane

5.3 Rate equations and order of Simple rate equations Determination of the order of a reaction.
reactions determined from experimental
results.
Zeroth, first and second order
reactions. Rate constants.
Half-life of a first order reaction.
Radioactive decay as a typical
example of a first order reaction.
Carbon-14 dating in the
estimation of the age of an
archaeological specimen.
Calculations involving rate
equations.
(Derivation of integral forms of
rate equations is not required.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

5.4 The effect of temperature Explanation of the effect of Determination of the activation energy of a
change on reaction rate temperature change on reaction reaction.
rate in terms of activation
energy.
Application of the Arrhenius
equation
E
k = A exp( − a )
RT
to determine the activation
energy of a reaction.
(Derivation of the Arrhenius
equation is not required.)

5.5 The interpretation of rates of Distribution of molecular speeds


gaseous reactions at molecular in a gas. (Zartmann
level experiment and calculations
involving molecular speeds are
not required.)
Graphical representation of the
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
and its variation with
temperature.
Simple collision theory.
(Qualitative treatment only.)
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

5.6 Energy profile Energy profile as a


representation of the changes in
potential energy during a
reaction.
Single stage and multi-stage
reactions.
The rate determining step in a
multi-stage reaction.

5.7 Catalysts and their effect on Catalysts can change the rate of Investigation of the effect of Mn2+ on the
reaction rates a reaction by providing an reaction between MnO4– and C2O42– in
alternative pathway for the acidic medium.
reaction.

Homogeneous and Acid-catalysed esterification as


heterogeneous catalysis an example of homogeneous
catalysis. Effect of
manganese(IV) oxide on the
decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide as an example of
heterogeneous catalysis.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Applications of catalysts The use of catalysts in contact


and Haber processes, and the
hydrogenation of unsaturated
oils. Catalytic converters in car
exhaust systems.
An awareness that enzymes are
examples of biological catalysts.

6. Chemical Equilibria

6.1 Dynamic equilibrium Reversible reactions. Investigation of some reversible reactions:


Dynamic nature of chemical (a) Adding OH– and H+ alternately to
equilibrium. Br2(aq)
Characteristics of chemical (b) Adding OH– and H+ alternately to
equilibrium. K2Cr2O2(aq)
(c) Hydrolysis of BiCl3
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

The equilibrium law Equilibrium constants expressed Determination of Kc for a reaction:


in terms of concentrations (Kc) CH3CO2H(aq) + C2H5OH(aq)
and partial pressures (Kp). CH3CO2C2H5( )+ H2O( )


Simple calculations of Kc and or Fe3+(aq) + NCS–(aq)
Kp. (The quantitative FeNCS2+(aq)
relationship between Kc and Kp
is not required.)
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

The effect of changes in Le Chatelier's principle. Investigation of the effect of temperature


concentration, pressure and Changes in concentration and and pressure change on the following
temperature on equilibria pressure result in the adjustment reaction:
of the system without changing N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)
the value of equilibrium
constant, K; a change in
temperature results in the
adjustment of the system to a
new equilibrium constant.
Relation of temperature and the
value of K for exothermic and
endothermic reactions illustrated
by the equation,
∆H
ln K = Constant −
RT
(Derivation of the equation is
not required.)
Simple calculations on
equilibrium composition
involving changes in
concentration/pressure.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

6.2 Acid-base equilibria

Concept of acid/base Bronsted-Lowry theory.

Dissociation of water Ionic product of water, Kw.

pH and its measurement The use of indicators and pH


meters to measure pH.
(The theory and instrumentation
of pH meters are not required.)

Strong and weak acids/bases Dissociation constants for weak Comparison of the strength of weak
acids (Ka) and weak bases (Kb). acids/weak bases by pH or by electrical
Use of Ka and Kb (pKa and pKb) conductivity measurement.
values to compare the strength Determination of Ka of a weak acid/Kb of a
of weak acids or weak bases. weak base by pH measurement.
Calculations involving pH, Ka
and Kb.
(For dissociation involving more
than one step, calculations are
limited to one of these steps
only.)
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Buffers Principle of buffer action. Comparison of the effects of acid/alkali on


Calculations involving the the pH of buffered and unbuffered
composition and pH of buffer solutions.
solutions.

Indicators Simple theory of acid-base Determination of the pH ranges of some


indicators and pH range of their acid-base indicators.
colour changes.
Acid-base titrations pH titration curves and the Acid-base titrations using method of
choice of indicators. double indicator.

6.3 Redox Equilibria

Redox reactions Redox reactions in terms of


electron transfer. Oxidation
states. Balancing redox
equations.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Electrochemical cells E.m.f. measurement of Investigation of the e.m.f. of some


electrochemical cells of electrochemical cells.
metal-metal ion systems.
E.m.f. values to compare the
relative tendencies of half cells
to release or gain electrons.
Other systems involving
non-metal ions
(e.g. I2(aq), 2I–(aq) Pt), ions in


different oxidation states (e.g.
Fe3+(aq), Fe2+(aq) Pt) and


metal-metal salt
(e.g. PbSO4(s), [Pb(s) +
SO42– (aq)] Pt).


Cell equations.
IUPAC conventions in writing
cell diagrams.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Electrode potentials The standard hydrogen electrode


as a reference. The convention
of standard reduction potentials
is adopted.
The electrochemical series
(redox potential series).
Use of the standard electrode Testing predictions about the feasibility of
o
potential (E ) values to compare redox reactions.
the strength of
oxidizing/reducing agents, and
to calculate the e.m.f. of cells.
Prediction of the feasibility of
redox reactions from electrode
potential values and the
limitation of this approach due
to kinetic factor.

Secondary cell and fuel cell Lead-acid accumulator and the


hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell:
structure, electrochemical
processes and uses.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Corrosion of iron and its The electrochemical process


prevention involved in rusting.
Prevention of corrosion by
coating and cathodic protection.
Socioeconomic implications of
corrosion and prevention.

7. Phase Equilibrium

7.1 One component systems The pressure − temperature


diagrams of water and carbon
dioxide. (Phase rule is not
required.)

7.2 Two component systems Studies limited to phase Investigation of the variation of the boiling point
diagrams for mixtures of two with composition for different mixtures of two
miscible liquids: miscible liquids.
(i) vapour pressure against
mole fraction (with
temperature constant),
and
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

(ii) boiling point against


mole fraction (with
pressure constant).

Ideal systems Raoult' s law. The


characteristic properties of an
ideal system explained in terms
of molecular interactions.

Non-ideal systems Positive and negative deviations


from Raoult's law explained in
terms of molecular interactions.
Enthalpy changes on mixing as
evidence for non-ideal
behaviour.
Azeotropic mixtures.

Fractional distillation Explanation of the principle of


fractional distillation using the
boiling point − composition
curve.
Application of fractional
distillation in oil refining.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

7.3 Partition of a solute between Partition coefficient of a Determination of the partition coefficient of
two phases non-volatile solute distributed ethanoic acid between water and
between two immiscible liquids. 2-methyl-propan-1-ol.
(Calculations involving
dissociation or association of
solute are not required.)
Application to solvent
extraction.
Paper chromatography as an
application of partition.
Rf value.

8. Periodic Properties of the Elements in the Periodic Table

8.1 Periodic variation in physical Variations in first ionization


properties of the elements H to enthalpies (linked with
Ar Section 2.2), atomic radii,
electronegativities and
melting points.
Interpretation of these
variations in terms of
structure and bonding.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

8.2 Periodic relationship among the Bonding and stoichiometric Investigation of the properties of the oxides
oxides, chlorides and simple composition of the and chlorides of the Period 3 elements.
hydrides of the elements Li to hydrides, oxides and
Cl chlorides of these elements,
and their behaviour with
water.
(Hydrides of boron are not
required.)

9. The s-Block Elements

9.1 Characteristic properties of the Metallic character and low


s-block elements electronegativity. Formation
of basic oxides and
hydroxides. Predominantly
ionic bonding with fixed
oxidation state in their
compounds.
Characteristic flame colours of Flame tests for Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and
salts. Ba2+ ions.
Weak tendency to form
complexes.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

9.2 Variation in properties of the Variations in atomic radii,


s-block elements and their ionization enthalpies, melting
compounds points and hydration
enthalpies. Interpretation of
these variations in terms of
structure and bonding.
Reactions of the elements with
hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine
and water.
Reactions of the oxides,
hydrides and chlorides with
water, acids and alkalis.
Relative thermal stability of Investigation of the effect of heat on
the carbonates and hydroxides. carbonates of Group II elements.
Investigation of the solubility of
sulphates(VI) and hydroxides of Group I
elements.
Relative solubility of the
sulphates(VI) and hydroxides.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

9.3 Uses of the compounds of the Sodium carbonate in the


s-block elements manufacture of glass.
Sodium hydrogencarbonate in
baking powder. Sodium
hydroxide in making soap.
Magnesium hydroxide as an
antacid. Slaked lime in
neutralization of acids in
industrial effluents.
Strontium compounds in
fireworks.

10. The p-Block Elements

10.1 The halogens

Characteristic properties of the High electronegativity


halogens and electron affinity.
Ionic and covalent
bonding in oxidation
state –1.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Variation in properties of the Variations in melting and


halogens and their compounds boiling points,
electronegativities and
electron affinities.
Interpretation of these
variations in terms of
structure and bonding.
Relative oxidizing power Investigation of the reactions of
of halogens: comparative (a) halogens with alkalis,
study of reactions (Cl2, (b) halide ions in solution, and
Br2 and I2) with sodium, (c) solid halides with sulphuric(VI) and
iron(II) ion and phosphoric(V) acids.
phosphorus.
Disproportionation of the
halogens in alkalis.
Comparative study of the
reactions of halide ions
with halogens,
sulphuric(VI) acid,
phosphoric(V) acid and
silver ions.
Acidic properties of
hydrogen halides and the
anomalous behaviour of
hydrogen fluoride.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Uses of halogens and halogen Fluoride in fluoridation of


containing compounds water. Chlorine in the
manufacture of
poly(chloroethene), bleach and
disinfectant. Silver bromide in
photographic films.

10.2 Nitrogen and its compounds Unreactive nature of nitrogen.


Direct combination of nitrogen
and oxygen leading to
formation of nitrogen oxides.
Manufacture of ammonia by
Haber process and its
underlying physicochemical
principles.
Ammonia as a reducing agent
and a base.
Catalytic oxidation of ammonia
in the manufacture of nitric(V)
acid. Nitric(V) acid as an
oxidizing agent, limited to the
study of the reactions with
copper, iron(II) ion and sulphur
only.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Action of heat on nitrates(V). Investigation of the action of heat on


Brown ring test for nitrate(V) nitrates(V). Brown ring test for nitrate(V)
ions. ions.

10.3 Sulphur and its compounds Burning of sulphur.


Oxidizing and reducing Investigation of the redox properties of
properties of sulphur dioxide as sulphur dioxide.
exemplified by the reactions
with manganate(VII) ion,
dichromate(VI) ion, bromine
and magnesium metal.
Manufacture of sulphuric(VI)
acid by contact process and its
underlying physicochemical
principles.
Sulphuric(VI) acid as an Test for sulphate(VI) ions using acidified
oxidizing agent and a barium chloride solution.
dehydrating agent. Test for
sulphate(VI) ions.
Uses of sulphuric(VI) acid in
the manufacture of fertilizers,
detergents, paints, pigments and
dyestuffs.
2006-AL-CHEM
11. The d-Block Elements

Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

11.1 General features of the d-block Electronic configurations


elements from Sc to Zn (linked with Section 2.4).
d-Block elements as metals.
Comparison of ionization
enthalpies, electronegativities,
melting points, hardness,
densities and reactions with
water between d-block and
s-block metals.

11.2 Characteristic properties of the Interpretation of the


d-block elements and their characteristic properties, viz.
compounds: variable oxidation states,
complex formation, coloured
ions, and catalytic properties
in terms of electronic
structures, successive
ionization enthalpies, atomic
and ionic radii.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

(a) Variable oxidation Studies limited to common Investigation of the redox reactions of
states oxidation states of vanadium vanadium or manganese compounds.
(+2, +3, +4, +5) and
manganese (+2, +4, +7).
Interconversions of oxidation
states of each element.

(b) Complex formation Studies limited to complexes of Investigation of the relative stability of some
Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Cu(II) copper(II) complexes.
with the following ligands:
H2O, NH3, Cl– and CN–.
Nomenclature of these
complexes.
Displacement of ligands and
relative stability of complex
ions. (Experimentation
involving cyanide ions should
not be attempted.)
(Calculations involving stability
constants are not required).
Stereo-structures of 4- and
6-coordinated complexes.
(Optical isomerism of
complexes is not required.)
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

(c) Coloured ions Studies limited to the hydrated


ions of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II)
and Cu(II).

(d) Catalytic properties of Exemplified by the use of Fe in Investigation of the catalytic action of
transition metals and Haber process, Fe2+ or Fe3+ in d-block ions on the reaction between
their compounds the reaction between peroxodisulphate(VI) and iodide ions.
peroxodisulphate(VI) and
iodide ions, and MnO2 in the
decomposition of hydrogen
peroxide (linked with Section
5.7).

12. Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry

12.1 Natural sources of organic Alkanes, alkenes and


compounds aromatic hydrocarbons
from crude oil and coal.
Carbohydrates, proteins
and fats in living
organisms.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

12.2 The unique nature of carbon Ability of carbon to


catenate leading to the
existence of a vast number
of carbon compounds.

12.3 Functional groups and Studies limited to the following


homologous series functional groups:
C=C , −C≡C− , −X ,


−OH , −O− , −CHO , C=O ,


−CO2H, −NH2 , −NHR , −NR2 ,
−CN , −CO2R , −COX ,
−CONH2 and (−CO)2O.
Effects of functional groups and
the length of carbon chains on
physical properties of
compounds in homologous
series.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

12.4 Structures and shapes of


hydrocarbons

Saturated hydrocarbons
The tetrahedral arrangement of Display/Build models of simple alkanes.
the bond electron pairs around a
carbon atom explained in terms
of repulsion between electron
pairs and in terms of sp3
hybridized orbitals.
(Conformation is not required.)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons Formation of the C=C and C≡C Display/Build models of simple alkenes.
bonds explained in terms of sp2
and sp hybridized orbitals
respectively. σ and π bonds.
Shapes associated with sp2 and
sp hybridized carbon atoms.

Aromatic hydrocarbons Shape of the benzene molecule. Display/Build models of benzene.


Delocalization of π-electrons in
benzene giving rise to a unique
class of compounds which are
chemically different from
alkenes.
Topics

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Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

12.5 Systematic nomenclature Systematic nomenclature


limited to compounds
containing carbon chains of not
more than eight carbon atoms.

12.6 Isomerism

Structural isomerism Isomers containing the same


functional group and isomers
containing different functional
groups.

Geometrical isomerism Rigidity of C=C bond leading Display/Build models of but-2-enes.


to cis/trans isomers. Investigation of some properties of cis- and
Geometrical isomers limited to trans- butenedioic acids.
acyclic compounds containing
one C=C.

Enantiomerism Studies limited to structures Illustration of optical activity using crossed


with one chiral carbon. polaroids or a polarimeter.
(Absolute configuration and
resolution of racemic mixtures
are not required.)
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

12.7 Structure determination of Calculation of empirical


organic compounds formula from analytical data
(linked with Section 1.6).
Molecular formula. Structure
deduced from reactions of
functional groups and physical
properties.
An awareness that
spectroscopic methods such as
infra-red spectroscopy and
nuclear magnetic resonance
(NMR) can provide information
about the structure of a
molecule.

Use of infra-red (IR) spectrum IR spectrum and its use in the Inspection of IR spectra of organic
in the identification of identification of the following compounds.
functional groups groups: C−H, O−H, N−H, C=C,
C≡C, C=O and C≡N.
(Instrumentation is not
required.)
13. Chemistry of the Organic Compounds
2006-AL-CHEM
NOTE: In this section, mechanisms other than those mentioned specifically are not required.

Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

13.1 Alkanes Crude oil as a source of


alkanes.
Chemical principles and
economic importance of
fractional distillation (linked
with Section 7.2) and cracking
process.
(Industrial details are not
required.)
Combustion of alkanes.
Chlorination of alkanes as
light-initiated chain reactions.
Mechanism of the chlorination
of methane.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

13.2 Alkenes

Addition reactions Reactions of alkenes with


bromine (aqueous and
non-aqueous), hydrogen
bromide and sulphuric(VI) acid.
Mechanism of the electrophilic
addition of hydrogen bromide
to alkenes. Markownikoff' s
rule.
Catalytic hydrogenation and its
application in the hardening of
oils.

Ozonolysis Conditions and reaction


products. Use in the
determination of positions of
the carbon-carbon double bonds
in alkenes.

Polymerization of alkenes Formation of poly(ethene),


poly(propene) and
poly(phenylethene). Mechanism
of free radical polymerization
of ethene.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

13.3 Aromatic hydrocarbons Benzene and methylbenzene. Investigation of the chemical properties of
Stability of the benzene ring: cyclohexane, cyclohexene and methylbenzene.
comparison of the enthalpy
changes of hydrogenation and
combustion for benzene and
cyclohexene leading to the
concept of increased stability in
a delocalized system.
Resistance of benzene to
oxidation and addition
reactions.

Substitution reactions of Nitration, halogenation,


benzene sulphonation and alkylation.
(Limited to mono-substitution
only.)

Oxidation of alkylbenzene Reaction with potassium


manganate(VII).

13.4 Halogeno-compounds Primary, secondary and tertiary


haloalkanes; halobenzene.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Nucleophilic substitution Reactions with sodium


reactions hydroxide, potassium cyanide
and ammonia.
(Experimentation involving
potassium cyanide should not Comparison of the rates of hydrolysis of
be attempted.) (a) chloro-, bromo- and iodo- alkanes.
Comparison of rates of (b) primary, secondary and tertiary
hydrolysis of haloalkanes and haloalkanes.
halobenzene. (c) haloalkane and halobenzene.

Mechanism of SN1 and SN2 as Investigation of the kinetics of the hydrolysis


exemplified by substitution of 2-chloro-2-methylpropane.
with −OH group. (Linked with
Section 5.6)

Elimination reaction Reaction of haloalkanes with


alcoholic sodium hydroxide to
form alkenes and alkynes.

Uses of halogeno-compounds Halogeno-compounds as


solvents in dry-cleaning and as
raw materials in the
manufacture of
poly(chloroethene) and
poly(tetrafluoroethene).
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

13.5 Hydroxy compounds Primary, secondary and tertiary


alcohols; phenol.

Acidic properties of hydroxy Comparison of the acidic


compounds properties between alcohols and
phenol.

Reactions of alcohols Reactions include halide Preparation of 1-bromobutane from


formation, alkoxide formation, butan-1-ol,
oxidation, dehydration, or preparation of cyclohexene from
esterification and cyclohexanol.
triiodomethane formation. Investigation of the reactions of some
Distinction between primary, alcohols, and the Lucas'test for primary,
secondary and tertiary alcohols. secondary and tertiary alcohols.

Reactions of phenol Reactions with sodium and Investigation of the reactions of phenol.
sodium hydroxide.
Esterification.

Uses of alcohols Alcohols as solvents.


Ethanol in beverages and as a
motor fuel blending agent.
Ethane-1,2-diol as an
anti-freeze and a raw material
in the manufacture of terylene.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

13.6 Carbonyl compounds Structures of aldehydes and


ketones. Benzaldehyde and
phenylethanone as aromatic
carbonyl compounds.

Nucleophilic addition reactions Reactions with hydrogen


cyanide and sodium
hydrogensulphate(IV).
(Experimentation involving
hydrogen cyanide should not be
attempted.)
Mechanism of the addition of
hydrogen cyanide to carbonyl
compounds.
Use of the reaction with sodium
hydrogensulphate(IV) in the
purification of carbonyl
compounds.

Addition-elimination Reactions with hydroxylamine Identification of a carbonyl compound by


(condensation) reactions and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. preparing its derivative.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Oxidation and reduction Oxidation of aldehydes with Investigation of the reactions of aldehydes
acidified dichromate(VI), and ketones.
Tollens'reagent and Fehling' s
reagent. Resistance of ketones
to oxidation.
Reduction of aldehydes and
ketones with sodium
tetrahydridoborate (sodium
borohydride) and lithium
tetrahydridoaluminate (lithium
aluminium hydride).

Formation of triiodomethane as
a test for compounds containing
a CH3CO− group or a
CH3CH(OH)− group.

Uses of carbonyl compounds Methanal in the manufacture of


urea-methanal resin.
Propanone as a solvent and a
raw material in the manufacture
of perspex.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

13.7 Carboxylic acids and their Structures of carboxylic acids,


derivatives acyl chlorides, anhydrides,
amides and esters.

The formation of carboxylic Hydrolysis of nitriles.


acids Oxidation of alcohols,
aldehydes and alkylbenzenes.

Reactions of carboxylic acids Formation of salts, acyl Investigation of the reactions of carboxylic
chlorides, anhydrides, amides acids.
and esters. Reduction with Preparation of an ester.
lithium tetrahydridoaluminate.

Acidity of carboxylic acids Comparison of the acidity of


carboxylic acids with alcohols.
Influence of substituents, viz.
alkyl and chloro groups, on
acidity.

Reactions of acyl chlorides and Reactions with water, alcohols,


anhydrides ammonia and amines.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Reactions of amides Hydrolysis, dehydration,


Hofmann degradation and
reduction with lithium
tetrahydridoaluminate.

Reactions of esters Acid and base hydrolyses. Analysis of commercial aspirin tablets.
Reduction with lithium
tetrahydridoaluminate.
Uses of carboxylic acids and Benzoic acid and benzoates as
their derivatives food preservatives.
Polyamides and polyesters as
synthetic fibres
e.g. nylon 6.6 and terylene.
Uses of esters as solvents and
flavourings.

13.8 Nitrogen compounds Primary, secondary and tertiary


aliphatic amines, phenylamine
and amino acids.
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

The formation of amines Primary amines from nitriles


and amides. Primary,
secondary and tertiary aliphatic
amines, and quaternary
ammonium compounds by
alkylation. Phenylamine from
nitrobenzene.

Base properties of amines Salt formation. Comparison


of the basic strength of
ammonia, primary aliphatic
amines and phenylamine.

Reaction of amines Reactions with ethanoyl Investigation of the reactions of amines.


chloride and benzoyl chloride.
Reaction with nitric(III) acid
limited to primary amines only.
Coupling reaction of
benzenediazonium ion with
naphthalen-2-ol.
(Test to distinguish primary,
secondary and tertiary amines is
not required.)
Topics

2006-AL-CHEM
Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Uses of amines and their Azo-compounds as dyes in dyeing


derivatives industries.
Amine derivatives as drugs.

Amino acids Amino acids (e.g. aminoethanoic


acid and 2-amino-propanoic acid)
as bifunctional compounds having
both acidic and basic
characteristics. Zwitterion.
Dipeptides and polypeptides as
dimers and polymers of amino
acids. (Methods of formation of
polypeptides are not required.)


2006-AL-CHEM
14. Chemistry and Society

Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

14.1 Chemistry and the environment

(a) Air pollution

Some air pollutants Carbon monoxide, sulphur


dioxide, nitrogen oxides,
hydrocarbons, ozone and
particulates.
Combustion of fossil fuels as the
main source of air pollutants.

The effects of polluted The harmful effects of pollutants


air on the environment depend on their concentrations and
the duration of exposure to the
pollutants.
Parts per million (ppm) as one way
of indicating concentrations of
pollutants.
Acid rain and photochemical
smog: their formation and effects
on the environment.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

The ozone layer and Sources and properties of ozone. Project work on air pollution, e.g. acid
chlorofluorocarbons The desirability of ozone in the rain, smog or ozone depletion.
stratosphere.
Chlorofluorocarbons as aerosol
propellants, solvents for the
cleaning of electronic components
and metals, refrigerants, and
blowing agents in foam plastic
manufacturing.
Causes for the accumulation of
chlorofluorocarbons in the
stratosphere.
The free radical chain reactions
involved with chlorofluorocarbons
leading to the depletion of the
ozone layer.
Control of the ozone depletion
problem. Possible alternatives
for chlorofluorocarbons.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

(b) Water pollution

The causes of water The adverse effects on water


pollution and its effects quality due to livestock waste, oil
on the environment spillages, residues of pesticide,
detergents in sewage, and
industrial effluents.
Water quality An awareness that oxygen Determination of dissolved oxygen in
dissolved in water is necessary for water samples.
aquatic life.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) as an
indicator of oxygen content in
water, expressed as percentage
saturation or mg dm–3.
Biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD) as an indicator of the
extent of water pollution.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

(c) Solid waste Plastics, paper and metals.
Disposal of solid waste by
landfilling and incineration.
Pollution problems associated with
the disposal of plastics.
Development of degradable
plastics and recycling of plastics
as possible solutions to pollution
problems.

(d) Pollution control in Measures to improve air quality: Visit to


Hong Kong use of unleaded petrol and (a) the Environmental Resource
installation of catalytic converters Centre,
in car exhaust systems, limitation (b) the Chemical Waste Treatment
of sulphur content in fuels, Centre, or
desulphurization of flue gas, (c) a sewage treatment plant.
installation of electrostatic
precipitators and installation of
low nitrogen oxide burners in
power plants.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Measures to improve water
quality: screening, sedimentation
and digestion of pollutants by
micro-organisms in the treatment
of sewage; physical and chemical
methods, and incineration in the
treatment of chemical waste from
industry and laboratories.
(Technical details of the above
treatment processes are not
required.)
Measures to reduce solid waste:
reuse/recycling of paper, plastics
and metals to minimize waste and
save resources.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

14.2 Chemistry and food

(a) Principal components of


food

Proteins Proteins as macromolecules made


up of amino acids via peptide
linkages. Hydrolysis of proteins.
Separation of amino acids by Separation of amino acids by paper
paper chromatography. (Linked chromatography.
with Sections 7.3 and 13.8)

Carbohydrates Classification into


monosaccharide, disaccharide and
polysaccharide. Open chain and
ring structures of glucose and
fructose. Glycosidic linkage in
carbohydrates. Hydrolysis of Investigation of the hydrolysis of sucrose
sucrose and starch. Fehling's test and testing for reducing sugars.
to distinguish between reducing
and non-reducing sugars.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Fats and oils Fats and oils as esters of
propane-1,2,3-triol and fatty acids.
Hydrolysis of fats and oils (Link
with Section 13.7). Use of iodine
value to compare the degree of
unsaturation. Hardening of
vegetable oils. (Link with
Section 13.2) Hydrolytic and
oxidative rancidity.

(b) Food preservation

The need to preserve Prevention of food spoilage due to


food microbial activities and chemical
changes.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

Principles and Principles of food preservation: Investigation of the effects of air and
techniques of food killing of micro-organisms, preservatives on apple browning.
preservation inhibition of microbial growth,
retardation of chemical changes by
removing moisture, altering
temperature, changing pH, and the
use of osmotic process and
chemical additives.
Common techniques include heat
treatment, irradiation, drying,
dehydration, refrigeration,
canning, sugaring, salting and
chemical preservation such as
meat-curing, pickling and the use
of food additives.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

(c) Food additives Food additives to serve as Library search on different functions of
preservatives (e.g. nitrates(III), common food additives.
nitrates(V), sulphur dioxide, Analysis of sulphur dioxide content in
sulphates(IV), benzoic acid and wine.
benzoates) and antioxidants (e.g.
BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole)
and BHT (butylated
hydroxytoluene)), to enhance the
flavour (e.g. MSG (monosodium
glutamate), saccharin), texture
(e.g. emulsifying agents),
appearance (e.g. colouring agents)
or nutritional value (e.g. vitamins)
of food.
Principle of BHA/BHT as
antioxidant to retard atmospheric
oxidation of oils and fats.
2006-AL-CHEM
Topics Explanatory Notes Suggested Experiments/Activities

The possible menace of The side effects of MSG, the Debate on the use of food additives.
food additives toxicity of nitrates(III) and sulphur
dioxide, and the potent
carcinogenic nature of nitrates(III)
and saccharin.
An awareness that the use of food
additives is monitored by research
findings and by legislation.