This page is a long alphabetical listing of all available information on Russian and Former Soviet Union avionics items

(radar, IRST, EO, ECM etc) from 1950 to today. Use the search facility in your browser to search for the item you wish to find.
Main Sources MiG-21 (4+ Publications) MiG-23 (4+ Publications) MiG-29 (4+ Publications) Su-22M4 (4+ Publications) Su-25 (4+ Publications) Artemyev, Anatoliy Tu-142 in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev Bombers Artemyev, Anatoliy Tu-16 'Badger'- Maid of all work in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev Bombers Belyakov, R.A. and Marmain, J (1991) MiG 1939-1989 (Docavia 33) Bedretdinov, Ildar (2002) The Attack Aircraft Su-25 and its Derivatives Butowski, Piotr (1996, 1997) Lotnictwo Wojskowe Rosji (3 Vols) Butowski, Piotr Tu-95 in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev Bombers Butowski, Piotr, (1993) Su-25, Su-34 (Monografie Lotnicze 9) Butowski, Piotr, Pankov, V. & Ponomariev, V (1994) Su-15 Flagon (Monografie Lotnicze 14) Donald, David & Lake, John ed. Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft Fomin, Andrei (2000) Su-27 Flanker Story Gordon, Yefim (1997) Su-15 (Prezeglad Konstrukcji Lotniczych 31) Gordon, Yefim (1997) MiG-25 Foxbat and MiG-31 Foxhound (Aerofax) Gordon, Yefim (1999) MiG-29 Fulcrum Gordon, Yefim (1999) Su-27 Flanker Gordon, Yefim (2001) Sukhoi S-37 and Mikoyan MFI (Red Star Volume 1) Gordon, Yefim (2003) Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack (Red Star Volume 9) Gordon, Yefim (2004) Sukhoi Interceptors (Red Star Volume 16) Gunston, Bill & Gordon, Yefim (1997) MiG Aircraft Since 1937 Lake, John (1997) How to Fly and Fight in the Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrum Linn, Don and Spering, Don (1993) MiG-21 in Action (Squadron-Signal 131) Sentrowski, R. and Piotrowski, C. (1992) Su-27 (Lock-on 17) Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1990) MiG-23/27 Flogger In Action (Squadron-Signal 101) Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1990) MiG-29 Fulcrum in Action (Squadron-Signal 112) Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1992) MiG-17 Fresco in Action (Squadron-Signal 125) Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1994) MiG-19 Farmer in Action (Squadron-Signal 136) Zaloga, Steven J. Tu-22 'Blinder' and Tu-22M 'Backfire in Donald, David Ed.(2002) Tupolev Bombers Zoltan, Buza (1993) MiG-29 (Lock On 762) Zoltan, Buza (1994) Su-22M3 (Lock On 27) Russia's Arms Catalogs 2001/2002 Promotional materials from NIIP, Phazotron and others Periodicals Various Janes publications World Air Power Journal International Air Power Review Air Fleet Aerospace Herald Military Parade Air Forces Monthly Flight International Air International Armada International

Wings of the Native Land [in Russian] Aviation and Time [in Russian] Internet http://www.niip.ru/ http://www.phazotron.com/ http://www.jedonline.com/ http://www.aviaport.ru/ http://www.maks.ru/ http://www.testpilot.ru/hard.htm http://www.aviapanorama.ru/ http://radar.boom.ru/ http://legion.wplus.net/ http://www.airwar.ru/ http://www.airforce.ru/ http://www.brazd.ru/ http://www.flyshark.republika.pl/Samoloty_pliki/merlin.htm http://www.avia.ru/cgi/disc.cgi http://www.acig.org/forum http://forum.keypublishing.co.uk/ http://forum.sukhoi.ru/ http://www.china-defense.com/forum/

8TK

8TK pod is semi-recessed under the MiG-31's nose Semi-retractable IRST of MiG-31. Field of view of sensor is ±60° azimuth, +6/-13° elevation. Range is about 50 km against a tail-on aspect target in military power.

Aist-M
TV reconnaissance system, fitted to SU-24MR, covers a strip of ground equal to 9 times the height of the aircraft. The picture can be transmitted back to the ground station using the VPS-1 radio datalink.

Alba-F
OKB: Phazotron NIIR Alba-F is a maritime radar designed to upgrade the Ka-27/28, giving Kh-35 compatibility. It is also intended for SAR applications. The Alba-F radar is designed for surface surveillance of both the land and sea. Whatever the sea state, the all-weather day/night system performs the following tasks:
• • • • •

Circular coverage area, with a scan radius 250 km detecting all types of maritime targets including small ones (life boats, speedboats, etc.) Coastline mapping, quality image of the coastal terrain within the specified angular domain; Identifying friend or foe Tracking 10 targets simultaneously and determining their precise position within the all-round coverage area determining the positions of meteorological phenomena; - detecting dangerous turbulent zones - conducting search and rescue operation in adverse weather.

The Alba-F coherent-pulse X-band radar is a multimode system featuring high resolution and pulse-to-pulse carrier frequency tuning. The radar boasts a 20-m accuracy in range by virtue of compound signals with large bandwidth duration products. The Angular accuracy is 20 angular minutes owing to the monopulse direction-finding technique. The Alba-F's can detect large ships with a radar cross section (RCS) of 3,000 sq m at a distance of 250 km in sea state 5; 550 sq m RCS medium ships at a range of 50 km; and 1sq m RCS small craft at 30 km. The radar can provide coastal area mapping with 10-m resolution.

Integration work had not been completed when the MiG-27K's were removed from service. Su-30. APK-9 OKB: MKB "Raduga" Datalink pod for Kh-59. Almaz was designed to provide radar beamriding guidance to K-6/-7 AAMs. APK-8 OKB: MKB "Raduga" Datalink pod for Kh-59 for MiG-27K. Kh-59M. Current status unknown.Almaz (1) OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP A twin-antenna design. Guides missile to the target area.450 m weight: 260 kg APP-46TD Command link pod for R-40TD. Includes data recorder. . replaces one forward R-33 on MiG-31. used on Su-24. transmits targeting data and target acquisition. • • • length: 4m diameter: 0. Also known as Tekon. Neither version entered service. Almaz-3 was intended for Sukhoi T-3 interceptor Almaz-7 an improved version for the PT-7 version of the T-3. Almaz (2) OKB: NPO Almaz Mast-mounted radar for Ka-50N and Mi-28N.

Mast mount on Ka-50 Arbalet-M. Multimode radar derived from Kopyo. An extended range version with enhanced power transmitter and maritime modes was developed for Ka-27 (see Alba-F).01 MTBF: 150 h Total weight: 140kg . using Baguet series processor. with separate antennas.Arbalet / FH-01 OKB: Phazotron NIIR Centimetric mast-mounted part of FH-01 A family of radars for helicopters. Designed for the Ka52. Arbalet 52 More capable version of Arbalet. with air-to-air and air-to-surface modes. Works in millimetric and centimetric wave bands. • • • • Data processor: Ts181F Signal processor: Baget-55-04.

distance: 20 m Range of detection of ground-based obstacles and terrain detection/avoidanceElectricity cables: 0. azimuth: ±60°. elevation: 17 min.4 km. azimuth: 360°.5 km Tracks 20 targets at once Air-to-air modes • • • • Search limits.Components of the Arbalet radar system Air-to-surface modes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Various mapping modes Moving Target Selection of ground and air targets Determination of priority of objects Determination of terrain contours and obstacle detection during low-altitude flight Missile approach warning Support/cueing of EO targetting systems Detection of dangerous weather formations Navigation systems update/correction Missile and rocket control Target type classification (in conjunction with IFF) Azimuth coverage: 120° Mapping range: 32 km Range of detection of ground target: bridge: 25 km. Stinger missile: 5 km Tracking limits. 10° sloping terrain: 1. elevation: ±30° Tracks up to 20 targets . elevation ±30° Detection range for Attack aircraft: 15 km. tank: 12 km Measurement precision: azimuth: 12 min.

SPS-63 Azaliya were fitted to one variant of Tu-16E alongside SPS-6 Los SPS-64. they neutralised radars in the appropriate bands at distances of 130-140km. SPS-62. detects fighter aircraft radars Avtomat-3 RWR fitted to later Tu-22 models.Argon NATO "Bee Hind" PRS-1 Argon is the ranging tail radar of Tu-95 PRS-3 Argon-2 is the ranging tail radar of Tu-22 Avtomat Avtomat-2 RWR fitted to later Tu-22 models. detects ground radars Azaliya SPS-61. SPS-63R Azaliya centimetric noise jammers were also used on the K-10SP ECM drone. SPS-65. SPS-63 / SPS-66 / SPS-68 were fitted to the Mi-8PPA ECM version Mi-8PPA jamming antennas . SPS-66 Azaliya were fitted to another variant of Tu-16E alongside SPS-5 Fasol SPS-61R. In tests against Soviet warships.

Specifications were agreed upon in 1969. Range is 280km against a large aircraft carrier-sized target. project was launched in 1970. Sucessor to the Sirena-3M. Beryoza / SPO-15 / L006 OKB: Omsk Central Design Bureau of Automation Beryoza (this model has full 360° coverage) Hybrid analogue/digital radar warning receiver.Mi-8PPA control panel Berkut OKB: Leninets Fitted to the Il-38 ASW aircraft. Entered . Berkut-95 fitted to early Tu-142.

. so a scan rate less than this will result in a permanently lit light. As well as the visual indicator. The six lights across the bottom represents 6 target types which will show the radar type of the most threatening target. If the hostile radar switches to tracking (STT) the red circle will flash and a continuous high pitched audio tone will sound. The inner ring of yellow indicators light up successively to show the strength of the received signal. If the emitter lies in a direction between two lights both adjacent lights will light up. The outer yellow lights represent the azimuth angle of the most threatening target. The light will remain lit for 8-12 seconds.service in the late 70s. The inner green dots show all other targets. a low pitched sound with similar characteristics to the detected radar signal will be given. The lights will indicate the approximate direction. SPO-15 is comprised of the following components: forward azimuth antennae control centre cockpit indicator station HF converters reciever computer elevation angle antennae Power supply Long range antennae SPO-15 cockpit display from a MiG-29 The Su-24 system has full 360° coverage while all other aircraft have a simpler system with full coverage in the front 180° and simple "left or right" detection in the rear sector.

one type is always considered more dangerous than another.75 to 10. Mi-8MTPB is an ECM (radar and communications jammer) and COMINT (communications intelligence) helicopter. . The priority target is simply detirmined by target type. SPO-15L SPO-15SL SPO-15LM (L006LM) SPO-15LM (L006LM/101) Downgraded version for export. with three jamming systems operating in D/F band range over a 30° sector and 120° in other frequencies. Bizon Mi-8MTPB with Bizon ECM system ECM system fitted to Mi-8MTPB. Radars operating in TWS mode cannot be distinguished from search mode. Bands covered: 4.When a SAM launch is detected a continuous variable pitch sound will be given. Has a large 32-element (8x4) array antenna. The Beryoza is claimed to be capable of detecting enemy airborne radars at 120% of the distance within which the enemy fighter can launch a missile.7 GHz.45-10. SPO-15LM (L006LM/108) on MiG-29SE export version. regardless of signal strength or other factors.35GHz Direction finding: ±10° (front) Bandwidth capability: 20Khz Weight: 25kg • • • • • • • SPO-15 (L006) SPO-15S Scans frequencies from 4.

Delta Command guidance system for the Kh-23 (AS-7) and Kh-25MR missiles. SPS-22N / SPS-33N / SPS-44N / SPS-55N Buket specifically modified for fitting to the Tu-16PP (Aircraft "N") Chaika Chaika under Su-24 nose Chaika was a crude daylight-only fixed optical sight fitted to the original Su-24. Delta NG external pod Delta NG2 external pod. . Su-24MP and An-12PP. improved. installed in the weapons bay with an external "canoe" fairing. forming the Buket semi-automatic jamming suite fitted to the Yak28PP. operated automatically and jammed several radars at once. Each designation is a separate jammer covering overlapping segments of the radar band. Delta N internally mounted Delta NM internally mounted. improved. The system. probably associated with the Kh-25MR. covered a wide range of wavelengths.Buket SPS-22 / SPS-33 / SPS-44 / SPS-55 Buket A family of airborne deception radar jammers. probably associated with the Kh-25MR.

Antenna weighs just 5kg.Druzhba Advanced radar intended for Tsybin's RS supersonic reconnaissance/bomber design. Epaulet OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Epaulet as displayed at MAKS Micro-phased array radar installed in the 'Adjutant' system. 15W Time to complete a scan: 2secs . and is also suggested for other applications such as embedding in wing roots to provide greater azimuth coverage for modern radars such as Osa. which was never built. Proposed at one stage for MiG-25R. • • • • Scanning limits: ±45° (azimuth and elevation) Antenna weight: 5kg Energy consumption. designed to provide illumination and command guidance for the Russian-made R-27 and RVV-AE missiles for foreign aircraft or Russian aircraft with older radars. Complete system weighs 20kg.

provides emitter location/classification data for Kh-58 and Kh-31 ARMs. Fasol SPS-5 SPS-5M SPS-5-2X Airborne search radar noise jammer carried by the Yak-28PP. There may be a third pod designated Fantasmagoria-C. . The two pods cover different bands.Fantasmagoria Fantasmagoria-A / L-080 L-080 Fantasmagoria-A Fantasmagoria-B / L-081 L-081 Fantasmagoria-B External pod. Su-24MP. Tu22P and An-12B-I and An-12B-IS.

which is visible in differing configurations of the antennas. classification and guidance for the Kh-28 ARM. With no designation capability.Filin Filin mounted under Chaika sight Filin is installed on early Su-24 models and provides emitter detection. Individual machines in a unit had different equipment to cover various radar bands. its range was only 4km. . Fone equipped the Su-22M2 and MiG-27. Fon (Fone) Fon on MiG-27 An early laser rangefinder.

MSP-410 Omul / Gardeniya RF Pod mounted jammer in the Gardeniya family. Links to existing Beryoza RHAWS via L138 communication module. where it was part of an integrated EW suite including the Pastel RHAWS. Omul on Su-25TM . quasi-CW and PD radar and covers an area of ±60° azimuth. Also fitted to the MiG-29K and M. low frequency doppler noise or flashing interference signals around the 3cm waveband. Gardeniya-1FUE / L203BE is the export version. Claimed to have similar performance to that of such Western systems as the ALQ-135. It is effective against CW. 20.and 70-cm wavelengths.13 "fatback" MiG-29 was the first MiG-29 to be fitted with such a device. The 9. the Gardeniya. ±30° elevation.Gardeniya / SPS-200 series / L203 OKB: GosCNIRTI L203 internal version from GosCNIRTI flyer Gardeniya is a family of jammers including a noise jammer to counter radars in the 10-. but in the event the first production version did not have one. Unit weighs 70-73kg. Gardeniya can emit high frequency noise. SPS-201 / Gardeniya-1FU / L203 The Mig-29 was always intended to have an internal jammer.

Geran Geran is an second generation active jammer. A Geran series jammer is also used on the Tu-95MS. SPS-161 (L101) Geran-F installed internally on the Su-24. Able to jam frequencies from 6 to 12GHz with 100 kW power output. Covers ±120° in azimuth. ±60° in elevation. Grad / SRD-3 A reverse-engineered copy of the US AN/APG-30 ranging radar. which can be internally or pod mounted. ."Omul" pod displayed at MAKS 2003. Grad was fitted on the MiG-19. possibly pod mounted on Su-22M4. SPS-162 (L102) is used on later Su-24s.

and also the MiG25MP. . it led to the equally implausible Smerch-100 project. and a missile launch range of 90-100km with the K-100 missile.Groza / OPB-15T OBP-15T optical bombsight on Tu-22M3 OBP-15T optical bombsight on Tu-160 does not look identical Groza-100 OKB: Phazotron NIIR Originally designed for the Tu-128-100 interceptor in the mid sixties. Groza-100 was supposed to have a search range of 200-250km. tracking range of 150-170km. Largely a product of wishful thinking.

Tu-95RT Initsiativa-2 Radar fitted to the Yak-28I Initsiativa-2K Radar fitted to Ka-25B Initsiativa-2M Radar fitted to Mil-14PL.the first airborne phased array radar in the USSR. . Range 200km.Igla-1 Igla SLAR is housed in the container under the Il-20 Phased array SLAR fitted to Il-20. Ikebana ECM system fitted to Mi-8MTI Initsiativa NATO "Mushroom" Initsiativa Radar fitted to the Yak-28L.

Fitted to . Tikhomirov. competing radar designs. Used with gun armament. RP-1U Izumrud was compatible the K-5/RS-1U AAM.5-4km.Izumrud /RP-1 NATO "Scan Fix. Scan Odd" OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Chief Designer V. 2km tracking range for a Tu-4. Search range was 11-12km. with length depending on size and range. The radar displayed on the ASP-3N gunsight. more resistant to ECM. RP-1 Izumrud was used on the MiG-17P. Tracking was automatic. developed at NII-17 (Research Institute No. with a target displayed as a short line. Target azimuth was measured accurate to 1° and range to 150m.33 seconds. RP-5 Izumrud-5 tracking range increased to 3. which had a 7° viewing cone. +26° /-14° elevation with each sweep taking 1. as opposed to more complex. Within 2km. the radar could switch to tracking mode. Using centrimetric wavelengths. Tikhomirov Izumrud installation on the MiG-17PF Izumrud. It used two separate antennae for search and tracking. manual. was adopted in 1952 for use on MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters. V. Maximum range for a 16 sq m RCS target was only 12 km. 17) by a team led by V. its search limits were ±60° azimuth.

5-4km. Tracking range 3. Also fitted to MiG-19PM. Search limits were ±60° azimuth. . +26/-13° in elevation. RP-2U Izumrud-2 was designed for use with upgraded K-5M/RS-2US missiles (designed for use with both RP-2U and RP-9U radars) and fitted to the upgraded MiG17PFU.MiG-17PFs produced from December 1955 and the MiG-19P.

It was severely overweight. which led to the removal of the scabbed-on cockpit armour. . increasing the range in poor visibility conditions. and it was considered too difficult to use for the average pilot. is a second TV camera co-located with a second generation laser rangefinder/designator. Below this. At one stage MiG-27Ks were lined up at the factory as the customer refused to accept delivery until the problems were resolved. Kaira proved a very troublesome system. Reliability was initially poor. Kaira comprises a TV camera in the upper aperture which has an enhanced contrast system to give low light capability.Kaira Kaira-1 on MiG-27K (both apertures) Kaira-1 An improved electro-optical sensor used on the MiG-27K. The problems were largely ironed out. Displays on an IT-23T monochrome CRT display in the cockpit. in the lower aperture. Laser range is typically 7-8km. with limits of ±20° in azimuth. Stabilised scanning. which is then tracked using correlation techniques. but the MiG-27K was reserved for experienced pilots who could master the complex task of flying and target location/designation simultaneously. It is also possible to attack non-visible targets whose location is known in advance and programmed into the computer. Unlike Klen it allowed use of both laser guided missiles and laser guided bombs. but even this didn't entirely rectify the situation. The Su-24M was much easier in this respect as it had separate pilot and navigator. The pilot designates the target. +6 to -130° in elevation.

Kaira-24 has a field of view of +/-35° in azimuth and +6°/-160° in elevation.Kaira-24M has greater coverage in elevation than Kaira-1 Kaira-24M is fitted to the Su-24M. It was initially intended to place it in the nose. probably podded. This decreased the effect of oscillations and bending on the accuracy of the system. but was relocated to an belly location near the centre of gravity. Provides jamming against advanced SAMs such as S-300. Thought to be an Su-24 Kaira display Khibiny ECM system tested on Su-27IB prototype. Attempts to integrate Kaira on the Su-17M4 failed. and is very similar to Kaira-1. Maximum range of laser ranging is 12km. . where the Su-24 Chaika system had been.

Khishnik / B004 OKB: Leninets Chief Designer: M. In air-to-air mode. The radar antenna alone weighs 150kg. TV. The suite is modular in design. even coordinate flight paths within a formation. follow terrain in low level flight. which have not been solved to date.Khinzhal OKB: Leninetz Khinzhal-S millimeter-wave (8mm) imaging radar intended for use on the Su-25TM in an external pod. a range of 75 km in Doppler-beam-sharpening mode. 10 sq m RCS) 25-30km (fixed target. Weight 150kg. Leninetz experienced enormous problems with radar development of the Khinzhal. fault tolerant with redundancy at hardware and software levels. suggested for Ka-50 and Mi-28. The B004 operates in the 3cm wavelength. target detection capability is said to extend out to between 200 and 250km depending upon target size. A suite of digital computers process and combine data inputs from sensors such as front and rear radar. The system is highly automated. 100 sq m RCS) 15-20km (moving target). data link. Range 5-7 km (fixed target. RHAWS and missile warning systems. automatic terrain following and terrain avoidance functions. thermal imaging. It features up to 15kw peak power output. The radar currently performs all required functions. It can also detect air targets of fighter size out to 90 km. capable of tracking both airborne and surface targets as well as providing navigation and mapping information. power consumption 3. and present a fused coherent set of information symbolically on colour LCD panels to the weapons systems operator. The B004 radar antenna is the main radar system. and can track small ground targets at a range of 30 km. when Sukhoi completed the conceptual design of the Su-34.5kW. In the latter mode it performs ground mapping. . less the SAR mode. able to deploy countermeasures. Khinzhal-V version for helicopter mounting. and ±60° coverage in azimuth and elevation. Gramagin B004 Phased array antenna The B004 has been under development since 1987. It has been designed as part of a integrated avionics subsystem for the Su-34. which is to be developed later through software changes. Currently thought to be abandoned. It has a ground-mapping range of 150 km.

and cancelled it in late 1994. Sukhoi tested it on the T-8TM1 prototype from 1991. operating in 8-14 micron band. .B004 installed on an Su-34 prototype Like Kinzhal. the PAK-FA avionics suite has been entrusted to the same companies. Khod OKB: Geofizika Imaging infrared (FLIR) pod for SU-25TM. it may have hit difficulties. However. and uses similar technologies. reportedly unhappy with both range and stabilisation. Sukhoi are reportedly looking at alternative Phazotron radars.

In production since 1977. Khorikov Klen-PS on bench Klen-PS installed on Su-25 Ken-PS fitted to the Su--22M3/M4. Khrom-Nikel IFF system. P. Su-25.Khrom.064 . SRO-2 Krom SRO-2M Krom-2M SRZO-2M Klen OKB: UOMZ Chief Designer: M. Wavelength: 1.

-30 to +6 elevation Weight: 82kg Power: 3.4M Klyukva jammer used on some dedicated Tu-16 ECM variants . A second generation laser rangefinder/designator that was mounted on the MiG-27M. Klyukva SPS. MiG-27D. Maximum range of laser rangefinding is 10km. Unlike Kaira it did not feature a TV channel. Downwards elevation was limited to -35° . meaning that the target had to be acquired visually and designated by the pilot on his HUD. in preference to the Kaira of the MiG-27K which was deemed too expensive for widespread deployment.PRF in rangefinding mode: 1Hz PRF in illumination mode: 10Hz Maximum measurable range: 5km Range error: ±5m ±12° azimuth.5kW Klen-PM fitted to MiG-27M. which limited armament to laser guided missiles only.

or with data input from the radar. 15°/+30° elevation. Lock-on mode scans 6° x 4°. Target tracking rate is up to 30°/sec. The collimated laser can provide ranging data from 200-6500m accurate to 3m. In small FOV mode scanning limits are ±30° azimuth and ±15° elevation. Chart showing KOLS operational modes from MiG-29 combat employment manual Operates in several scanning modes. KOLS is a combined IRST/LR device. Close combat mode scans +16° to -14° by 4°. Can detect a nonafterburning fighter head-on at a range of 12-18km. In large FOV mode scanning is ±30° azimuth.KOLS / Izdeliye 13Sh / OEPS-29 OKB: NPO Geophyizika OEPS-29 from the MiG-29 Fitted to the MiG-29A. All aspect device. Scanning limits are ±30° azimuth. +30°/15° elevation. KOLS is able to reject flares only if the combined signature of the flares is less than the . Acquires targets independently.

target. Targets are displayed on the same display as the radar. .

It was shelved when it was decided that the MiG-29 would need BVR capability. .Komar The Komar radar was a radar for the early MiG-29 designs. when it was being considered as an F-16A equivalent. though the name was later used for some versions of the similar Kopyo radar.meaning no BVR capability but some air-to-ground modes.

Kopyo on the MiG-21-93 prototype Kopyo has an air-to-air track-while-scan ("SNP") mode. Phazotron produced Kopyo as a lighter.Kopyo FK04 OKB: Phazotron NIIR Kopyo MiG-21 installation Kopyo was the first private venture radar by Phazotron. It operates in X band with 16 distinct frequencies. Its MTBF is 120 hours. . Kopyo has 2 recievers (noise factor 4dB). Kopyo weighs 120kg. smaller radar suitable for equipping trainers and light attack aircraft as well as for upgrading older aircraft like the MiG-21. occupies 250dm3. It uses both high PRF and medium PRF modes for optimum detection and tracking at all aspects. 1kw average. with a 500mm antenna that achieves 29dB gain. Drawing on technology developed for the Zhuk radar. and engages 2 simultaneously. The simultaneous engagement capability has been demonstrated. and transmits with a peak power of 5kw. and a TS175 digital computer. It uses an MPS data processor. it tracks 8 targets. Tracking limits of the radar are ±40°.

a railroad bridge is 100km. . automatic HUD scan (± 14°). high resolution (synthetic aperture. low resolution (real beam) at . map freezing and interfaces with the Kh-31A antiship missile for target handoff. Range against a large ship is 200km. Air-to-surface operating modes are comprehensive. against a 3 sq m RCS target. in medum res at 60km is 30x30m. Komar was a version of Kopyo with ±60° azimuth scan limits for the Su-22. 10:1). Kopyo-25 / N027 External pod version of Kopyo designed for Su-25TM. Search range in lookup is 57km headon and 30 km in pursuit. optical (pilot selected target on HUD) and helmet close combat modes. It has vertical scan. Kopyo-25 prototype pod on Su-25TM Kopyo-29 Proposed version of the Kopyo for quick and cheap upgrading of Indian MiG29 airframes. Allows detection of moving ground targets. 100:1). something Phazotron only introduced in the current crop of radar designs. Lookdown mode ranges are the same in headon but slightly reduced in pursuit mode (20km). and high res at 60km is 10x5m.It retains a single target track mode. a missile boat 80km and a moving group of tanks 20km. with a tracking range of 45km. Resolution in low res at 80km is 300x300m. sea surface search. medium resolution (Doppler beam sharpening. There are three mapping modes.

150w. tracking and target aquisition of pursuing targets. Kopyo-F (was Pharaon) Kopyo-F from Phazotron Kopyo-F is the next-generation evolution of the Kopyo radar. tracks 10-12 and engages 4 in TWS mode. Kopyo-F is intended for retrofitting to older aircraft. The radar uses a non-equidistant rather than the traditional linear radar field distribution.Kopyo-M Kopyo-M largely identical to Kopyo. and covert operation modes. but with a TS501F modern reprogrammable data processor and a TS181F digital computer. Using both programmable . a new wide angle close combat mode. which allows a fivefold radar cost reduction over a conventional phased array while retaining good radiating characteristics. A coherent TWT transmitter is used. Kopyo-M has raid assessment capability. Weighing just 75kg including its phased array antenna. and reliability increased to 200h MTBF due to more modern electronics. Kopyo-F features increased jamming resistance. with three basic types available. depending on host aircraft. to 90kg. Weight is slightly reduced. 400w. The improved data processing capability boosts search range to 75km and tracking range to 56km. equipping light combat aircraft and may be installed in the tail of new Sukhoi Su-27 family aircraft for detection. SAR mode resolution is improved to 3m x 3m. volume also reduced to 230dm3. and can track 4 ground targets simultaneously. 1000w.

albeit at greater financial cost. 30km pursuit Lookdown range 70km head-on. giving plenty of room for future improvements and guaranteeing no overload of the system when tracking multiple targets. ±70° coverage in azimuth and elevation. 28dB antenna gain.25 kVA DC Antenna: 0. moving group of tanks 20km ground mapping modes o Low resolution : 80km (300m by 300m) o Medium resolution: 60km (30 by 30m) o High resolution: 60km (10 by 5m) Pharaon-M was a further developed version which uses the latest digital technology to reduce weight to 45kg. missile boat 100km. 0. 4 engaged simultaneously. Kopyo-F and Pharaon-M have been proposed as a tail radar for Su-27IB and Su-35. Weight: 75kg Volume: 165dm3 Power required: 1. 20km pursuit 20 targets tracked. Destroyer detected at 200km. X band (16 distinct frequencies) 3 receivers. 0.44m diameter.3kW average 200hour MTBF Performance • • • • • Lookup range 75km head-on. . 2dB noise factor 3kW peak power output. railroad bridge 80km.8kVA AC.data and signal processors the available processing power of 900mflops is only currently operating at half capacity.

Kripton / PRS-4 NATO "Box Tail" Tail radar installed on Tu-95KD onward. intended for the Su-15T but replaced by Taifun primarily at the insistence of the customer.Korshun (1) Experimental early air intercept radar derived from Slepouchkines' Torii. fitted to the I320 and MiG-17F. Korshun-58 A further improved derivative of the Orel-D58. accompanied by extensive software changes. It was unreliable. Korshun (2) OKB: Leninets Korshun was designed for oversea search and detection of submarines and fitted to the Tu-142. PRS-4KM fitted to Tu-22M3 Kub-3M ELINT system of MiG-25RBK. Kurs-NM RWR and target handoff to Kh-22MP ARM for Tu-22MP. Korshun-K was introduced on the Tu-142MK. and did not enter production. Kurs Kurs-N. Korshun-KN-N is an improved version of the Korshun radar introduced in 1985 on the Tu-142M. Tu-95K-22 . difficult to use. It had its old TsVM-264 computer replaced with a newer 263 unit. and Tu-22M. Near-realtime datalink.

which Yakovlev intended to use on the production Yak-44. radio frequency and power measurement as well as determining pulse duration and transmission cycles. Su-17 Kvant (2) OKB: NPO Vega-M Kvant Long-range AEW&C radar designed for the An-71 and Yak-44 carrier-borne AWACS aircraft.200hr with a "time between failure" value of 250 hr. This system is capable of emitter location. L166 L166BIA Airbome fixed-source infrared jammer. Against a large aircraft. allowing 360° coverage and 30. Strela 2M. SRD-5 MiG-21F (early production) SRD-5M MiG-21F-13 (standard production). Kvant-M was an improved version of the Kvant. IR Falcon. A wideband UHF coherent pulse radar. including major increases in the number of simultaneous targets tracked. Redeye and Chaparral. . Mica. used on MiG-21.radiator unit which weighs "no more than 20 kg" (weight and size of the "lantern" varies according to the needs of the particular platform the figures quoted relate to the Mi-8 application) and a 95 x 70 x 45-mm. Specified system life is 1. range was 350-370km. The L166BIA is quoted as offering protection against a range of threat missiles such as the Sidewinder.000m elevation. with a range of 200km against a 2 sq m RCS target.125kg cockpit control box. to 200-300. 0. Kvant (1) / SRD-5 NATO "High Fix" Ranging radar only. The L166BlA comprises a 365 x 463mm transmitter.Kvadrat-2 ELINT system fitted to the Il-20. Infrared source life is noted as 50 hr. Kvant rotated at 10rpm. Su-17. Tracked 120 targets at once. Due mainly to improvements in signal processing it had 30-50% better performance than the basic Kvant radar.

the L175V is a high power stand-off jammer carried in under-wing pods. Warm-up period 5 min. . L166V-11E Ispanka microwave IR jammer on Mi-24. Landish Airborne EW suite (including the Los. Weight is 28 kg (transmitter). An export version for Su-24MK has been developed. L175V / KS418 Intended to equip a jamming variant of the Su-34.000W Caesium lamp active IR jammer mounted on Su-25T.5kg (control unit).700Hz at 100-150Hz separation. Modulation frequencies: 8 channels between 700-1. KS418 designation suggests connection to MSP-418K.Sukhogruz on the Su-25T L166SI Sukhogruz 6. Proved useless against modern MANPADS in Chechnya. 3. Mimoza and Fasol radar jammers) fitted to the Su-24MP Fencer-F EW aircraft.

While the USSR had intended the Tu-126 to be a command and control centre. Initially intended to detect air targets at high altitude. so the switch by NATO to low level penetration made it fairly irrelevant. Lipa (SOEP-V1A) IR Jammer for Mi-24. Large bombers could be detected at 200-300km. In practise Liana was close to useless. with datalinks allowing automated control of Tu-128P interceptors. The system became operational in 1965 but only 8 were built. and detect naval targets.the P-30 early warning radar. which lead to several losses. It had no lookdown capability.Liana NATO "Flap Jack" OKB: NPO Vega Liana radar on the Tu-126 The Liana radar was designed in 1959 as an AEW radar to equip the Tu-126 aircraft. and the Ka-29 used two sensors to give 360° coverage. Ka-29 Helix and Su-25 Frogfoot. It was based on an existing ground radar system. on the borders of USSR airspace. this never worked and any intercepts had to be guided by voice commands over radio. Antenna rotated at a constant 10rpm in azimuth. . Mi-24 installation only covered 180° . MiG-21 size fighters at 100km. with no measurement of target altitude. It was a 2D system only. while large warships could be detected out to 400km. The naval detection mission was filled by dedicated Tu-95RTs aircraft. LIP Airborne active radar missile approach warner fitted to platforms such as the Mi-24 Hind. It was so unreliable that technicians had to be carried on every flight to keep it working through the inevitable breakdowns. Liana could detect small. Useful against older MANPADS but useless against later designs.

Los SPS-6 Los is a jammer equipping various dedicated ECM aircraft like Tu-16E Lyutik (SPS-150 series) SPS-151/152/153 Airborne self protection jammer fitted to the MiG25RBV and BM. Tu22RDM. Tu-16P (from late 70s) Mak OKB: Azovsky Optico-mechanical Plant(?) Su-24 Mak-UL antenna Tu-95MS Mak-UT MAWS IR missile approach warning sensor family L-082 Mak-UL fitted to Su-24M L-083 is a Mak version L-128 is a Mak version Mak-UF fitted to the Su-25T is a dual band IR/UV system .

Mak-UT fitted to the Tu-95MS L-136 Mak-UFM latest generation IR missile approach warning sensor for Ka-50. M400 M400 mockup shown at MAKS 2003 The M400 Reconnaissance System features: • • • • • • Data acquisition. and storage system Video data storage system Raduga high-altitude multi-channel (multi-band) IR reconnaissance system Antrakt low-altitude electro-optical reconnaissance system AP-403 and AP-404 panoramic cameras M402 Pika SLAR plug-in module . visualization. MiG24VM upgrade.

at low.over 100 km Sensor resolution • • • • Side-looking radar 2 meters Visual sensor 0.3 meters Long-focus photo camera 0.• AK-108FM long-focus oblique photo camera plug-in module The Su-30 aircraft equipped with M400 system provides for: • • Detection of ground installations and strike confirmation in any weather conditions. medium and high altitude without entering the range of enemy air defenses using radar.3 meters IR sensor 0. day or night. IR and visual sensors Integrated targeting information acquisition [for attack platforms] Visualization and on-board logging of reconnaissance data and its real-time transmission to ground station through a high-bandwidth link Maximum detection range without entering the range of enemy air defenses • • Photo reconnaissance .over 70 km Radar .4 meters Mercuriy OKB: MNITI Chief Designer: K K Chizhikov Mercury entered development in 1982 as the first airborne night-vision device in the USSR. Mercuriy has two lenses for wide and narrow FOV .

not for fighting. but Kamov also found its performance lacking. Mercuriy pod on SU-25TM A pod version was developed for the Su-25T. Range was 10km in daylight. Wide and narrow (5.3 ° ) field of view from two separate lenses as seen above. It could be used in conjunction with the Prichal laser system in active illumination mode. which increased detection range to 4-5km for a tank. 3km at night against a tank size target. A bridge could be detected at 6-8km. It was really useful only for night flying.5 x 7. a barge at 10-12km at night. Mercuriy fitted to Ka-50 prototype Metel External pod for Kh-28 emitter location guidance . The Mercuriy was also intended to equip the Ka-50. Sukhoi were reportedly not happy with performance.Low-light-level TV camera developed for various platforms including the Ka-50. No stabilisation.

Moskit-23 can detect and track hovering helicopters. Air to ground modes include fixed and moving land and sea target tracking and designation. Moskit-1 has a search range of 45km. tracking range of 30km. It works in the X band. selects the most dangerous 4 of them. detects simultaneously up to 12 targets. . Moskit-23 provides ground mapping modes. Weighing just 70kg. selects the most dangerous 4 of them. Mak MAWS. Moskit-23 for MiG-23 upgrades Moskit-23 is an updated Moskit radar. originally designed for trainer and light fighter aircraft. Guided bombs can also be used. Moskit OKB: Phazotron NIIR Moskit is a small radar. It is designed for a proposed MiG23 upgrade. Geran series jammer. look-down. The Moskit-23 radar is equipped with a TS-600 signal/data processor. linking Pastel RWR. and launching of the Kh-31A active radar missiles against naval targets from a distance of up to 100 kilometres. Miass Airborne EW suite fitted to the Tu-22MP Backfire-C EW aircraft Modulyatsiya SPS-4 Modulyatsiya was fitted to the Tu-16 Yolka. Weight is 110kg. tracks and engages them. APP-50 chaff/flare dispensers. It has a +30° detection / track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation. and air combat. It detects simultaneously 10 to 12 targets. Air to air modes available include look-up. Improved hardware and software allows increase in the search range of the radar for a fighter to 90km. tracking range to 60km. tracks and engages them.Meteor-NM Computer controlled ECM system fitted to Tu-95MS. single target track.

combined range/velocity gate pulloff. 60° elevation coverage. angle. Probably the same as MSP-418K. range gate pulloff. Modes available include noise. Possibly related to the older MSP-410 pod. 60° elevation coverage. Tested from 1998 on the T-8TM-4 prototype. . Features a modular open architecture It covers the G-J-band frequency range. dimensions are 230 x 225 x 3. with 120° azimuth. MSP-418K OKB: TsNIRTI MSP-418K on MiG-29SMT demonstrator at MAKS 2003 A lightweight. programmed structure The pod's weight was supposed to be 80kg. It covers the G-J-band (4-18 GHz?) range. The pod's weight is 150kg. high performance jammer for the Su-25TM using DRFM (Digital RF Memory) and DSP technology. 120° azimuth. terrain bounce. or closely related.MSP OKB: TsNIRTI A lightweight. high performance jammer for the MiG-29 using DRFM (Digital RF Memory) technology. velocity gate pulloff.800mm.

It was intended to have a great deal of commonality with the MiG-29's N019 Rubin radar. It was intended to use an all new design antenna. In May . Pushing the state of the art for the USSR. This design proved overly ambitious. the original design.N001 / Myech / RPLK-27 NATO "Slot Back" OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Chief designer: V K Grishin N001 looks very similar to the MiG-29's N019 radar The N001 radar for the Su-27 was designed by Viktor Grishin. was supposed to draw heavily on technologies developed for the experimental Soyuz radar program led by NPO Istok. in reality this goal proved impossible for NIIP to achieve. and was simply unachievable for a mass production radar given the state of the Soviet electronics industry in the early eighties. with a 200km detection range. Originally intended to significantly outperform the AN/APG63 of the F-15. featuring electronic scanning in elevation and mechanical scanning in azimuth. This would give excellent multitarget engagement capability. N001 internals from factory website Development was difficult. known as Myech. and use of the MiG-31's R-33 was envisaged.

It can track a 3 sq m target at 65km. Phazotron's N019 had already reverted back to an improved version of the Sapfir23ML's twist-cassegrain antenna to replace its problematic flat-plate antenna. Attention and work had switched to the new N011 radar to equip the Su-27M. it was decided that the NIIP designed digital computer and antenna were simply not up to scratch.075m antenna diameter twist-cassegrain antenna. According to NIIP. Though the Su-27 entered service in 1986. In a pursuit engagement. its radar was not finally accepted into service until 1991. and problems with N001 persisted. detection range barely reached 140km even against a large bomber. By March 1983. It can also track ECM sources. and feed target data to the Su-27's IRST system. Azimuth limits are ±60° . the N001 has a search range of 80-100km against a 3 sq m RCS target in a headon engagement. initial units had a MTBF of only 5 hours. The average power transmitted is 1kW (same as N019). though the resulting radar was nowhere near as good was intended. Instead of 200km. N001 has a 1. MTBF is 100 hours. Stills from NIIP video show the twist-cassegrain antenna In 1985 NIIP were ordered to improve its performance. 140km against a large bomber. It was decided therefore to use major components from the N019 radar. including a scaled-up copy of its twist-cassegrain antenna and the TS100 processor. search range for a 3 sq m target falls to just 40km. . the redesign was complete. A pulse-doppler design operating in the 3-cm band utilising medium and high PRFs for optimum lookdown capability. Eventually MTBF was brought up to 200 hours. nor likely to become so in the near future.1982.

When a new mode is selected. N001VE is fitted to Chinese Su-30MKK. which gives RVV-AE compatibility. New modes will be added at the same time for target identification. Suggested that range might reach 300km against a large target. radar data is sent to the new subsystems. Stage 2: NIIP propose a new lightweight. A modernised N001 radar developed for retrofitting to in-service Su-27 (analogous to the Phazotron N019M Topaz) can track and engage 2 targets at once using the R-77 missile. The Su-27K used an updated SUV-33 control system. Existing radar is modified with a bypass channel that allows incoming radar data to be switched to a new all-digital processing system. NIIP N001 modernisation package Stage 1: Provision of ground mapping modes. Upgrade to Stage 2 is expected to cost 35% of the cost of a new radar. but if an old mode is selected the data is processed as before by the existing radar hardware. Thus all old modes remain unchanged. Uses Baguet series BCVM-486-6 processor for additional capabilities. This will substantially improve air-to-air performance. . Only 1 additional air-to-air mode. and increase air-to-ground resolution. optically-fed Pero phased array antenna as a drop-in replacement for the existing cassegrain antenna.A radar datalink is used for updating inertially guided missiles such as the R-27. and to detect hovering helicopters. New air to ground modes added are very similar to those of the Zhuk radar. Basically the same as NIIP Stage 1 package below. the N001 radar was largely unchanged but with sea optimised lookdown capability and support for the carrierbased GCI system. velocity search.

N003 see Sapfir-23ML N005 See Sapfir-25 N006 See Sapfir-23ML N007 See Zaslon N008 See Sapfir-23MLA-2 N010 See Zhuk N011 / RLSU OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Chief Designer: Tamerlan Bekirbayev .

drawing on experience gained with the original. and full digital signal processing using reprogrammable digital computers. In an air-to-ground mode. and average of 2 kW. Said to be heavier than the N001. It was not without problems. terrain. Uses a multimode wideband TWT transmitter with peak power output of 8 kW. 65km tailon.N011 mounted on Su-27M prototype This radar design was initiated in the early/mid 80s for the Su-27M program by Tamerlan Bekirbayev. and undertake ground mapping. N011 Mechanically scanned 960mm planar array antenna. and fell victim to a decision that all future radars should be phased-array.following and terrain-avoidance missions. unachievable Myech design and the experimental Soyuz program by NPO Istok. Further development of the N011 is unlikely. NIIP drew on technology from their cancelled N014 radar intended for the MFI to improve the N011 with a passive phased array antenna and better signal processing. which with further development could be extended to 15 and 6 respectively. proved impossible to achieve with a mechanically scanned antenna. ± 85° coverage. it can acquire surface targets at ranges of up to 200km. It has five air-to-ground and four maritime modes. to track 20 targets and engage 8 simultaneously over a wide area. Tough requirements. despite the greater cost. 140km against a head-on fighter-class target. It features a low noise UHF input amplifier. The maximum search range for large air targets such as airborne early warning and control aircraft is 400km. Initial versions proved able to track 13 aerial targets and engage four. .

decreasing RCS. It is both mechanically and electronically scanned to give increased field of view over a fixed phased array antenna and also to allow the radar to be tilted away when not in use. ±40° electronically) in azimuth and ±40° in elevation. of which one was flight tested in Su-27M prototype "712". but in testing the passive phased array proved unable to be electronically steered greater than 40° without unacceptable degredation of performance. The second was mechanically and electronically scanned in both azimuth and elevation (±90° in both axes). the first was both electronically and mechanically scanned in azimuth (±30° mechanically plus ±60° electronically. average power output is 1. two prototype N011M radars were produced. and is currently fitted to the Su-30MKI. antenna gain 36dB.4° with 12 distinct beam shapes. The antenna weighs 110kg.N011M Bars / RLSU-30MK N011M antenna installed on Su-30MK N011M Bars is an upgraded phased array antenna version of the N011. for a total coverage of ±90°) and electronically scanned in elevation (±60°). Under development since the early 1990s.2kW. Two variants were initially proposed. Peak power output is 4-5kW. Ts200 PSP (Programmable Signal Processor) Data entry speed: 28 MHz Peak performance on fourier transforms of "butterfly" type: 75 Million operations per second. Radar control processor Number of processors: 3 Processor RAM (or possibly Flash memory): 16 Mb . Antenna diameter is 1m. beamwidth is 2. the main sidelobe level is -25dB. average sidelobe level is -48dB. The N011M fitted to the Su-30MKI was the first type. It is now in production. Therefore scanning limits are reduced to ±70° (±30° mechanically.

tracked several targets while volume scanning. while testing on the final (MK3) revision had also begun. Track ECM source Raid Assessment while scan Target Identification while scan . The computer technology is executed in Western military standard form factor (Compact PCI).500 square degrees in one document. Unfortunately. o Scanning zone while tracking is given as 5. NIIP were finalising the 2nd stage (MK2). LRDE expressed their inability to develop the system within the envisaged time frame. The contract for the N011M radar has three stages.Processor ROM: 16 Mb Weight of complete radar system is 650kg. the operating system and the applied Bars radar control system software support fully are compatible with Western standards. still using the Russian data processor. While MK2 implements most of the modes above. full capability will only be met with the 3rd stage radar. Currently in 2004 MK3 is still in testing. Initially India were supposed to construct both programmable signal processors (PSP) and data processors (RC) under project "Vetrivale" to replace the original Russian components. and correctly identified aerial targets. The initial radar data processor delivered was also Russian. MK3 incorporates the Indian-designed Vetrivale RC (radar computer) based in the i960 architecture. Air to air modes • • • • • • • • Velocity Search Range While Search o Detection range in headon engagements: 120-140km o Detection range in tailchase engagements: 60km Track While Scan of 15 targets Precision Tracking up to 4 targets for engaging targets while continuing volume search. The project therefore reverted to the Ts200 PSP originally designed for the Su-27M's N011. A ±40° azimuth by ±40° elevation scan area like this suggests would be 6. A Bars' test radar is said to have detected Su-27 fighters at a range of over 330 km. The initial MK1 software was tested in 2002 and supplied with the first Su-30MKI deliveries.400 square degrees. Target Illumination. generation of radio update commands for BVR AAMs. especially in view of the non-finalisation of the required technical specification by NIIP. in October 2003. while another says targets can be tracked anywhere in the 80° tracking zone of the radar while continuing to scan. which allows their upgrade without changing the logic of the radar control system s operation. The construction.

this mode can identify exact aircraft types. and jet airplane. the Bars radar control system determines the type of aerial target detected through the parameters of the signal reflected from the target. small target. Several close combat modes for search. Identified generic target types include large target. tracking up to 2 sea targets. group of tanks: 40-50km o Best resolution in SAR mode: 10m Anti shipping modes • • • • • Long range detection of huge sea targets Sea surface scan and detection of sea targets o Range against a destroyer sized target: 120-150km Moving sea target selection Measuring of coordinates. a railroad bridge: 80-120km o Range. transport airplane.5° o Air-to-ground modes • • • • • Real beam mapping DBS mapping SAR mapping Moving ground target selection Measuring of ground target coordinates and tracking up to 2 ground targets o Range. lock-on and tracking of a single aerial target in close-in maneuvering combat. 5 targets can be identified in 1 second. group target. Upon introduction into the database of the appropriate spectral characteristics. helicopter. o Limits: Azimuth: ±3° or ±10° Elevation: -15/+40° or ±7. The technique is thought to be based on on identifying engine type from the signal modulation induced by rotating engine compressors. moving or stationary Naval target ID Mixed modes • • Search air-to-air targets while tracking ground or sea targets Track one ground target while simultaneously firing at an aerial target in longrange combat . while the radar continues to volume scan and track other targets.• On switching on of this mode. medium target.

Used in conjunction with the N012 tail radar. The antenna was scanned electronically and mechanically to increase angular coverage. NIIP have experimented with bistatic radar techniques. which were probably intended for N014. or 100km for a large aircraft. N014 OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Associated with the Mikoyan 1-42/1-44 project. Some elements or techniques from it were applied to the N011M. the passive phased array N014 radar project from NIIP was abandoned. . This radar forms part of the aircraft's defensive aids sub-systems suite (DASS) and warns the crew of approaching threats in the rear hemisphere as well as controlling active and passive jamming responses to such threats. Range up to 420km.N012 OKB: NIIR Rassvet Tail radar used on Su-35/37 operating at decimetric wavelengths which is installed in the long tail boom between the tail pipes. Supposed to track 40 targets. Scans 60° in azimuth and elevation. Claimed to have a range of 50km for a 3 sq m RCS fighter.

Phazotron NIIR reverted to a version of the twist cassegrain antenna used successfully on the Sapfir-23ML. at least not in a radar that would fit in the MiG-29's nose. SARH Illumination and main channels use different frequencies within the X band. Individual aircraft can be preset on the ground to different frequencies to avoid mutual interference during group operations. It uses a guard channel for sidelobe suppression. and a range of at least 100km against a fighter target. It uses three basic operating regimes. It is a pulse-doppler radar operating in X band around 3cm wavelength. and are multiplexed in time.N019 / Rubin / RPLK-29 / S-29 / Sapfir-29 NATO: "Slot Back" OKB: Phazotron NIIR N019 radar Based on the work undertaken by NPO Istok on the experimental Soyuz radar program. and analogue signal processor technologies similar to their earlier designs. it soon became clear that this would not be achievable. . Phazotron NIIR were tasked in the mid 70s with producing a modern radar for the MiG29.designed Ts100 digital computer. with a NII Argon. and an interleaved high/medium PRF mode for all aspect detection. High PRF radar mode for optimal detection of closing targets. N019 block diagram The N019 radar weighs around 385kg in total. medium PRF mode for optimal detection of receding targets. Originally intended to have a planar array antenna and digital signal processing.

. N019 Ts100 processor It is based on the proprietary POISK architecture developed at NII Argon.5º. The radar beam is stabilised up to 120º in roll and +40º/-30º in pitch.5 to 2. which determines the minimum separation of two targets in azimuth. The Ts100 processor can achieve 170. the ES EVM architecture Argon15A of the MiG-31) processing capability was enhanced by 1.N019 Master oscillator Scanning cycle times are 2. by expanding the basic instruction set with microcodes inherent in specific tasks. making Ts100 much cheaper to produce. has 8K RAM and 136k ROM. and is built using medium scale integration ICs.g.5 times and the code 3 to 5 times more compact. The Ts100 computer weighs 32 kg.5-5 seconds depending on mode.000 operations per second. which allows adapting of the instruction set to control system functions. with an NII Argon Ts100 digital processing unit. Compared to machines using the same elements but a generic instruction set (e. Beam width is 3. N019 Transmitter N019 is a hybrid analogue/digital design.

The display is calibrated to a maximum range of 150km. . -36º Mode "V" (Vstryehchya) : Encounter Encounter mode is the main search mode used in interception. as it gives the longest detection ranges and the least false returns. Two basic scan patterns are used.000m.000m reduces the detection range to 40-70 km and tracking range to 30-60km.000m below the host aircraft's own altitude. If the target is flying below 3. Target can be up to 10. It uses a High PRF mode which can detect closing targets only in the velocity range of 230 . A typical 3 sq m RCS fighter target can be detected at 50-70 km and tracked at 40-60 km.2500km/h at altitudes from 30m to 23.000m above or 6.N019 Microwave receiver Radar Modes (Description from N-019EB export variant manual) Radar scan limits in azimuth: ±65º Radar scan limits in elevation: +56º.

and the direction of the scan is automatically cued by CGI command towards the desired target. This scan covers a sector of 40° in azimuth at ranges up to 30km. The distance to target and other useful information is supplied by GCI command. .When the system is under direct GCI control via datalink. and 20° above 55km within the scan limits given above. a 6 bar elevation raster scan is used. 30° at ranges of 30-55 km.

with the pilot controlling the direction of the scan. It is expected that the rough direction to the target will be given by ground control via voice commands. which should be recalled when comparing measured target range with that supplied by GCI controller. Note that in Encounter mode. Left sector is -65º to -15º. Lockon and transition to tracking mode takes 2 to 7 seconds in Encounter mode. Range measuring error of a single target can be as high as 8km. a 4 bar raster scan mode is used to acquire a target manually. Minimum measurable range in this mode is 5km. There is no scan pattern for full azimuth range scanning. right sector from +15º to +65º. Mode "D" (Dogon): Pursuit .When the system is not under direct GCI control via datalink. This mode scans a constant 50° in azimuth. if it is no longer closing. Individual targets can be resolved providing they are separated in azimuth and 5-6km in range. The 130º scan area is divided into 3 sectors. a target that changes direction to a tail-on engagement may be be lost even when in tracking mode. centre sector covers -25º to +25º. giving overlapping coverage of the full 130º scan limits.

000 m altitude receding at speeds of 210 . When flying from 1000m to 3000m altitude. .A medium PRF mode usable for both headon and tailchase engagements. Target can be up to 10.2200 km/h. as it is prone to displaying false targets from ground clutter especially at low altitudes. Range against a typical 3 sq m RCS fighter target is 25-35km search and 20-35km tracking when host aircraft is flying above 3000m. Detects targets from 30 m to 23.5º in elevation. 16. marshy forests and flood plains give greatest clutter problems. In practise it is used only when necessary.000m below. When target range is below 20km. Display is calibrated to a maximum range of 50km. the pilot should compare visible targets with the calculated target range supplied by datalink from GCI controller to determine the correct target.000m above or 6. scan coverage is 40º in azimuth. When multiple false returns are present. range is reduced to 20-35km search and 18-35km track. Marsh land. When flying at 5001000m achievable range is just 15-30km search and 13-25km tracking.

scanning with the IRST. Errors in range measurement can be as high as 8km. 13.5º in elevation.If target range is above 20km. Lockon and transition to tracking mode takes 1-4 seconds in Pursuit mode. Mode "SP" (???) Free Search Information on this mode is not available. It is believed to be a high PRF mode similar to Encounter mode. but there is no minimum range. with better ECCM . Individual targets can be resolved providing they are separated 3-4km in range in Pursuit mode. only available on Soviet standard machines. scan coverage is 30º in azimuth. When "Cooperation" mode is selected. the radar is automatically switched to an equivalent mode to pursuit.

Targets can be theoretically detected at similar ranges to Encounter and Pursuit modes according to targets direction of movement. As the range to target approaches the calculated maximum missile launch range. It generates a display calibrated to a maximum range of 100km. the radar will transition to single target tracking mode. Each line of the scan is alternated between high and medium PRF.capabilities. the radar will stop scanning for targets and transition to an 8º by 40º box pattern scan in the direction of the designated target. and it may be that only the (up to 10) tracked targets are followed. It is primarily intended for use when lacking information from the ground station concerning the target's direction. Track-while-flyby mode allows the simultaneous tracking of up to 10 targets. unless range is under 10km when only medium PRF is used.. measuring their angular position. The target with the highest rate of closure/range ratio is designated the most dangerous. If no target is found within 3 cycles. overloading the data computer and generating numerous false returns. within the elevation limits of the radar. In Automatic mode tracking of a target should continue regardless of target direction provided rate of closure/opening is sufficiently high. If the target is located. Mode "BL BOY" (Bleezhniy Boy) Close Combat . and all other contacts are discarded. without pilot intervention. "SNP" (Soprovazhdenie Na Prokhode) Track-While-Flyby mode Track-While-Flyby submode can be set in Encounter or Pursuit modes only. After switching to track-while-flyby mode it is not clear if the radar continues volume scanning. Track-while-flyby mode is intended to allow missile launch at maximum range with minimal warning to the target. the radar returns to scanning mode. It is considered by pilots to be quite problematic. The pilot can override the automatic selection if he decides on another target. The TSVM computer calculates missile launch parameters for the most dangerous target. Track-while-flyby submode is not available in AVT mode. AVT mode provides the same functionality automatically. by switching to true single target tracking mode as late as possible. Mode "AVT" (Aootomaht) Automatic Automatic mode uses a mixture of High and Medium PRF to give optimal all aspect detection. range and rate of closure. and automatically marked on the display. Trackwhile-flyby mode will automatically follow the target marked most dangerous (automatically or by pilot override) in elevation.

Range increased slightly to 80km. Tested from 1986.Close Combat mode overrides all other modes. and with doubled MTBF of 1000h compared to the 500h of the Ts100. N019M allows two targets to be engaged by active radar homing missiles simultaneously. Originally intended to be fitted to the existing MiG-29 fleet as an upgrade.5 sec scan cycle and provides semiautomatic target acquisition.02. N019M is an updated version. Also lacks "SP" mode. and track a locked on target down to 250m. Targets can be tracked in a closure rate range from +300 meters/second to -500 meters/second including co-speed targets.000 operations per second whilst weighing less. All Indian MiG-29s have . it entered limited production in 1991. developed as a response to the compromise of the N019 radar by a US spy. More downgraded. slightly downgraded. more than doubling capacity to 400. Slightly lighter than the N-019 at 350kg. Less capable TS100. Lockon and transition to tracking mode takes 1-2 seconds in Close Combat mode. Lacks "SP" mode. just 19kg. The closest target present in the scan area will be locked when pressing the lockon button without having to designate it. and a more advanced built-in monitoring system. about 22 aircraft with N019M are thought to have entered service with the VVS. N019ME Topaz Export version of Topaz. N019 is the USSR standard model. but fixed straight ahead only. It uses a + 37º/ -13º fixed directly ahead vertical scan that is 6º wide (2 scan lines) with a 2. Close Combat mode can lockon from 450 m to 10km in range. N019 has increased ECM resistance. A new Ts101M computer relieves the processor overload problems of the N019.06 digital processor. new software. N019EB is an export variant for general export. It is not slewable. N019EA is the version supplied to Warsaw Pact countries.

4 different close combat modes are available. Radar imagery could be transmitted via datalink to GCI centres or A-50 AWACS aircraft. . whose higher resolution imagery can then be displayed or transmitted to the GCI or A-50 controller as well. and moving target detection. Allows target handoff to TV guided weapons. Collision alarm system. and target class recognition. The NO19MP could generate maps of 15x15. acquisition and engagement of sea targets with radar homing missiles. and engage two. It is being touted as a low cost upgrade for existing MiG-29 operators. N019MP is a further modified radar proposed by Phazotron for the MiG-29SMT program. This low cost drop-in replacement part increases range 10-20%. with the ability to continue volume search for new targets while tracking 10. track four. 4 targets can engaged at once with R77 missiles. DBS. Air to surface modes include Real beam.been upgraded to this standard. Phazotron-Ukraine are offering a UM522 low noise reciever to replace the NO19-09 UHF receiver. Performance against slow flying helicopters was improved as well as resistance to jamming. The maximum range remained the about the same. N019M1 This latest radar upgrade proposal from Phazotron retains the antenna and transmitter block assemblies but replaces pretty much all the rest of the radar. day and night. but the radar could detect 20 targets simultaneously. Can handoff target data to the Kh-31A/Kh-35A anti-shipping missiles. and used to cue TV-guided missile seekers. and ground targets with unguided weaponry under any weather conditions. Has raid assessment mode. giving 30-50% greater range in air-to-air search and track. The radar had also basic air-to-ground functions. It used a Baguet series processor. Improved track-while-scan mode. 50x50 or 77x77km with a resolution of 15m. SAR (5x5m). Uses Doppler beam sharpening techniques. like ground mapping mode. Now superceded by N019M1. 24x24. Targets visible on the radar map could be designated by the pilot(using a joystick) or ground controller. It introduces new fully programmable digital processing.

fitted to the Tu-95MS. Uses DBS (Doppler Beam Sharpening) for improved resolution mapping. Oko / E-801 OKB: NPO Vega Oko radar deployed below Ka-31 . Range is around 300km. Linked to Sopka TFR. Obzor-K is an updated version of Obzor designed for the Tu-160 (Aircraft K).Obzor NATO "Clam Pipe" OKB: Leninets Obzor radar in the nose of a Tu-95MS Obzor-MS is a long range pulse-doppler air-to-surface radar. It lacks a terrain following mode. due to the Tu-95's inability to fly low-level missions. A modernised Obzor radar is being developed for upgrading remaining Tu-160 and some Tu-95MS with LPI (Low Probability of Interception) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) modes.

It tracks 20 targets at at 100150km. weight of the whole assembly is 200kg. and possibly a TV channel like that featured on the OLS-M for MiG-29M. OLS /OLS-30 / Izdeliye 52Sh UOMZ OLS Designed by UOMZ for the Su-35. Secondary processing is done on board ship. 4 different FOVs used. Detection range may be as high as 90km. Field of view is -15 to + 60 elevation. Fitted to the Su-30MKK for China and Indian Su-30MKI. under development at Ryazan. 60° x 10° (wide FOV) 20° x 5° (narrow FOV). 3° x 75° (close combat vertical scan) 3° x 3° (lock on). ± 60 azimuth. Dimensions are 841 x 916 x 575mm. Antenna is 6m x 1. gyro-stabilised and with automatic target tracking.0m and weighs 200kg. Okhotnik Modern FLIR/TV/Laser system. Integrates ground target range finding and illumination capabilities. .This radar equips the Ka-31 AEW carrierborne helicopter. The range of working temperatures is -50 to +60°C. 250km against a large target.

300-5000m for ground targets. OPB-15T See Groza . Targets are displayed on the same CRT display as the radar. OLS-M NPO Geophyizika Designed for the MiG-29M/K. The laser rangefinder operates between 300-3000m for air targets. 20° by 5°. 60° by 10°. sensor. It allegedly tracked targets in pursuit mode by their IR signature at 90 km during tests. 15km head-on. Weighs 174kg. or 10km using the TV channel. Positive visual IDs can be obtained at 6km. Laser has ground target designation/rangefinding capabilities. Tracking rate is over 25deg/sec. whilst the laser ranger is effective from 300-3000m. Features a more sensitive cooled IR seeker. and 3° by 3°.OLS-27 / Izdeliye 36Sh NPO Geofizika OLS-27 A combined IRST/LR device for the Su-27. Three different FOVs are used. A combined IRST/LR/TV device. OLS-27K for Su-33 featured new algorithms and better processor. 50km range in pursuit engagement. Search limits are ±60deg azimuth. using a cooled. broader waveband. +60/-15° in elevation. Azimuth tracking is accurate to 5 secs. Can detect a fighter at 35km using the IR channel. The laser rangefinder is effective out to 8km. similar to the MiG-29's KOLS but more sophisticated. whilst range data is accurate to 3-10m. Detection range is up to 50km. a more powerful laser ranger and a TV channel.

OPB-116 Optical bombsight fitted to Yak-28I .

Oryol / RP-11 NATO "Skip Spin" OKB: Phazotron NIIR Chief designer: G M Kunyavsky Oryol-D58 mounted on an Su-15 Basic air intercept radar. and based on the team's earlier Sokol design for the Yak-27K but shrunk somewhat in size. using a parabolic antenna scanning ±30° in azimuth. Oryol-D58 has an cassegrain antenna RP-11 Oryol development started in 1957 for Su-11. also fitted to Yak-28P. Improved performance compared to OKB-1's TsD-30. Range 25- . Designed by a ex-NIIP team at Phazotron led by G M Kunyavsky.

.30km head-on against a fighter target Detection range 10-15km tail-on against a fighter target Detection range 30-35km head-on against a Tu-16 target Detection range 15-18km tail-on against a Tu-16 target Oryol-D58 display from an Su-15 RP-15 Oryol-D58 improved version developed for the Su-15. RP-15M Oryol-D58M updated version fitted to later production Su-15 models.

was fitted to the Su-24M. Using a conventional parabolic antenna. Operating at 8mm wavelength(?). large command posts. The radar was too heavy. so it was hoped to carry it in an external pod. it has a maximum range of 150 km. such as railway stations. Orion was unfortunately far too large (antenna is 1.4m across) for the Su-7 nosecone. however. etc. and could detect and track large targets with significant radar contrast with the ground. A slightly improved version. Orion-A.Orion NATO: "Drop Kick" OKB: Leninets Chief Designer: Yevgeny Zazorinym Orion (top) and Relyief TFR (bottom) Orion was originally designed for the Su-7. Orion and Relyief during maintenance . It could be used for blind bombing only against big area targets. The radar design eventually found its home on the much larger Su-24. and the plans were abandoned.

designed to compete with Kopyo and Moskit. The radar works in the X band. The radar can track eight targets. max range of 180km against a large ship. Search range is 85km versus 5 sq m target. Intended for use on the MiG-29UBT aircraft. Osminog NATO "Splash Drop" Antenna for the Osminog radar Ka-27 radar. TWS range is 65km. cubic capacity no more than 150dm3. and engage four at the same time within the entire scanning area of ±60deg in azimuth and elevation. suggested for Mi-24 upgrades. while average power output is 700 W. Mi-28. Peak power output is 3. Weight is under 120kg. Allows use of medium-range air-to-air missiles such as R-27 and R-77. . Ka-50 and Su-25SM.Osa OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Osa in MiG-21 configuration This is an NIIP designed radar with a small phased array. Otklik / L-140 Laser warning sensor.5 kW.

It includes the Pero phased array antenna. designed after the Khrom-Nikel system was compromised. Worked with K-7 AAMs. Pantera was suggested for the Sukhoi P-1 and advanced Su-9 versions. can only jam rearwards when radar is in operation to avoid interference with the radar. SRO-3.SRO-2M Pastel / SPO-32 / L150 OKB: Avtomatika Chief Designers: V A Malykhin and V V Galaktionov . SRO/SRZ-1P-62D Parol Parol 2D Parol-2M . Parol D-band IFF system. Ineffective. Pantera Contemporary design to the Uragan (which led to the Smerch radar). Not exported outside the USSR until after its breakup.Pallad Primitive internal jammer fitted to Su-27. SRZ-15 SRZO-2. Panda The final stage of N001 modernisation has been called "Panda".

Su-25TM installation Scans from 1. Mi-28 installation. It was intended for the Mi-28. Classifies multiple threats by danger. 128 reprogrammable radar types. possibly as a reaction to poor performance of Soviet fighters in the Middle East. programmed target. Accuracy is 3-5° with pinpoint location antenna.operational target.note Western-style CRT display . Detects and finds direction for pulse.2-18GHz threat frequencies. Detection range minimum of 120% of the radar's range. has the ability to control and assign targets to 6 anti-radiation missiles such as the Kh31. Controls EW systems. MiG-29K/M. Aural warnings for high threat situations. Su-27M and others. 10° in rough location antenna. pulse-doppler and CW mode radars in search.Basic model of Pastel digital RWR Pastel entered development in 1982. track and illumination modes. By 1983 the initial design was produced. most dangerous target. with full display of all information about most threatening radar presented to crew. 3 modes. Pastel is a family of new generation digital RWRs.

Tom Cooper believes some Iraqi Tu-22s were equipped with it as well. Pelena Radio jammer fitted to ECM helicopters. .Pastel may be made available for upgrade packages or built into new export models of the Mig-29 and Su-27 families.

Pero antennas are designed both for updating the radars of existing aircraft fleet and for its application in newly-developed systems.Pero OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Pero phased array The system comprises an optically fed X band phased array of reflective type (main radar) and an L band phased array of passing type (IFF interrogators). -35 dB . 1050mm Gain in X-band.5 dB Mean phase level in X band. Pero installation on an Su-27 Pero for Su-27 Antenna diameter. -38 dB Weight. 750mm Scanning limits ±55° Gain in X-band. 31. 82kg Pero for MiG-29 Antenna diameter. 34.0 dB Mean phase level in X band.

Pharaon See Kopyo .Weight 40kg Pero can be integrated with the existing N001 or N019 radar to increases its performance. As of 2001 two experimental Pero units had been assembled. The radar range of N001 increases to 190 km and the radar would be capable of tracking twelve targets and engaging four of them with R-77 missiles. and one delivered to China to testing.

now used in M400 external recce pod. Progress Progress pod on the MiG-27K Pod to support the Kh-31. for MiG-27K. and still under development when the breakup of the Soviet Union ended the program. Platan Jammer for Mi-28N. Very troublesome. Production launched in 1988. Thought to have been used until deployment of internal laser designators on Su-17 series and possibly the MiG-27 too. Prozhektor-1 Pod mounted laser designator used in Kh-25 trials on Su-17M from 1973.Pika SLAR proposed to equip the dedicated Su-27R variant. . Prichal OKB: UOMZ Chief Designer: I P Belezertsev Laser rangefinder/designator of the Su-25T Shkval system.

PSB-N Radar of Il-28 Ram-R TV tracking system for Kh-23 missile? Relyef Orion (top) and Relyef TFR (bottom) This is a terrain-following radar fitted to the Su-24M. What appear to be TFR steering cues on an Su-24 HUD? . It was tested on a specially modified Su-15.

Rezeda
Reseda Jammer installed in the Tu-95K-22 Rezeda-A / SPS-100A Jammer of the Tu-22

Ritsa

Ritsa antenna array on a Tu-16 nose Passive radar target finding system fitted to Tu-16K-11, used with KSR-11 ARM.

Rubin (PN) NATO "Short Horn", "Down Beat"
OKB: Leninets Rubin-1 radar system was developed in 1962 for the Tu-16K-11-16. Pulse design. Rubin-1K was fitted to the Tu-16KSR-2. It allowed frequencies to be tuned by 3% to prevent interference during group operations. Range was about 200-240km. Rubin-1KV was fitted to the Tu-95M-5 and Tu-16K-26 Rubin-1M was retrofitted in a large belly radome, replacing the nose-mounted Rubin1K, on the Tu-16KSR-2-5 and Tu-16KSR-2-11, giving greater detection range to allow full use of the KSR-5/11 (AS-6 Kingfish) missile's range. Maximum range could be as great as 450km.

RBP-4 Rubin was the radar of the Tu-95M. PN Rubin was the radar of the Tu-22 medium range bomber. PNA-B Rubin was installed on the Tu-95K-22 and Tu-22M. PNA-D The Tu-22M-3 radar was further improved with doppler beam sharpening mapping modes.

Ryabina
LLTV/laser designator pod, can be fitted to MiG-27M, tested on MiG-29 (9.14)

Sablya-E / Izdeliye 122
OKB: NPO Vega SLAR fitted to MiG-25RBS. Troublesome in service. Could not operate below 17,000m, with post mission analysis required.

Samotsvet
IR sight fitted to VVS MiG-21PFM, next to the ASP-PF gunsight. It was intended, in conjunction with the radar and gunsight, for the detection of target aircraft in tailchase engagements and employment of all types of weapon at night and at all altitudes.

Sapfir (S-23)
The Sapfir radar was planned to equip the 1962 Ye-8 improved variant of the MiG-21, the first fighter to be intended for production as "MiG-23" but later cancelled. It was planned to be produced in two phases, first phase was called "Sapfir-I" which was a conventional pulse radar design while the second phase would use the improved "Sapfir-II" which used early pulse-doppler (quasi-continuous) techniques. In the event Sapfir-I was sufficiently reduced in size to fit to the basic MiG-21 airframe, entering service in 1965 as the MiG-21S with Sapfir-21 radar. Sapfir-II was further developed into Sapfir-23 for the definitive variable-geometry MiG-23 design.

Sapfir-21 / RP-22 / Almaz?
NATO "Jay Bird" OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Chief Designer: F. F. Volkov Used an inverse-cassegrain antenna. Elements derived from Smerch series radar. Search range 30km, tracking range 15km versus a 16 sq m target. RP-22S was fitted to the MiG-21S, used in Soviet service only from 1965 onwards. RP-22SM was fitted to the upgraded MiG-21SM, also not exported, and later equipped the MiG-21bis which was exported once the RP-22SM was no longer considered "sensitive". RP-22SMA probably RP-22SM-A (version for warpac) RP-22SMA radar operation. The pilot controls the RP-22SMA radar with the help of switches and light-buttons placed on the block 19, 19a and 19b control panels:

Button 6 "pass" anti-passive jamming mode 7.After the RADAR is turned on (the switch is in the top position) a red light APCh should turn on. If the light fails to turn back off. Turning the light-button controls the brightness (The pic shows maximum brightness) Control panel block 19A 1. In the lowest position the radar is off. the RADAR screen should light up. In the lower position the "locked beam" mode is off. In the mid position the radar is preparing for operation (3. the RADAR is not operational.Control panel block 19 Switch #1 is a three-position switch used to turn on and off the radar. In the top position the radar is on. In the upper position the beam is locked in 0° in azimuth and 1. Button 1 "interrogate" turns on the IFF system 2. Aside from that. Button 3 "control" automatic testing of the whole set 4. A green light over the switch signals this. and the lower border of the scaning beam is lifted by +1. This mode is used for launching Kh-66 beamriding radar guided missiles against ground targets. Button 4 "break-lock" breaks a lock and returns to scan mode 5. This panel is located directly over the radar scope. Button 2 "msc" turns on the "speed selection" mode used to attack low speed targets 3. Buttons 7 and 8 more anti-jamming modes . In the top position the compensation channel is turned on. and off. On it.5° in elevation. Switch #3 is a two-position switch. there are red light-buttons (if a button is pressed it lights up). the compensation channel is turned on.5 to +2deg over the horizon (this mode is reserved for low altitude intercepts).5 5 min). which controls the "locked beam" mode. In the mid position. Switch #2 is a three-position switch used to control the "compensation channel" and height of the beam. Button 5 "meteo" turns on the mode for compensating for difficult weather conditions 6. In the lowest possition the RADAR works in the standard regime.

The radar display shows the range and azimuth of the target. Search mode gates the target before lock. it displays the altitude difference. 3. Max range is 30km. 4.Control panel block 19B Panel 19b is only used in wartime. The display also shows the IFF status of the contact. 5. The target has to be between the two horizontal lines to be locked. With the help of "higher" and "lower" marks. using a switch on the throttle. Friendly target (if the IFF is on) Foe target (if the IFF is on) A target below our plane Gate. A target above our plane . in pitch ranging from 25 to +8° . SEARCH MODE In the search mode. RP-22 radar scope in scan mode 1. 2. It is controled by the pilot. the radar scans ±28° in azimuth and ±17° 40 min in elevation.

In normal conditions there are dozens of smaller and bigger bright . in active jamming conditions 8.6. when the RADAR is working in track mode. This light is on. It (RP-22) has to be turned off immediately if so This is an ideal situation. which warns if the RADAR is inoperational. Red light. A target on the same altitude 7.

6. . 4. etc. Optimal launch conditions have been met. 7. "Breakaway" light the pilot must immediately break the attack. the scope displays the azimuth and elevation of the target. On the second one. On the 1st pic the target is 10km away. the range. and calculates the range of the break-away. TRACK MODE In the intercept (automatic track) mode. he must press a button on the stick. This light is on. 2. 5.dots. 1. utilising information from the navigator and different onboard devices. and the pilot hears a tone in the headphones when the missile has locked on the target 8. RADAR scope in track mode. and the pilot should be able to get a lock. 3. the allowed launch zone. it is 5km away. "Launch" light.). A pilot has to guess which target is the real one. and a couple of false targets (clouds. To do that. The pilot may launch 8. The range of azimuths allowed in the intercept Range markers Minimum allowed launch range Aiming mark Aiming ring Max allowed launch range "Seeker ready" light.

Light number #1 indicates the target is on the left. the target it to the right (light #3 is on).When using the LAZUR automatic guidance system. In the picture. the three lights indicated give the direction to target. and light #2 that the target is directly in front of us. .

Sapfir-23D was the full standard radar and the first with limited lookdown capability. as it required expert tuning and high quality maintenance. . A purely air-to-air design. Search range was 55km against a closing Tu-16 sized target. Lots of problems were encountered in service. It wasn't uncommon for the detection range to vary 10 times from one set to the next. This had limitations. It used an analogue AVM-23 computer. Tracking range was about 35km. Fitted to production MiG-23M. Kunyavsky Sapfir-23 twist-cassegrain antenna Sapfir-23 was designed by a team under Chief Designer Kunyavsky for the MiG-23 fighter. again in lookup mode.Sapfir-23/25 NATO "High Lark" OKB: Phazotron NIIR Chief Designer: G. and had multiple "blind" velocities in multiples of its PRF. Sapfir-23L was the radar of the initial production MiG-23 (1970-71). M. and a twist-cassegrain antenna. Weight about 500kg.it could only detect targets in the duration between successive pulses. It used semiconductor technology rather than vacuum tubes and a method of external coherence in the mode "SDTs" (moving target selection) to detect aircraft flying below the host aircraft. Some sources indicate that early versions could only detect closing targets. it was the first radar for a frontal fighter designed to allow BVR engagements. 45km against a MiG-21 in lookup mode. The incorporation of an IRST into the MiG-23 may therefore have been intended give a pursuit engagement capability.

For speed of development. older MiG-23M were upgraded to this standard. M. Sapfir-23E was fitted to MiG-23MF export variants. Tracking range against the same target was 46. Yantar / Sapfir-23ML-2 was a variant designed for the MiG-29A. As part of a crash upgrade program. after early service experience showed various deficiencies in the original radar. it was a repackaged and slightly improved version of the MiG-23's radar. N003E Sapfir-23ML radar N003 Sapfir-23ML was initially designed by G. which helped improve the MiG-23's agility.5-50 km in lookup and 20-25 km in lookdown. Kunyavsky in the early-to-mid seventies. All Phazotron's efforts were redirected to the urgent task of developing the Sapfir-25 radar. and the MiG-23ML's radar. The Sapfir-23ML's weight (around 350kg) was less than the original Sapfir-23. Against a Tu-16 (16 sq m). N005 / Sapfir-25 / RP-25MN / S-500 Sapfir-25 was developed by a team under Kirpichev as a very high priority task after the defection of Viktor Belenko to Japan in 1976 compromised the MiG-25's radar. the radar was thoroughly modernised. with its lookdown capability. which is three vertical lines joined at the base). "S-23D-III" found in some sources is a mistranslation of this variant (caused by Cyrillic "Sh" character. increasing ECM resistance. 20km in look-down mode. Designed by Yuriy Figurovsky. Search range against a fighter was 55km in look-up mode. an existing radar had to be selected. a cut-down MiG-29 intended to use existing technology to achieve IOC by 1979. the detection range increased to 75-80 km and 22-25 km in look-up and look-down modes repectively.Sapfir-23D-Sh was improved with better discrimination of low flying targets and improved ECCM. completed by Yury Kirpichev and introduced in 1976 as a major update to the Sapfir-23. but it was abandoned in 1976 along with the MiG-29A. was the obvious choice. . Difficulties in fitting it into the MiG-29 were overcome by enlarging the wing roots. Based on Sapfir-23D with minor differences. Changes included the use of a larger antenna. Fitted to later production MiG-23M.

The radar antenna 'slaves' the R-60MK or R-73 seeker towards the target in this mode.. Their whole avionics suite was greatly updated. While some sources allege a multiple target track capability. elevation to +52/-42° . including the radar. It also had better anti-jamming protection. and it is not true. . It had 30° (±15deg) and 60° (±30 deg) azimuth search patterns. provided lookdown/shootdown capability and close combat modes.5 degin elevation. The first is called PSTs. Detection ange against a MiG-21 in lookup mode was 70km head-on. Weight was 337kg. Used AVM-25 analog computer. Tracking range against the same target was about 75-80km. while tracking range was about 50-60km. up to 9 km in distance with semi-auto target track. and close air combat. 20-40 km lookdown in both front and rear hemispheres for a fighter target. Lookdown mode reduced these ranges to 27-30km and 22-25km respectively. used for better target discrimination in lookdown with improved Doppler selection of moving targets at altitude above 50m (150ft) useful for operations over mountains with high ridges or over urban areas which otherwise would generate strong false targets masking the real target. Probably has most of the capabilities of Sapfir-23MLA-2. single target track. former Soviet pilots deny this. Close combat mode uses a vertical scan in two vertical bars 6° in azimuth and +42/1. by the twist-cassegrain antenna design. N006 Ametist / Sapfir-23MLA / Sapfir-23PA was a further improved version of N003/Sapfir-23ML radar. The target has to be put' into the HUD's (sight's) field of view. N008E Sapfir-23MLAE-2 was the export variant of the above. IFF. with the fitting of R-73 AAMs and an HMS. It has three primary modes. It is not good for tracking targets maneuvering at low level towards the ground due to excessive clutter. Compared to Smerch-A it could engage faster targets at higher altitudes.Detection range in lookup mode against a Tu-16 was 105-115km head-on. which would otherwise mask the real target.search (with sub-modes for lookup and lookdown). used on the MiG-23MLA (?) and final production MiG-23P variants. featured greater search and tracking range. N008E also has two new search sub-modes. The second mode is called MPH designed to counter chaff and cloud reflections at medium/high altitude. N008 Sapfir-23MLA-2 was fitted to existing MiG-23s from 1984 during upgrade to MiG23MLD (23-18) standard. IRST. ±14° in elevation. Sapfir-23MR radar intended for the early Su-27 designs (T-10) with a fighter target range of 40-70 km lookup. Azimuth scanning limits were slightly reduced to ±56° . MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) was 60 hours.

and it rotates +150° to either side. It can be used in conjunction with laser.or TV-guided munitions. to which TV (optional TI). and a laser target illuminator are attached. Realtime datalink.Sapsan (Sapsan-E) Sapsan-E pod displayed at MAKS 2003 Sapsan uses a stabilized optical channel in a revolving head. Shar-25 ELINT system of MiG-25RBF. a laser rangefinder. covering all but the rear quarter of the aircraft. Shachta ECM system fitted to Mi-8TSh . The vertical movement of the optical head is from +10 to -150° .

Shkval footage from the Su-25T tests . software corrected and automatic tracking. and a laser target designator (Pritchal) boresighted to the camera. It has manual.Shkval OKB: Krasnogorsk OMZ Shkval Su-25T installation I-25I Shkval The Shkval system designed for the Su-25T (and Ka-50) includes a highresolution TV camera.7° . It can iteroperate with the navigation system. the radar and thermal imager pod (if fitted). with a 27° by 36° field of view wide-angle mode for search and a 0. Shkval detects. 23x magnification narrow-angle mode for targeting. tracks and identifies fixed and moving ground targets and slow airborne targets.

It uses a 5Hz pulse repetition rate in rangefinding and 10-25Hz in illumination mode. weight was 46kg and maximum power consumption 4. 10km for a fighter and 6km for a helicopter. and from 15° above the centerline to 80° below.5 angular minutes. Its range against tank-sized targets was 8 km. It has greater range than the older Klen-PS and a narrower beam of 1. maximum range 10km.The Shkval system is steerable through 35° to either side of the aircraft. Prichal operates at 1. .064 micron wavelength.8kW. Shkval engaging a tank Shkval detection range was 20-24km for a large landmark like a bridge. 15km for a single building. Rangefinding error was no more than ±5m.

. cued by the Kopyo-25 radar or the aircraft's onboard navigation system. It can perform automatic search and correlative target ID in scanning mode. and can be used to designate targets for engagement by Krasnopol laser guided artillery shells. Shkval-M also finds threats illuminated by ground based designators. Shkval display in Ka-50 cockpit Shkval-M is an upgraded version that was intended for the Su-25TM.Shkval engaging a low-speed Tu-16 I-25IV Shkval-V for Ka-50 is basically the same system.

Another view of the Shkval display in a Ka-50 Shmel OKB: NPO Vega (NII-17) Chief Designers: Vladimir Ivanov (system). it was conceived as an update to Liana. The transmitter is mounted at the rear . and it is frequency agile from low PRF to high PRF. Beriev's A-50 proposal of an Il-76 conversion was ordered. Shmel works in frequencies from 2 to 4 GHz. V Pogreshayev (radar). the weight and bulk of the radar and its associated equipment spiralled upwards. along with the Schmel radar system. and was intended for retrofit to the Tu-126. However. Initially. minimum peak power output is 1MW. when it became clear that a replacement for the Tu-126 and its Liana radar was necessary. and soon it became clear that a new carrier was needed. O Rezepov (computer) Shmel is mounted in a rotodome on the A-50 Shmel was designed in the mid-to-late seventies.

Standard rotation is 6 turns/min. Shmel-2 is supposedly fitted to the A-50E export version for China. Can control 10 intercepts via digital datalink. Generally similar in performance to an early model E-3A Sentry AWACS. .000m. Can control 15 intercepts via digital datalink. IFF interrogate function.and lead shielded for protection of the crew. Shompol OKB: NPO Vega (NII-17) Shompol replaced the Sablya in service on the MiG-25RBSh. Possibly entered service in 1993. It is said to track 200-300 targets. Shmel-M was designed for the A-50U updated version. and fighter control via digital datalink. giving target elevation information. It has a longer target detection range. It is mechanically scanned in azimuth. Also fitted to Tu22RDM between 1981 and 1982. It was also plagued by reliability and overload problems with its digital computers. and its resolution was 2-3 times greater. It is a 3D radar. Not in service. It has passive direction finding capability. and can track 100-150 simultaneous targets. control 30 intercepts via secure datalink (15 by radio voice commands). Shmel-2 has a new digital computer that generally solves the reliability problems of Shmel. which limited the number of targets that could be simultaneously tracked to 50-60 and also limited range to about 150km. It could operate at heights from 300 to 23. with further improvements to range and number of targets tracked raised to 200-300. Fitted to the A-50M. Increased ECM resistance. Primary flat plate antenna is integrated with an IFF interrogator and datalink antennas in a 9m diameter disc radome . It introduced a moving target selection mode and a combined MTS/mapping mode. electronically scanned in elevation up to 20°. which sounds like Schmel-M.

Covers an area from 4 to 28 km from either side of the aircraft. and low-level mode. . Siren / Gvozdika SPS-141MVG pod Siren-F / Siren-FSh / Siren-1D-OSh / SPS-141 / SPS-141M / SPS-141MVG SPS-141MVG-E / SPS-142 / SPS-143 This series covers a whole range of individual jamming stations equipping attack aircraft and bombers. It works in four modes: individual protection. two-aircraft protection (both aircraft having the SPS-141. flickering. noise jamming. side looking radar which has moving target indication and high resolution mapping modes (5m). Jams 2 distinct bands.Shpil-2M Shpil-2M pod carried below the Su-24MR centreline Laser radar pod of Su-24MR. "Doppler noise" mode. 0. Shtik Synthetic aperture. SPS-141MVG-E Gvozdika is pod-mounted on the Su-25. where the equipment uses the terrain bounce effect in jamming. cooperating with each other in jamming the enemy radar). Other Gvozdika models feature repetition pulse jamming.25 m resolution. covers a strip as wide as 4 times the host aircraft's altitude.

range/velocity stealing. It was capable of detecting a radar lock from the rear hemisphere only. with audio warning. also used as part of the ECM system SPS100 Rezeda. Sirena-3 (SPO-3) SPO-3 wingtip pods An improved RWR used on the MiG-21R. Siren series jammer is fitted to Tu-95K-22 SPS-141MVG Sirena-2 (SPO-2) RWR used on MiG-21F. Sirena-3M (SPO-10) .

Sirena-3M (SPO-10) cockpit display Airborne H. Replaced by SPO-15 system. Fitted to many Soviet tactical aircraft including MiG-23).through J-band airborne analog radar warning receiver. Smalta Jammer fitted to ECM An-12 variant . Gives quadrant-based direction only.

track it at 50km and engage with an R-4R missile at 32km. The Smerch had a large antenna. It had azimuth limits of ±60°. This was a far more successful radar. It was a low-PRF pulse design. it didn't really achieve its required performance. .Smerch (RP-S) NATO "Big Nose". with K-9 missiles. Uragan-5B was designed for the Mikoyan E-150 series. was the first really useful airborne intercept radars to be developed in the USSR. F. It began life as the Uragan radar for various interceptor projects. giving it a true beyond-visual-range (BVR) capability for the first time in the USSR. Smerch could detect a bomber at 80km. which was redesignated Smerch when it entered service. "Big Nose". Installed in an inlet centrebody. scanning ±6° in elevation. space was not at a premium on the Tu-128 which allowed the Smerch to achieve significant advances in detection ranges over previous Soviet radars within the limits of the bulky vacuum tube electronics then available. Unlike previous interceptors. Uragan-5B-80 was a redesign for the Tu-28P with K-80 missiles. designed by F. "Fox Fire" Tikhomirov NIIP Smerch-A inverse-cassegrain antenna RP-S Smerch. Volkov. It was designed to detect and destroy incoming bombers at the maximum range possible. the destinctive bulged nose of the Tu-128 giving rise to the NATO codename.

though refurbished sets were fitted to new build MiG-25PDs for export. This improved Smerch design was used as the basis of the MiG-25's RP-25 radar. It weighed 500kg. improvements in jamming resistance and low-level clutter tolerance had been achieved. and was the standard radar. Smerch-A4 was presented for testing. featuring a rudimentary lookdown capability. The subsequent defection of Viktor Belenko with a MiG-25P compromised the secrets of the Smerch-A radar and ensured its rapid withdrawal from Soviet service. The Smerch-A1 as fitted to the MiG-25 prototypes introduced a second.Smerch-A showing detail of antenna drive RP-SA / RP-25 / Smerch-A / Izdeliye 720 was first introduced into service on the improved Tu-128A model. but by this time the sucessful deployment of the Sapfir-23 radar with a different method of clutter rejection that was rather more successful made the Smerch family redundant. By the time it entered production. Smerch-A1 could detect a bomber with 16 sq m RCS at about 100km. with tracking range remaining about 50km. Smerch-A2 / Izdeliye 720M gave improved reliability. and Smerch-A3 more improvements. secret operating wavelength of 2cm in addition to the standard 3cm to ensure the radar would function even in a heavy ECM environment. which were fitted to later model MiG-25Ps as they rolled off the production line. .

giving all three interceptors (Su-15. . and instead Oryol-D58 was fitted in the short term. while the definitive radar became the Smerch derivative Taifun. Smerch-M reduced the weapons system's minimum combat altitude from 8. Smerch-AS was intended for the Su-15. Tu-128. MiG-25) a common radar system. It wasn't an easy fit.Smerch-A2 radar display on an Algerian MiG-25PD RP-SM Smerch-M was the final iteration of the Smerch design used on the Tu-128M.500 m while enhancing its jamming resistance.000 m down to 500-1.000-10. however. Probably equivalent to Smerch-A2/A3.

and tracking multiple targets simultaneously. . there could be transition to longer-range air-to-air missiles since the Smerch-100 was capable of handling them. The Smerch-100 system was supposed to ensure launching and guiding the air-to-air missiles at a range of 250 km when attacking targets head on. In the future. Sobol Advanced derivative of Oryol radar with 950mm diameter radar suggested for Su-15. 600km lateral scanning acquisition range as well as 100km infrared acquisition range. The Smerch100 FCS comprised an FMICW phased array radar (PAR) based on the Sapfir-23 technical base with a huge 2m antenna dish.500km/h at altitudes between 50m and 35.000m. All documentation for the project was passed over to NIIP. The Smerch-100 fire control system was expected to have full lookdown capability. A joint automatic data exchange system for receiving data on various targets and commands from command posts and transferring it to other aircraft was also part of the design.4.500km head-on acquisition range for aerial targets similar to the Tu-16. encompassing the destruction of targets travelling at a speed of 500. Given the state of digital technology in the USSR at the time such a radar was far beyond the realms of possibility. Two prototype radars designated Groza and Vikhr were produced. a digital computer and additional side-view radar antennae.Smerch-100 / Groza / Vikhr OKB: Phazotron NIIR Smerch-100 was a late sixties design for the MiG-25MP (later MiG-31) and advanced Tupolev interceptors. NIIR had failed to solve the two problems of detecting small objects against ground clutter. Was rejected in favour of a less ambitious upgrade (Oryol-D58) for an interim fit with Smerch to follow. an infrared target acquisition and tracking system mated with the radar. Such a radar would enable a single interceptor to keep tabs on a vast sector of the aerospace and be to some extent used as a AWACS aircraft in support of the local air defence zone and other interceptors. but were not successful in tests. The far more realistic NIIP Zaslon project officially replaced the Smerch-100 in 1971. Phazotron NIIR. The Smerch-100 developer promised to provide the system with a 3. eventually entering service in 1983. Plans for the first stage of development provided for outfitting the interceptor with K-100 combined infrared/radar homing missiles featuring various warheads and an effective range of 80 km. Indeed even today it would be a tall order.0003. It was to be a combined radar/infrared fire control system. Its designers. made extravagant claims for its performance.

it was strictly a technology demonstrator. and then Sokol-2K variants were proposed for the successor Yak-27K. Sokol (2) See Zhuk Sopka Terrain following radar fitted to the Tu-160 and linked to the Obzor-K radar Soyuz OKB: NPO Istok An experimental radar of the late 1970s/early 1980s. and ground mapping capabilities. . Improved variants Sokol-M. However. one of which was tested in an airborne platform. Sokol-2. M. planar antenna. but the plane was never produced. NPO Istok designed and built 3 prototype radars with digital signal processing. Detection range for a bomber was 33-35 km. Some of the technology eventually ended up in the N010 Zhuk and N011 Bars radars. Kunyavsky Radar of the Yak-25M.Sokol (1) /RP-6 NATO: "Scan Three" OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Chief Designer: G. possibly based partly on stolen information on the APG-65. and the N001 and N019 production radars that eventually entered service were far less sophisticated.

SPS-171/172 fitted internally to Tu-22M3 . and it is available for export. First. searching for a ground-to-air threat. Each pod has phased-array antennas fore and aft. and techniques generator. For instance. The middle section of the Sorbtsiya houses the receivers. the wide space between each pod allows a better coverage of the environment around the aircraft and better signal localization. The electronic phased-array antenna permits detection over a wide frequency range and the direction of more than ten jamming beams against air-to-air and surface-to-air threats. an interface with the mission computer. emitters. Sources indicate that the People's Republic of China is perhaps the most likely candidate to receive the new pods. and a control panel in the cockpit. Among the jamming techniques employed by the system are noise jamming and terrain bouncing. In addition. The Sorbtsya system is already fitted to some Russian Su-27s. while the forward part of the left pod will perform the jamming. when entering a threat zone. The installation of the pods on the wingtips has many advantages explained Boris Akinshin. the forward part of the right pod will listen. Such a division of work can be achieved with the rear part of the pods as well.Sorbtsiya OKB: KNIRTI Sorbtsiya wingtip ECM pods SPS-171 / L005S /Sorbtsiya-S works in the H/I band and consists of two pods installed on the wingtips of the Su-27. deputy chief designer at KNIRTI. the design of the pod is such that it can listen to and jam a threat simultaneously.

Internal arrangement of the Sorbstiya .

They were also ineffective against multichannel or retunable radars. while SPS-2 created 250-300W interference in the 9. 42 had SPS-1 and 102 had SPS-2.SPS-1 / SPS-2 ECM systems fitted to the Tu-16SPS.5-12.5cm band.prepared operators needed about 2-3 minutes to carry out this task. work out its frequency. and then tune the jamming transmitter to the appropriate frequency. SPS-1 created 50-120W interference in 20-300cm band. SPS-4 See Klyukva SPS-5 See Fasol SPS-6 See Los SPS-22 See Buket SPS-33 See Buket SPS-44 See Buket . Even well. using the SRS-1BV and SRS-1D radio reconnaissance systems. They were manually operated. with a dedicated operator who had to determine the radar to be jammed. which could mean the enemy aircraft getting close enough to burn through the jamming.

SPS-55
See Buket

SPS-61
See Azaliya

SPS-62
See Azaliya

SPS-63
See Azaliya

SPS-64
See Azaliya

SPS-65
See Azaliya

SPS-66
See Azaliya

SPS-68
See Azaliya

SPS-77
Jammer for low level operation. Possibly part of the Buket suite

SPS-100
See Rezeda

SPS-120
See Kaktus

SPS-141
See Siren

SPS-142
See Siren

SPS-143
See Siren

SPS-151
See Lyutik

SPS-152
See Lyutik

SPS-153
See Lyutik

SPS-161
See Geran

SPS-162
See Geran

SPS-171
See Sorbtsiya

SPS-172
See Sorbtsiya

SRS-1BV / SRS-1D
ELINT system used with the SPS-1/2 jammers on Tu-16SPS

SRS-4 Romb (Izdeliyie 30)
ELINT system of MiG-25RB. SRS-4A, -4B and -4V subvariants. Rhomb-4 fitted to Il-20.

SRS-9 (Izdeliyie 31)
ELINT system of MiG-25RBV.

SRS-13
ELINT system

Styk MR-1
Synthetic aperture side looking radar used on Su-24MR giving a resolution of 5 to 7.5m, covering an area from 4 to 28km outwards from the aircraft centerline.

Taifun (1) / RP-26 NATO "Twin Scan" OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Chief designer: F F Volkov Taifun-M mounted on an in-service Su-15TM. the Taifun was derived from the Smerch-A radar of the MiG-25P but smaller with slightly inferior performance. . Search range. RP-26M Taifun-M definitive version. introduced after Belenko's defection which compromised the Smerch-A radar which Taifun was based on. Proved very troublesome. RP-26 Taifun initial version. Used in conjunction with the R-98 AAM. and were used to finish testing. Developed for the Su-15TM updated interceptor. in free space: 40-45km (bomber) 35-40km (fighter) Search range at low altitudes: 10-12km (bomber) 6-10km (fighter) Tracking range at low altitudes: 7-10km (bomber) 5-10km (fighter) Taifun-M2 final production version. leading to a new ogival radome. the experimental units constructed by the developer (NIIP) being rather poor. produced by Leninetz who built the series Smerch-A. in free space: 60-70 km (bomber) 45-55 km (fighter) Tracking range. The initial production sets. fitted to Su-15T. Initial conical radome produced undesirable interference. the Su-15 simply got an update. While the MiG-25 got a new radar. reducing range. proved rather better.

B. Taifun searched for US warships via their radar emissions. also intended for Yak-25. Slepouchkine. Ranges of 380-400km for target reconniasance mode and 350-380km for target designation mode were achieved. It did not prove especially useful in service. . however. Tangazh ELINT pod of Su-24MR.Taifun / VSP-K / L-067 Refitted to Tu-16K-10-26P in 1979-80 to replace the Ritsa system. Torii Experimental radar designed by A. Also fitted (internally?) to MiG-25RBT. Never entered service. used on I-320.

and against a MiG-23 to 25km. TP-23 could detect a Tu-16 at 30 km. on a pursuit course. Search range of TP-23M against a Tu-16 target was increased to 35-40km.TP-23 / Spektr TP-23 IRST Infra-red search and track system fitted to MiG-23M. TP-23 was also fitted to early Su24 models. Search limits on the MiG-23 installation were +3°/-12° in elevation and +30°/-30° in azimuth. TP-23-1 fitted to export MiG-23MF. MiG-23ML TP-23M modernised version developed for Soviet MiG-23ML. . and a MiG-23 at 20km.

Presumably based on the TP-26. Some pilots have suggested it has better performance than the MiG-29's KOLS. . behind a triangular glass fairing. or 60km non-afterburning (Piotr Butowski says 60km maximum). TP-26Sh1 Infra-red search and track system fitted to MiG-25PD. Range is said to be up to 85 km for a tail-on engagement with an afterburning bomber-sized target. Range given as 45km against a high altitude bomber (aspect unknown). IRST has 5 operating modes depending on the distance to the target. The sensor is mounted under the nose.TP-26 TP-26 IRST Infra-red radar search and track system fitted to MiG-23MLA/MLD.

RP-21 had 4 operating modes. . The TsD-30TP had jamming protection.TsD-30 / RP-21 / RP-9 NATO "Spin Scan" OKB-1 Chief Designer: A A Kolosov RP-21 inverse-cassegrain antenna TsD-30 / RP-21 / RP-9 The working principle of the RP-21 relies on a continuously transmitting antenna that is move mechanically in horizontal lines +/-30° from the centerline as well as vertically +/10° .'Search'. a rollstabilized antenna and a larger position display. equipped some MiG-21M export version (possibly WarPac) RP-21ML export version of RP-21M. equipped some MiG-21M export version (possibly non-WarPac nations) TsP-1 K-9 AAM-armed E-152A and E-152 aircraft were to be fitted with the K-9 system with TsP-1 radar. The antenna is gyrostabilized between +/-60° of bank and +/. Performance against a fighter is 13 km and 7 km respectively. which allowed use of K-5 AAMs. The maximum detection range is 20 km with a maximum of 10 km for locking on for a Tu-16 sized target. An additional feature of the TsD-30TP radar was the fixed-beam target illumination function. 'Taking Aim'. developed by the Design Bureau-1 (now the Almaz central design bureau) and featuring 30-km detection range. TsD-30T / RP-21 / RP-9U was fitted to early model MiG-21PF and Su-9.40° of pitch.'Pursuit'. 'Acquisition'. TsD-30TP / RP-21M / RP-9UK fitted to late model (aircraft c/n 76210703 onwards) MiG-21PF/PFM and late model Su-9. RP-21MA export version of RP-21M.

The undernose radome replaced the Rubidiy-MM radar bombsight of the basic Tu-95 and was used for a datalink system. and was able to select a target. This replaced the Initsiativa ("Mushroom") radar of the basic Ka-25PL. Track (20km) and Illumination. The radar imagery datalink antenna was positioned underneath the rear tail. On the ship or sub. Vishnia SIGINT equipment for listening to communications.Uragan OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Uragan was an intercept radar proposed for various interceptor project from the late 50s.Search (30km). 400km range. The Uspekh-1A system mounted in the Tu-95RTs put a large search radar in the bomb bay ("Big Bulge"). Worked in 3 modes. Uragan-5B was designed for the E-150 series. with K-9 missiles. Uspekh-2A s featured a large search radar ("Big Bulge") in the nose. Separate scan/track antennas. Range of the radar is claimed to be about 250km. Transmitter power was 4 times greater. Uragan-5B-80 designed for the Tu-28P with K-80 missiles. It was developed by the Kievbased Kvant Research Institute (who also designed many shipborne naval radars) in the early 1960s and accepted for service in 1966. and it had a large single antenna.it simply acted as a relay back to the ship. perhaps due to a smaller antenna and/or transmitter than the Tu-95RTs. Redesignated Smerch Uspekh NATO "Big Bulge" OKB: Kvant Research Institute Uspekh-1A is the radar of the Tu-95RTs. fitted to Il-20 . The Ka-25Ts could not designate targets on its own. The ship or sub could then steer the missile via a command link to the vicinity of the target where its onboard radar could take over. the operator saw the radar screen image transmitted from the Ka-25Ts. Uspekh-2A is the radar of the Ka-25Ts. Radar did not enter service. The maximum range of the radar is claimed to be 400km.

Viyuga (BA-58?)
ESM pod for detecting, identifying radars and handing target information to Kh27PS/Kh-25MP missiles.

Voskhod
A metric wavelength SLAR intended for the MiG-25R. Not produced.

YaD / A-336Z NATO "Crown Drum" ("Top Crown"?)
Radar of the Tu-95K-20.

YeN NATO "Puff Ball"
Radar of the Tu-16K-10. A massive set, frequency spacing allowed simultaneous launch of 18 missiles by a single group. It also could steer 60° either side in azimuth, which allowed the plane to turn off of a direct collision course, limited to 9-12° of bank by the stabilisation of the antenna. Range was 320km. Later versions increased range by changing the frequency and length of outgoing pulses. Range was increased to as much as 450km. Yen-R was a further tweaked model especially for the Tu-16RM-1 recce version. With a pulse power of 180kW, range was up to 480km, and it could detirmine the largest ship of a group.

Zaslon / S-800 / RP-31 / N007 NATO "Flash Dance"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP Designer: Alfred Fedotchenko

Zaslon antenna shown at MAKS airshow The N007 Zaslon was the first phased-array radar to enter service on a fighter aircraft. In 1968, Phazotron had been tasked with developing the radar for the future MiG-31. Engineers prepared two prototype units, dubbed Groza and Vikhr, both based on Sapfir-series technology. The final version was called Smerch-100, but the radar failed to meet requirements. As a result, in 1971 Phazotron was ordered to pass all the documentation to its consortium partner NIIP. The result was the Zaslon radar. The task was very difficult, since one of the main requirements was engaging cruise missiles, and the experienced Phazotron had failed to solve the problem of detecting small objects against ground clutter and tracking multiple targets simultaneously. Finally all the problems were solved, with lots of assistance from NPO Istok, who helped design the phased array, and Leninetz who were to build it, and the system finally reached service in December 1981. Zaslon is double the weight of the AWG-9, the largest US fighter radar. The NIIP team believed that the advantages a phased-array radar gave in terms of near-instantaneous scanning and multitarget engagement capability (a typical mechanically-scanned antenna can take 12-14 seconds to complete a scan) were worth the weight and cost penalties. First tests of the radar were conducted in 1973, and it was first flown on a test aircraft in 1976. On February 15, 1978, a mission in which ten targets were detected and tracked was performed for the first time. In 1981, MiG-31 aircraft carrying the Zaslon radar entered service with the Air Defense aviation, and became fully operational in 1983. The 1.1m diameter, 30cm deep, phased array antenna weighs 300kg, the whole radar weighing in at 1000kg. Zaslon uses an Argon-15A computer (first airborne digital computer designed in USSR). Zaslon operates in 9-9.5 GHz band. It detects and engages targets down to 25m, including cruise missiles. Maximum possible search range is 300km for a large airborne target. Range, headon, versus bomber: 180-200km search, 120-150km track Range, tailchase, versus bomber: 90km search, 70km track Range, headon, versus fighter : 120-130km search, 90km track

Zaslon can detect targets as small as 0.3 sq. m radar cross-section (RCS) to a maximum range of 65 km Radar scan limits are ±70 azimuth, +70/-60 elevation. Target track TWS mode, track 10 and engage 4. Average power transmitted is 2.5kW. MTBF is 55 hours.

Zaslon display showing 5 targets

Target entering engagement zone (?) Zaslon-A security of the Zaslon system was compromised by the US spy A. Tolkachev. This lead to development of an updated version, fitted to MiG-31B from 1990, retrofitted to some earlier models during rebuilding to MiG-31BS standard. It had a new data processor, giving extended capabilities, longer range and better ECM resistance. Zaslon-M 1.4m diameter antenna, 50% to 100% better performance than Zaslon. In April 1994 used with an R-37 to hit a target at 300km distance. Search range 400km

Zima Infra-red reconnaissance system of Su-24MR. Supposedly able to engage launched Pershing-2 missiles in flight with long-range R-37 active radarguided missiles. able to detect temperature differences of just 0. Zaslon-AM all MiG-31s remaining in service are supposed to have their radars upgraded to Zaslon-AM status by Leninets. Project ended as no new MiG-31s will be built.4 times aircraft height.versus a 19/20 sq m RCS target. . Scans an area of 3. Tracks 24 targets at once.3° C. engages 6. Downloads directly to ground via VPS-1 datalink or records to film in 7 shades of grey. according to a design put forward by NIIP that keeps the existing antenna while replacing the old Argon-15A processors with Baget series processors.

the Zhuk was intended to be the first truly multimode radar developed in the former Soviet Union. Two missiles could be launched against two separate targets at the same time. It used improved TS101 series processors and a slotted antenna. with a full range of air-air and air-ground modes enabling the host aircraft to perform a wide range of tasks. as might be expected from the crude and bulky electronics of the former Soviet Union at the time it was designed. preventing exploitation of the full capabilities of the extended range R-27 and R-77 missiles. Zhuk has 5 kW peak power and 1 kW average power. The Kopyo is based largely on Zhuk technology. and with varying levels of capability. The radar works in X band. tailored to installation on different aircraft. Depending on range. Phazotron have since developed a whole family of radars based on the Zhuk. The radar could cooperate with the new R-77 (AA-12) missiles with active radar seekers. Zhuk is a large radar for its performance class. Tested from 1987 on a special MiG-29 (9-16) testbed machine. Weight: 250kg Air to air modes: • • Velocity search RWS (Range-While-Search) mode o Lookup: 80-85km range o lookdown head-on: 80-85km range .Zhuk / N010 OKB: Phazotron NIIR Chief Designer: Yuri Guskov Zhuk (Phazotron website) The original Zhuk radar was designed by in the mid eighties for the MiG-29M. 680mm diameter antenna. repackaged for installation into light fighters such as the MiG-21. or even +90° of detection/track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation (+60/-40° maximum). as it did not significantly increase the air-to-air detection and tracking range. It is also thought that the prototype Zhuk did not have the air-to-surface modes fully implemented. Political changes in the early nineties meant that the MiG-29M was first postponed and then cancelled. an update of the MiG-29 intended to rectify the shortcomings of the original MiG-29. and two others shortly afterwards. the radar has +20. +60. and drawing on the NPO Istok Soyuz program. The Russian air force was not especially impressed with the original Zhuk radar.

the Kopyo radar was designed. Ground Moving Target Indication Ground ranging Ground speed measurement Beacon interrogation Terrain avoidance Employment of unguided munitions on receipt of radar information ('blind' bombing"). Following the breakup of the Soviet Union. engaging them with R-77 missiles out to 60km STT (Single Target Tracking) Raid assessment Close combat modes o Wide angle o Vertical scan o HUD view o Boresight o Slewable Recognition of target types and quality Detection and engagement of hovering helicopters Air to surface modes: • • • • • • • • • • • • Real beam mapping DBS (Doppler Beam Sharpening) mapping SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) ground mapping Multiple target tracking Map freeze and zoom Sea surface surveillance: Range 120-150km vs a large ship. the latter responsible for the N011 designed for the Su-27M. automatically selects the most dangerous 2 to 4 of them. The splitting of Phazotron and NIIP.• • • • • • o lookdown tailchase: 40-50km range TWS (Track-While-Scan) mode o tracks simultaneously 10 targets. Also. Zhuk-8II . resulted in rival studies for Zhuk derivatives to fit on advanced Sukhoi Su-27 variants. Phazotron developed a series of radars based on the Zhuk. based on Zhuk technology. specifically for the purpose of upgrading older aircraft such as the MiG-21.

Search range was predicted to be 165km and 140km against a 3 sq m RCS target in velocity search mode and range-while-search respectively. This radar may be in service in China.This version was designed to fit the Chinese F-8II interceptor. after the intended AN/APG-66 radars became unavailable due to US sanctions. Zhuk-PH was a more radical upgrading of the basic Zhuk design for Su-27 size aircraft. perhaps with greater transmitter power too. It added a new phased-array antenna. . Scan limits are slightly reduced. It certainly sports a larger antenna than the standard model. and weight increased to 275kg. The maximum field of view was reduced to +85° in azimuth and in elevation to +55/-40° . It has slightly downgraded capabilities: maximum range is 90 km against a bomber and 70 km against a fighter. Weight is 240kg. 24 targets could be tracked at once. Evolved into Sokol (Zhuk-MSF) radar. and 6 to 8 engaged simultaneously. to ±85° in azimuth. track two of them. without range information. Zhuk-27 Zhuk-27 (Phazotron website) Zhuk-27 represents a simple repackaging of the basic Zhuk design for the Su-27 airframe. with multimode capabilities. and also featured a high PRF velocity search mode for maximum detection range. tracking range to 90km. it can detect ten targets. The changes increase detection range of a fighter target to 130km. while scan limits were ±70° in azimuth and elevation. It turns the somewhat obsolescent F-8II into a more useful aircraft. The phased-array antenna took the weight to 275300kg. and fire a missile at a single target.

Zhuk-M Zhuk-M mounted on a MiG-29 Zhuk-M features a greater air and sea target detection range. TWS mode tracks 10-20 targets and engages 2-4. observation angles in azimuth close to 90° . 40km tail-on versus fighter target. 50km tail-on versus fighter target. 34. greater number of targets that can be detected and attacked. enhanced resolution against ground in synthetic aperture radar mode.5kW Power required: 12 kVA AC. use of the R-27ER1 and RVV-AE missiles. 1. air-to-surface capability.5 kVA DC MTBF: 200h Zhemchoug Zhemchoug (Phazotron website) . Phazotron achieved greater target detection range.5dB gain Peak power output: 6kW Average power output: 1. Weight: 220-250kg Volume: 400dm3 Antenna: 624mm diameter. Compared to the N019 radar installed on the majority of MiG-29s. as well as targeting of the Kh-31A and Kh35 missiles. Look-up range is 130km head-on. as well as an advanced "Baget" series computer. Look-down range is 120km head-on.

Detection range: 80 km.Zhemchoug was developed by Phazotron in cooperation with China for J-10 and FC-1 projects. Proposed for MiG-29 upgrades. Weight: 220kg Volume: 500dm3 Current status uncertain. its a version of the Zhuk-M with Chinese IFF and other changes. Range against a 3 sq m RCS target is 140km headon. with equal or better capabilities. Its planar array antenna helps keep down costs and weight compared to phased array designs. RP-35 RP-35 RP-35 was a Zhuk derivative with a phased-array radar. tracks and attacks them. 65km pursuit. Zhuk-MS . Substantially lighter than Zhuk at just 180kg. TWS of 24 targets was expected. selects the most dangerous 4 of them. sized for the MiG-35 project at approximately 800mm diameter. It detects simultaneously 20 targets. lock-on range 60 km.

60km in tailchase. or ±60° in azimuth and 2 or 4 bars in elevation. Zhuk-MS is currently tested on the Su-27KUB Zhuk-MSF / Sokol OKB: Phazotron NIIR . The antenna diameter is enlarged to 960 mm with 37dB gain.5 kW. In flight testing in 2004 a range of 200km (80km in tailchase) was demonstrated against an 'armed Su-27' type target (15 sq m RCS). Scanning limits are ±90° . +60/-40° in elevation. Scanning zone is ±20. and 50 km in tailchase. Peak power is increased to 6 kW and average power to 1. of detection/track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation (+60/-40° maximum). which implies actual figures for a standard 5 sq m RCS target would be 150km headon.Zhuk-MS Zhuk-MS is an Su-27 sized version of Zhuk-M. It introduced synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) modes (3 m resolution) and terrain-following modes in the air-to-ground role. The maximum range was quoted as 140 km headon. ±30. The radar can track 10 targets simultaneously and can engage 4 to 6 targets at once with R-77 missiles.

The production radar will have a 980mm antenna diameter (37dB gain) and weigh 275kg. lookdown mode : 170km head-on / 60km tail-on vs fighter target. Phazotron says. Phazotron says it will be capable of interleaving between air-to-air and air-to-ground modes. allows a fivefold radar cost reduction over a traditionally designed phased array radar.Zhuk-MSF non-equidistant phased antenna Zhuk-MSF is the most up to date radar design by Phazotron. Track-while-scan mode: 150km head-on vs fighter target. Power output is 8kW peak. automatically selecting and engaging the most dangerous 6 to 8 of them. Velocity search: 245km head-on vs fighter target. which. Range-while-search.the mode may have been removed) Range-while-search. lookup mode: 180-190km head-on / 80km tail-on vs fighter target.(This figure is no longer quoted. The radar tracks 24 targets. Against a large target such as a bomber or AWACS aircraft detection range comfortably exceeds 300km. It is designed for high reliability. and is frequency agile with LPI and anti ECM features. Sokol uses a nonequidistant rather than the traditional linear radar field distribution.3kW average. . 2 . Its electronic beam steering will give ±70° spatial coverage in both axes.

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