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Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
National Aerospace University “Kharkov Aviation Institute”
Named after N.E Zhukovsky “KhAI”

Chair No.101

Course Project:
Flight dynamics
Calculation of aerodynamic characteristics aircraft
AERI-0000-0000-FD

Student: Mittal Prakul
Group: 10E4-1
Checked by:Prof-Ovcharov

Kharkov 2010

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CONTENT
1. Introduction.

3

2. Technical data

4

3. Calculation of aircraft aerodynamic characteristics

7

4. DETERMINATION OF AVAILABLE THRUST

10

5. GRAPH OF Cy max AGAINST MACH NUMBER

11

6. Polar Graph

12

7. Graph of Thrust vs Mach Number

13

8. Maximum and Minimum Flight Speed with Altitude

15

9. Determination of service ceiling

16

10.Calculation of Power Altitude

19

11.Rate of Climb Of the Aircraft

20

12.Barograms of Climb

23

13.Take-Off Characteristics of the Airplane

25

14.Landing Characteristics of Airplane

27

15.Conclusion

28

such as solid mechanics. . Barogram of climb and longitudinal moment of the whole aircraft. Analyzing flight dynamics helps the designers to countercheck and perfect all their preliminary design work proceeding flight tests. a combination of three classical branches of science. Some of the calculated parameters include: Thrust: Available and required Static and ballistic ceiling. Rate of climb. The earlier project was dedicated to the calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of the designed aircraft and presentation of the general view of the aircraft with all of its parameters. on the whole. This project will present the flight dynamics of the aircraft which is the science of aircraft motion in airspace by the action of external forces applied to it.Page |3 Introduction: Flight dynamics is the science of the aircraft motion in airspace by the action of external forces applied to it. With these characteristics we can determine performance parameters of the aircraft and loads acting on its structure during flight in turbulent conditions or during manoeuvring. fluid and gas mechanics and mathematics. Flight dynamics is.

9) =15900kgs.67 kgs.43.0 (Cya max) .06 m . Take off mass 2. Mean Aerodynamic chord 8. Taper ratio 10.42 .S - .67)(0.67 kg . so mass of aircraft considered for flight dynamics calculation is given as: M= m0(o.9) =(17666. Wing span 5.06 m .806 . Aerodynamic Parameters for Take.850 km/hr .3.6 0.2.8 1.3.off and Landing mode: M=0 1. Aspect ratio 9. we assume the decrement in the take off mass as a result of fuel consumption during take off process. Wing root chord 6.19. Wing tip chord 7.6 m λ .Page |4 2 Technical data 1.η .4 0.18.3157 1.8 .2 0 Cya 0.6 m .1.17666. Gross Wing area 4.2. Fuselage diameter .3 m Mass characteristics Take off (preliminary) mass of aircraft m0 = 17666.2 0. Fuselage length 11.L . For flight dynamics calculations.8 m . Cruising speed 3.

We Take.35 ̅ ⁄ 12.04102 0.5 13.02354 0. a = 0.02999 0.10780 0.Page |5 0.0214 0.042 0 For Double Slotted Flap in Wing.05697 0.725 .15084 0 8.13 8.07848 Cxa 4 K 0. ̅ √̅ We have.742 11.337 14.627 14.52 constant k = 0.

Page |6 Take-off flap angle = Landing flap angle = ⁄ ( ⁄ √ ⁄ ( ) √ ⁄ ( ) ) ( ) ̅ .

9.5.8. K= Required thrust of the airplane Preq = .6.1.Page |7 = = ̅ = = Calculation of aircraft aerodynamic characteristics This includes determinetion of kinematics parameters of motion of mass center of an aircraft depending on external forces acting on it.8 m/s2 qH = v=(0.0.0.4.2) 330 m/s m = 0.m0 m0 = take-off mass Lift to drag ratio.2.0. Cya Calculation Cxa = C xo + AC ya2 Cya = g = 9.0.0.3.

17217 1.38184 10294.4 0.10235 0.3 0.225 0.3 0.5 0.02144 0.05124 0.05131 0.44007 23237.05105 1.21535 At H = 0 1.67864 12638.05154 0.28705 1.3 0.31346 0.2141072 15.6 0.020 0.25365 1.8 0.02036 0.01934 M A Cya max according to International Standard Atmosphere is 0.Page |8 Calculated data for as follows.2 0.3296 17173.533 39079.029 .68 0.07114 0.05166 0.05161 0.3291633 9.6 0.4 0.05144 0.13597799 12.103 0.095566 3.037 0.25383 0.8 0.01955 0.7 0.01978 0.07836 0.7 0.8 0.909 0.13931 0.7 0.02004 0.5 0.2 0.5 1.20061 0.7056049 5.31557 1.282 30579.55726 0.022 0.12410 1.365 M Cxo M Km 0.2 0.6 0.020 Cya Cxa K 12.073314884 6.02079 0.021 0.9873056 Preq 12757.4 0. Height 0 3 6 11 1.025 0.

4002721 3 11.56 6 Cxa K Pre q At H=6 M 0.10 9 20216.219586 7 0.39645954 6 0.007359 3 6.45723192 1 14.03066851 7 0.78489770 8 12.2829 9 10601.Page |9 At H=3 M 0.19552776 3 0.021150 8 0.19157585 0.8052343 0.021812 9 6.28988435 9 0.44 6 28160.168121 1 Cxa 0.02486265 5 0.09571548 3 0.2931 7 17299.023070 7 0.5 0.6594291 5 9.81177724 2 0.6308 8 13364.2 Cya 1.025433 5 0.4904323 2 15.05478404 0.020464 6 9.7 0.201308 6 0.75148 6 9.04479820 3 0.68993746 6 1.60 2 16371.3463 13259.022349 3 0.6 0.298881 9 0.4 0.1035 7 11103.7 0.707411 3 22965.19 1 22283.8 Cya 2.6983368 14.45294431 1 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.0336098 11.03145387 2 0.67248436 7 0.992636 2 5.8 0.1510 2 10380.7153 4 12475.517988 7 7.147900 2 0.113236 1 0.90 9 K Pre q .0114137 5 14.6 0.533270 4 16476.3 0.5 0.2014 5 10820.43038999 5 0.

40886468 7.64135320 6 0.72 0.7 0.8 Cya 5.6 0.88 0.349696 9 1.4 0.9 0.34245823 1 0.2 0.8 0.89522415 6 0.75 0. M) H=0 M ξ Pav 0.06364536 8 0.78 45750 43920 45262 47580 0.032519 6 0.89 0.027822 8 3.56871 8 45710.5 0.75 ξ = (H.26142209 2 11.742 0.3130684 2 14.6106 5 13773.4 .P a g e | 10 At H=11 M 0.621683 4 0.8 0.82287 4 14.041940 8 0.04529 3 12.48673376 6 1.39878774 3 0.13 4 11094.2 0.2419 8 21458.44 8 Cxa K Pre q DETERMINATION OF AVAILABLE THRUST Pav = Poξ Po = Maximum thrust available=61000 N = 0.12364353 3 0.0658178 2 14.4 0.94 54900 53680 54290 57950 H=3 M ξ Pav 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4541 7 11077.6 0.6 0.456747 0.11 12397.9217 7 10512.4 0.59515097 3 2.8 H=6 M 0.

7 0.4 Mach 0.58 0.9 .56 0.6 35380 34160 34892 36600 H = 11 M ξ Pav 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.37 0.393 23180 22570 23180 23973 GRAPH OF Cy max AGAINST MACH NUMBER 6 5 Cya.4 0.2 0.38 0.Cyamax 4 Cya0 Cya3 3 Cya6 Cya11 Cymax 2 1 0 0 0.8 0.1 0.P a g e | 11 ξ Pav 0.3 0.6 0.38 0.2 0.572 0.

2 0 0 0.2 1 0.12 0.08 Cxa 0.04 0.4 0.02 0.8 Cya H=0 H=3 H=6 0.P a g e | 12 Polar Graph Polar Graph 1.14 .06 0.6 H=11 0.4 1.1 0.

452 77.4304 247.82 0.823 0.944 6 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.37 11 0.295 260.05 Pavb 11 1 .839 0.2372 269.7 0.819 0.8 0.48 93.9 Maximum and Minimum Flight Speed with Altitude H M max M min V max (m/s) V min (m/s) 0 0.706 64.5 Mach 0.673 127.P a g e | 13 Graph of Thrust vs Mach Number 200000 180000 160000 Preq0 Thrust (N) 140000 Preq3 120000 100000 Preq6 80000 Preq1 1 60000 Pavb 0 40000 Pavb 3 20000 Pavb 6 0 0 0.3 0.997 3 0.191 278.

i. (point Tangency point A of a figure above) B in figure shows optimal speed.e.or ) √ Preq ( V ) corresponds to theoretical value of minimum speed of horizontal steady flight Vmin theor. ( A perm . .P a g e | 14 2G Vmin perm .  SC ya 2G SC ya opt .  Vmin opt . is the tangency point of vertical straight line and curve . Minimum speed Vmin perm. Vmin opt The tangency point C corresponds to the cruising speed of steady horizontal flight Vcruis . .

H V perm (m/s) V opti (m/s) V cruising (m/s) V contr (m/s) 72.45 129.P a g e | 15 Therefore from the graph of thrust and mach no.765 181.63 224.5 61 142.05 171. We get the values below.081 165 54 104.112 110.586 95.4 74 0 3 8 11 .012 145.2 40 87.

Pa11= available thrust . At M=0. = pressure at static ceiling. = active thrust. p11= Pressure at altitude = passive thrust We must note that the sum of active and passive thrusts give the required thrust.6.P a g e | 16 Speed of level flight with altitude 14 12 10 V cont 8 Vmin Vmax 6 Vopt Vmin. ( ) .per 4 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Determination of service ceiling pH = p11 √ qH = Where pH 11km=22700Pa.

02211 X = X 43.02242 X X 43.3 H=11 Km At M=0.5 ( ) Xao 11 = Cxao.802 = Xai 11 = Preq11 .98 Pa The nearest altitude corresponding to this pressure is H= 15.7 ( ) .P a g e | 17 Xao 11 = Cxao.2828 – = 4800.Xao 11 = 11092.Xao 11 = 10522.21244 N Now PH = 22700 √ PH = 14137. s = 0. s = 0.1223 N Now PH = 22700 √ PH = 11635.572 – 3902. qh.36 = 7190.39838 Pa The nearest altitude corresponding to this pressure is H= 13.9 Km At M=0.802 N Xai 11 = Preq11 . qh.

05 The nearest altitude corresponding to this pressure is H= 15.02158 X X 43. qh.762 N Now PH = 22700 √ PH = 13729.9 Pa The nearest altitude corresponding to this pressure is H= 14.793 N Xai 11 = Preq11 .793 = 7143.5 Km At M=0. s = 0.Xao 11 = 11101.02183 X X 43.8 ( ) Xao 11 = Cxao.P a g e | 18 Xao 11 = Cxao.55 – 3957.3 Km . s = 0.5 Km So my Static Celling is 15.802 = 3957.39 N Now PH = 22700 √ PH = 10002.802 = Xai 11 = Preq11 .13 – = 2787.Xao 11 = 12403. qh.

691 At H=13 V= 205 M= 0.95 Km At H=11.58 km H 11 11.632 = 14.661 At H=13.95 14.85 km = 11 + 3.5 V= 175 M= 0.14 km = 14.14 Km .5 V= 235 M= 0.5 V= 215 M= 0. we obtain power height =15.5 13 13.14 15.602 = 15.06 So.85 15.012 = 13.705 At H=12.5 PH 13.58 14.5 12 12.31 14.31 km At H=12 V= 225 M= 0.06km = 14.P a g e | 19 Calculation of Power Altitude: At H=11 V= 240 M= 0.602 = 15.

8 200 205 210 215 V 220 225 230 235 240 245 Rate of Climb Of the Aircraft Pi Vi Vyi  mg Pi=(Pav-Preq) Vyi.4 14.65 .531 36137.79 35.8 14.horizontal flight speed =M*330m/s H=0 M ∆ Po.2 15 PH 14.3 0.812 39.5 0.6 14.17 41036. N VYI m/s 0.44 31050.42 40.P a g e | 20 Determination of Power Altitude 15.vertical flight speed Vi.4 0.44 28.6 43986.2 14 13.

5 0.521 4.4 0.373 H=6 M 0.34 0.3 0. N VYI m/s 0.5 0.5 33091. N 1375.89 31.6 23768.77 26.4252 27959.782 27.5 0.52 19. N 22214.331 0.43 12657.5903 14.9814 .307 H=11 22.4 0.218 VYI m/s 13.523 21.3 0.868 22439.72 8.6 34464.61 VYI m/s 0.3 ∆ Po.P a g e | 21 H=3 M ∆ Po.6 11347.611 21627.523 M 0.56 8773.4 ∆ Po.539 35.942 29941.

5 Mach Nos 0.9 The maximum rate of climb Vymax is found from the graph of Dependence of Vyi on altitude H and their values are written in the table below: H 0 3 6 11 15.3 0.4 0.6 0.P a g e | 22 Dependence of Vyi on Altitude 45 40 35 30 Vy 25 20 15 Vy0 at H=0 Vy3 at H=3 10 5 0 0 0.45 0 .02 16.8 0.2 0.1 0.3 Vymax 41 37 28.7 0.

the practicle ceiling at zero rate is taken to be Vy*=4 m/s .21 km (from graph) Rate of Climb with Altitude 18 16 14 Height 12 10 H 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Vymax Barograms of Climb The minimum time of climb from altitude H1 up to altitude H2 shall be calculated ∫ .P a g e | 23 Since it is imposible for the aircraft to operate at zero Rate. This corresponds to Altitude 14.

P a g e | 24 In order to realize this. we shall need to draw a graph of against Mach number M.06 0.08 214.03 0.035689 0. and thereafter calculate the area under the graph for each rise of altitude. H t.04 1/Vymax 0. This area is equal to the time.027027 0.01 0.05 0.02 0. sec 0 3 6 11 0.0608 0 81.02439 0.134 668.8 Altitude Vs 1/Vymax 18 16 14 12 H 10 H 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.07 .

P a g e | 25 Altilude Vs Time 12 10 8 6 Barograms of Climb 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Take-Off Characteristics of the Airplane .

8* =3.10 Take-off Characteristics of the airplane Take-off distance shall be calculated as the sum of take-off run distance and climb distance Ldist = L t-off + Lclimb = V2t-off 2J xaw Vt-off = 1.44 m Time taken for take off T take-off = Vt-off J xaw =23.03 Pav=Pt/o= 54900 N v2av=0.1 x Vmin-theory = 1.125 m/s ( Horizontal Acceleration ∴ Jxaw = g * )+ Where.1 x 66. f= 0.5X V2t/o ( = 9.48 = 73.84 sec )+ .P a g e | 26 2.07 m/s2 L t-off = 871.

32 m L dist = 871.125=95.32 =1493.44 + 622.063 m/s So . flattening out and pan distance L* ) L* = Kav( ( ) L* = 13. holding off and landing run distance.21 m ) . * Lclimb = ( ) ( ) + = 622.82 m L l run = ( ) =346. The summation of the gliding.11 Landing Characteristics of Airplane Total Landing Distance shall be calculated as the sum of gliding.202m Calculation of time and length of landing run of the airplane L l run = Jav = 3.P a g e | 27 For the climb distance * L climb = + Vclimb=1.672( ( ) = 1499.3X73.76 m 2.3X Vt/o= 1.

are in good accord. A more precise value can only be obtained when a model of the airplane is subjected to wind tunnel tests.P a g e | 28 t run = = CONCLUSION We successfully completed the Flight Dynamics characteristics of our flight. we can use these obtained values to continue preliminary design of the airplane units . when compared with those of the prototype airplanes. However. The values obtained from these calculations.