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BASIC OF ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS STUDENTS
Basic of Electronics
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
• • • • • •
Atoms and Electrical Charge Current. Voltage. Power Resistance Ohm's Law
1.1. Atoms and Electrical Charge - Discusses the structure of atoms.
Figure 1-1. Model of an Atom Atoms are the building blocks of all matter. They are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every electron has a small negative (-) charge. The proton has the same amount of charge except that it is the opposite, positive (+) charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral and have no charge. The protons and neutrons are located in the center of atoms forming what is called the nucleus and the electrons revolve around them. It is very important to know that particles of like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract. For example, two protons or two electrons will repel each other. However, a proton and a electron will attract. That is how the electrons are held inside the atom. The attraction between the electrons and protons keeps the electrons in orbit much like the gravitational attraction between the sun and its planets.
Basic of Electronics
Figure 1-2. Interaction between electrons and protons Electricity is the flow of electrons so it is necessary to measure the charge. The basic unit for measuring charge is the coulomb or the letter C. 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons!!! 1C = 6.25x10^18 electrons 1.2. Current - Introduces current and ampere. Electric current is the amount of electrons, or charge, moving past a point every second. It is basically the speed of electron flow. The faster the electrons flow, the higher the current.
Figure 1-3. Electron Flow Current is represented by the letter I. The basic unit for measuring current is ampere. Ampere can be abbreviated to amp or just A. 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec Meaning for every amp, there are 6.25x10^18 electrons moving past a point every second. 1.3. Voltage - Potential difference and voltage To make sense of voltage, we will need to make an analogy. Lets imagine that electrons are represented by a marble on a flat plane. At this point, the plane is level and the marble does not move. If the plane is lifted at one side, the marble will roll down to the lower point.
Basic of Electronics Figure 1-4. Analogy electron with a marble In electricity, the high point is a point with lots of electrons and the low point is a point with a lack of electrons. The high point is called the high potential and the low point is the low potential. The difference between these two points is called the potential difference. The larger the potential difference, the larger the voltage.
Figure 1-5. Energy potential Voltage can be thought of as the measure of the pressure pushing the electrons. The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage. Voltage is represented by the letter E. The basic unit of measure is volts or the letter V. One volt will push 1 amp of current through 1 ohm of resistance. Resistance will be discussed in a later section.
1.4. Power - Discusses power or the amount of work a circuit is doing. Power is simply the amount of energy used or the amount of "work" a circuit is doing. Power is represented by the letter P. The basic unit for measuring power is watts or the letter W. To find power, all you need is a simple equation: P=EI or Power equals voltage times current. For example, if E = 9V I = 0.5A then P = 9 * 0.5 P = 4.5W
Basic of Electronics 1.5. Resistance - Discusses electron flow, materials, and the ohm unit. To better understand what resistance is, you must first get an idea of how electrons flow. When an electron is knocked out of an atom, it will fly off and hit another atom. If the electron strikes the atom with enough force, it will knock off another electron. The atom that was just knocked off will hit another atom and so forth.
Figure 1-6. Two electrons Note that every time an electron strikes another, it is transferring its energy. Some of the energy is converted into heat every time it is transferred. The voltage will drop as the energy is transferred over long distances. Thus a long wire has a higher resistance than a short wire. Some materials - such as copper and silver - does not hold on to its electrons very tightly. Therefore it doesn't require much energy to knock off an electron. These materials are called conductors and has a very low resistance to electron flow. Materials such as clay and plastics hold on to their electrons more tightly than conductors. It takes more energy to knock off an electron from these materials. These materials are called insulators and has a high resistance to electron flow. Now, you must understand that this is NOT how electrons really flow; It serves only as something for you to work with. To really know how electrons flow, which we will not get into, you will need to study quantum physics. Resistance is represented by the letter R. The basic unit of measure is ohm or the symbol (Greek omega). In the next section (Ohm's Law), we will show you the relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Resistance will also be further discussed as we introduce the resistor.
1.6. Ohm's Law - The relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. The German physicist, George Simon Ohm, established that voltage in volt, electrical resistance in ohms, and ampereres flowing through any circuit are all related. Ohms’s law states:
Ohm law camn also be sated as asimple formula to calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known.Basic of Electronics It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance. I=E/R Where: I= Current in ampere (A) E= Voltage in volt (V) R= Resistance in ohms (Ω) -6- .
both of which will be discussed in the components section. the second resistor will be called R2. The triangle in the circle represents the light emitting diode and the wavy lines represent the resistor -. Each type of component has a unique symbol and a name (usually 1-2 letters). It is a simple and easy to read outline of the circuit. the 4 horizontal lines. That's all it is to schematic diagrams. Below is an example of a schematic diagram: Figure 2-1 A simple schematic diagram As you can see. Note the "R1" next to the resistor symbol and "R1 470 ohm" below the diagram. Can you guess which is the battery? Yes. All relevant values and component specific information are usually included. This tells you what value to use for that component. and the thing with the wavy lines. It's not that tough right? -7- . the triangle in a circle. this diagram has 3 components: the thing with 4 horizontal lines.Basic of Electronics Chapter 2: Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows how each component connect with another. If there was a second resistor.
it tells you how many zeros to put after the significant figures.A component that resist the flow of electrons.Basic of Electronics Chapter 3: Electronics Component • • • • • • Resistors . Integrated circuits . To get the value of a resistor. Resistors .A component that resist the flow of electrons. A 5% tolerance (gold band) for example.1.A component used for switching and amplifying. -8- . hold the resistor so that the tolerance band is on the right. The color bands around the resistors are color codes that tell you its resistance value. Transistors . 3. For most applications. Diodes . As its name implies.An overview of integrated circuits Switches . Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in electronics.simply write down the numbers represented by the colors.Discusses the different configurations of switches. They are used to add resistance to a circuit. Put them all together and you have the value. a resistor within 5% tolerance should be sufficient. resistors resist the flow of electrons. The first two color bands from the left are the significant figures . The tolerance bands indicates the accuracy of the values.A mini recharable battery. Recall that resistance is measured in ohms. Capacitors . The third band is the multiplier . indicates that the resistor will be within 5% of its value.A "one way street" for electrons.
and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them. Resistors have a wattage rating.7 5.6 6. 1000. Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value. One last important note about resistors is their wattage rating. Resistors generate heat.000 ohms is 3. You should not use a 1/4 watt resistor in a circuit that has more than 1/4 watt of power flowing. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate.2 This mean that 1 ohm. Most resistors are color coded to indicate their value and tolerance. 12 ohm. it is okay to use a 1/2 watt resistor in a 1/4 watt circuit. For example.7 3. They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits. Figure 3-1 Schematic and Symbol of Resistor The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available. it is NOT okay to use a 1/4 watt resistor in a 1/2 watt circuit. They never go short circuit. Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. These are 1. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1. 3. 4 band resistors(the ones discussed here) are the most common and should work for most projects. 2200 ohm resistors etc are available.8 8.8 2.3 3. High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily. 180 ohm. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated. They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS. 1000 ohms is 1k. However.0 1.2 1.000 ohms is 1M. 3. (color would change with heat). However.9 4.3M etc.Basic of Electronics NOTE: There are resistors with more bands and other types for specific applications. -9- .8k as 1K8 etc.300. Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks).2 2.
7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available. Once adjusted. Examples are volume and brightness controls. -10- . These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel. Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver. 3.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4.2. Figure 3-4 a pair plate of Capacitor This insulator is called the dielectric.A mini rechargeable battery. Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator. F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0.Basic of Electronics On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters. Capacitors . they are never touched again.
000 and pico = 1/1. This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current. • Ceramic capacitors are brown and has a disc shape.000. These capacitors are polarized so you must connect the negative side in the right place. Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity.Capacitors can be charged and discharged. The amount of charge that a capacitor can hold is measured in Farads or the letter F. Capacitors are the second most commonly used component in electronics. To find the value. However.000pF = 0. These capacitors are measured in pF. If it is necessary.000.0000001F DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit. 1F is too large for capacitors. The value of the resistor as well as the negative side is clearly printed on the capacitor. The first 2 digit are the significant figures and the third digit is the multiplier.000. These capacitors are measured in µF. Thus we have ceramic.Basic of Electronics Capacitor types are named after the dielectric. They can be thought of as tiny rechargeable batteries -. so microfarads(µF) and picofarads(pF) are used. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value. Figure 3-2 Ceramic Capacitor • Electrolytic Capacitors has a cylinder shape. -11- . mica. meaning that you can connect them in any way. you simply decode the 3 digit number on the surface of the capacitor.000 So 100. polyester. micro = 1/1. We will only be discussing two types of the most commonly used capacitors: Ceramic and Electrolytic. These capacitors are nonpolarized.1µF = 0. The coding is just like the resistor color codes except that they used numbers instead of colors.000. paper air capacitors etc. similar to a car battery.
102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-3 Electrolytic Capacitor They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier. A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value. There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode which similar characteristics. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round. For example. There can be some confusion. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value. To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used. Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised. Figure 3-4 Color band on Capacitor Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them. Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors. These merge into one wide red band.1 uF. They are marked to indicate polarity.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. -12- .
3 Diodes . Zener diodes have a set voltage rating. Light Emitting Diodes (LED for short) are just like the regular diodes except that it lights up when electrons are flowing through. Zener Diodes. one pin is longer then the other. Note: there aren't any bands to identify which pin is anode and which is cathode. Figure 3-7 Symbol of LED -13- .Basic of Electronics Figure 3-5 Symbol of fix and variable capacitor 3.A "one way street" for electrons. The longer pin is the anode. The cathode side of the diode is marked with a band around it. When a voltage exceeds the voltage rating going the opposite direction (from anode to cathode). Diodes flow from cathode to anode. the positive side. Diodes let electrons flow through them only in one direction. the diode allows the electrons flow. However. and Light Emitting Diodes. Figure 3-6 Diodes and its symbol There are basically three different types of diodes: Diodes.
Basic of Electronics Diodes are polarised. It can show when the power is on. -14- . Figure 3-8 Mark indicator in Diodes The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. Figure 3-9 Some diode circuit symbols LED The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. an anode and a cathode. Diodes have two connections. If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. act as a warning indicator. which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a type valve). Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. or be part of trendy jewelry etc. They are often marked with a type number. ring or some other mark. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED). The cathode is always identified by a dot. A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other.
From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor. 0. The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts.4.02 amps). The diode is in series with the resistor. so be sure to check the packaging when purchasing. Transistors -A component used for switching and amplifying. The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body. base. The transistor is a three terminal solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification.02 =500 ohms.02 amps. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections. collector. voltage stabilization. as shown in the diagram. There aren't any standards for where and what order the physical pins are on the transistors. switching. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts. We will discuss two types of transistors: PNP and NPN transistors. We now know the voltage across. Figure 3-10 Transistors -15- . Transistors are used as switches and amplifiers. signal modulation and many other functions. with the anode positive and the cathode negative. In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. and the current through the resistor.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-9 LED circuit It needs to be fed from a DC supply. Both of these transistors has 3 pins: emitter. so the current through then both is the same. 3.
ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body. Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. Most common are 8. When soldering. Inside them is a tiny piece of semiconductor(usually silicon) with large circuits built in. -16- . When handling them. When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. in order to fit it into the board (or socket). Figure 3-11 Symbol of PNP Transistors The NPN transistor is the opposite: The collector must be more positive than the base and the emitter leads to the negative.An overview of integrated circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are usually referred to as chips. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. the following must apply: The emitter is more positive than the base and the collector leads to the negative. Figure 3-12 Symbol of NPN Transistors 3.5. or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board. When satisfied. or 16 pin dual in line (dil) chips. 14. Integrated circuits (IC) . solder the remaining pins. If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat. discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed. such as a radiator. Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies.Basic of Electronics To allow electrons to flow through the collector and emitter of a PNP transistor.
(logic gates will be discussed in a later section). most contain logic gate circuits. Audio amplifiers These are used to amplify audio. If not.Basic of Electronics There are millions of different integrated circuits. Most IC's come with pinout information and how to use it. Operational Amplifiers These are amplifiers. Comparators These IC's compare inputs and gives an output. Other There are thousands of other types. Works very much like transistor amplifier circuits. In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. to increase the voltage available. Batteries Batteries are assembled from cells. you'll need one of those large reference books that have info on most of the IC's. A primary cell is discarded when its chemical -17- . Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types.6. connected in series. Switches Switching IC's are also very much like the switching circuits of transistors. • • • • • • 3. Timers These are counting IC's used for circuits that counts or needs to keep track of time. The general types of integrated circuits include: Figure 3-12 Symbol of IC • Logic circuits These IC's are basically decision makers. A lot of IC's are made for a special purpose like digital sound recording.
The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad). A secondary cell can be recharged. Figure 3-14 Internal Resistance of Battery When current is taken from a battery. The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE. -18- . Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger. portable radios etc. Figure 3-13 Symbol of Battery The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity. The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working. voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls. Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger. Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases.Basic of Electronics energy is exhausted.
then the primary must supply 24 watts. If the current is reduced. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. As it does this. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING. if the secondary has half the primary turns. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. i. -19- . Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD. If the current is increased. the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. this will happen 50 times a second.1 amp. Assuming a perfect transformer. It occurs in any type of power supply. with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. (Watts = volts x amps).-----------------------Number of secondary turns For example. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then.e.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-15 Voltage-Current characteristics of Battery This is called POOR REGULATION.7. then the turns ratio is 10:1. Transformer If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil. Primary voltage --------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns = ----------. a voltage is induced in the second coil. as the field moves out or in. the lines of force move outwards from the coil. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply . the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. the lines of force move inwards. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns. 3. the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet.
Basic of Electronics To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. the core is LAMINATED. into this core. Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. Since the primary would induce power. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. or no core at all. or in the other direction. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core. Figure 3-15 Diagram of Transformers -20- . called EDDY CURRENTS.
10 Mhz. There are 3 commonly used configurations: SPST. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current. Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire. SPST = Single Pole. Single Throw This is a two terminal switch that opens and closes a circuit. Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz. The former may contain a metallic core up its centre. It simply connects and disconnect a circuit. Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. This section gives an overview of the contact configurations.Basic of Electronics 3. They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting. This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE. -21- . SPDT = Single Pole.9. Switches really don't need any introduction. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES. and DPDT.8 Inductor Inductors are coils of wire. Switches Discusses the different configurations of switches. SPDT. above 1 Mhz only a few turns. At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. Double Throw This is a three terminal switch that connects one terminal to either of the other two. Figure 3-16 Diagrams of Inductors 3. Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting.
The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously.Basic of Electronics DPDT = Double Pole. Fig. This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. Double Throw This is a six terminal switch that connects a pair of terminals to either of the other two pairs. -22- . 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit. 2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position. Fig. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position. Fig.
5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch. The Fuse The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current. When operated a-b opens and b-c closes. Therefore special antisurge fuses are fitted. Fig. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value. Fig. These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch. Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it.10. 8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. push to break". If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere. Here are assorted switch types. The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. Fig. Occasionly they grow tired and fail. 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. It can select 1 of 5 circuits. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. (2) a "normally open. You can have 2p 5w. Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-WaferProximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-RockerDimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-FootThermal-Hall effect 3. push to make". The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply. 3p 4w etc. Figure 3-17 Fuse Configuration in circuit -23- .Basic of Electronics Fig. 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. If the current rises above this value it will melt. Fig.
It is also known as an inverter circuit. -24- . This section describes the different types of gates and their symbols: • AND gate To get an output of 1. one or more of its inputs must be at a value of 0. • OR gate To get an output of 1.11.Basic of Electronics 3. all inputs must be at a value of 0. They take binary inputs and and gives out a binary result. its input must be at a value of 0. both inputs must be at a value of 1. Logic IC's contain these and other types of gates. Gates Gates are logic circuits. • NOR gate To get an output of 1. This gate only has one input. 1(one) is represented by a positive electrical value and 0(zero) is represented by no electricity at all. • NOT gate To get an output of 1. • NAND gate To get an output of 1. one or more inputs must be at a value of 1.
Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up your amplifier. Therefore two speakers are used. When using two speakers together. To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker. -25- . When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil. The movement of the coil causes a cone. Figure 3-18 Diagrams of Speaker The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. In the diagram. a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies. Loudspeaker The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker. Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes). which is attached to the coil. as in stereo systems. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier (see the page on REACTANCE and IMPEDANCE). to move back and forth. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves. Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance. (there is a page on FILTERS).11. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter. Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. C2 and L2 are a high pass filter. where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet.Basic of Electronics 3. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly. they must be in phase. The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. This means that they move out and in together. and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies. typically 4 or 8 ohms. The design of enclosures is very complicated. Loudspeakers have Impedance. a Crossover Unit is used.
Basic of Electronics Figure 3-19 Woofer and Tweeter configuration 3. to form an electromagnet. Figure 3-20 Electromagnetic Relay The magnetised core attracts the iron armature. When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released. by passing current through it. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. wound on an iron core. When the coil is energised. -26- . the core becomes temporarily magnetised. Electromagnetic relay The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil.12.
001 micro u 0.000. Practice converting one to another.000.000. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil.c and c.001 nano n 0.000. Value Multiplier In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values.000 kilo K 1.000. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source.000 milli m 0.000. The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation.000.000.000.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad.000. -27- .o. This can damage other components in the circuit.Basic of Electronics The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply.000.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad. 3.000. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above.000 mega M 1.000.000.13. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available.000.001 pico p 0.000.000. Figure 3-20 Relay position The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n. and 0.000 giga G 1.o n. To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil.001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLICATION FACTOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tera T 1. There are 1. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS. For example 1000.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz.
Basic of Electronics CIRCUIT SYMBOLS -28- .
Basic of Electronics -29- .
Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel 4. To calculate what the total resistance is. Resistors in Parallel .in other words.2.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. Resistors in Series . Capacitors in Series . 4.3. Capacitors in Parallel .1. we mean connecting one resistor after the other: To find the TOTAL resistance. So what is a series circuit? A series circuit means connecting components one after the other.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. So when we say "Resistors in series". Resistors in Parallel .Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series.Basic of Electronics Chapter 4 Circuit Concepts • • • • Resistors in Series . in a parallel circuit? The result is the total resistance being lower than the lowest resistor. Capacitors in Series -30- .Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel. What happens when resistors are placed side by side -. you must use this equation: Rt = (R1 * R2) / (R1 + R2) 4. simply add up the resistance of the resistors in the series circuit.
Basic of Electronics . 3pF. use the following equation: Ct = (C1 * C2) / (C1 + C2) Notice that it's the same equation as resistors in parallel Capacitors in Parallel . 4pF. how do you find the total capacitance of capactors in parallel? Right! You just add it up! So if there are 4 capacitors in parallel and their values are: 2pF. Unlike resistors in series. and 5pF The total value is 2pF + 3pF + 4pF + 5pF = 14pF -31- .Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. The total capacitance in a capacitor series circuit is less than the lowest capacitor in the circuit. To find the total capacitance. capacitors in series lowers the total capacitance.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel Now if capacitors in series uses the same equation as resistors in parallel.
Using Breadboards . Soldering . Breadboards are used for testing and experimenting with electronic circuits. The blue strips shown in the illustration are usually used for connecting the batteries and the green strips are for the components.1. Oh the surface of a breadboard. there are many holes for plugging in components: The bread board has many strips of metal which run underneath the board that connects the component.Discusses how to solder -32- . So whichever components connected to a certain strip are connected to eachother. 5. The metal strips are laid out as shown below: Each strip is a connection. They are very convenient since all you have to do is plug in the components.Basic of Electronics Chapter 5 Skills in Electronics 5.Introduces the breadboard.2.
what you need: • • • Soldering iron (around 25W) 60/40 solder and optionally a soldering iron holder. not above. you must tin the tip. The smoke formed as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use. Let the joint cool by itself. Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. -33- . Now that you have your circuit boards. cut the leads at the proper length. and wipe it with a wet sponge. Wash your hands after using solder. you can start soldering. Simply wait for the soldering iron to heat up. your work. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron.Basic of Electronics First a few safety precautions: Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. even for a moment! Work in a well-ventilated area. An ordinary plastic flex will melt immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock. Never put it down on your workbench. Note that you'll probably want one unless you're the careful type and you're sure you won't burn up anything. Now. The iron should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. to solder the components onto the board. Stick the component's leads through the proper holes and bend it so that it'll stay still. Avoid breathing it by keeping you head to the side of. apply a coat of solder on the tip. They are very hot (about 400°C) and will give you a nasty burn. Then apply the solder on the lead (not on the tip of the soldering iron). Put the soldering iron tip so that it's touching the lead and the copper at the same time. Before you solder.
Basic of Electronics -34- .
If you have taken too long it will have have solder spikes.The process should take only 2-3 seconds. Remove the iron. Do not carry solder on the bit to the joint. Spring component leads out just slightly. The shape of the wire should be visible through the solder. Rest your hands on the workbench to steady them. frequently. A good joint is smooth and shiny. All soldered joints should be easily removable. A dry joint is a poorly soldered one.(This means putting a small blob of solder on the tip of the bit). (use a small vice or sticky tape). PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!! -35- . Mount components so that value markings are visible.Basic of Electronics Cleaning the bit with a damp sponge. to prevent them falling out during soldering. Reflow soldering is tinning two pieces of wire separately and then reheating to join them together. If the joint has moved during soldering it will be dull and crinkly. Take precautions against the work moving. Apply solder to the joint not to the iron. to keep the bit clean. When using printed circuit boards avoid bending wires flat on the board. Tin the bit for good heat conduction. Hold the iron like a pen. which should normally clean the joint. It makes them difficult to remove. Allow the solder to run over the joint without moving the iron. The smoke you see is evaporating flux. Heating the joint and applying the solder Use a damp sponge.This means a minimum of lead wrapping. Remove the solder. Heat the biggest part of the joint for 2-3 seconds. Tinning the bit. Avoid overheating.
not stand on it like a bead.(c) If there are spikes on the joint. 1 -36- . Many must be placed the correct way round and a few are easily damaged by the heat from soldering.Basic of Electronics Don't allow the blobs to run into each other. Do NOT put the ICs (chips) in yet. together with other advice which may be useful when soldering. Make the blobs all the same size and shape. See (a). Some components require special care when soldering. dull and crinkly in appearance. A good joint is smooth and shiny. (b) A bad joint is unevenly shaped. Components Chip Holders (DIL sockets) Pictures Reminders and Warnings Connect the correct way round by making sure the notch is at the correct end. The solder must run along the copper track. Appropriate warnings are given in the table below. then you are taking too long to make the joint. When you can produce good results proceed to the next part of the exercise.
Connect the correct way round. They will be marked with a + or . Use single core wire. it really is k. buzzers 9 and other parts with their own wires -37- . this is one solid wire which is plastic-coated. this has no plastic coating and looks just like solder but it is stiffer. Easily damaged by heat. not c. Connect the correct way round.near one lead. Take care with polystyrene capacitors because they are easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round. These may be connected either way round.g.for cathode. yes. OA91) because they are easily damaged by heat. for cathode! The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. If there is no danger of touching other parts you can use tinned copper wire. Connect the correct way round. Connect the correct way round. Transistors have 3 'legs' (leads) so extra care is needed to ensure the connections are correct. 2 Resistors 3 Small value capacitors (usually less than 1µF) 4 Electrolytic capacitors (1µF and greater) 5 Diodes 6 LEDs 7 Transistors Wire Links between 8 points on the circuit board.Basic of Electronics No special precautions are needed with resistors. The diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . single core wire Battery clips. Take care with germanium diodes (e.
Place the iron on top of the braid and allow the solder from the joint to run up the braid. then earth your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the ICs. an assembled printed circuit board may be worth several hundred pounds. Place the braid on top of the joint. Heat up the joint to be desoldered until the solder runs. Wires to parts off the circuit board. This should only take two or three seconds. cutters. Do not use single core wire because this will break when it is repeatedly flexed. If the operation is unsuccessful resolder the joint and then try again. soldering iron and solder sucker (desoldering tool).Check that all pins are loose on an integrated circuit. There are two ways to remove the solder: -38- . Ensure the iron is tinned. At some stage you will probably need to desolder a joint to remove or re-position a wire or component.Basic of Electronics You should use stranded wire which is flexible and plasticcoated. then desolder the leads individually. Leave ICs in their antistatic packaging until you need them.pliers. including 10 switches. Apply the solder sucker and remove the solder. variable resistors and loudspeakers. Components cost a few pence. stranded wire 11 ICs (chips) DESOLDERING COMPONENTS Tools required . Carefully insert ICs in their holders: make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket then push down firmly with your thumb. In some cases desoldering braid is useful. Take great care to avoid damage. Ensure the joint is completely desoldered by wriggling the wire with a pair of pliers to check for freeness. Connect the correct way round. relays. It is often safer to cut the component leads and discard the component. Working on a double-sided PCB (where copper tracks are on both sides of the PCB) is more difficult and requires more care. Ensure the iron bit is well tinned. Many ICs are static sensitive.
taking care to avoid burning yourself. With solder remover wick (copper braid) Apply both the end of the wick and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt.Basic of Electronics 1. away from the joint. Then press the button on the pump to release the plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool. As the solder melts most of it will flow onto the wick. -39- . Apply both the pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. 2. Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible. Cut off and discard the end of the wick coated with solder. then the soldering iron. If the joint will not come apart easily apply your soldering iron to melt the remaining traces of solder at the same time as pulling the joint apart. The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle. After removing most of the solder from the joint(s) you may be able to remove the wire or component lead straight away (allow a few seconds for it to cool). Remove the wick first. With a desoldering pump (solder sucker) Set the pump by pushing the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks.
knowing that you are connecting it to live circuits which may harbor life-threatening levels of voltage and current. Multimeters are so named because they have the ability to measure a multiple of variables: voltage. however. current. both for the sake of their own personal safety and for proficiency at their trade. In the hands of someone ignorant and/or careless. Carelessness more than any other factor is what causes experienced technicians to have electrical accidents. the multimeter may become a source of danger when connected to a "live" circuit. This concern is not unfounded. The most common piece of electrical test equipment is a meter called the multimeter. and it is always best to proceed cautiously when using meters. and often many others. -40- .Basic of Electronics Chapter 6 Safe Meter Usage Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most valuable skill an electronics technician can master. It can be daunting at first to use a meter. resistance.
or a dashed line with a squiggly curve over it. The wires are coated in a color-coded (either black or red) flexible insulation to prevent the user's hands from contacting the bare conductors. Of the two "V" settings and two "A" settings. The parallel lines represent "DC" while the squiggly curve represents "AC. and so it requires the user to select which type of voltage (V) or current (A) is to be measured. internally. The meter uses different techniques. this distinction in meter settings is an important one to bear in mind. one dashed). There are three different sockets on the multimeter face into which we can plug our test leads. Test leads are nothing more than specially-prepared wires used to connect the meter to the circuit under test." The "horseshoe" symbol is the Greek letter "Omega" (Ω)." The "V" of course stands for "voltage" while the "A" stands for "amperage" (current).Basic of Electronics You will notice that the display of this meter is of the "digital" type: showing numerical values using four digits in a manner similar to a digital clock. and one setting in the middle with a funny-looking "horseshoe" symbol on it representing "resistance. stiff pieces of wire: -41- . two "A" settings. to measure DC than it uses to measure AC. The rotary selector switch (now set in the Off position) has five different measurement positions it can be set in: two "V" settings. which is the common symbol for the electrical unit of ohms. Although we haven't discussed alternating current (AC) in any technical detail. you will notice that each pair is divided into unique markers with either a pair of horizontal lines (one solid. and the tips of the probes are sharp.
First." The red test lead plugs into either the red socket marked for voltage and resistance. let's look at a couple of examples showing the meter in use. depending on which quantity you intend to measure with the multimeter. we'll set up the meter to measure DC voltage from a battery: -42- .Basic of Electronics The black test lead always plugs into the black socket on the multimeter: the one marked "COM" for "common. To see how this works. or the red socket marked for current.
the test leads will remain plugged in the same sockets. In both of these examples.Basic of Electronics Note that the two test leads are plugged into the appropriate sockets on the meter for voltage. it is imperative that you not let the probe tips come in contact with one another while they are both in contact with their respective points on the circuit. a short-circuit will be formed. Now. and the selector switch has been set for DC "V". we'll take a look at an example of using the multimeter to measure AC voltage from a household electrical power receptacle (wall socket): The only difference in the setup of the meter is the placement of the selector switch: it is now turned to AC "V". Since we're still measuring voltage. If this happens. creating a spark and perhaps even a ball of flame if the voltage source is capable of supplying enough current! The following image illustrates the potential for hazard: -43- .
even if you're not expecting to find both! Also. but the selector switch will need to be turned until it points to the "horseshoe" resistance symbol. Also. As we have seen earlier. it must be remembered that digital multimeters usually do a good job of discriminating between AC and DC measurements. so when using a multimeter as a safety check device you should always check for the presence of both AC and DC. the meter should properly display the resistance in ohms: -44- . Using a multimeter to check for resistance is a much simpler task.Basic of Electronics This is just one of the ways that a meter can become a source of hazard if used improperly. both AC and DC voltages and currents can be deadly. The test leads will be kept plugged in the same sockets as for the voltage checks. when checking for the presence of hazardous voltage. Touching the probes across the device whose resistance is to be measured. you should be sure to check all pairs of points in question. as they are set for one or the other when checking for voltage or current.
By sensing how difficult it is to move this current through the component. faulty readings will result. If there is any additional source of voltage in the meter-lead-component-lead-meter loop to either aid or oppose the resistance-measuring current produced by the meter. it uses a small internal battery to generate a tiny current through the component to be measured. the meter shows almost zero Ω. When there is a good.Basic of Electronics One very important thing to remember about measuring resistance is that it must only be done on de-energized components! When the meter is in "resistance" mode. In a worse-case situation. the resistance of that component can be determined and displayed. The "resistance" mode of a multimeter is very useful in determining wire continuity as well as making precise measurements of resistance. solid connection between the probe tips (simulated by touching them together). it would read exactly zero: -45- . the meter may even be damaged by the external voltage. If the test leads had no resistance in them.
Thus. the multimeter is designed to have practically zero ohms of resistance between the test probe tips when the red probe has been plugged into the red "A" (current-measuring) socket. it is best to have the meter offer little or no resistance against the flow of electrons." which stands for "open loop"): Another potential hazard of using a multimeter in its current-measuring ("ammeter") mode is failure to properly put it back into a voltage-measuring configuration before measuring voltage with it.L. there are many mega-ohms of resistance -46- . the meter will indicate infinite resistance (usually by displaying dashed lines or the abbreviation "O. Otherwise. The reasons for this are specific to ammeter design and operation. In the voltage-measuring mode (red lead plugged into the red "V" socket). any additional resistance offered by the meter would impede the electron flow and alter the circuit's operation.Basic of Electronics If the leads are not in contact with each other. or touching opposite ends of a broken wire. When measuring circuit current by placing the meter directly in the path of current.
if the meter is then connected across a source of substantial voltage -. most multimeters have a warning feature by which they beep if ever there's a lead plugged in the "A" socket and the selector switch is set to "V". such as in the case illustrated in the last image.Basic of Electronics between the test probe tips. these fuses are primarily designed to protect the equipment (in this case. When switching a multimeter from current. the meter itself) from excessive damage. A multimeter can be used to check its own current fuse by setting the selector switch to the resistance position and creating a connection between the two red sockets like this: -47- . they are still no substitute for clear thinking and caution when using a multimeter. As convenient as features like these are. because voltmeters are designed to have close to infinite resistance (so that they don't draw any appreciable current from the circuit under test). though. Like all overcurrent protection devices.to voltage-measuring mode. it's easy to spin the selector switch from the "A" to the "V" position and forget to correspondingly switch the position of the red test lead plug from "A" to "V". The result -. and only secondarily to protect the user from harm.will be a short-circuit through the meter! To help prevent this. All good-quality multimeters contain fuses inside that are engineered to "blow" in the even of excessive current through them.
L. The actual number of ohms displayed for a good fuse is of little consequence. So now that we've seen how to use a multimeter to measure voltage." (or whatever indication that model of multimeter uses to indicate no continuity). so long as it's an arbitrarily low figure. what more is there to know? Plenty! The value and capabilities of this versatile test instrument will become more evident as you gain skill and familiarity using it. -48- . and current.Basic of Electronics A good fuse will indicate very little resistance while a blown fuse will always show "O. so feel free to experiment on safe. resistance. There is no substitute for regular practice with complex instruments such as these. battery-powered circuits.
7. indicating that there is continuity path for the current to flow in a closed circuit. when the leads are connected to a component. required for measuring computer circuits.Basic of Electronics Chapter 7 Using Digital Multimeter for Measurement and Testing of Electronic Components Digital multimeter and digital volt-ohm-miliamperemeter are terms commonly used for electronic high-impedance test meter. Measuring Resistance An ohmmeter measures the resistance in ohms of a component or circuit section when no current is flowing through the circuit. This means that on their DC voltage ranges they have a very high resistance (usually called input impedance) of 1M or more. the meter or the leads may be destroyed or the fuse will blow by the current available across the battery. If a meter set to read amperes is connected in parallel.2. Measuring Amperes An ammeter measures the flow of current through a complete circuit in unit of amperes. and they are very unlikely to affect the circuit under test. Zero ohms on the scale mean no resistance between test leads. Infinity means no connection.3. current flows through the test leads and the difference in voltage (voltage drop) between the lead is measured as resistance. usually 10M. 7. such as across a battery. is an open circuit. To summarize. All voltmeters have a large internal resistance so that the current flow through the meter will not effect the circuit being tested. -49- . High-impedance meters. An ohmmeter contains a battery. Measuring Voltage A voltmeter measures potential of electricity in a units of volts.0 Ω = zero resistance OL = an open circuit (no current flows) 7. just as a water flow meter would measure the amount of water flow.1. A voltmeter is connected to a circuit in parallel. open and zero readings are as follows: 0. All digital meters contain a battery to power the display so they use virtually no power from the circuit under test. Caution: An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit to measure the current flow in the circuit. The ammeter has to be installed in the circuit (in series) so that it can measure all the current flow in that circuit.
Basic of Electronics -50- .
Testing diode and Transistor with a multimeter When using an analog instrument to test a diode. If the value is equal to or near equal. When we distance the probes. It has it's own switch position.4. diode's anode is connected to the positive probe of the meter (red probe).2a). and very high in other direction. diode is faulty. multimeter should sound a buzz which signals a short circuit. According to 11. -51- . Testing Electronic Components 7. value should be very low. positive end of the diode is connected to one probe and negative end to the other probe (11. and should be replaced. as shown on 11. In the first case. When we connect probes to each other.2b). and then it is turned around (11. either low or high in both directions. buzzing stops. diode is ok if it's resistance value is very small in one. and a symbol for open circuit is displayed (this can be either 0L or 1). When the multimeter shows low value.4. and in the other it should be very high.Basic of Electronics 7.2. Digital instrument has another method to test the diodes.1.1b. and display tells 0.
-52- . and if both of them are functional – transistor is functional as well. Then we rotate the diode and connect it again (11. Both diodes should be tested in described way.3b).4c they are low. After that. and the negative probe is first at the collector and then emitter afterwards. When testing PNP transistors. and on 11. Diode is faulty if you hear a buzz (closed circuit) or some value which represents infinity. since they act as two connected diodes. and the anode is the end of the diode which is connected to probe A (red one). According to 11.4b. one of the two measurements would have shown a value which represents a minimum voltage that could be conducted through the diode (between 400mV and 800mV).Basic of Electronics Now we conenct probes to the diode (11. but the measurements should be opposite: on 11. Transistors are tested in a similar fashion.4a they are high. both cases should produce a high value on the meter. you do the same thing.3a). positive probe is connected to base. If the measured diode was ok. negative probe is connected to the base and you test collector and emitter with a positive probe. only with switched probes. all steps are the same. in both cases resistance should be low.
and a -53- . transistor BC140 is tested.4. Each diode should produce a value between 400mV and 800mV.4.Basic of Electronics If you test transistors using a digital instrument. and is wound using a thinner wire. as displayed on 11. When the positive end of an electrolithic capacitor is connected to a positive probe of an analog instrument. In case an instrument shows an infinite value. In case when there is a need to test high power transistors. As displayed on 11. Since the primary coil has more curls than the secondary one. even to kiloohms (in low power transformers). Coils can be tested in the same way as transformers – through their resistance. high power means low resistance. this means that the collector current is 74 times higher than the base current. for example. 7.3.5. where the principle of inverse relations is still in place.8mm will do fine) should be soldered to transistor's pins and then plugged into the instrument. it's resistance is higher. and it's value lays in range between several tens of ohms (in high power transofrmers) to several hundreds of ohms. Transformers and coils Grid transofrmers are tested by measuring the resistance of the copper wire on the primary and secondary coil. and the display shows 74. Eexceptions are electrolithic and very high value block capacitors. If. In case transistor works. 7. thin wires (0. Many modern day digital multimeters have a tool for direct transistor check. Infinite resistance still means disconnected coil. a special plug where low and medium power transistors fit nicely. There is.4. process remains similar to the one with diodes.5. All principles remain the same as with transformers. Capacitors DC capacitors should produce an infinite value on the instrument. transistor is plugged into specified slot according to it's type (PNP or NPN) and the switch on the instrument is brought into position with a hFE marking. Secondary resistance is lower and is in range between several ohms to several tens of ohms. it is a certain sign that the coil is either poorly connected or the curls are disconnected at some point. display shows a value which represents the current amplification coefficient.
because by only connecting the probes there should be a short noise heard. (Even small capacitance components get charged while testing. If that component was to be used in some audio amplifier. which goes even to 20%.4.5. so the needle doesn't have the time to move. Electret microphones don't produce the noise. speaker is broken. or oil or even a graphite pencil. And another source of trouble could be the built-in FET amplifier. -54- .4. Potentiometers To test a potentiometer. headphones and microphones When testing speakers.) Variable capacitors are tested by connecting an ohm-meter to them. If there is no noise.4. When using an analog instrument on the speakers. With this said. because any other value is a certain signal that the plates of the rotor and stator are connected which means that the component doesn't work. whole diode acts as a low value resistor. Same goes for headphones and dynamic microphones. 7. (“Noisy” pot can be repaired using a special spray. and the needle's movement is the charge stored in the component being discharged. but this is not a good solution since it is weak and short-lived. or a pot.4. which means that speaker sound is higher than usual. Testing process is shown on 12. and should be practiced only if there is no replacement for that potentiometer) 7. and turning the rotor. process is rather simple – you connect the component to probes of an ohm-meter and turn the shaft. Other Semiconductor Devices To test diodes using this circuit. not much of attention is being paid to the value shown on the actual instrument. but their discharge time is very short. Of course. speakers would produce loud noise or no sound at all while pot is being turned. sound is lower because in that direction diode acts as a high value resistor. black on cathode). their variable coil has either 4 or 8Ohms in most cases. which simplifies the process to comparing the value on the capacitor to the one on the display. needle jumps to the lowest value and then gradually comes back towards infinity. and values should do what component's name says – vary. we fall back to the diode theory of operation: when anode is positive comparing to the cathode (red probe on anode. or a variable resistor. it is worth mentionig that the capacitors have considerably wider tolerance than resistors.Basic of Electronics negative end to a negative probe. 7. any other value means that the component is faulty. This is a proof that the capacitor is ok. this behavior should be linear – jumps and twitches in values mean that the component is not working as supposed to. in the opposite direction.6 Speakers.7. and the meter should show those values. There are digital instruments that have the ability to measure capacitance. Needle should point infinity at all times. On the other hand.
In both cases. A goes where B was connected to and vice versa. transistor is faulty if speaker remains silent in the first two measurements. One principle that is applicable when testing the photo resistors. FET testing is done in similar fashion as testing the bipolar transistors. “music” would have been heard. everything is in functional order. if the transistor is ok. -55- . If both diodes are functional. So.7.4a). or if it “plays” in one of the second two measurements. which is shown on 12. and then probe B is connected first to the emitter. transistor is functional as well as shown on 12. We displayed graphically the method of testing photo sensitive components on 12. photo transistors and diodes is NL-NM (or.6. and then to the collector. and the other one is connected to transistor's emitter or diode's cathode or the other resistor's side and some kind of sound should be heard from the speaker. everything is in order. probe A is connected to the base. If this continues when the component is shadowed using your palm. No Light – No Music).5. As you can see. We then switch probe connections.Basic of Electronics DC transistor acts in the same fashion as two connected diodes (11. Probe A is connected to the collector of the transistor. if there is no music now. or diode's anode or one side of the photo resistor.
If component doesn't conduct electricity. closed switches. headphones. speakers. like different electro motors. so absence of sound while testing tells of some coil connection failure.4. Checking other components Many other components may be tested using this instrument. or two copper wires on the circuit board which shouldn't be connected. This may be easier and more accurately done using regular ohmmeter on your multimeter. fuses. then music would have not been heard.Basic of Electronics 7. coils. With transformers with several secondary coils there is a possibility to find beginning and the end of each of them. So with some experience using this instrument on various resistors it will be possible to tell the resistance of the resistor in question from only the generated sound. transformers.8. sound will be heard. This is the case with resistors. Base rule is: if component is intended to conduct electricity. Components which have coils in them. or open switches. transformers and such conduct electricity. When testing different resistors. like capacitors. but your nerd level will certainly rise sky high if you are able to tell resistor's value from bare sound. And from the sound frequency one is possible to tell which coil is primary and which is secondary. it is apparent that different resistance values give different output sound. -56- .
-57- . Length of playing depends on the capacitance of the component. especially the larger ones. An exception are electrolithic and block capacitors. where higher values give longer sound time.Basic of Electronics Functional capacitor will generate no music. Tone generated by connecting these capacitors to the instrument will change in level and frequency and fade until completely off when capacitor is discharged. which allows for a crude approximation of the component's capacitance.
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