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INTRODUCTION A social networking is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or social relations among people, who, for example, share interests and/or activities. A social network service essentially consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks. Social networking venues have taken root in this generation and have revolutionized the way that personal interactions take shape. These websites allow people to easily post photographs, videos, and other information online to share with others, usually at little or no cost. The extreme ease with which anyone can obtain an online profile begs the question as to what types of materials are being laid out for the world to see. It is important for students, in particular students who will likely be working in a health care field, to understand that their actions online have the very real possibility of causing problems in their everyday lives. The main types of social networking services are those which contain category places (such as former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages) and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these, with Facebook and Twitter widely used worldwide, Nexopia (mostly in Canada); Bebo, VKontakte, Hi5, Hyves (mostly in The Netherlands), Draugiem.lv (mostly in Latvia), StudiVZ (mostly in Germany), iWiW (mostly in Hungary), Tuenti (mostly in Spain), NaszaKlasa (mostly in Poland), Decayenne, Tagged, XING, Badoo and Skyrock in parts of Europe; Orkut and Hi5 in South America and Central America; and Mixi, Multiply, Orkut, Wretch, Renren and Cyworld in Asia and the Pacific Islands and LinkedIn and Orkut are very popular in India. Past research has been conducted on the types of people who frequent social networking sites and found that the majority of users are college students who live at home. Other work found that the types of materials on a personal profile and the level of activity by the user could be factors that indicate a high level of narcissism. Narcissistic tendencies may increase the level of personal disclosure and unprofessional content. Another group of researchers examined how the number of friends a user has accumulated on their social networking site affects whether an outside visitor to their public profile perceives them negatively or
it is important for students to maintain their privacy and only allow certain types of information that they feel to be of no threat to their reputation to be accessible to the public. and soon became part of the Internet mainstream. HISTORY The potential for computer networking to facilitate new forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on. Therefore. Bebo. allowing users to compile lists of "friends" and search for other users with similar interests. and encouraged users to share personal information and ideas via personal webpages by providing easy-to-use publishing tools and free or inexpensive webspace.com (1995). and bulletin board services (BBS). Attesting to the rapid increase in social networking sites' popularity. They found a negative relationship between number of “friends” on Facebook and positive views of that individual. specifically on the same network. New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s. MySpace was reportedly getting more page views than Google. LISTSERV. user profiles became a central feature of social networking sites. Many prototypical features of social networking sites were also present in online services such as America Online. launched in 2004. it would be easy for a potential employer or admissions administrator to gain access to information that could be seen as unprofessional and inappropriate.com in 1997. This newer generation of social networking sites began to flourish with the emergence of SixDegrees. as in no other time during history has it been so easy to share information with so many people in such a remarkably sophisticated way. ARPANET. The current study examined how undergraduate psychology majors utilize Facebook by gathering data on their level of publicly accessible information and the rate of unprofessional content. Efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services. Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as Theglobe. As popular as Facebook is. and finally.positively. it is estimated that there are now over . Friendster in 2002.com . Prior research examining the types of content that is being shared by medical students and residents and students at a small Midwestern university found high levels of unprofessional content and personal information being disclosed.such as Classmates. Geocities (1994) and Tripod. followed by Makeoutclub in 2000. and CompuServe. Some communities . Prodigy. This is a new and relatively unstudied phenomenon. Today.took a different approach by simply having people link to each other via email addresses.com (1995). Facebook. and as easy as it is to access personal profiles. has since become the largest social networking site in the world. Many of these early communities focused on bringing people together to interact with each other through chat rooms. and many sites began to develop more advanced features for users to find and manage friends. In the late 1990s. by 2005. Friendster was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later. including Usenet.
still receive an impressive 36 million uniques per month. This equates to 22 percent of all time online or one in every four and half minutes. Facebook demonstrates growth in total number of visitors (now over Yahoo. Facebook Facebook keeps its stats page updated. so it’s grown by 5 million in less than two months. Jeff Weiner. In October. YouTube and Wikipedia) and the world now spends over 110 billion minutes on social networks and blog sites. network has seen a significant amount of growth. 2010. drawing nearly 134 million unique visitors in January. As of last December.6 minutes longer interacting with the site than the average Facebook visitor. 2010. social network or blog sites are visited by three quarters of global consumers who go online. GROWTH RATE OF THE SOCIAL NETWORKING INDUSTRY The data doesn’t deny that Facebook has come to dominate social networking in the US. and boasts over 350 million users. and users spend a fair amount of time on those sites. such as Tagged. May 2011: Based on TNS research. the global average of which access daily the social networking sites accounts is 46 percent. The second tier networks. and overtook MySpace in 2009. Over the past year.200 active sites using a wide variety of social networking models. Nielsen published stats showing that “three of the world’s most popular brands online are social-media related (Facebook. But MySpace’s 57 million US unique users are nothing to sneeze at – it’s still a top web property with users who are highly engaged. LinkedIn It has 60 million users worldwide. 31 minutes last year. for second place) and a high degree of attention (time on site). The average visitor spends 66% more time on these sites than a year ago. Hi5. especially internationally. Facebook has surged past Yahoo as the number two most popular site in the U.S. There is definitely addictive behavior occuring on these other sites. after the numbers of people visiting these sites increased by 24% over last year. For the first time ever. said in the post that half of LinkedIn’s membership is international.. LinkedIn’s network’s CEO. the network had 55 million members. Facebook has announced 400 million users on February. BlackPlanet users spent 3. Tagged . MyYearbook and Tagged users were on these sites more than 3 minutes longer than the average MySpace visitor. MyYearbook and Bebo. almost 6 hours in April 2010 versus 3 hours.
000 people a day are signing up to tweet. This suggests the use of Twitter outside the U.000 people daily register on Tagged.8%. Tweets grew 1. Average of 75. There are different factors contributing for varying mind set of the users. who make a market.000.5 million. with most adoption in US. has experienced significant growth over the past six months. For this to happen.S. It is thus natural that many differing segments occur within a market. In order to capture this heterogeneous market Facebook. and also mentioned that 30. Thus we can say that market segmentation is the segmentation of markets into homogenous groups of users. The number of Twitter users has climbed to a lofty 75 million. Attributes of effective market segmentation Market segmentation is resorted to for achieving certain practical purpose.400% last year to 35 million per day. Global monthly unique visitors are 16 million. are of varying characteristics and behaviour. each of them reacting differently to promotion. that’s an average of 600 tweets per second. People were tweeting 5. we are seeing 50 million tweets per day. Twitter Sysmos launched a report about global usage of Twitter. unique users was 50. He revealed the startling number at a Twitter developer conference. and by 2009 it had grown to 2. aptly title Chirp. Twitter themselves finally publish numbers indicating there are 50 million tweets created each day.S. the segments arrived at must meet certain criteria such as: . Market segments should be formed in that way that difference between buyers within each segment is as small as possible. that number was 300. A ‘market’ after all is the aggregate of users using Facebook as a product. but the growth rate of new users is slowing and a lot of current Twitterers are inactive.Total registered users are 100 million. And users. Daily users are 3.1%. SEGMENTATION The market for Facebook is normally made up of several segments. By 2008. Today. Data indicates that many Twitter users are not active.000 – 100. usually divides or disintegrates the market into a number of sub-markets/segments and the process is known as market segmentation. and other variables of the marketing mix strategy of Facebook. a sharp drop from 62. Twitter co-owner Biz Stone has revealed that the site now has 105 million registered users.5 million per day. communication. Interesting fact is the number of U.000 times a day in 2007.
Facebook targets the youth aged between 15-25 years for keeping in touch with friends (93%). Individual Marketing: Extreme marketing in which Facebook sometimes focuses on individual users. This segment generally consists of those people who think that social networking sites are a waste of time. The segments of Facebook are easily measurable and so they can be easily identified. Facebook can avoid those segments which do not want to use Facebook at all. Facebook also segments on the basis of broad similarity with regard to some attributes mentioned above. It’s easy for Facebook to measure the potential of all the segments because Facebook has an extensive database of the users and records all the moves made by its users. Facebook sometimes identifies captures & retains potential new markets especially in countries such as India & Brazil where Orkut is more popular.g. A very small segment may not serve commercial exploitation. Here all the youth have generally only one homogenous need i. Sizeable: The segments should be sufficiently large to justify the resources required to target them. if Facebook launches a new application that is very appealing then the segment consisting of youngsters will respond very positively. For e. television. For e. Levels of market segmentation Facebook is turning to micromarketing these days by choosing one of the four levels • Segment Marketing: Facebook divides the market into different segments on the basis of homogenous need. Profitable: There is no use in locating segments that are sizeable but not profitable.e. the segments must respond differently to the different marketing mixes. In this case the segments of Facebook are not the problem because we know from the data that Facebook has around 400 million users as on February 2010. For e. etc. if a user joins the community named “Jobs” then Facebook will display job • . newspaper. Measurable: The potential of the segments as well as the effect of a specific marketing mix on them should be measurable. In today’s world Facebook can easily reach the segments through communication such as email. Each and every segment will respond differently to the different marketing mixes offered by Facebook.g. Accessible: The segments must be reachable through communication and distribution channels.g.• • • • • • Identifiable: The differentiating attributes of the segments must be measurable so that they can be identified. Unique needs: To justify separate offerings. keeping in touch with friends.
Behaviouristic Segmentation: Facebook segments the market on the basis of user’s behaviour. Demographic Segmentation: Segmentation of the users based on the demographic factors are o Age: Facebook has generally segmented itself towards the youth whose age is between 15-25 years. Variables of user’s behaviour are: o Benefit sought: Users using Facebook generally want good quality of service and also expect the Facebook platform to look good. Local Marketing: Facebook offer customized products to suit the local markets. o Brand loyalty: Users generally remain loyal to Facebook. Niche Marketing: Facebook effort to position it’s website in smaller markets that have similar attributes.• • advertisements in the users profile only. If the users are very much interested in using the social networking sites then facebook should identify that particular segment and target it. Basis for Segmentation • • Geographical Segmentation: Potential users of Facebook are present in almost all the corners of the world. The users with such lifestyles can afford personal computers and so Facebook can identify such segments. India or in Brazil where Baidu & Orkut respectively are more popular. o Attitude towards offering: Users have shown good enthusiasm and positive attitude towards Facebook. o Purchasing power: Facebook can be used by anyone from low purchasing power to high purchasing power.g. o Usage rate: Users of Facebook range from heavy to light. o Income: Facebook can be used by users across all income groups. • • .g. o User status: Users are generally regular users with few first time and occasional users. they will be different in their motives in using Facebook. Psychographic Segmentation: Facebook as a product can identify the segment whose users have an average lifestyle or above average. The primary idea in user’s behaviour segmentation is that different user groups expect different benefits from the same product and accordingly. Facebook keeps track of tastes & preferences of individual users. Facebook offers it website in local languages in their respective regions. o Occupation: Facebook is used by people from all occupational groups. o Gender: Facebook is used by all gender groups. Facebook is present in 190 countries. For e. For e. in China.
60 % 1.56 0.Worldwide social networking industry market size is 0.63 0.32 % % % % % % Social Networking sites used by social network users Facebook Generation Z 61 % Generation Y 65 % Generation X 76 % Baby Boomers 73 % MySpace 65 % 75 % 57 % 40 % Twitter 9% 14 % 18 % 13 % LinkedIn 0% 9% 13 % 13 % Various reasons why people are using these sites Baby Boome rs 62 % WW2 Generati on 57 % Generati on Z Keeping in touch with friends For fun Keeping in touch with family Invited to use the site by someone Generati on Y Generati on X Tot al 75 % 55 % 41 % 30 % 93 % 82 % 71 % 91 % 61 % 51 % 38 % 30 % 27 % 40 % 40 % 47 % 51 % 22 % 22 % 30 % 46 % 60 % .44 0. Market share of the social networking sites by visits Ran k 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Websites Facebook Youtube Twitter Yahoo! Answers Tagged MySpace LinkedIn iVillage myYearbook MyLife Visits Share 65.58 billion.75 0.32 % 1.24 % 19.44 0.03 % 0. Latest data suggest 222 million unique hits for Facebook and 130 million hits for MySpace.
interacting with friends. Product specialization: Facebook specializes in a particular product i. Full market coverage: Facebook attempts to serve the entire market. etc. Facebook offers different marketing mixes to different segments. Targeting Strategies • Single segment strategy: Also known as the concentrated strategy. information seekers.g. For e. Facebook as a product does not vary in any of the segments but only the promotional message or the distribution channels may vary. itself and tailors it to different market segments.e. Facebook targets only one market segment and not the entire market. Facebook can target only those segments who are only interested in interacting with their friends or who are only interested in finding various products through advertisement displayed in Facebook. • • • POSITIONING . This coverage can be achieved by means of either a mass market strategy in which a single undifferentiated marketing mix is offered to the entire market. job seekers. In general Facebook targets users across all boundaries. For e. also known as a differentiated strategy. Selective specialization: This is a multiple-segment strategy.Keeping in touch with classmates Keeping in touch with business network Job searching Business development/s ales Searching for information Others TARGETING 39 % 40 % 27 % 12 % 10 % 30 % 3% 6% 12 % 2% 5% 3% 1% 4% 6% 10 % 4% 1% 4% 4% 3% 1% 6% 3% 1% 5% 0% 3% 0% 5% 1% 4% Targeting generally involves breaking a market into segments and then concentrating your marketing efforts on one or a few key segments. There is no such thing as a selected target market for Facebook.g.
Fore. its weaknesses. The use & application approach: Facebook is positioned with the use & application approach.” Approaches of Positioning The main positioning strategy is either developing or reinforcing a particular image for the brand in the mind of the user. based on specific brand attributes and customer benefit. In the social networking industry we can see Facebook give emphasis on different technical aspects such as quality. This is done to give an extra edge from its rival. It involves putting the brand above competitors. Gender: Facebook positions itself across all genders.g. This is generally used when a category is too crowded. The product user approach: In this approach Facebook identifies and determines the target segement for which the product will be positioned.The position of Facebook is the sum of those attributes normally ascribed to it by the users: its standing. its quality. For e. privacy. user friendly.g. • Customer benefit approach: This is an important positioning strategy. Facebook claims to have more than 52000 applications the largest provider of applications. • • • Basis for Positioning • • • Benefit: Facebook positions itself with some beneficial features. etc. “Facebook’s position is how the users see the product. Often we can see that Facebook attempts to position itself along with two or more characteristic simultaneously like informing user that there are more than 52000+ applications which are more than any other applications provided by competitors. Technology & value added features: Positioning of Facebook according to its technological advancement and value added features. any other unusual or memorable characteristics it may possess. strict privacy. Positioning of Facebook can be explained as. For e. Facebook is positioned for all age groups. Facebook because of its nature has positioned itself as a general purpose social network as it has gone for market growth. good interface. its strengths. The product class approach: This approach is used so that Facebook is associated with a particular product category.g. easy to operate. the type of people who use it. SWOT ANALYSIS OF FACEBOOK STRENGTH WEAKNESS . its price and the value it represents.
OPPORTUNITY 1) Advertising is moving towards targeted ads and not blanked advertising. 3) Huge active user base. giving rewards. 1) Weak at monetizing the user base and delivering a high number of ad’s per user. 2) Biggest social networking site. 3) Encourage developers to create great apps by creating contests. friendly & easy to use. 4) Popular Platform for application development. 4) Guide developers to develop games in Facebook that could be played on mobile O-S 1) Increase targeted advertisements and develop “local ads” – A way of showing products relevant to the user’s location. 7) E-mail and chat are integrated. 2) Create more monetization opportunities . 3) Most of Facebook apps can’t be played on mobile devices. 2) Improve email and chat. Facebook is perfectly positioned for this since it has a huge amount of personal user information and preferences. 6) Translated in over 40 languages. O-W 1) Work on ways to reduce the increasing amount of clutter on FB homepages. 2) Improve quality of the integrated email and chat apps.1) Simple. 5) Present in all geographies. 2) Inability to manage application feeds leading to clutter on the website & reactions from users.
privacy. online gaming experience. 2) Improve development platform on aspects like security. THREATS 1) Social networking audience is fickle and they frequently shift providers. 3) Now translated into over 100 languages. 4) Risk of losing young. 2) Increase opportunities to customize pages without ruining design PRODUCT MARKET EXPANSION GRID OF FACEBOOK MARKET PENETRATION 1) Facebook continues to add new members and their associated content at an extremely fast pace. videos. hip image T-S 1) Try to deliver localized content and ads (i. with most new growth coming from international markets. 4) Facebook has developed many features like providing applications. It informs your whole friend list & gets your friends to try it too. 2) Facebook is skilled at viral marketing. 3) People have privacy concern with Facebook. 2) Facebook enjoys a 24% market penetration across all 30 countries. and we expect this to be true of many more countries in the near future.devices iPad). 3) Also. (iPhone. and monetization and limit clutter. including complete domination in Chile and Turkey. easy sharing of photos. T-W 1) Always keep enhancing and innovating features to keep users coming back to the website. Facebook allows developers to monetize without interference on their portion of the page.e. etc so users connect to facebook more than any other social . Facebook has penetrated nearly one third of the entire national population in multiple developed markets. 4) Penetration in the various continents increases by: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 1) Facebook has 52000+ applications available and it has sophisticated ways of spreading the word that an application has been installed. move beyond the language translations). 2) People may grow tired of the highly structured FB and move to MySpace.
North America.5 %). an internet connected machine. 3) Individuals aged 18 to 34 spend 8. 2) Facebook connect card which is like ATM card. connects to the Facebook servers. 3) The company received negative reviews about its new service allowing users to better keep track of their friends and what they are doing. South America. 6) Also Facebook acquired ConnectU & FriendFeed which were competitors in the social networking field. Africa. It aims at creating an attractive combination for advertisers. which allows advertisers to filter their targets so that their ads are relevant. DIVERSIFICATION 1) Facebook machine which like ATM.5 hours/week and 55+ spend 4. alumni) & select regional networks you want your ad to be displayed on. 4) People from different ethnicity . 6) Facebook Flyers let users to make their own ads on Facebook at low prices. Europe (7. Flyers are displayed on the left side of Facebook pages.2 %) & South America (3.6 %).6 %).Africa (0. target specific colleges. can be used for accessing the person’s Facebook account. Facebook can benefit from the Microsoft adCenter system. North America (7. MARKET DEVELOPMENT 1) Here Facebook targets different geographical markets such as Europe.6 hours/week on Facebook. Asia Pacific (0. gradstudent.3 %). and go further by specifying the education status desired (undergrad. 2) Facebook sells the same product through different sales channels like online where there is a small facebook icon “f” or through tv commercials. networking sites. The photo application draws more than twice as much traffic as the next three sites combined. 5) Facebook has photo sharing application on the web which has more than 2. 5) Advertising deal with Microsoft offers Facebook guaranteed revenues. 35 to 54 spend 7. and Asia Pacific.7 billion photos on the site and more than 14 million are uploaded daily. with the possibility to: Choose targets by both gender and age. The price is based on how many times the Flyer is viewed.5 hours/week.
Users of these services also need to be aware of data theft or viruses. large services. to ensure that adolescents and their parents have informed consent. and third parties frequently use information posted on social networks for a variety of purposes. CURRENT ISSUES OF THE SOCIAL NETWORKING INDUSTRY PRIVACY Privacy concerns with social networking services have been raised growing concerns amongst users on the dangers of giving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators. users may disclose personal information.8 hours/week. These sites often contain a great deal of data that is hard to obtain via traditional means. For example. However. Even though the data are public. African American spend 7.5 hours/week and Asians spend 10. However. often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents. posted content can be reviewed by anyone with an interest in the users' personal information".like Caucasian spend 7. "For the net generation. from posturing and role playing to simply sounding off. Furthermore. because such forums are relatively easy to access. republishing it in a research paper might be considered invasion of privacy.6 hours/week on Facebook. In medical and scientific research. Hispanic spend 5. such as MySpace and Netlog. . may be taken. social networking sites have become the preferred forum for social interactions. sites may not take adequate steps to protect user privacy.5 hours/week. allowing a profile to be produced on an individual's behaviour on which decisions. there is a perceived privacy threat in relation to placing too much personal information in the hands of large corporations or governmental bodies. detrimental to an individual. In addition. for example. asking subjects for information about their behaviours is normally strictly scrutinized by institutional review boards. This danger was highlighted when the controversial social networking site Quechup harvested e-mail addresses from users' e-mail accounts for use in a spamming operation. Privacy on social networking sites can be undermined by many factors. there is an issue over the control of data—information that was altered or removed by the user may in fact be retained and/or passed to third parties. It is not clear whether the same rules apply to researchers who collect data from social networking sites.
The gaps were addressed and profile/profile feature locks were put in place but now most parents complain that they are not able to monitor the online activities of their children. companies are able to improve their sales and profitability.000 (about USD $44. The page falsely claimed that Firsht was homosexual and that he was dishonest. Grant Raphael. was ordered to pay a total of GBP £22. ACCESS TO INFORMATION A perfect example to demonstrate two important sides of a coin would be the fact that popular social networking websites like Orkut were criticized for not having filters to prevent unauthorized online users to access a user profile. This software is able to sort out through the influx of social networking data for any specific company. a fake MySpace profile created in the name of Josh Evans by Lori Janine Drew led to the suicide of Megan Meier. In July 2008. The event incited global concern regarding the use of social networking services for bullying purposes. with whom Raphael had fallen out in 2000. Raphael had posted a fake page on Facebook purporting to be that of a former school friend Matthew Firsht. MISUSE Misuse of social networking websites is quite a common characteristic witnessed these days. Profile impersonation where a user uploads someone else’s profile claiming to be the original and is aimed towards maligning the reputation of the individual is a common occurrence now. These would involve "friending" and "following" large numbers of random people to thwart attempts at network analysis. . That is. The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused concern regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons. Facebook’s controversial and new “Social Ads” program gives companies access to the millions of profiles in order to tailor their ads to a Facebook user’s own interests and hobbies. a Briton. DATA MINING Through data mining. With this data.000) for libel and breach of privacy. However. companies create customer profiles that contain customer demographics and online behaviour. A recent strategy has been the purchase and production of “network analysis software”. Facebook sells tracked “social actions”. rather than sell actual user information. In October 2006. they track the websites a user uses outside of Facebook through a program called “Facebook Beacon”.Following plans by the UK government to monitor traffic on social networks schemes similar to E-mail jamming have been proposed for networks such as Twitter and Facebook. Facebook has been especially important to marketing strategists.
Sherry Turkle. Furthermore. Johannah Cornblatt explains “Socialnetworking sites like Facebook and MySpace may provide people with a false sense of connection that ultimately increases loneliness in people who feel alone." The convenience which social network sites give users to communicate with one another can also damage their interpersonal communication. “Networked. comforting. They become confused about companionship. claims that social networking can foster feelings of sensitivity to disconnection. largely due to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents and the difficulty in getting these patent applications allowed. It has also been reported. a neuroscientist at the University of Chicago. Only about 400 of these applications have issued as patents. stated. PATENTS There has been rapid growth in the number of US patent applications that cover new technologies related to social networking. that social networking patents inhibit innovation. And there is the risk that we come to see others as objects to be accessed--and only for the parts we find useful. however. who have a small attention span and who live for the moment. Social networking can also affect the extent to which a person feels lonely. As many as 7000 applications may be currently on file including those that haven't been published yet. The number of published applications has been growing rapidly since 2003. It has been reported that social networking patents are important for the establishment of new start-up companies.” John T. social network sites can create insincere friendships.children who are attracted by buzzing noises and bright lights. we are together. Cacioppo. In a Newsweek article. There are now over 3500 published applications. or amusing. The excessive amount of time that people spend on social networking sites has led researchers to debate the establishment of Internet addiction as an actual clinical disorder. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKING As social networking sites have risen in popularity over the past years. people have been spending an excess amount of time on social networking sites and on the Internet in general. which can lead to loneliness. however. . but so lessened are our expectations of each other that we feel utterly alone. “They nurture friendships on social-networking sites and then wonder if they are among friends. the founder and director of the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self. Turkle also noted.
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