3ds MAX Tutorial :: Advance Illumination in 3d Studio Max

Free 3ds Max Tutorial by CG artist, Mario Malagrino Illumination Tutorial for Industrial/Product/Furniture Design

This tutorial explains all steps to illuminate an object with a technique which simulates the illumination techniques of a photo studio. Before we begin it is very important to inform you that we will use "Mental Ray"as render engine (version 8 and 9 of 3D Studio Max). Mental Ray is a very stable render engine and it allows you to have very realistic renderings. Since we are using Mental Ray for this tutorial it is very important to use "real dimensions" for all the objects that we have to create. Otherwise the result will not be realistic. It means that you have to go to CUSTOMIZE ->UNITS SETUP and choose the units that you want to use. In any case you should get used to create objects with their real dimensions so that you get a feeling for correct dimensions and proportions. The first step to do is to create an "environment object"(it is similar to the rooms which are used in the professional field of photography)on which later we will place our object to illuminate (this is ideal for product/industrial design and furniture design). There are different shapes that you can create to have an environment-object which will be reflected correctly on your object and will give very good render results (image 0 ). What many designers don't know is exactly this last point:in order to have a good 3d rendering,the object has not only to receive a good lightning,but it needs to receive a good reflection of the room in which it is placed.

The color that you should assign to the environment-object (the room)should be white like the walls of a photo-studio !The material should not have specular highlights.In this way the color of the environment will not affect the color of your product design (especially if you use reflective materials).Of course it is the designer's choice to change the color to a different one. Let's do the first steps for an environmentobject.Create a spline like the letter "L".Then select the corner vertex and go to "modify",select the "fillet"tool and smooth the corner like in image below ”.

If you like to have a very smooth environment you should put a very big value in the fillet slot.Now we need to create an outline of this shape (the thickness of the walls).Select "spline"and go to outline the spline with the command "outline"that you can find again in the modify panel. From this point you can create both environment objects (the linear or the circular one).To create the "straight"one (which will be the one that I will use for the tutorial)you must assign to the spline an "extrude" modifier from the modifier list (image below)

To create the “circular ” environment object you must first move the PIVOT/GIZMO to the correct location. Check below image.

Just go to hierarchy,click on the button "affect pivot only"and move the pivot (this button allows you to move/rotate the pivot independently from the object)!After this step assign to the spline a "lathe"modifier from the modifier list.You will see that you will create an object similar to a tube.Go to the modify panel and increase the segment number to have a smoother shape.Now go to Degrees and put 180 ° in the slot.You should have the result of below image

Both of these two objects are really useful.It is your choice which one to use for your renderings.

Create a teapot on the environment-object (in the room)and create a simple skylight. Remember that the illumination direction of the skylight can't be changed,i will ALWAYS come from the top. (check above image) For now you can leave the standard multiplier value=1. To be able to render correctly with a skylight you must enable final gather in Mental Ray (without final gather the skylight will not work - check images below).

.For the Gather result will first test rendering put a low number like 40 in the Final Samples slot (in Max 9 you must use the Rays per FG point slot).Make now a test rendering. Tip for test render :a smaller render size allow you to have a shorter render time.You should have the same like in image below.

The specular-highlights are of course VERY important to simulate different kind of materials.The skylight is NOT able to create specular-highlights on the object.small size:sharp shadows). It is important to consider that the softness of the shadows of this light will change with the size of the light (big size:soft shadows.For this tutorial I will use a photometri target area light.7.Sometimes I create an additional .I have reduced it a lot in my scene.The shadow type MUST be "raytraced shadows". Since now we have two lights you should reduce the multiplier of the skylight.4 and 0.I like the contrast between strong illuminated surfaces and darker surfaces like on “image 9 ”.If you want to have a very strong specular.It is important to have an additional light.this will darken the environment and will not look realistic.Try to put a value between 0.only this kind of shadow will give optimal results with mental ray.This light is very soft.Don't create a light with a too big size.in this way it is clear that the main light source is the area light.This is the reason why you should never use only one skylight in your scenes.But at the end it is your taste which will decide about the multiplier amount of the two lights.otherwise the shadows will be too soft and will cover too big areas. Let's create an target area light like on image below.highlights like on car paint materials you should use Mr Omni lights (you can find the tutorial of the car paint material in the FDA tutorials for materials).it gives very good and realistic results.

.Let's create two big boxes.area light on the opposite side of the first one.. This is how I normally render objects with no reflections.If you like to have more than one area light you should disable the shadow of the light with lower intensity. We can have a better result with a few more steps.If you create an object made of chrome and you go to make a rendering you will have the result of image below.Too many shadows are confusing and really ugly in a rendering. Like showen in image below .Let's see why (chrome and other materials are in another FDA tutorial).If you have an object with reflective material you need to do a few more steps.You should have the result of image below. Make a rendering.

If you change the BOX filter to "Mitchell" your rendering will be a bit sharper. Be careful with the size of the 2 boxes. The minimum size of a final rendering should be 1024*768 pixels (bigger is of . maximum “16 ”. You can notice that image second last rendered image is a little bit darker than image above.This means you must set all settings to the maximum values.Why this ? Whenever you enable final gather you will notice that self illuminated objects are able to create light.Create a white self-illuminated material and apply it to the boxes. otherwise you will create too bright areas. even I did not change the light settings. At this point you can do a final rendering. The bigger your self-illuminated object.If you make a rendering you will see a big difference between the image below and last rendered image. The reflection of this boxes are giving the impression of two light sources like windows or big white panels which are used also in the field of professional photography. the brighter the surface close to it will be.In the render panel set Minimum samples per pixel "4".in this way you will have a perfect rendering. don't make them too big and don't place them too close to the teapot. That's why the rendering in above image is a bit brighter.

but we can improve it.You will see in the layer panel (F7)that automatically you have created a new layer on which there is only the masked part of the teapot. (Check image below) .course better). Put in final gather sample slot 300. Now press on your keyboard CTRL+C and than CTRL+V (copy and paste). Now make your final rendering.if this is not enough put 400. Let's apply a glow effect to our highlights (in our case we will assign a glow effect to the reflected boxes on the teapot to give the impression that there is a lot of energy coming from the white panels). I also teach to my students that Photoshop is a tool which is able to improve a rendering in many different ways. Select the "magic wand tool"to create a mask on the brightest parts (which are in this case the white boxes)of the teapot surface like on image below. The result of above image is already very good. in this way your shadows will be perfect. Don't forget to increase the shadow samples (area light sampling) to 32 or better 64.

Now select the size slider and move it to the right side. Just go to "layer"and select "flatten image" (Check image below ).In this way you can simulate a sharp focus point on the teapot.Now you have a very nice glow effect on the teapot. Another very interesting effect that you can create on a image is a Depth of field effect (DOF). First of all we must fuse the background image (original rendering) with the glow effect layer. Choose "OUTER glow"and change the yellow glow color to white. .Now make a left double mouse click on the blue bar of the new layer.You will enable a window (layer style panel) with really great tools (try them.The part of the object which is far away will be a bit blurred (like in photography).they are really interesting).

In this way you will have two layers.one is the perfect copy of the other. Check image below.Apply on the copy a gaussian blur effect (check images below).Now make a right mouse click on the layer and choose "duplicate layer". .

15 Tips&Tricks for 3D Studio Max *** .com | Florence Design Academy About Author .CG Artists Mario Malagrino is a 3ds Max Instructor in Florence Design Academy. Try to use a soft brush and set it to opacity 60.MarioMalagrino.Choose the "eraser tool"and delete the part of the image which should be sharp (Check image below ).The last step is very important. Author: Mario Malagrino Email: Website: www.

c) Save the file. Editable Poly is optimized for advanced modeling .15 Tips&Tricks for 3D Studio Max of the FLORENCE DESIGN ACADEMY + Here you have 15 of the most used Tips&Tricks of the FLORENCE DESIGN ACADEMY (www.) Instead to meshsmooth a box. Exit from 3D studio and open again the file.. In Mental Ray you have to use the "RAYTRACED shadows" ! In Vray enable in the Omni/Spot the "area shadow" and scale the size of the light. Tip 6. To fix this bug try this options: a) Convert your object again to an editable poly. Soft shadows will take more render time ! Tip 3. Tip 1.) To have perfect shadows it is necessary to create all objects with real dimensions.. Vray/MentalRay/Brazil RS/FinalRender/ etc. b) Convert your object to an editable mesh and then to an editable poly. you can without problems convert it to an editable Poly object. Tip 4.) . Exit from 3D studio and merge the object in a new file.com) to avoid mistakes. Normally I use 150x112 pixels as size.) How to decrease render time for test-renderings: a) the main setting to decrease the render time is the image size. b) Lower the Shadow quality ! c) Reduce the polygon number of the objects (try to use the optimize modifier if you don't have any meshsmooth modifier on the objects)! d) Reduce the photon number or/and the "sample" settings in the render engines. Tip 8. Tip 2.) Did you know that "architectural materials" and "self illuminated" materials are light emitting (for Mental Ray & Vray) ? If you apply them on a box you will get a similar effect as a "photometric area light" or a "Vray light". creates less errors than editable mesh and has many more settings than editable mesh. Hard shadows are looking always very fake. d) Save the file.florencedesignacademy. In "Mr Omni/Spot" scale the size of the light in the area light parameters (mental ray).) Try to use always soft shadows in your renderings if possible.) Sometimes all your Vertexes disappear during modeling of an object. errors and imperfections in your projects.) Do not use editable MESH but ALWAYS editable "POLY". the result is the same. It is too small to see the object's details but its is perfect to understand the light conditions. use from the "extended primitives" a "chamfer box". but the chamfer box" has less polygons ! Tip 7. e) Be careful with the amount of lights (too many lights will make the rendering very slow)! Tip 5. If you were working on a object with editable mesh .

Similar problem: You can select only one object. It will fix important bugs.) Do not use "area shadows" in Mental Ray. The best/fastest result is visible when you use Raytrace shadows..The best light to create Highlights is the Omni light (or MR Omni). b) the shape is not closed-check where you did not weld the vertexes-.) If you use splines to create shapes. Tip 14.. Press again X to enable the move tool (GIZMO).) When you create a "loft" object it can happen that the end or beginning of the object has an error..) Maybe You are in the "expert" mode.) If your interface/panel disappeared You have this options to fix the problem: a.ini file in ur max folder. The result is the same as in MentalRay with Raytrace shadows. b. 3DS Max Material Tutorial .delete it and start 3D Studio Max again.) "Start"button on windows > Autodesk > 3D Studio Max > change graphics mode ! d. Tip 9. all other objects can't be selected anymore: probably you have pressed SPACE and locked the object.) Download ALWAYS the last service-pack for your 3D Studio Max version. If you convert the vertexes in smooth/bezier/bezier-corner you can create very organic and round shapes without a too high number of vertexes (same tip for loft in deformations-scale-panel). Probably you have pressed the key X. Tip 11. If you are working with the "light-tracer" than you can use "area shadows". e. To fix the problem you should choose "CORNER" vertex on the first and last vertex of your spline. Tip 12.Leather Tutorial by CGIndia ... Tip 13. Tip 10.. they are very slow and not optimized for Mental Ray.) Customize > load custom UI scheme. Press again SPACE to unlock it.) (for beginners) When you are working sometimes you can't anymore move your object.) Customize > Customize User Interface > Toolbars Tab > Reset! c.. Tip 15.) There can be only 2 mistakes when your extruded (spline + extrude modifier) object has an error: a) you have overlapping segments in your spline.) There should be a 3dsmax.. try to use a very small number of vertexes.press CTR+x.

Leather is one of the most used materials in the field of Furniture design. you can see an examples of images/maps which allow us to create a perfect leather texture in the material editor. Mario Malagrino of Florence Design Academy explains how to create a Leather material in 3ds Max. It is quite easy to obtain a good leather material. The first one is a simple image of a scanned paper. Here in image below. After this step go to choose an image which has the pattern/texture of the real leather. The leather material quality strongly depends on the illumination in your scene.Before you start to create the leather in the material editor you must first analyze exactly the type of leather that you want to simulate in 3D Studio Max. . Especially for design of sofas or couches. the second one is made with Photoshop.CGIndia brings you another very useful tutorial for 3ds Max users. In this brief tutorial.

) If you choose NOISE you must pay attention only for one parameter: the size of the noise map. The BUMP map now allows you to create the leather texture. There are no standard values. Both are very useful. This settings depend on the type of leather and also on the illumination. often lower than the value 1. If your light is very bright. First go to add the correct specular highlights. At this point you have many different kind of maps that you can choose. you will have a very strong specular highlight in the rendering. But this value depends again by the kind of leather that you want to simulate. In the BUMP amount slot in maps you are able to set the strength of the texture. You must analyse the real leather and simulate the same glossiness and specular level in the material editor. Normally it is never more than 50/-50. a.Let's see the steps to create leather. In Rendering 3 you can see the result of the NOISE map. In this tutorial we will use or the BITMAP or the NOISE map. Now go to MAPS and click in BUMP on the NONE button. Usually it's very very small. To avoid this you must set a lower amount in the specular level slot. . Choose in the diffuse slot the colour of your leather material.

Area Omni will create only specular highlights on the materials. After you have placed the light in the correct location right-click on the MR Area Omni and disable "AFFECT DIFFUSE". it will have a similar effect like tiling).b.) If you choose to assign a bitmap (an image) to the bump slot you must take care of the tiling value. To have more control over the specular highlights in the rendering you can use after you have completed the scene a SPECIAL "MR Area Omni" light. After this step this MR. We will use that . It has more or less the same effect like the SIZE parameter in NOISE (you can assign to the object also a UVW Map from the modifier list and change the Gizmo size.

Go to Photoshop and create a new file. To avoid that this light affects all objects in the scene you should use the exclude option in the modify panel excluding all other objects which should not receive an additional highlight (you must select the light to do this) . In this way we have much more control of the position. . color and brightness of the specular highlights. Go to the main tool bar to FILTER and choose Texture and then Stained Glass (image 7). Disable shadows in that MR. Photoshop Le't see how to create the leather texture of image 1.Area Omni.MR. This technique can be very helpful if you need more highlights than the existing light sources are already creating on the leather material.Area Omni ONLY to create the highlights that are normally visible on leather.

This will give you a texture like the skin of a snake. It will give you quite good results. Basically this is already a "map" that you can use in 3D Studio Max as BUMP map. You will have 3 parameters in that filter that you can change. .

otherwise it will look very unnatural. Change the copied layer from Normal to MULTIPLY.To make it a bit more interesting you can return to Photoshop and duplicate the layer of the leather. Don't make it too clean. Choose an irregular brush and try to create a natural looking brown color.Now after this step go to your Multiplied layer and decrease the opacity. Now you have 2 images. The first one which is only black and white and the second one with brown color. This will allow you to add different colors on the original layer without losing the black leather shapes that the filter has created. . Don't leave the black shape of the top layer too visible. Save the image as bitmap.

If the leather effect is too sharp you can blur both images in Photoshop choosing on the main tool bar FILTER and than Blur: GAUSSIAN BLUR. .You must place the brown one into the DIFFUSE COLOR slot in MAPS. and the black and white one into the BUMP slot (image below). The same can be done in the BITMAP settings from the BLUR slot.

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50.3ds MAX + VRay Tutorial :: Time is running Free 3ds Max Tutorial by CG artist. Modelling is not my favourite so I want to show the material and the . Vollmer Making of by Jan K. Everything is modelled in 3ds max 2008 mostly from standard geometry and some splines with lathe like the lampshade. Vollmer In this tutorial I want to show the making of the image “time is running” made with 3ds max 2008. Jan K. rendered with vray 1.SP1.

scene and rendering setup with vray 1. Then I start the modelling. because I wanted to create real metal materials and silver effects. Just the little factory inside has textures like the ground and some buildings. I almost did not use textures.5. . First of all I build some kind of a studio surrounding with making a concave fillet and bend it a little to get a fourth of a cycle. Everything was made from standard forms in max and nothing special. Be sure to make it big enough.SP1. So get enough studio walls around the objects.

Wire of the whole Scene .

Close-up of the clockwork .

Close-up of the Lamp .

The chromium material: . the glass and the factory. I used the standard vray advanced materials and modified them for the five Basic materials in my scene.Close-up of the Lamp Again The next step is to set up the materials for the different metal objects.

517 and set the affect shadow and alpha to get nice shadows on the ground. it has just a much brighter reflection colour and a almost black diffuse. The hdri reflection map: This is a map I use very often for interior scenes. 18 for silver. The silver material : Silver material is very similar to the chromium. The light material: Just a simple vray light material that is set to a warm light orange colour and with a multiply of 6 to get a bright effect. to . I set the overall multi.A standard vray material with a light gray colour in the reflection. I put that map in the environment reflection slot in the vray over right slot. Instead of a real bulb I used a sphere with the light material applied to get the light emission. subdivision of 12 to get nice results but still short render time.71. Is set to .98.97 and I used ward. to 3. The fog colour is set to white. Ref. Gloss. IOR is at 1. Gloss. The IOR is at . The glass material: In the reflection slot is a falloff map set to standard and fresnel. To get the ground of the map really on the ground.95 for high reflections. . refl. The IOR is at 2. Gloss of . I also set the refl. made a spherical environment and a vertical rotation of 75 deg.0.

The silver material .

set it to invisible and the subdiv to 25. Here i used a warm colour and a multiplier of 2 to get a soft back light.The light material and HDRI Map The next is the light set up of my studio. The second light I set on the left hand side of the objects to have some light from the opposite side. Subdivs are also at 28. one from the right hand side with a blue colour and a multiplier of 5. The studio lighting setup Check the VRay Lights Setting Below . in the vray light properties i set up the diffuse subdivs to 1500 for all lights in the scene to get a nice soft diffuse effect. I put two vray plane lights in the scene.

I used adaptive subdivision for faster renderings and catmull-rom for sharp edges.5 and the bright to 2.Rendering setup For Scene I made some standard setups like switch of the default lights and hidden lights.0. For the environment I used a warm colour and the hdri reflection map with the multiplier of 1. Be shure to switch sub-pixel mapping on to reduce the highlight sparcel effect in the bright colours. .For more contrast I set the colour mapping to hsv exponential with the dark multiplier of . The same for clamp output and affect background.

. To check for the files I use the asset tracking function in max to relocate the missing files.005m. The vray render region is set to 32 for exact rendering. Start the vray spawner for distributed rendering.The render setup part1 Before I finally render the image I do some test renderings with low adjustments like ir-map to low and light cache to 100. Also set the low threat priority for better performance. I push up the settings to custom for the ir-map and a higher light cache of 500 and a sample of . vray is looking on every slave for the connection and will tell you if anything is wrong. I used distributed rendering to render much faster and skip the waiting time.. . It all so has to be the same device letter like on the master machine (Z:\3dsmax2008\mapingfolder\. If everything is like I want it. Make sure that the mappings and textures you are using are locates on a server were all the slaves have a connection to. Here is a small intro: Install on all slaves the vray render node for distributed rendering and set the ip address of the master as render host.) If you have the option “check for missing files” switched on.

The render setup part2-3 Final Rendered Image .

or simply for a concept car. and in order to have this kind of particles you must use Max 9 materials which are explained in other tutorials).FlorenceDesignAcademy.I hope you find this “making of” interesting and you get some help or inspiration from here.de 3ds MAX Tutorial :: Advance Materials Free 3d Studio Max Tutorial by CG artist. You can use it for any product design. bikes.. The two specular highlights will give an optimal light reflection to your object in order to show ...There are many different types of car paints.jankvollmer. (Note: This tutorial will not teach the metalized car paint with the random aluminum flakes. The most trendy one is the metalized car paint with two specular highlights. mp3 players. Mario Malagrino Advance Materials for Industrial/Product/Furniture Design Car paint is one of the favorite materials of the industrial design students of the Florence Design Academy (www. All the best and thanks for reading! Author: Jan K. especially for mobile phones.de Email: jkv@elberfeld. Vollmer Website: www.com).

After this step go to Maps and add to the reflection map Raytrace. Then do the opposite with the second specular layer: small shape and very bright. .To create two specular highlights you must change the BLINN shader to MULTY-LAYER. One must be very soft the other very hard/strong. Set the reflection amount to more or less 20 (like on image 1). This allows you to have 2 independent specular highlights (in Multy-Layer they are called First Specular Layer and Second Specular Layer). Go to the first specular highlight slot (it is called specular layer) and adjust it until you have a large shape (glossiness) which is not too bright (level).in a very soft and for the human eye pleasureful way the shapes of you objects.

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Area Omni will create only specular highlights on the materials.Area Omni" light (normaly it is better to use MR.To have more control of the specular highlights in the rendering you can use in your scene a SPECIAL "MR. We will use that MR.Area Omni only to create this specular effects that normally is visible on metalized . After this step this MR. After you have placed the light in the correct location make a right mouse button click on the MR Area Omni and disable "AFFECT DIFFUSE" (like on image 2). but in this case you can use also a normal Omni light).Area Omni if you use Mental Ray to make your rendering.

In this sample you can understand how important it can be to use the technique described in this tutorial (image 4). In this case we have a red diffuse color. . In this way we have much more control of the position. Tip 1: If you go to use many Mr Omnies for an object because you want to create many different specular highlights. but without the EXTRA omni lights. Disable the shadows in the MR. This makes the material more interesting.car paint. Here below you have a sample of a mix of more colors. This technique is very helpful if you need a higher number of specular highlights than the existing light sources (that you must create for normal illumination) are already creating on the car paint material. With changing the specular color you can simulate the classical car paints that you can see in the car-tuning environment where often we have a mix of two different colors (diffuse color + specular color). color and brightness of the specular highlights. you will risk to create a less visible shadow of an object.Area Omni. In this case it is necessary to use Ambient/Occlusion to avoid this problem. The difference is strongly visible. a blue first specular layer color and a white second specular layer color (image 3) Here below we have exactly the same scene. It is also possible to create a specular color which is different than white.

which i have found in a magazine. 3D Modeling .Tip 2: If you have other objects in the scene that have normal materials and have NOT to be affected by the Omnies. >> Author: Mario Malagrino >> Website: Florence Design Academy >> About Author . besides certain area's and portion of the scene has to be emphasized and lots of attention should be given to amount of detailing for them. so a level of detailing should be maintained. The whole 3d Scene is done in 3D Studio Max and using V-Ray Rendering engine for achiviving realisim in the scene. I hope you have enjoyed this tutorial. I have divided the whole process into four parts : 3D Modeling. And Try to explain the steps i have used in making of " A Morning in Province". You can find more information for the illumination & render settings in other Florence Design Academy tutorial. Lighting and Rendering. Texturing."A Morning In Province" Using 3DS Max + VRay by Julien CHIARI OVERVIEW For this 3D Scene. . As every thing in the scene is quite close to the camera or in focus. remember to exclude them from the Omnies with the exclude button from the modify panel. The most part of 3D modeling in this scene is pretty much simple and old fashioned.CG Artists Mario Malagrino is a 3ds Max Instructor in Florence Design Academy. The Making of . besides emphasizing certain portions. I have took reference from a very nice Photograph.

I cut out with the tool Cut and move the vertex. in editable polygon mode (you may also model the building using solids. I added small stones on the ground at the places where they are sensible to accumulate a little more (near the steps and the walls). Than change the smoothing group of the detailed area..To increase the realism of the ground. I have added lots of details on wall. I have added a VrayDisplacementMod modifier on the ground. Than. a little displacement is required. For this. and later convert the Mesh to Editable Poly) . In Front facade. .

Here is the wireframe Screen Shot : .More Details has been added to steps and other area's using the same method.

Texturing / Mapping . for modifing and fine tuning purpose. . I have Unfolded of the UVW mapping in 3D Studio Max and save the UVW in a Bitmap.

These branches do not project shadows on the scene. The Dome to simulate the ambient light coming from the sky.. I used a resolution of 2048x2048. Bump Texture : Lighting For the lighting of the scene I used only 3 lights: 2 directional spots (1 and 2) and a VrayLight Dome (3). slightly tinted in yellow. . 2 directional spots to simulate the sunlight. The first spot to light the whole of the scene and the second right for the branches in foreground.I open the saved bitmap of the UVW in Photoshop and mix several texture layers and photographs to obtain desired level diffuse for final "Diffuse Map" texture. slightly tinted in blue. I improved the sharpness of this texture and added another layer to make texture for “Bump Map”. The shadows of foliage come from three plans (with a mask of opacity) placed in front of the spot. To obtain a good quality of texture when rendering.

for making it look more realistic. GI and irradiance mapping Parameters. I have Used VRay Rendering Engine for obvious reson to making the whole scene look as realistic as possible. I applied a small blur to the mask so that the shadow of the foliage becomes little blured. Rendering.Than. . Check the Images (below) for the Vray Renderer.

I have also added a small depth of field.Get focal distance from camera. And here is the Final Rendering Output in Vray without any compositing or Touch-ups! . The focus is done from the target of the camera by activating .

net/ .chiari@wanadoo. 1.fr Authors Website Link .Render time : 8 H 42 min.Julien CHIARI Author Email .20GHz. Author .http://chiari. Hardware : Pentium 4 CPU 3.3dvf.julien.50 Go RAM.

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