This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
BASIC OF ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS STUDENTS
Basic of Electronics
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
• • • • • •
Atoms and Electrical Charge Current. Voltage. Power Resistance Ohm's Law
1.1. Atoms and Electrical Charge - Discusses the structure of atoms.
Figure 1-1. Model of an Atom Atoms are the building blocks of all matter. They are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every electron has a small negative (-) charge. The proton has the same amount of charge except that it is the opposite, positive (+) charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral and have no charge. The protons and neutrons are located in the center of atoms forming what is called the nucleus and the electrons revolve around them. It is very important to know that particles of like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract. For example, two protons or two electrons will repel each other. However, a proton and a electron will attract. That is how the electrons are held inside the atom. The attraction between the electrons and protons keeps the electrons in orbit much like the gravitational attraction between the sun and its planets.
Basic of Electronics
Figure 1-2. Interaction between electrons and protons Electricity is the flow of electrons so it is necessary to measure the charge. The basic unit for measuring charge is the coulomb or the letter C. 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons!!! 1C = 6.25x10^18 electrons 1.2. Current - Introduces current and ampere. Electric current is the amount of electrons, or charge, moving past a point every second. It is basically the speed of electron flow. The faster the electrons flow, the higher the current.
Figure 1-3. Electron Flow Current is represented by the letter I. The basic unit for measuring current is ampere. Ampere can be abbreviated to amp or just A. 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec Meaning for every amp, there are 6.25x10^18 electrons moving past a point every second. 1.3. Voltage - Potential difference and voltage To make sense of voltage, we will need to make an analogy. Lets imagine that electrons are represented by a marble on a flat plane. At this point, the plane is level and the marble does not move. If the plane is lifted at one side, the marble will roll down to the lower point.
Basic of Electronics Figure 1-4. Analogy electron with a marble In electricity, the high point is a point with lots of electrons and the low point is a point with a lack of electrons. The high point is called the high potential and the low point is the low potential. The difference between these two points is called the potential difference. The larger the potential difference, the larger the voltage.
Figure 1-5. Energy potential Voltage can be thought of as the measure of the pressure pushing the electrons. The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage. Voltage is represented by the letter E. The basic unit of measure is volts or the letter V. One volt will push 1 amp of current through 1 ohm of resistance. Resistance will be discussed in a later section.
1.4. Power - Discusses power or the amount of work a circuit is doing. Power is simply the amount of energy used or the amount of "work" a circuit is doing. Power is represented by the letter P. The basic unit for measuring power is watts or the letter W. To find power, all you need is a simple equation: P=EI or Power equals voltage times current. For example, if E = 9V I = 0.5A then P = 9 * 0.5 P = 4.5W
Basic of Electronics 1.5. Resistance - Discusses electron flow, materials, and the ohm unit. To better understand what resistance is, you must first get an idea of how electrons flow. When an electron is knocked out of an atom, it will fly off and hit another atom. If the electron strikes the atom with enough force, it will knock off another electron. The atom that was just knocked off will hit another atom and so forth.
Figure 1-6. Two electrons Note that every time an electron strikes another, it is transferring its energy. Some of the energy is converted into heat every time it is transferred. The voltage will drop as the energy is transferred over long distances. Thus a long wire has a higher resistance than a short wire. Some materials - such as copper and silver - does not hold on to its electrons very tightly. Therefore it doesn't require much energy to knock off an electron. These materials are called conductors and has a very low resistance to electron flow. Materials such as clay and plastics hold on to their electrons more tightly than conductors. It takes more energy to knock off an electron from these materials. These materials are called insulators and has a high resistance to electron flow. Now, you must understand that this is NOT how electrons really flow; It serves only as something for you to work with. To really know how electrons flow, which we will not get into, you will need to study quantum physics. Resistance is represented by the letter R. The basic unit of measure is ohm or the symbol (Greek omega). In the next section (Ohm's Law), we will show you the relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Resistance will also be further discussed as we introduce the resistor.
1.6. Ohm's Law - The relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. The German physicist, George Simon Ohm, established that voltage in volt, electrical resistance in ohms, and ampereres flowing through any circuit are all related. Ohms’s law states:
I=E/R Where: I= Current in ampere (A) E= Voltage in volt (V) R= Resistance in ohms (Ω) -6- . Ohm law camn also be sated as asimple formula to calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known.Basic of Electronics It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance.
Basic of Electronics Chapter 2: Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows how each component connect with another. It is a simple and easy to read outline of the circuit. the second resistor will be called R2.both of which will be discussed in the components section. Below is an example of a schematic diagram: Figure 2-1 A simple schematic diagram As you can see. That's all it is to schematic diagrams. Each type of component has a unique symbol and a name (usually 1-2 letters). If there was a second resistor. The triangle in the circle represents the light emitting diode and the wavy lines represent the resistor -. Can you guess which is the battery? Yes. and the thing with the wavy lines. This tells you what value to use for that component. this diagram has 3 components: the thing with 4 horizontal lines. the 4 horizontal lines. the triangle in a circle. Note the "R1" next to the resistor symbol and "R1 470 ohm" below the diagram. All relevant values and component specific information are usually included. It's not that tough right? -7- .
Basic of Electronics Chapter 3: Electronics Component • • • • • • Resistors .An overview of integrated circuits Switches . The third band is the multiplier . The tolerance bands indicates the accuracy of the values.A "one way street" for electrons.A component that resist the flow of electrons.A component that resist the flow of electrons.1. Transistors . a resistor within 5% tolerance should be sufficient. -8- . Capacitors .it tells you how many zeros to put after the significant figures. For most applications. resistors resist the flow of electrons. Resistors . They are used to add resistance to a circuit. A 5% tolerance (gold band) for example. Put them all together and you have the value.Discusses the different configurations of switches. The first two color bands from the left are the significant figures . As its name implies. Integrated circuits . Recall that resistance is measured in ohms. hold the resistor so that the tolerance band is on the right.A component used for switching and amplifying. 3. Diodes . The color bands around the resistors are color codes that tell you its resistance value.simply write down the numbers represented by the colors. To get the value of a resistor. Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in electronics. indicates that the resistor will be within 5% of its value.A mini recharable battery.
8 2. For example. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat. 12 ohm. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate.0 1.3 3. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light. Figure 3-1 Schematic and Symbol of Resistor The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads.2 1. it is NOT okay to use a 1/4 watt resistor in a 1/2 watt circuit.7 3. 1000. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated. 3. They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available. These are 1. Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value.8 8. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them. -9- . 4 band resistors(the ones discussed here) are the most common and should work for most projects. Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. 3. However.8k as 1K8 etc.6 6. 2200 ohm resistors etc are available.7 5. High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily.000 ohms is 1M. They never go short circuit.2 2. They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS. However. 180 ohm.300.000 ohms is 3. Resistors generate heat. it is okay to use a 1/2 watt resistor in a 1/4 watt circuit. (color would change with heat). You should not use a 1/4 watt resistor in a circuit that has more than 1/4 watt of power flowing.9 4.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1.2 This mean that 1 ohm. Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks).Basic of Electronics NOTE: There are resistors with more bands and other types for specific applications. Most resistors are color coded to indicate their value and tolerance. 1000 ohms is 1k. Resistors have a wattage rating.3M etc. One last important note about resistors is their wattage rating. and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods.
Figure 3-4 a pair plate of Capacitor This insulator is called the dielectric.Basic of Electronics On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters. -10- . F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0. These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel. they are never touched again. Examples are volume and brightness controls.7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4. Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator. 3. Once adjusted. Capacitors .A mini rechargeable battery.2. Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver.
Thus we have ceramic. you simply decode the 3 digit number on the surface of the capacitor. Capacitors are the second most commonly used component in electronics.1µF = 0. • Ceramic capacitors are brown and has a disc shape.000 and pico = 1/1. However. The coding is just like the resistor color codes except that they used numbers instead of colors.0000001F DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit. This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages. We will only be discussing two types of the most commonly used capacitors: Ceramic and Electrolytic. These capacitors are measured in pF.Basic of Electronics Capacitor types are named after the dielectric.000.000 So 100. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value. mica. similar to a car battery. These capacitors are polarized so you must connect the negative side in the right place. paper air capacitors etc. The first 2 digit are the significant figures and the third digit is the multiplier.Capacitors can be charged and discharged. polyester. micro = 1/1. These capacitors are nonpolarized. meaning that you can connect them in any way. The amount of charge that a capacitor can hold is measured in Farads or the letter F.000pF = 0.000.000. They can be thought of as tiny rechargeable batteries -. These capacitors are measured in µF. 1F is too large for capacitors. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current. The value of the resistor as well as the negative side is clearly printed on the capacitor. If it is necessary. To find the value. Figure 3-2 Ceramic Capacitor • Electrolytic Capacitors has a cylinder shape. Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity. -11- .000. so microfarads(µF) and picofarads(pF) are used.
These merge into one wide red band. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added. Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised. -12- . They are marked to indicate polarity. There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode which similar characteristics. For example. To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used.1 uF.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value. The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-3 Electrolytic Capacitor They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round. Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors. There can be some confusion. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them. 102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100. Figure 3-4 Color band on Capacitor Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers.
Figure 3-7 Symbol of LED -13- . The longer pin is the anode. Diodes let electrons flow through them only in one direction. Zener Diodes. the diode allows the electrons flow. the positive side.3 Diodes .Basic of Electronics Figure 3-5 Symbol of fix and variable capacitor 3. Light Emitting Diodes (LED for short) are just like the regular diodes except that it lights up when electrons are flowing through. When a voltage exceeds the voltage rating going the opposite direction (from anode to cathode). Diodes flow from cathode to anode.A "one way street" for electrons. The cathode side of the diode is marked with a band around it. one pin is longer then the other. and Light Emitting Diodes. Figure 3-6 Diodes and its symbol There are basically three different types of diodes: Diodes. Zener diodes have a set voltage rating. Note: there aren't any bands to identify which pin is anode and which is cathode. However.
It can show when the power is on.Basic of Electronics Diodes are polarised. Figure 3-9 Some diode circuit symbols LED The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. act as a warning indicator. an anode and a cathode. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. or be part of trendy jewelry etc. Diodes have two connections. The cathode is always identified by a dot. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a type valve). Figure 3-8 Mark indicator in Diodes The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. -14- . A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED). ring or some other mark. If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. They are often marked with a type number.
The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. The transistor is a three terminal solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification. The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body. Figure 3-10 Transistors -15- . Transistors -A component used for switching and amplifying.02 =500 ohms. with the anode positive and the cathode negative. voltage stabilization. In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. collector. so the current through then both is the same.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-9 LED circuit It needs to be fed from a DC supply. 3. base. then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. Both of these transistors has 3 pins: emitter.02 amps. switching. We will discuss two types of transistors: PNP and NPN transistors. We now know the voltage across. There aren't any standards for where and what order the physical pins are on the transistors. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0. The diode is in series with the resistor.02 amps). Transistors are used as switches and amplifiers. Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. signal modulation and many other functions. so be sure to check the packaging when purchasing. and the current through the resistor. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts.4. 0. as shown in the diagram.
When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. such as a radiator. Most common are 8.5. ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body. Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. the following must apply: The emitter is more positive than the base and the collector leads to the negative. solder the remaining pins. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. 14. -16- . Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies. or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board. Inside them is a tiny piece of semiconductor(usually silicon) with large circuits built in. When handling them. Figure 3-11 Symbol of PNP Transistors The NPN transistor is the opposite: The collector must be more positive than the base and the emitter leads to the negative. When satisfied. discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed. in order to fit it into the board (or socket).An overview of integrated circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are usually referred to as chips. Integrated circuits (IC) . or 16 pin dual in line (dil) chips. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat. When soldering. Figure 3-12 Symbol of NPN Transistors 3.Basic of Electronics To allow electrons to flow through the collector and emitter of a PNP transistor.
In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. If not.Basic of Electronics There are millions of different integrated circuits. A primary cell is discarded when its chemical -17- . The general types of integrated circuits include: Figure 3-12 Symbol of IC • Logic circuits These IC's are basically decision makers. Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types. Most IC's come with pinout information and how to use it.6. (logic gates will be discussed in a later section). Audio amplifiers These are used to amplify audio. • • • • • • 3. most contain logic gate circuits. Batteries Batteries are assembled from cells. Switches Switching IC's are also very much like the switching circuits of transistors. Comparators These IC's compare inputs and gives an output. Operational Amplifiers These are amplifiers. connected in series. Works very much like transistor amplifier circuits. Other There are thousands of other types. A lot of IC's are made for a special purpose like digital sound recording. Timers These are counting IC's used for circuits that counts or needs to keep track of time. you'll need one of those large reference books that have info on most of the IC's. to increase the voltage available.
The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches. Figure 3-13 Symbol of Battery The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell. portable radios etc. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE. The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working. -18- . A secondary cell can be recharged.Basic of Electronics energy is exhausted. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases. Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. Figure 3-14 Internal Resistance of Battery When current is taken from a battery. voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls. Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger. The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad). Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger.
If the current is increased.e. -19- . the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. then the turns ratio is 10:1. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING. Assuming a perfect transformer. the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply .Basic of Electronics Figure 3-15 Voltage-Current characteristics of Battery This is called POOR REGULATION.1 amp. this will happen 50 times a second. with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. if the secondary has half the primary turns. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0. As it does this. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. the lines of force move inwards. then the primary must supply 24 watts. the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then. as the field moves out or in. (Watts = volts x amps). a voltage is induced in the second coil. the lines of force move outwards from the coil. the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. Primary voltage --------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns = ----------. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns. 3.7. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. Transformer If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil.-----------------------Number of secondary turns For example. Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD. i. If the current is reduced. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. It occurs in any type of power supply.
Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. or in the other direction. Figure 3-15 Diagram of Transformers -20- . This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. called EDDY CURRENTS. or no core at all. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. the core is LAMINATED. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. Since the primary would induce power. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply.Basic of Electronics To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. into this core.
Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases. They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting. Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting. Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire. The former may contain a metallic core up its centre. SPST = Single Pole. above 1 Mhz only a few turns. There are 3 commonly used configurations: SPST. -21- . Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz. Double Throw This is a three terminal switch that connects one terminal to either of the other two. and DPDT. Single Throw This is a two terminal switch that opens and closes a circuit.9.Basic of Electronics 3. It simply connects and disconnect a circuit. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. Figure 3-16 Diagrams of Inductors 3. SPDT. 10 Mhz.8 Inductor Inductors are coils of wire. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current. This section gives an overview of the contact configurations. SPDT = Single Pole. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES. Switches Discusses the different configurations of switches. This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE. Switches really don't need any introduction.
Fig. -22- . 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit. 2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position.Basic of Electronics DPDT = Double Pole. This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously. Fig. Fig. Double Throw This is a six terminal switch that connects a pair of terminals to either of the other two pairs. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position.
Here are assorted switch types. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. Fig. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. It can select 1 of 5 circuits.Basic of Electronics Fig. Fig. push to make". The Fuse The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current. With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value. 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. 8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. If the current rises above this value it will melt. (2) a "normally open. Fig. 3p 4w etc. Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch. The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply. When operated a-b opens and b-c closes. push to break".10. Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-WaferProximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-RockerDimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-FootThermal-Hall effect 3. If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere. The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. Therefore special antisurge fuses are fitted. 5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch. 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. Figure 3-17 Fuse Configuration in circuit -23- . You can have 2p 5w. These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds. Fig. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. Occasionly they grow tired and fail.
This section describes the different types of gates and their symbols: • AND gate To get an output of 1.Basic of Electronics 3. • NOR gate To get an output of 1. its input must be at a value of 0. Logic IC's contain these and other types of gates. all inputs must be at a value of 0. It is also known as an inverter circuit. Gates Gates are logic circuits. one or more of its inputs must be at a value of 0.11. • NAND gate To get an output of 1. one or more inputs must be at a value of 1. • OR gate To get an output of 1. They take binary inputs and and gives out a binary result. 1(one) is represented by a positive electrical value and 0(zero) is represented by no electricity at all. both inputs must be at a value of 1. • NOT gate To get an output of 1. This gate only has one input. -24- .
they must be in phase. -25- . Loudspeakers have Impedance. Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance. Figure 3-18 Diagrams of Speaker The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. to move back and forth. To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker. Therefore two speakers are used. The design of enclosures is very complicated. Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. C2 and L2 are a high pass filter. (there is a page on FILTERS). and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies. which is attached to the coil.Basic of Electronics 3. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves. as in stereo systems. a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies.11. When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier (see the page on REACTANCE and IMPEDANCE). Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes). where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet. a Crossover Unit is used. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly. The movement of the coil causes a cone. This means that they move out and in together. typically 4 or 8 ohms. Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up your amplifier. In the diagram. Loudspeaker The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter. When using two speakers together.
Figure 3-20 Electromagnetic Relay The magnetised core attracts the iron armature. to form an electromagnet.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-19 Woofer and Tweeter configuration 3. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. -26- .12. When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released. by passing current through it. When the coil is energised. wound on an iron core. Electromagnetic relay The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil. the core becomes temporarily magnetised.
000.000 kilo K 1.000.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source. There are 1. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off. For example 1000.000. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil.000. Practice converting one to another. and 0.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad.o n.001 nano n 0. Figure 3-20 Relay position The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n.000.000. Value Multiplier In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values.000.13. To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil.000.000.001 pico p 0.000.000.c and c.000.000.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available.000 giga G 1.000 mega M 1. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above. The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation.000.000.000.000. This can damage other components in the circuit. -27- .001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLICATION FACTOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tera T 1.000 milli m 0.o.001 micro u 0. 3.Basic of Electronics The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply.
Basic of Electronics CIRCUIT SYMBOLS -28- .
Basic of Electronics -29- .
Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series.3. Capacitors in Series . What happens when resistors are placed side by side -. Resistors in Series . 4.Basic of Electronics Chapter 4 Circuit Concepts • • • • Resistors in Series .Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. we mean connecting one resistor after the other: To find the TOTAL resistance. in a parallel circuit? The result is the total resistance being lower than the lowest resistor.2. Capacitors in Series -30- . Resistors in Parallel . So what is a series circuit? A series circuit means connecting components one after the other. Capacitors in Parallel . simply add up the resistance of the resistors in the series circuit.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel. To calculate what the total resistance is.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel.in other words.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel 4. So when we say "Resistors in series". you must use this equation: Rt = (R1 * R2) / (R1 + R2) 4.1.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. Resistors in Parallel .
To find the total capacitance. Unlike resistors in series.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel Now if capacitors in series uses the same equation as resistors in parallel. 4pF.Basic of Electronics . capacitors in series lowers the total capacitance. use the following equation: Ct = (C1 * C2) / (C1 + C2) Notice that it's the same equation as resistors in parallel Capacitors in Parallel . how do you find the total capacitance of capactors in parallel? Right! You just add it up! So if there are 4 capacitors in parallel and their values are: 2pF. and 5pF The total value is 2pF + 3pF + 4pF + 5pF = 14pF -31- . The total capacitance in a capacitor series circuit is less than the lowest capacitor in the circuit.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. 3pF.
Oh the surface of a breadboard. The blue strips shown in the illustration are usually used for connecting the batteries and the green strips are for the components.1. Soldering .Discusses how to solder -32- . Breadboards are used for testing and experimenting with electronic circuits.2.Introduces the breadboard. The metal strips are laid out as shown below: Each strip is a connection.Basic of Electronics Chapter 5 Skills in Electronics 5. there are many holes for plugging in components: The bread board has many strips of metal which run underneath the board that connects the component. They are very convenient since all you have to do is plug in the components. 5. So whichever components connected to a certain strip are connected to eachother. Using Breadboards .
cut the leads at the proper length. Simply wait for the soldering iron to heat up. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use. Avoid breathing it by keeping you head to the side of. Before you solder. Now that you have your circuit boards. you must tin the tip. Stick the component's leads through the proper holes and bend it so that it'll stay still. Let the joint cool by itself. An ordinary plastic flex will melt immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock. to solder the components onto the board. Wash your hands after using solder. you can start soldering. Then apply the solder on the lead (not on the tip of the soldering iron). The smoke formed as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. Note that you'll probably want one unless you're the careful type and you're sure you won't burn up anything. and wipe it with a wet sponge. -33- . They are very hot (about 400°C) and will give you a nasty burn. Put the soldering iron tip so that it's touching the lead and the copper at the same time.Basic of Electronics First a few safety precautions: Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. The iron should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. even for a moment! Work in a well-ventilated area. your work. Never put it down on your workbench. apply a coat of solder on the tip. not above. Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. Now. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron. what you need: • • • Soldering iron (around 25W) 60/40 solder and optionally a soldering iron holder.
Basic of Electronics -34- .
This means a minimum of lead wrapping. The shape of the wire should be visible through the solder.The process should take only 2-3 seconds. When using printed circuit boards avoid bending wires flat on the board. (use a small vice or sticky tape). Allow the solder to run over the joint without moving the iron. The smoke you see is evaporating flux.(This means putting a small blob of solder on the tip of the bit). PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!! -35- . Tinning the bit. A dry joint is a poorly soldered one. Rest your hands on the workbench to steady them. Tin the bit for good heat conduction. Do not carry solder on the bit to the joint. Avoid overheating. Reflow soldering is tinning two pieces of wire separately and then reheating to join them together. Spring component leads out just slightly. frequently. A good joint is smooth and shiny. Take precautions against the work moving. Apply solder to the joint not to the iron. Remove the iron. If you have taken too long it will have have solder spikes. Heat the biggest part of the joint for 2-3 seconds. All soldered joints should be easily removable. If the joint has moved during soldering it will be dull and crinkly. Heating the joint and applying the solder Use a damp sponge. Hold the iron like a pen. which should normally clean the joint. to keep the bit clean.Basic of Electronics Cleaning the bit with a damp sponge. It makes them difficult to remove. to prevent them falling out during soldering. Remove the solder. Mount components so that value markings are visible.
together with other advice which may be useful when soldering. Components Chip Holders (DIL sockets) Pictures Reminders and Warnings Connect the correct way round by making sure the notch is at the correct end. Do NOT put the ICs (chips) in yet. Many must be placed the correct way round and a few are easily damaged by the heat from soldering. Make the blobs all the same size and shape.(c) If there are spikes on the joint. dull and crinkly in appearance. When you can produce good results proceed to the next part of the exercise. The solder must run along the copper track. not stand on it like a bead.Basic of Electronics Don't allow the blobs to run into each other. Appropriate warnings are given in the table below. (b) A bad joint is unevenly shaped. See (a). then you are taking too long to make the joint. Some components require special care when soldering. A good joint is smooth and shiny. 1 -36- .
near one lead.g. this is one solid wire which is plastic-coated. yes. Transistors have 3 'legs' (leads) so extra care is needed to ensure the connections are correct. Take care with germanium diodes (e. this has no plastic coating and looks just like solder but it is stiffer.Basic of Electronics No special precautions are needed with resistors. single core wire Battery clips.for cathode. it really is k. The diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . Take care with polystyrene capacitors because they are easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round. OA91) because they are easily damaged by heat. for cathode! The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. Use single core wire. Easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round. not c. They will be marked with a + or . Connect the correct way round. Connect the correct way round. 2 Resistors 3 Small value capacitors (usually less than 1µF) 4 Electrolytic capacitors (1µF and greater) 5 Diodes 6 LEDs 7 Transistors Wire Links between 8 points on the circuit board. buzzers 9 and other parts with their own wires -37- . Connect the correct way round. These may be connected either way round. If there is no danger of touching other parts you can use tinned copper wire.
Ensure the joint is completely desoldered by wriggling the wire with a pair of pliers to check for freeness. soldering iron and solder sucker (desoldering tool). Many ICs are static sensitive. Working on a double-sided PCB (where copper tracks are on both sides of the PCB) is more difficult and requires more care. cutters. There are two ways to remove the solder: -38- . Connect the correct way round. including 10 switches. Place the iron on top of the braid and allow the solder from the joint to run up the braid. Wires to parts off the circuit board.Check that all pins are loose on an integrated circuit. Carefully insert ICs in their holders: make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket then push down firmly with your thumb. Ensure the iron is tinned. Apply the solder sucker and remove the solder. relays. then earth your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the ICs. Take great care to avoid damage. an assembled printed circuit board may be worth several hundred pounds. then desolder the leads individually. stranded wire 11 ICs (chips) DESOLDERING COMPONENTS Tools required . At some stage you will probably need to desolder a joint to remove or re-position a wire or component. In some cases desoldering braid is useful.pliers. Ensure the iron bit is well tinned. Do not use single core wire because this will break when it is repeatedly flexed. If the operation is unsuccessful resolder the joint and then try again. variable resistors and loudspeakers.Basic of Electronics You should use stranded wire which is flexible and plasticcoated. This should only take two or three seconds. Place the braid on top of the joint. Components cost a few pence. Heat up the joint to be desoldered until the solder runs. It is often safer to cut the component leads and discard the component. Leave ICs in their antistatic packaging until you need them.
After removing most of the solder from the joint(s) you may be able to remove the wire or component lead straight away (allow a few seconds for it to cool).Basic of Electronics 1. Remove the wick first. Apply both the pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. -39- . then the soldering iron. Then press the button on the pump to release the plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool. Cut off and discard the end of the wick coated with solder. taking care to avoid burning yourself. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt. If the joint will not come apart easily apply your soldering iron to melt the remaining traces of solder at the same time as pulling the joint apart. As the solder melts most of it will flow onto the wick. Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible. With a desoldering pump (solder sucker) Set the pump by pushing the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks. away from the joint. The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle. With solder remover wick (copper braid) Apply both the end of the wick and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. 2.
This concern is not unfounded. -40- . and often many others. resistance. It can be daunting at first to use a meter. In the hands of someone ignorant and/or careless. the multimeter may become a source of danger when connected to a "live" circuit. however. Multimeters are so named because they have the ability to measure a multiple of variables: voltage. both for the sake of their own personal safety and for proficiency at their trade. knowing that you are connecting it to live circuits which may harbor life-threatening levels of voltage and current. The most common piece of electrical test equipment is a meter called the multimeter. current.Basic of Electronics Chapter 6 Safe Meter Usage Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most valuable skill an electronics technician can master. Carelessness more than any other factor is what causes experienced technicians to have electrical accidents. and it is always best to proceed cautiously when using meters.
The rotary selector switch (now set in the Off position) has five different measurement positions it can be set in: two "V" settings. The parallel lines represent "DC" while the squiggly curve represents "AC. to measure DC than it uses to measure AC. internally. this distinction in meter settings is an important one to bear in mind." The "V" of course stands for "voltage" while the "A" stands for "amperage" (current). and one setting in the middle with a funny-looking "horseshoe" symbol on it representing "resistance." The "horseshoe" symbol is the Greek letter "Omega" (Ω). you will notice that each pair is divided into unique markers with either a pair of horizontal lines (one solid. Although we haven't discussed alternating current (AC) in any technical detail. one dashed).Basic of Electronics You will notice that the display of this meter is of the "digital" type: showing numerical values using four digits in a manner similar to a digital clock. The wires are coated in a color-coded (either black or red) flexible insulation to prevent the user's hands from contacting the bare conductors. Test leads are nothing more than specially-prepared wires used to connect the meter to the circuit under test. and so it requires the user to select which type of voltage (V) or current (A) is to be measured. which is the common symbol for the electrical unit of ohms. Of the two "V" settings and two "A" settings. The meter uses different techniques. and the tips of the probes are sharp. stiff pieces of wire: -41- . There are three different sockets on the multimeter face into which we can plug our test leads. or a dashed line with a squiggly curve over it. two "A" settings.
First. depending on which quantity you intend to measure with the multimeter. or the red socket marked for current. To see how this works. we'll set up the meter to measure DC voltage from a battery: -42- .Basic of Electronics The black test lead always plugs into the black socket on the multimeter: the one marked "COM" for "common." The red test lead plugs into either the red socket marked for voltage and resistance. let's look at a couple of examples showing the meter in use.
creating a spark and perhaps even a ball of flame if the voltage source is capable of supplying enough current! The following image illustrates the potential for hazard: -43- . it is imperative that you not let the probe tips come in contact with one another while they are both in contact with their respective points on the circuit. If this happens. we'll take a look at an example of using the multimeter to measure AC voltage from a household electrical power receptacle (wall socket): The only difference in the setup of the meter is the placement of the selector switch: it is now turned to AC "V". Since we're still measuring voltage. a short-circuit will be formed. In both of these examples. and the selector switch has been set for DC "V".Basic of Electronics Note that the two test leads are plugged into the appropriate sockets on the meter for voltage. Now. the test leads will remain plugged in the same sockets.
Basic of Electronics This is just one of the ways that a meter can become a source of hazard if used improperly. when checking for the presence of hazardous voltage. both AC and DC voltages and currents can be deadly. As we have seen earlier. the meter should properly display the resistance in ohms: -44- . Also. Using a multimeter to check for resistance is a much simpler task. even if you're not expecting to find both! Also. so when using a multimeter as a safety check device you should always check for the presence of both AC and DC. Touching the probes across the device whose resistance is to be measured. but the selector switch will need to be turned until it points to the "horseshoe" resistance symbol. it must be remembered that digital multimeters usually do a good job of discriminating between AC and DC measurements. you should be sure to check all pairs of points in question. as they are set for one or the other when checking for voltage or current. The test leads will be kept plugged in the same sockets as for the voltage checks.
solid connection between the probe tips (simulated by touching them together). In a worse-case situation. it uses a small internal battery to generate a tiny current through the component to be measured. it would read exactly zero: -45- . The "resistance" mode of a multimeter is very useful in determining wire continuity as well as making precise measurements of resistance. By sensing how difficult it is to move this current through the component. the meter shows almost zero Ω. If there is any additional source of voltage in the meter-lead-component-lead-meter loop to either aid or oppose the resistance-measuring current produced by the meter. the meter may even be damaged by the external voltage.Basic of Electronics One very important thing to remember about measuring resistance is that it must only be done on de-energized components! When the meter is in "resistance" mode. faulty readings will result. When there is a good. the resistance of that component can be determined and displayed. If the test leads had no resistance in them.
In the voltage-measuring mode (red lead plugged into the red "V" socket). any additional resistance offered by the meter would impede the electron flow and alter the circuit's operation.Basic of Electronics If the leads are not in contact with each other. there are many mega-ohms of resistance -46- . the meter will indicate infinite resistance (usually by displaying dashed lines or the abbreviation "O. or touching opposite ends of a broken wire. Otherwise. it is best to have the meter offer little or no resistance against the flow of electrons.L. Thus. the multimeter is designed to have practically zero ohms of resistance between the test probe tips when the red probe has been plugged into the red "A" (current-measuring) socket. When measuring circuit current by placing the meter directly in the path of current." which stands for "open loop"): Another potential hazard of using a multimeter in its current-measuring ("ammeter") mode is failure to properly put it back into a voltage-measuring configuration before measuring voltage with it. The reasons for this are specific to ammeter design and operation.
if the meter is then connected across a source of substantial voltage -. because voltmeters are designed to have close to infinite resistance (so that they don't draw any appreciable current from the circuit under test). such as in the case illustrated in the last image.will be a short-circuit through the meter! To help prevent this. All good-quality multimeters contain fuses inside that are engineered to "blow" in the even of excessive current through them. these fuses are primarily designed to protect the equipment (in this case. most multimeters have a warning feature by which they beep if ever there's a lead plugged in the "A" socket and the selector switch is set to "V". and only secondarily to protect the user from harm.to voltage-measuring mode. the meter itself) from excessive damage. it's easy to spin the selector switch from the "A" to the "V" position and forget to correspondingly switch the position of the red test lead plug from "A" to "V". Like all overcurrent protection devices.Basic of Electronics between the test probe tips. A multimeter can be used to check its own current fuse by setting the selector switch to the resistance position and creating a connection between the two red sockets like this: -47- . The result -. As convenient as features like these are. they are still no substitute for clear thinking and caution when using a multimeter. When switching a multimeter from current. though.
The actual number of ohms displayed for a good fuse is of little consequence. so feel free to experiment on safe. battery-powered circuits. what more is there to know? Plenty! The value and capabilities of this versatile test instrument will become more evident as you gain skill and familiarity using it.Basic of Electronics A good fuse will indicate very little resistance while a blown fuse will always show "O. There is no substitute for regular practice with complex instruments such as these. resistance." (or whatever indication that model of multimeter uses to indicate no continuity). -48- . and current. so long as it's an arbitrarily low figure.L. So now that we've seen how to use a multimeter to measure voltage.
The ammeter has to be installed in the circuit (in series) so that it can measure all the current flow in that circuit.1. is an open circuit. 7. required for measuring computer circuits. High-impedance meters. Caution: An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit to measure the current flow in the circuit. open and zero readings are as follows: 0.2. indicating that there is continuity path for the current to flow in a closed circuit. A voltmeter is connected to a circuit in parallel. just as a water flow meter would measure the amount of water flow. and they are very unlikely to affect the circuit under test. All digital meters contain a battery to power the display so they use virtually no power from the circuit under test. 7. If a meter set to read amperes is connected in parallel. usually 10M. when the leads are connected to a component. All voltmeters have a large internal resistance so that the current flow through the meter will not effect the circuit being tested. To summarize. Measuring Resistance An ohmmeter measures the resistance in ohms of a component or circuit section when no current is flowing through the circuit.0 Ω = zero resistance OL = an open circuit (no current flows) 7. An ohmmeter contains a battery. This means that on their DC voltage ranges they have a very high resistance (usually called input impedance) of 1M or more. such as across a battery.Basic of Electronics Chapter 7 Using Digital Multimeter for Measurement and Testing of Electronic Components Digital multimeter and digital volt-ohm-miliamperemeter are terms commonly used for electronic high-impedance test meter. Infinity means no connection. Measuring Voltage A voltmeter measures potential of electricity in a units of volts. current flows through the test leads and the difference in voltage (voltage drop) between the lead is measured as resistance. -49- . Measuring Amperes An ammeter measures the flow of current through a complete circuit in unit of amperes. Zero ohms on the scale mean no resistance between test leads.3. the meter or the leads may be destroyed or the fuse will blow by the current available across the battery.
Basic of Electronics -50- .
4. positive end of the diode is connected to one probe and negative end to the other probe (11.1b. value should be very low. When we distance the probes. diode's anode is connected to the positive probe of the meter (red probe). Digital instrument has another method to test the diodes. diode is faulty. and very high in other direction.Basic of Electronics 7. either low or high in both directions. as shown on 11. and display tells 0. diode is ok if it's resistance value is very small in one. According to 11.4. Testing diode and Transistor with a multimeter When using an analog instrument to test a diode. It has it's own switch position. and a symbol for open circuit is displayed (this can be either 0L or 1).2. and in the other it should be very high. Testing Electronic Components 7. In the first case. -51- . When we connect probes to each other. When the multimeter shows low value. buzzing stops. multimeter should sound a buzz which signals a short circuit.2a). and should be replaced. and then it is turned around (11. If the value is equal to or near equal.1.2b).
Transistors are tested in a similar fashion.4c they are low. Both diodes should be tested in described way.3a). you do the same thing. but the measurements should be opposite: on 11. positive probe is connected to base. According to 11. since they act as two connected diodes. Diode is faulty if you hear a buzz (closed circuit) or some value which represents infinity. Then we rotate the diode and connect it again (11.Basic of Electronics Now we conenct probes to the diode (11.3b). one of the two measurements would have shown a value which represents a minimum voltage that could be conducted through the diode (between 400mV and 800mV). in both cases resistance should be low. only with switched probes. and if both of them are functional – transistor is functional as well. both cases should produce a high value on the meter. After that. When testing PNP transistors. and the anode is the end of the diode which is connected to probe A (red one). and on 11. all steps are the same.4a they are high.4b. If the measured diode was ok. negative probe is connected to the base and you test collector and emitter with a positive probe. -52- . and the negative probe is first at the collector and then emitter afterwards.
high power means low resistance. and a -53- . In case when there is a need to test high power transistors. it is a certain sign that the coil is either poorly connected or the curls are disconnected at some point. where the principle of inverse relations is still in place. Infinite resistance still means disconnected coil. as displayed on 11.Basic of Electronics If you test transistors using a digital instrument. If. thin wires (0. this means that the collector current is 74 times higher than the base current. and is wound using a thinner wire. process remains similar to the one with diodes. There is.4. Eexceptions are electrolithic and very high value block capacitors. transistor BC140 is tested. Capacitors DC capacitors should produce an infinite value on the instrument. 7. Coils can be tested in the same way as transformers – through their resistance. even to kiloohms (in low power transformers). Transformers and coils Grid transofrmers are tested by measuring the resistance of the copper wire on the primary and secondary coil. for example.4.8mm will do fine) should be soldered to transistor's pins and then plugged into the instrument.4. and the display shows 74. transistor is plugged into specified slot according to it's type (PNP or NPN) and the switch on the instrument is brought into position with a hFE marking. In case transistor works. and it's value lays in range between several tens of ohms (in high power transofrmers) to several hundreds of ohms.5. display shows a value which represents the current amplification coefficient. All principles remain the same as with transformers. a special plug where low and medium power transistors fit nicely. As displayed on 11. When the positive end of an electrolithic capacitor is connected to a positive probe of an analog instrument. 7. Secondary resistance is lower and is in range between several ohms to several tens of ohms. it's resistance is higher. Many modern day digital multimeters have a tool for direct transistor check.5. Since the primary coil has more curls than the secondary one. In case an instrument shows an infinite value. Each diode should produce a value between 400mV and 800mV.3.
speaker is broken. Same goes for headphones and dynamic microphones. not much of attention is being paid to the value shown on the actual instrument. which simplifies the process to comparing the value on the capacitor to the one on the display. Needle should point infinity at all times. any other value means that the component is faulty. -54- .) Variable capacitors are tested by connecting an ohm-meter to them.4. Of course. or a pot. their variable coil has either 4 or 8Ohms in most cases. 7.7. If there is no noise. and values should do what component's name says – vary. and the needle's movement is the charge stored in the component being discharged.Basic of Electronics negative end to a negative probe. (Even small capacitance components get charged while testing. Testing process is shown on 12. With this said. Other Semiconductor Devices To test diodes using this circuit. and turning the rotor. There are digital instruments that have the ability to measure capacitance. process is rather simple – you connect the component to probes of an ohm-meter and turn the shaft. but this is not a good solution since it is weak and short-lived.6 Speakers. so the needle doesn't have the time to move. Potentiometers To test a potentiometer. (“Noisy” pot can be repaired using a special spray. because by only connecting the probes there should be a short noise heard. it is worth mentionig that the capacitors have considerably wider tolerance than resistors.4. When using an analog instrument on the speakers. This is a proof that the capacitor is ok.5. speakers would produce loud noise or no sound at all while pot is being turned. sound is lower because in that direction diode acts as a high value resistor. Electret microphones don't produce the noise. If that component was to be used in some audio amplifier. needle jumps to the lowest value and then gradually comes back towards infinity. which goes even to 20%. this behavior should be linear – jumps and twitches in values mean that the component is not working as supposed to. but their discharge time is very short. whole diode acts as a low value resistor. because any other value is a certain signal that the plates of the rotor and stator are connected which means that the component doesn't work. and should be practiced only if there is no replacement for that potentiometer) 7. which means that speaker sound is higher than usual. On the other hand. or a variable resistor. headphones and microphones When testing speakers. in the opposite direction. we fall back to the diode theory of operation: when anode is positive comparing to the cathode (red probe on anode. 7. black on cathode).4.4. and the meter should show those values. or oil or even a graphite pencil. And another source of trouble could be the built-in FET amplifier.
or if it “plays” in one of the second two measurements.4a). As you can see. transistor is functional as well as shown on 12.7. Probe A is connected to the collector of the transistor. or diode's anode or one side of the photo resistor. if the transistor is ok.5. everything is in order. If this continues when the component is shadowed using your palm. In both cases. “music” would have been heard.6. if there is no music now. and then probe B is connected first to the emitter. and the other one is connected to transistor's emitter or diode's cathode or the other resistor's side and some kind of sound should be heard from the speaker. which is shown on 12. and then to the collector. photo transistors and diodes is NL-NM (or. transistor is faulty if speaker remains silent in the first two measurements. FET testing is done in similar fashion as testing the bipolar transistors. probe A is connected to the base. We displayed graphically the method of testing photo sensitive components on 12. One principle that is applicable when testing the photo resistors. A goes where B was connected to and vice versa. everything is in functional order. -55- .Basic of Electronics DC transistor acts in the same fashion as two connected diodes (11. We then switch probe connections. No Light – No Music). So. If both diodes are functional.
This may be easier and more accurately done using regular ohmmeter on your multimeter. or open switches. And from the sound frequency one is possible to tell which coil is primary and which is secondary. transformers. like capacitors. like different electro motors. or two copper wires on the circuit board which shouldn't be connected.4. With transformers with several secondary coils there is a possibility to find beginning and the end of each of them. it is apparent that different resistance values give different output sound.Basic of Electronics 7. transformers and such conduct electricity. but your nerd level will certainly rise sky high if you are able to tell resistor's value from bare sound. If component doesn't conduct electricity. Base rule is: if component is intended to conduct electricity. Checking other components Many other components may be tested using this instrument. sound will be heard. -56- . speakers. So with some experience using this instrument on various resistors it will be possible to tell the resistance of the resistor in question from only the generated sound. headphones. fuses. Components which have coils in them. so absence of sound while testing tells of some coil connection failure. coils. then music would have not been heard. This is the case with resistors. When testing different resistors.8. closed switches.
where higher values give longer sound time. Length of playing depends on the capacitance of the component. which allows for a crude approximation of the component's capacitance. especially the larger ones. An exception are electrolithic and block capacitors. -57- .Basic of Electronics Functional capacitor will generate no music. Tone generated by connecting these capacitors to the instrument will change in level and frequency and fade until completely off when capacitor is discharged.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.