. UNIDAD

XX

.

HOJADETRABAJO1. PRONUNCIACION

Subraye las '1' y 'n' silábicas que aparezcan en las siguientes palabras: middle obtain kitten cartoon padd le carton title needle contain sixteen certain mantle candle curtain whistle retain ton piston

127

,HOJA D~TRABAJO 2. 20.1.1. Guiándose por la oración de la izquierda, estructure otra con before para indicar acdón concluida en el pasado antes de otro pasado. Sustituya con pronombres cuando convenga. 1. I saw Mr. Lee's play last night. 2. Mark visited Louisiana. 3. We took Betsy to the park. 4. They were there at 7:00. 5. The boys played basketball. 6. I worked here in 1973. 7. Mary brought cookies. 8. We spoke to Mr. Brown. 9. The picture fell down. 10. John hU(ithis.left armo

20.1.2. Utilizando el verbo entre paréntesis, complete cada oración para indicar acción concluida antes de la acción pasada que se da en cada caso. 1. He by the time we came to the office. (fin ish). 2. By the time they reacted, the thief away. (get) 3. By the time she woke up, he breakfast. (prepare) 128

his milk by the time we 4. The baby. returned to the room. (drink) 5. Cinderella .the ballroom by the time the, dock struck twelve. (leave) evacuated by the time the 6. Everybody hurricane hit. (be) 7. By the time they found the broken piece, a lot of oil .(spill) 8. Somebody all the hngerprints by the time the pol,icecame. (erase) 9. By the time the teacher asked the last question, John
.

the complete test. (finish)
al! the'

10. By the time she returned, we letters. '(write).

20.1.3. Guiándose por la oración en que se indica' acción en progreso o hecho continuado, complete la otra oración para señalar que dicha acción se hab ía venido desarrollando por algún tiempo, es decir, para hacer énfasis en la duración. Sustituya los sujetos por pronombres. 1. He was answering the judge's questions. for half an' hour.

2. The house was burning. since one o'clock. 3. The water was contaminated. for a long time. 4. The wind was blowing hard.
all afternoon. 5. We were sewing when they came. since 8 a.m. 6. The first th ree h ouses were empty then. .for a long time. 7. Margaret was spending Christmas with us that year. since she was fifteen. 8. Mr. and Mrs. Brown were helping her when she became sick.,.since her daughter got married. 129

9. Louise was typing her report at five. since noon. 10. y ou.were waiting for' your grandfather. for half an hour.
11. The two men were playing chess. every day for two weeks. 12. He was hanging from a branch when they found him.
,

for two long hours. for two months.

13. He was traveling in Europe at the time.
.

14. Her .fever was going down.
15. The birds were singing.

gradually since midnight. since dawn.

130

HOJA DETRABAJO 3

20.2.1. Lo que se afirma para el sujeto de la primera oración niéguelo para el
sujeto dado en cada caso al terminar la primera oración.

1. Peter and Ann had arrived. Pat and I

2. I had kept the ticket. You
3. The boys had swum for two hours. Their fathers

4. The chicken had beenready on time. The pork
5. January had been cold that year. February 6. The car had been running smoothly. The bus 7. Alice had been playing the piano. Beth

8. Ted had beenlistening. I 9. The potatoeshad cooked. The beets
10. They had tried the new machi neoWe 11. Tom had brought his caro His brother. 12'. Mike had understood our point. You 13. We had been drinking water. !hey. 14. The store had opened. The bank 15. Mrs. Brown had been.dusting the furniture. Helen

131

20.1 Y 20.2.- Complete con la forma adecuada del verbo entre paréntesis, para indicar acción ocurrida antes de un-momento pasado. Use la negación donde convenga. ' America before Octo1. Columbus ber 1492. (discover). Tenochtitlan before 1522. 2. Cortés (conquer). 3. King Henry VIII the execution of Anne Boleyn before he married Jane Seymour. (order) the tele4. Alexander Graham BeU
'

phone by the time the ~irst World War began. (invent) 5. Aldrin on the Moon by the time,

we saw him on our tel'evision"screens. (stepY

,

6. According to the story, Cinderella . with the Prince before the clock struck twelve. (dance) -énfasis en la duración-o 7. Socrates a book on his teachings before he died. (write) Vice Presi8. Mr. John F. Kennedy, dent of the United States before he became President. '(be) 9. Mr. Venustiano Carranza Governo(of Coahuila before Mr. Benito Juárez died. (be) 10. Texas independence before the United States troops invaded Mexico. (qeclare). 20~1 Y 20.2.1 Guiándose por los dibujos y util izando el verbo dado entre paréntesis, complete, cada oración en forma afirmativa o negativa, según corresponda, para indicat:acción ocurrida antes de un momento pasado.

';'. (Bring).

Mary hercaro David his caro 132

2. (Blow) -énfasis en la duraciónThe wind hard during the night.

3. (Leave) The train when Peter arrived.

4. (Sleep) -énfasis en la duraciónAccording to the story, the'beautiful
,

princess . . r for one hundred years before the
prince carne.

5. (See)
Mr. Br.own the dentist by five.

6. (Come) One studenL , to elass when the teacher explained the phonetic system of En'glish.

1~ .--L

~~

.

.Jii,¡Jf-a

133

7. (Snow)(Fall)
'1

It during the night. That branchbefore it snowed.

8. (Get up) Johnby six this morning. His wife by six this morning.

9. (Eat) Debbie. her lunch before Mrs. Johnson came in. Johnny his lunch before Mrs. Johnson came in.

10." (Finish) Mr. Simpson his work and was going home.

134

HOJADETRABAJO 4

20.3.1. Complete las respuestas breves. Observe que a partir de la pregunta 6 se han mezclado las estructuras. Use contracciones.

1. Had the 91ass broken? Ves, 2. Had they forgotten.our request? No, 3. Hadyou ceen here before? No, 4. Had Maryfinishedall the letters? Ves, 5. Had the papers become wet? No,6. Has Alice intérpreted that correctly? Ves, 7. Werethey married in 1974?

No,

.

8.. Had the hurricane hit your town? Ves, 9. Have you hurt your right leg? No, 10. Can Sylvia bring the records? ,Ves, 11.. Could you prepare the lecture? Ves, 12. Are there many mistakes in my paper? No,. 13. Had I seen you before? No, 14. Had the fruit spoiled? No, 15. Oid you have all the answers? Ves, 16. Will I become tired on that trip? . No, . 135

17. Was the house for rent? No, 18. Had they signed the lease? Ves, 19. Are you {plural}going to be here at fiv,e? No,. 20. Do Mary and John consider it good? Ves, 20.3.2. Guiándose por la oración negativa, complete la pregunta. l)se pro-. nombres. 1. They had not dined at horne. restaurant? 2. I had not understood Mrs. Lee. Mrs. Kent? 3.. Betty had not come by nine. ten? 4. He had forgotten his wallet.pen? 5. The ambassador had not given his big reception'. several small ones? 6. His company had not sold us those cardboard boxes. these wooden ones? 7. The boys had not run two miles. in a

by his

>.'

one mile?
.

.

8. They had not built any houses in the vicinity.

far from there?

9. Mrs. Kent had dropped half the no¡tebooks. some pens and penci Is also? 10. They had.not washed the towels. the sheets?

20.3-a. Complete la pregunta utilizando el verbo entre paréntesis en su forma adecuaday dé la respuestabrevecorrespondiente.
1.
.

Columbus
{visit}

the American Con-

tinent before he dieq?

136

2.
3.

4.

5.
6.
-

7.
, 8.

9.

10.

Texas, independent trom Mexico in 1850? (become) ,;;r~ for Ulysses until he Penelope returned? (wait -énfasis en la duración-) trom Europe to the Pilgrims America on the Mayflower betore 1500? (sai1) the submarine betore Jules V~rneit was invented? (imagine) on the Moon before the Russians. the Americans did? (step) Pandora.the gods' com mand not to open the box? (obey) Queen Eliz,abeth I of England before she died? (marry) Moscow before he was Napoleon défeated? (conquer)in America .the Vikings probably before Columbus did? (arrive) Pregunte si cada, una de las acdones o situaciones indicadas a continuación ha concluido antes del hecho mencionado entre paréntesis. Complete las respuestas breves.

/

20.3-b.

1. Mrs. Smith cleaned the house. (the visitors came) Ves, 2. He understood the concept. (the teacher gave more examples) No, 3.' I was sleeping soundly. (the explosion occÚrred) Ves, 4. You met him. (you met me) . Ves, 5. Al! the people left the building. (the roof collapsed) Ves, 6. You saw Bertha. (she went to Rome) No, 7. He bought a house. (he married Helen) No,
,

,

137

¡8. They finished the bridge. (the rains carne)
-Ves,

9. ~otved the problem. (the'bell rang) No, 10. John arrived. (the concert began) No,
"

11. The flowers opened completely. (she cut them) No, 12. T0m",repaired the chair. (he painted it) Ves, 13. They were experimenti~g. (they discovered the new product) No, 14.. The man jumped into the river. (the police appeared) No, 15. We sold them OUfi aro (the prices went up) c Ves, 16. You (plural) finished the letters. (you left tlle officel No,
"

138

HOJADETRABAJO5

. 20.4.-

Guiándose por los dibujos, y utilizando el sujeto y el verbo entre paréntesis, complete la pregunta y respóndala indicando acción concluida antes de'un tiempo pasado. Haga énfasis en la duración cuando así se le indique.

1. (Mary and Ann) (make') -énfasis en la duraciónWhat that afternoon?

2. (they) (play)-énfasis en la duraciónWhere

?

3. (the semester) (end) When

?

4.

(the trees) (come) How from Canada? by truck. 139

.5. (the baby) (crawl) How far

?

the dining room table.

6. (Mrs.Lee) (knit) What
'-?

7. (the cats) (awake) Whom
?

8. (decorate) Who. the Christmas tree?

9. (they) (study) -énfasis en la duraciónHow long ? all night. 140

10. (ring) -énfasis Émla duración.. .What

?

. 20.4.1. Guiándose por la información dada en cada caso, estructure las preguntas sugeridaspor los distintos pronombres interrogativos. Markhad checked the recordsbefore noon. 1. Who2. What 3. When
They had been classifying the new books in the library.

4. What
5. Whichbooks 6. Where

'

7. 8. 9. 10.

We had closed the two doors carefully that night. Who What HowWhen

, Twenty men had travelled as far as. Kansas City,the first day. 1,.. How many men

12. .Howfar.
13. When

'

I had given Mary two pounds of sugar.

14. Whom 15. Howmanypounds of sugar
'

Mrs. Brown had asked for a refund two months before. 16. Who 141

17. What 18. When

They had been makingsandwichesfor five hours.
19. What 20. For how long We had given Ann two boxes of candy for the party. Whom WhatHow much cándy For what
,

21. 22. 23. 24.

The Smiths had arrived since two o'clock.
Since when

25.

25.4.2. Guiándose por la respuesta, complete la pregunta indicando acción terminada antes de un pasado o de otra acción pasada: En los casos en que así se pi¡~e,haga énfasis en la duración. Los verbos y. los . sujetos que debe utilizar aparecen entre paréntesis.
1. the radio? (fix) (he) Rapidly. 2. the record? (establ ish) A boy from Nigeria.
, 3.

the packages? (leave) (you) On the kitchen table.

4. him?. (bother) -én,fasis en la duración Tom's reply.
5.

. mone'y. the first time? (pay) (the Clark~) Twenty thousand dollars. '142

-6.
you that? (tell) (1) Last Christmas.

7. (promote) (the management) Mr. Kent's secretary. 8. prize The second prize
(win) (she)

?

9.
color: niture? (paint) (they) White. 10.
you of? (inform) (the doctor) The results of the exam. their garden fur-

143

HOJADETRABAJO6

20. Voc\ A. 1. Vuelva a escribir cada frase sustituyendo el verbo dado por la forma del verbo get que corresponda para conservar el mismo significado. 1. He received a beautiful prize.

2. Whoobtained the contract? 3. Helen is receivinga discount. 4. Can you obtain a ticket for me?
5. Ann's going to obtain the results. 6. I h~ve obtained my B.A. degree. (B.A. = bachellor of arts)

7. We're receiving a lot of noise on our ra,dio.

8. Did he obtain the flowersfor Mrs. Lee? 9. They're receivingno help from uso
10. Should we obtain a license?

11. I haveto obtain insurancefor my caro
12. When will your children receive the smallpox vaccine? 13. 1'11 obtain copies of the photos. 14. Had the officer received the doctJments? 15. How will th'ey obtain the gasoline? 144

HOJA DETRABAJO 1

20. Voc.A-B.l. Complete con la forma adecuada de get según el verbo que
aparece entre parénte$is y según el contexto. Use contraéciones.
.

1. Mrs. Lee an emerald necklace. (possess) 2. I a gift in that store yesterday for being the thousandth customer. (receive) time now to see the . 3. We are sorry. We samples. (possess -negative) a recorder? (possess) 4. Who permission. (ob5. . The children should tain) a lot of kisses frol'P 6. Grandfather willDottie for that beautiful presento (receive) . we 7. How many records
. .

? (possess)

8. They
(possess -negative)

permission to use those rooms.
that delicious bread?

9. Where can I
.

(obtain) 10. Peter excellent qualifications. We should offer him the position. (possess) a wonderfu I offer from that 11. My fr,iend. company last week. (receive) 12. What alternative you ? (possess) a letter from Peter soon. (re13. Martha ceive) good bargains. (obtain) 14. She fre<:tue~tly 15. Wea cent to our name. (possess I -negative)

145

HOJADETRABAJO8.

20. Voc. C.1. Vuelva a escribir cada frase utilizando la forma que correspondadel verboget.
1. The people are becoming tired of their lies. 2. Whose costume was chosen for the fi rst prize? 3. When did they become engaged?

4. Don't becomeangry. 1'mkidding.
5. 1'm sure he'l! become interested.

6. How could he becomelost?
7. She became upset when we told her the news. 8. We became registered yesterday.

9. Ted will be promoted soon. 10. That dough is becomingsticky.
11. It usually becomes cold in the evening.

12. PresidentKennedywasburied in Arlington.
13. The weather suddenly became hot.

14. Fortunately, the land didn't becomedry.
15. No, that milk is not becoming sour.

146

HOJADETRABAJO9

20.' Voto D.1. Complete cada frase con la forma que corresponda del verbo get y del verbo que se da entre paréntesis, para que signifique succeed d begin según se indique.

1. Let's
(begin)

, we have a lot to do. (WORK) the river? (CROSS)
(succeed in)

,2. Will they finally. 3. Fortunately. (STOP) 4. They
.

the fire before it spread.
(succeeded in)

immeQiately. (MOVE)
(begin)

5. Who
(succeeded 'in)

the hidcfentreasure? (FIND) .the meal on time. (COOK)
(begin)

,6. Alice didn't
7. ,1 11 ' (begin)

without delay. (WAlK)
1,

8. Nobody
(succeed in)

the problem. (SOLVE) the trick? (DISCOVER)
(succeed in)

9. ,Will they 10. How can I (COMPLETE) 11. She won't
12. . The children (C LAP)

the work on time?
(succeed in)

the dishes right away. (DO)
(begin)

:their:, ands immediately. h
(began)

13. Mrs. Smith
(succeeded in)

the ugly stains. (REMOVE) lhe steps that minute. '(CLIMB)
(began)

14. They 15. We couldn't next day. (lOOK)

,for our stolen car until the
(begin)

147

HOJADETRABAJO10

19. Voc.A. y 20 Voc. A-D.1. Vuelva a escribir cada frase utilizando la forma de get que corresponda para que el significado no se altere.
,

1. Please come here at one. 2. How could ,they escape? 3. We were enrolled in a chemistry course.

4. You begantyping the report at three.
5. He hasn't recovered from his cold. 6. I didn't succeed in greeting the president. 7. How did you return? 8. Mrs. Smith is obeyed easily. 9. Who received the medal?
/

'10. She possesses a wonderful personality. 11. We won't finish by ten.

\

12. I'm always congenial with my classmates. 13. Myriam was bruised in the accidente 14. When will Alice arrive in New York? 15. Her brother is advancing rapidly to a top position. 1'6. They'll gather in my house at six. 148

17. A.twhat time did you rise today?

18. Howcan we communicate with her?
19. How many pairs of eyeglasses do you possess? 20. Please don't obstruct her way to success.

149

HOJADETRABAJO11 20. Trad. 1.TRADUZCA

1. They got off the busat the corner.,
2. He had prepared us for the surprise¡

3. It's far from hereto her house.
4. Pleasemake an effort.

5. It's necessary go. to
6. He had been making terrible mistakes.

7. Man has always survived catastrophes.

8. Everybody hasto write his own reporto
9. She came in completely dressed in black.. 10. Self-confidence is an essential element for success.

LECTURA DE COMPRENSION Lea cuid~dosamente el siguiente escrito y conteste las preguntas "que se le hacen a continuación. MARIE CURIE, A BRILLIANT SCIENTIST

Once a person becomes successful, many think his success was easy, because it often looks that way; but success always demands a lot of effort and sacrifice. Manya Sklodowska Curie (Marie Curie) was certainly successfui:' the first woman professor tQ teach at La Sorbonne; the discoverer, with her husband, of polonium and radium; the only person who has received the Nobel Prize two times. But success did not com~ easily to her, on the contrary, she had to e¡;1duremany hardships on her road to attain it. 150

Manya Sklodowska was, born on November 7, 1867 ih Warsaw, then under the domination of Russia. Her father, a teacher of mathematics and physics,' introduced ner to- the study of sciences,' anq ~o the work of a laboratory. Her talent and love for learning wdn for her a gold médal on her .graduation from the Lycée at sixteen. Unfortunately, because her father had lost his investments, she had to work as a teacher and could not continue with her stuqies then. However, she was intent on becoming' a scientist, and she finally could rrianage to 90 to Paris to study at the Sorbonne, which she began to do after.some initial difficulty. When she arrived in ,Paris she went to live in the modest house of her sister Bronia. But she didn't want to inconvenience Bronia and her husband so she rented a small, very modest room on a fifth floor. She started to work on a laboratory, but the pay was small, and she had little money for food. Therefore, she had to survive on bread, butter and tea, even though her working hours and the hours she spent studying were long and tiring. She often felt faint when climbing the stairs to her fifth floor room, and once she completely fainted in the laboratory Fortunately, her sacrifices were not in vain. She received her license of physical sciences in 1893, for which she got first place; and ayear later her Iicense of mathematical science, fo( wh¡'ch she

got second place.

.

Not too long after that, she met Pierre Curie, a tall and seriousprofessor of physics, who had her same enthusiasm for science and her same interest in research. They fell in lovealmost immediately,and a'few months later got married. They not only formed a love partnership, but a working
partnership, a~d Marie started to work in his laboratory.
'

They became .interested in Roentgen's X Rays and decided to experiment on the subject. This was the moment of Antoine Henri Becquerel's discovery that the salts of uranium emitted rays similar to X rays, and that gasses submitted to those rays caused the discharge of electrically charged bodies. Marie, who was looki,ng tor a subject fo~ her doctoral thesis decided

,

to investigateif other matter.had the sama property uranium had for producing radioactivity, as she later named it. She found, at the same time that G.C. Schmidt did, that thorium minerals could produce this radioactivity. This was only the first step. Pierre joined in her research and the institute where he worked let them use a damp storage room to build their laboratory. There they painstakingly gathered th.e equipment they needed for their experiments, which demanded a lot of time, specially because they continuously had to protect their equipment from the prevailing humidity. Marie could work fuI! time on their

'

151

experiments, except when she was taking care of their little daughter Irene, born in 1897. Pierre could only join his wife in the research in the evenings and during holidays, until he finally decided to quit his job and work full time on the experiments also. At this time they had started experimenting with pitchblende, which they knew had an activity superior to that of pure uranium. They' moved to a shed with no floor and leaks in the roof, very cold in the winter and terribly hot in the summer. There they worked with big amounts of pitchblende, which fortunalely they could obtain as left,overs from glass factories until finally one day of July 1898 they found polonium, named thus by Marie in honor of her native Poland; and a few months later, in December of the same year, they came to their great discovery, radium, two and a half millions as hot as coal and extremelv valuable, which brought to them the Nobel Prize, shared with A.H. Becquerel, in 1902.
.

They did not patent their discovery, they gave it to the world freely, and also gave away, to a hospital, the bit of radium they got in the experiment. Pierre continued studying the physical characteristics of the new' radiations; Marie, with one of her husband's students, chemist A. Deb.iérne, and sometimes with her husband himself, continued trying to obtain pure radium in its metallic state, which she achieved..Her research on radium and radiations was the basis for her obtaining her doctorate in science in June 1903. Together with her husband she received, in 1903, the Davy Medal of the Royal Society. Then their second daughter, Eve, was born, and she had to slow her activity for a short while, but soon resumedher hard work. Two more years passed thus, until one day. the beautiful partnership was severed as Pierre Curie died in a traffic accident, and she had to continue alone with

their work. She succeeded her husband in his professorshipat La Sorbonne, .
becoming the first woman to ever teach there. Later on she published her fundamental treatise on radioactivity: Traité de Radioactivité and a number of papers. She alsd lectured in Europe and America. In 1911, she again received the Nobel Prize. This time for the isolation of pure radium from its chloride, but she did not stop there, she went on to prepare it, and also determined its atomic weight and other physical properties. In addition, she concentrated on the éhemistry of radi,oactive substances and their medical application and for this she was made a member of the Academy of Medicine. During World War I she had' organized radiological services for hospitals and promoted the use of X radiographies. By 1918, the Radium Institute built for her in Paris, had become a universal center for nl)clear physics and chemistry, and Marie Curie, its direc152

tor, was a member of the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation of the Counci.1of the League of Nations. She had the genius to foresee the need for accumulating intense radioactive sources both for therapeutic purposes, and for research in nuclear physics, and her efforts provided the adequate instrument for this type of research until the particle accelerator appeared in 1930. The 1.5 gramsof radium she could gather there, with. their accumulation of Radium O and Polonium were an invaluable contribution and prepared .the way to Sir James Chadwick's discov~ry of the neutron, and oi Irene's and Frédéric Jol iet's discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1934. Irene Joliet, was Marie Curie's daughter, who had followed in the steps of her scientist mother; while her sister,Eve, had become an accomplished

pianist and a writer.

.

Marie Curie died in Saint Cellemote, near Sallanches, Haute Savoie, on July 4, 1934. She paid thus a high tribute for success, as hér death was caused by leukemia produced by radiation. Questions: 1. Where and when was Marie Curie (Manya Sklodowska) born?

2. Whatwas her fath~r's occupation? 3. At what age did she graduate from the Lycée?
4. Where did she go to study when she left Warsaw? 5. How much money did she have for food? 6. On what food did she have to survive? 7. What license did she receive in 1893? 8. When did she receive her Iicense.of mathematical science?
.
'

9. Whom did she marry? 10. What did Marie decide to investigate for her doctoral thesis? 11. What did they have to do with their equipment all the time while using the old storage room?

163

12. What did Pierre Curie decide to do ~o help his wife more? 13: What mineral did Marie name in honor of her native land?
14. When did they find radium? 15. With"whom did they.share the Nobel Prize in 1902? 16. What was"the basis for Marie to obtain her doctórate?

17. Why did shehaveto continue alonewith her work?
18. What was the name of her fundamental treatise on radioactivity? 19. What had she organized during World War I? 20. Hbw many grams of radium could she gather at the Radium Institute?

21. What was the relationship between Irene Jonet and Marie Curie? 22. What caused Marie Curie's death?

,.

154

HOJAS DE RESPUESTAS

HOJA DE TR-ABAJO 1 PR0NUNCIACION

midd/e obtain kitten

tit/e need/e contain'

candle curtain' whist/e

cartoon padd/e carton

sixteen certain mant/e

retain ton piston

HOJA DE TRABAJO 2

20.1.1. 1. I saw Mr. Lee's play last night. 1.had seen it before. 2. Mark visited Louisiana. He had visited it before. . 3. We took Betsy to the park. We had taken her to the Rark before. 4. They were there at 7:00 Thev had been there before. 5. . The boys played basketball. They had olay.ed it before. 6. I worked here in 1973. Ihad worked here before. 7. Mary brought cookies. She had brought cookies.before. 8. Wespoke to Mr. Brown.' We had sRoklln to him before. 9. The picture fel! down. ' It had fallen down before. 10. John hurt his left armo He had hurt it before.
.

.20.1.2. 1. He had finished by the time we came to the office. (finish) 155

2. By the time they reacted, the thief had gotten áway. (get) 3. By the time she woke up, he had I2rel2aredbreakfast. (prepare)

4. The baby had drunk his milk by the time we returned to the room.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. . 10. (drink) Cinderella had left the ballroom by the time the dock struck twelve. (leave) Everybody had been evacuated by the time the hurricane hit. (be) By the time they found the broken piece, a lot of oil had spilled. (spill) Somebody had eras8d al! the fingerprints by the time the police came. (erase) By the- ti.me the teacher asked the last question, John had finished the complete test. (finish) By the time she returned, we had written al! the letters. (write)
'.

.

20.1 .3. 1. He was answering the judge's questions. He had been answering the iJl!!ge'sCluestionsfor half an hour. 2. The house was burning. It had been burning since one o'dock. 3. The water was contaminated. It had been contaminated for a long time. 4. The wind was blowing hard. It had been blowing hard all afternoon. 5. We were sewing when they came. We had been sewing since 8 a.m. 6. The first three houses we~e empty then.' They had been empty for a . long time. .7. Margaret was spending Christmas with us that year. She hadobeen
. .

S/1ending Christmas~ith us since she was fifteen. 8. Mr. and Mrs. Brown were helping her when she becamesick. .Theyhad
.

been hell2ing her since her daughter got maTried. . 9. Loui~e was typing her repart at five. She had been tYl2ing her re,,-ort since noon. 10. You were waiting for your grandfather. You had beenwaiting for your grandfather for halfan hour.. 11. The two men were playing chess. They had been I2laying chess every day for two weeks. 12. He was hanging from a -braneh when. they found him. He had been hangi!lg from a branch for two long hours. 13. He was traveling in Europe at the time. He had been traveling in Europe for two months. 156

Her fever was diminishing. It had been going down gradually since midnight. 15. The birds were singing. They had been singing since dawn.

14.

HOJA DE TRABAJO 3 20.2.1.
1. Peter and Ann had arrived. Pat and I had not arrived. 2. I had kept the ticket. Y ou had not ke~t the ticket. 3. T-he boys had swum for two hours. Their fathers had not hours.
. time..

swum for two

4. The chicken had been ready on time. The pork ha~ not been ready on 5. January had been cold that year. February had not been cold that year. 6. The car had been running smoothly. The bus had not been running smoothly. 7. Alice had been playing the piano. Beth had not been pgyjng the piano. 8. Ted had beenlistening. I had not been listening. . 9. The potatoes had cooked. The beets had not cooked. 10. They had tried the new machine. We had not triedthe new machine. 11. Tom h~d brought his car. His brother had not brought his caro 12. Mike had understood our point. You had not understood our ~oint. 13. We had been drinking wáter. They had not been drinking water. 14. The store had opened. The bank had not ol!.ened. 15. Mrs. Brown had been dusting the furniture, Helen had not been dusting the furniture~

-

20.1 Y 20.2.-

.

1. Columbus had not discovered America before October 1492. (discover) 2. Cortés had conquered Tenochtitlan before 1522. (conqu~r) 3. King Henry VIII had ordered the execution of Ann.e Boleyn before he marri~d Jane Seyrnour. (order) 4. Alexander Graharn Bell had invented the telephone by the ti,me the First World War began. (ihvent)
¡

5. A'drin had step~ed on the Moon b.y the time we .saw him on our
television screens. (step) 157

, 6. According to the story, Cinderella had been dancing with the PFince before the clock struck twelve. (dance) -énfasis en la duración-o 7. Socrates had not written a book on his teachings before he died. (write) 8. Mr. John F. Kennedy had notbeen Vice,President of the United States before he became President. (be) 9. Mr. Venustiano Carranza had not been Governor of Coahuila before Mr~ Benito Juárez died. (be) 10. Texas had declared its independence before the' United States troops invaded Mexico. (declare). 20.1 y,20.2.1 1.. (BRING) Mary had brought her car. David had not brought his caro 2. (BLOW). -énfasis en la duraciónThe, wind had been blowing hard durin.g the n ight. 3. (LEAVE) The tra¡n had left when Peter arrived. 4. (SLEEP) -énfasis en la duraciónAccording to the story, the beautiful princess had been slee/!/nll for one hundred years before the prince carne., 5. (SEE) MissJohnson had seen the dentist by five. Mr. Brown had not seen the dentist by five. 6. (COME) . One student, had not come to class when the teacher explai.led the phonetic system of English.' 7. (SNOW) (FALL) It had snowed. during the night. That branch had not fallen before it snowed. 8. (GET UP) John had got(ten) u/? by six this morning. His wife had not got(ten) up by six this morning. 9. (EAT) Debbie hadeaten her lunch before Mrs. Johnson came in. Johnny had not eaten his lunch before Mrs. Johnson came in.- . 158

10. (FINISH) Mr.Simpsonhad finish!ff1 Hiswork and wasgoinghome.
HOJA DE TRABAJO 4

20.3.1.
1. Had the glassbroken?
Ves, it hado 2. Had they forgotten our request? No, the'!.hadn't. , 3. Had you been here before? No, I hadn't. 4. Had Mary finished all the letters? Ves, she hado 5. Had the papers become wet? No, they hadn't. 6. Has Alice interpreted that c'orrectly?
Ves, she has.

7. Werethey married in 1974?
No, thev.. weren't.

8. Had the hurricane hit your town? Ves, it had 9. Have you hurt your right leg? No, I haven't. 10. Can Sylvia bring the record~?

Ves,she can.

'

11. Could you prepare the lecture? Ves, I could. ,12. Are there many mistakes in my paper? No, there aren't. 13. Had I seen you before? No, y-ouhadn't. 14. Ha<;ihe' fruit spoiled? t No, it hadn't. 15. Did you have all the answers? Ves, I did. 16. Willl become tired on th9t trip? No, vpu won't. '
159

17. Was the house for rent? No, it wasn't. 18. Had they signed the I~ase? Ves, they hado 19. Are you (plural) going to be here at five?

No, we aren't. 20. Do Maryand John consider it good? Ves,thev.do.

.

20.3.2. 1. They had not dined at home. Had the'!.dined in a restaurant? 2. I had not understood Mrs. Lee. Had vpu understood Mrs. Kent? 3. Betty had not come by nine. Had she come by ten? 4. He had forgotten his wallet. Had he forgotten his pen? 6. The ambassador had not given his big reception. Had he given several small ones? 6. His company had not sold us those cardboard boxes. Had it sold you these wooden ones? 7. The boys had not run two miles. Had they run one mile? 8. They had not built any houses in the vicinity. Had they built any

houses far from there?

.

9. Mrs. Kent had dropped half the notebooks. Had she drop/led some pens and pencils also? 10. They had not washed the towels. Had ther. washed the sheets?

20.3.-a . 1. Had Columbus visited the American Continent before he died? {visit) No, he hadn't. 2. Had Texasbecome independent from Mexicoin 18607 (become)
.

Yes, it hado 3. Had Penelope been waiting for Ulysses until he returned7 (wait -énfa- sis en la duración-) Yes, she hado 4. Had the Pilgrims sailed from Europe to America on the Mayflower before 15007 (sail) No, they hadn't. 160

5. Had Jules Verne imagined the submarine before it was invented? (imagine)
Yes, he hado

6. Had the Russians ste/JRed on the Moon before the American did? (step) No, they hadn't. 7. Had Pandora obev.ed the gods' command not to open the box? (obey) No, she hadn't. 8. Had Queen Elizabeth I ofEngland married before she died? (marry)

, No, she hadn't.

'

9. Had Napoleon conquered Moscow before he was defeated? (conquer) - Yes, he hado 10. Had the Vikings probably atrived in America before Columbus did? (arrive) Yes, they pfobably hado
20.3.-b ,

1. Mrs. Smith cleaned the house. (the visitors came) Had Mrs. Smith cleaned [he house before the visitors came? Ves, she hado
,

.

2. He understood the concepto (the teacher gave more examples) Had he
understood the conceRt before the teacher gave more examples? No, he hadn't. 3. . I was sleeping soundly. (the explosion occurred) Had vou beeil sleep}ng
\

sound/v.. efore the ex~losion occurred? b
Ves, I hado

'

4. You met him. (you met me) Had~ou methim before ~ou met me? Yes, I hado 5. AII'the people left the building. (the roof collapsed)Hadall the peoRle
left the buiíding before the roof collaRsed? y es, 'the~ hado

- -

.

6. You saw Bertha. (she went to Rome) Had you'seen Bertha beforeshe went to Rome?
No, I hadn't.. .
"

.

.

7. He bought a house. ( he married Helen) Had he bought a house before he married He/en? No, he hadn't.

161

8. They finished the bridge. (the rainscame) Had ther finished the bridf1e before the rains came? Ves, they hado 9. They solved the problem. (the bell rang) Had they so/ved the problem before the be" rang? No, theY..hadn't. 10. John arrived. (the concert began)Had John arrivedbefore the concert b~an? No, he hadn't. 11. The flowers opened complete",- (she cut them) Had.the fIowers oRened complete/y before she cut them? No, they hadn't. ' 12. Tom repaired the chair. (he painted it) Had Tom reRaired the chair before he Rainted it? Ves, he hado 13. They were experimenting. (they discoveredthe 'newproduct) Hadthey been eX/Jerimenting before they discovered the new p'roduct?

~o, they.hadn't.

.

14. The man jumped into the rivar. (the police appeared) Had the man iumRed into the r¡verbefore the police appeared? No, he hadn't.
15. We sold them Qur car.. (the prices went up) Had we

so/d them our ear
.

before the prices went UI2.?
Ves, Y..OU hado
.

16. You (plural) finished the letters. (you left the office) Had you finished the letters before y'ou left the office? ,

No',we hadn't.

.

.HOJA DE TRABAJO 5 20.4.1. (Mary and Ann) (make)-énfasis en la dLiraciónWhat had Mary'and Ann beenmaking that afternoon? Theyhad beenmaking a cake. 2. (they) (play) -énfasis en la duraciónWhere had they been PlEYi!:J.g? They had been l2./a'Llng in the Rark.

162

3. (the semester) (end) When had the semester ended? It had ended on December 31st. 4. (the trees) (come) How had the trees come from Canada? The~ had come by truck. 5. (the baby) (crawl) How far had thebaby crawled? He (she) had crawled as far as the dining room table. 6. (Mrs. Lee) (knit) Wha'thad Mrs. Lee knit? She had knit a sweater. 7. (the cats) (awake) Whom had the cats awaked? They had awaked him. 8. (decorate) Who had decorated the Christmas tree? The'children had decorated it. 9. (they) (study) -énfasis en la duraciónHow long had they been.studyi!J.g? They had been studyjng all night. 10. (ring) -énfasis en la dur~ciónWhat had been ring/ng? The telephone had been ring!!Jg. 20.4.1. Mark had checked the records before noon. 1. Who had checked the recC'rdsbefore noon? 2. What had Mark checked before noon? . 3. When had Mark checked the records? They had been classifying the new books in the library. 4. What had they been classify}ng in the library] 5. Which books had they been classifying in the library] 6. Where had they been classifyjng the new books? We had closed the two dOOfS carefully that night. 163

7. 8. 9. 10.

Who had closed the two doors carefully that nightl What had yau closed carefully that night? How had you closed the two doors that night? When had y'ou closed the two doors carefullY.]

Twenty men had travelled as far as Kansas City the first day. 11. How many men had travelled as far as Kansas City the first davl 12. How far had twent}' men travelled the first dav..? 13. When had twenty men travelled as far as Kansas Cit'!..? . I had given Mary two pounds of sugar. 14. Whom had yqy /liven two Dounds of sugar? 15. How many pounds of sugar had ypu given Mary7 Mrs. Brown had ,asked for a refund two months before. 16~ Who had asked for a refund two months before? 17. What had Mrs. Brown asked for two months before7 18. When had Mrs. Brown asked for a refund? They had been making sandwiches for five hours. 19. What had they been making for five hours? 20. For how long had theybeen makingsandwiches? We had given Ann two boxes of candy for the party. 21. Whom had you given two boxes of candy for the partYL 22. What had y'ou given Ann for the n.arty? 23. How much candy had you given Ann far the DartYl'~ 24. For what had you given Ann two boxes of candv.] The Smiths had arrived since two o'clock. 25. Since when had the Smiths arrived?

20.4.2. 1. Haw had he fixed the radio? . (fix) (he) RapidIy. 2. Who had established the record? (establish) A boy from Nigeria. 164

3. Where had you left the'1!!!.ckNJf!.s7Ieave) (you) ( . On the kitchen table. 4. What had been bothering him? (bother) -énfasis en la duración-,. Tom's reply. 5. How much money had the Clarks Daid the first time? (pay) (the Clarks) Twenty thousand dollars.
!

6. Whenhad I told you that? (tell).(1)
Last Christmas.

7. Whom had the management promoted7 (promote) (the management) Mr. Kent's secretary. 8. Which prize had she won7 (win) (she) The second prize. 9., What color had they lB!..intedtheir,garden furniture? (paint) (they) White. 10. What had the doctor informed you of? (inform) (the doctor) The resu Its ot the exarn.

HOJA DE TRABAJO 6 20. Voc. A.1.

1. He receiveda beautitul prize.
'2. 3.
.

.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

He got a beautifulorize. Who obtained the contract? Who got the contract? Helen is receiving a discount. Helen is getting a discount. Can you obtain a ticket tor me? Can you get a ticket for me? Ann's going to obtain th~ results. Ann's going to get the results. I have obtained my B.A. degree. I have got(ten) my B.A. d8flree. We're receiving a lot ot noise on our radio. We're getting a lat a' noise an our radio. Did he obtain the tlowers tor Mrs. Lee? Díd he get the f/owers for Mrs. Lee? 165

9. They're receiving no help from uso They're {letting no help from uso 10. Should we obtain a license? Should we get a license?

11. I have to obtain insurance for my caro ~ have to get insurance for my car 12. ,When will your children receive the smallpox vaccine?
13. 14. When will ypur children get the small/Jox vaccine? 1'11obtain copies of the photos.

/'11 co~iesof the photos. get

,

Had the officer received the documents? Had the officer got(ten) the documents? 15. How will they obtain the gasoline? How will (hey get the gasoline?

HOJA DE TRABAJO 7 20. Voc. A-B.1. 1. Mrs. Lee'hasgot an emerald necklace. (possess) 2. I got a gift in that store yesterday for being the thousandth customer. (receive) 3. We are sorry. We haven't gat time now to see the samples. (possess -negative) 4. Who has got a recorder? (VYho'sgot . . .) (possess)

5. The children should {let permission. (obtain) 6. Grandfather will {let a lot of kisses from Dottie for that beautiful
presento (receive)

7. How many records have we {lot? (possess)
8. They haven't got permission to use those rooms. (possess -negative)

9. Where canlget that delicious bread? (obtain) 10. Peter has got excellent qualifications. We shoul,d offer him the position.
(possess) 11. 12. 13. 14. My friend got a wonderful offer from that company last week. (rece!ve) What alt~rnative have you {lot? (possess) Martha viii/!get Osgoing.1Q.gf!1)a letter from Peter soon,. (receive) She frequently gets good bargains. (obtain)

15. We haven't gat a cent to our name. (possess -negative).

166

HOJA DE TRABAJO 8 20. Voc. C.1. 1. The people are becoming tire,d of their lies. The Reol?/e are getting tired of their líes. 2. Whose costume was chosen for the first prize? Whose costume got chosen for the first p'rize. 3. When did they become engaged? When did they get engaged? 4. Don't become' angry. I'm kidding. Don't get angry. I'm kidding~ 5. I'm sure-he'l! become interested? I'm sure he'" get.;nterested. 6. How could he become 10s17 How could he get lost? 7. She became upset when we told her the news. She got upset when we tald her the news. 8. We became registered yesterday. We got rflf/.isteredyesterda~ 9. Ted will be promoted soon. Ted will get promo ted soon. 10. That dough is becoming sticky. That dough is getting stickY..:.. 11. It usually becomes cold in the evening. It usually gets cold in the evening~ 12. President Kennedy was buried in Arlington. Presldent Kennedy got buried in Arlington. 13. The weather suddenly became hot. The weather suddenly got hot. 14. Fortunately, the land didn't become dry. Fortunately, the land didn't get dr-¿ 15. No, that miIk is not becoming sour. No, that mi/k is not getting sour.
,

HOJA DE TRABAJO 9 20. VOC.0.1. 1. Let's get to workinfL we have a lot to do. (work).
(begin)

167

2. Will they finally get to cross the river? (cross).
(succeed in)
.

3. Fortunately, we got to stop the fi-rebefore it spread. (stop).
(succeeded in)

4. They gpt moving immediately. (move)
(began) 5. Who 9.ot to find the hidden treasure? (find).
(succeeded in)

6. Alice didn't 9.et to cooking the meal on time. (cook).
(begin)

7.

1'11 get to walking without delay. (walk).
(begin)
.

8. Nobody got to solve the problem. (solve).
(succeeded in)
.

9. Willthey get to discovet the trick? (discover).
.

(succeed in)

10. Hovvcan 1get to com~/ete the work on time? (complete).
(succeed in)

11. She won't get to doing the dishes right away. (do).
(begin)

12. The children got to clapJ2.ing their hands immediately. (clap).
(began)

13. Mrs. Smith fJ..ot9 remove the ugly stains. (remove) t
(succeeded in)

14. They got to cllmbing the steps that minute.
(began)
(begin)

.

15. We couldn't get to looking for our stolen car until the next day. (look).

.

HOJA DE TRABAJO 10 19. Voc.A. y- 20. Voc.A-D.l. 1. Please come here at one. Pleaseget here at one. 2. How could they escape. How could they get awaYl 168

3. We were enrolled in a'chemistry course. We got enrolled'in a chemistr'l. course. 4. You began typing the report at three. You got to typJng the. report at three. 5. He hasn't recovered from his cold. He héisn't got(ten) over his cold. 6. I didn't succeed in greeting the president. I didn't get togreet the president. 7. How did you return? How did ypu get back? 8. Mrs. Smith is obeyed easily Mrs. Smith get obeyed easily..!9. Who received the medal? Who got the medal? 10. She possesses a wonderful personality. She has got a wonder(ul personality. 1-1. We won't finish by ten. We won't get through by ten. 12. I'm ?Iways congenial with rriy classmates. I alwaY§JJetalong with m'l. 'cIassmates. 13. Myriam was bruised in the accident. Myriam got bruised in the accident. 14. When will Alice arrive in New York? When will Alice get to New York? 15. Her brother is advancing rapidly to a top position. Her brother is getting ahead rapidly~ 16. They'lI gather in my house at six. Thev..'1/ et together rn my house at six. g 17. At what time did you rise today? At what time did you get up today.1 18. How can we communicate,with her? How can we get in touch with her? 19. How many pairs of eyeglasses do you possess? How many p'é1irs eyeglasseshaveyou got. . o( 20. Please don't obstruct her way to success. . Please don't get in her way to success. 169

HOJA DE TRABAJO 11 20. Trad. lo 1. They got off the bus at the corner. Se bajaron del autobús en la esquina. 2. He had prepared us for the surprise (él) Noshabía preparadoI!.arala sorpresa. 3. It's far from here tO.her house. 4. Está lejos de aquí a su casa. Pleasemake an effort. Por favor haz un esfuerzo. 5. It's necessary to go.
Es necesario ir.

6. He had beenmaking terrible mistakes. (él) Había estadohaciendoterribles errores; 7. Man hasalwayssurvived catastrophes. El hombre siempreha sobrevividoa lascatástrofes. 8. Everybody hasto write his own report

Cada quien tiene que hacer su propio reporte. (Todos tienen IquLI

hacer.. .)

.

9. She came in completely dressed in black. (ella) Vino completamente vestida de n~ro.

10. Self-confidenceis an essentialelement for success.
La confianza en sí mismo es un elemento esencial para el éxito.
.

Questionsfor.: MARIE CURIE, A BRILLIANT SCIENTIST.
1. Where and when was Marie Curie (Manya Sklodowska) born? She wasborn in Warsawon November 7, 1867. 2. What was her father's occupation?
He was a teacher of mathematics and n.by.sics.

3. At what age did she graduate from the Lycée? At sixteen. 4. Where did she 90 to study when she left Warsaw? She went to Paris. How much money did she have for food? She had little money for food. 6. On what food did she have to survive? On bread, butter and tea. 5.

170

7. What Iicense d id she receive in 1893?
Her ¡¡cense of pj1ysical sciences. 8. When did she receive her license of mathematical science? In 1894. 9. Whom did she marry? She married Pierre Curie.

10. What did Marie decide to investigate for her doctoral thesis? She decided to investigate if other matter had t~e same proRerty uranium had for producing radioactivity~

11. What did they have Otodo with their equipment all the time while using
the old storage room?
o

They had to protect it from the p[!!J@jjlng humidity~

12. What did PierreCurie decideto do to help his wife more'?

\

He decided to quit his job and work full time on the experimen(s 13. What mineral did Marie name in honor of her native land? A mineral they found in Ju/~ 1898, polonium. 14. When did they find radium? In December o( 1898~ 15. With whom did they share the N.obel Prize in 1902? With Antoine Henri Becquerel.
16. What was the basis for Marie to óbtain her doctorate?

also.

.

Her research on radium and radiations. 17. Why did she have to continue alone with her work? Because her husband d ied.

18. What was the name of her fundamental treatise on radioactivity?
It was Traité de Radioactivité.

~

19. .What had she orga~ized during World War I? She had organized radiological.services for hospitals. 20. How m~ny grams.of radium could she gather at the Radium Institute? She could gather 1.5 grams of radium there. 021. What was the relationship between Irene°Joliet and Marie Curie?' They weredaughterand mother. 22. What caused Marie Curie's death?
It was caused by leukemia produced

by radiation.

.

1171

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