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BASIC OF ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS STUDENTS
Basic of Electronics
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
• • • • • •
Atoms and Electrical Charge Current. Voltage. Power Resistance Ohm's Law
1.1. Atoms and Electrical Charge - Discusses the structure of atoms.
Figure 1-1. Model of an Atom Atoms are the building blocks of all matter. They are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every electron has a small negative (-) charge. The proton has the same amount of charge except that it is the opposite, positive (+) charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral and have no charge. The protons and neutrons are located in the center of atoms forming what is called the nucleus and the electrons revolve around them. It is very important to know that particles of like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract. For example, two protons or two electrons will repel each other. However, a proton and a electron will attract. That is how the electrons are held inside the atom. The attraction between the electrons and protons keeps the electrons in orbit much like the gravitational attraction between the sun and its planets.
Basic of Electronics
Figure 1-2. Interaction between electrons and protons Electricity is the flow of electrons so it is necessary to measure the charge. The basic unit for measuring charge is the coulomb or the letter C. 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons!!! 1C = 6.25x10^18 electrons 1.2. Current - Introduces current and ampere. Electric current is the amount of electrons, or charge, moving past a point every second. It is basically the speed of electron flow. The faster the electrons flow, the higher the current.
Figure 1-3. Electron Flow Current is represented by the letter I. The basic unit for measuring current is ampere. Ampere can be abbreviated to amp or just A. 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec Meaning for every amp, there are 6.25x10^18 electrons moving past a point every second. 1.3. Voltage - Potential difference and voltage To make sense of voltage, we will need to make an analogy. Lets imagine that electrons are represented by a marble on a flat plane. At this point, the plane is level and the marble does not move. If the plane is lifted at one side, the marble will roll down to the lower point.
Basic of Electronics Figure 1-4. Analogy electron with a marble In electricity, the high point is a point with lots of electrons and the low point is a point with a lack of electrons. The high point is called the high potential and the low point is the low potential. The difference between these two points is called the potential difference. The larger the potential difference, the larger the voltage.
Figure 1-5. Energy potential Voltage can be thought of as the measure of the pressure pushing the electrons. The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage. Voltage is represented by the letter E. The basic unit of measure is volts or the letter V. One volt will push 1 amp of current through 1 ohm of resistance. Resistance will be discussed in a later section.
1.4. Power - Discusses power or the amount of work a circuit is doing. Power is simply the amount of energy used or the amount of "work" a circuit is doing. Power is represented by the letter P. The basic unit for measuring power is watts or the letter W. To find power, all you need is a simple equation: P=EI or Power equals voltage times current. For example, if E = 9V I = 0.5A then P = 9 * 0.5 P = 4.5W
Basic of Electronics 1.5. Resistance - Discusses electron flow, materials, and the ohm unit. To better understand what resistance is, you must first get an idea of how electrons flow. When an electron is knocked out of an atom, it will fly off and hit another atom. If the electron strikes the atom with enough force, it will knock off another electron. The atom that was just knocked off will hit another atom and so forth.
Figure 1-6. Two electrons Note that every time an electron strikes another, it is transferring its energy. Some of the energy is converted into heat every time it is transferred. The voltage will drop as the energy is transferred over long distances. Thus a long wire has a higher resistance than a short wire. Some materials - such as copper and silver - does not hold on to its electrons very tightly. Therefore it doesn't require much energy to knock off an electron. These materials are called conductors and has a very low resistance to electron flow. Materials such as clay and plastics hold on to their electrons more tightly than conductors. It takes more energy to knock off an electron from these materials. These materials are called insulators and has a high resistance to electron flow. Now, you must understand that this is NOT how electrons really flow; It serves only as something for you to work with. To really know how electrons flow, which we will not get into, you will need to study quantum physics. Resistance is represented by the letter R. The basic unit of measure is ohm or the symbol (Greek omega). In the next section (Ohm's Law), we will show you the relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Resistance will also be further discussed as we introduce the resistor.
1.6. Ohm's Law - The relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. The German physicist, George Simon Ohm, established that voltage in volt, electrical resistance in ohms, and ampereres flowing through any circuit are all related. Ohms’s law states:
I=E/R Where: I= Current in ampere (A) E= Voltage in volt (V) R= Resistance in ohms (Ω) -6- .Basic of Electronics It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance. Ohm law camn also be sated as asimple formula to calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known.
Can you guess which is the battery? Yes. It is a simple and easy to read outline of the circuit. All relevant values and component specific information are usually included. This tells you what value to use for that component. Note the "R1" next to the resistor symbol and "R1 470 ohm" below the diagram. The triangle in the circle represents the light emitting diode and the wavy lines represent the resistor -. It's not that tough right? -7- . the 4 horizontal lines. the second resistor will be called R2. Below is an example of a schematic diagram: Figure 2-1 A simple schematic diagram As you can see. Each type of component has a unique symbol and a name (usually 1-2 letters).Basic of Electronics Chapter 2: Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows how each component connect with another. this diagram has 3 components: the thing with 4 horizontal lines. If there was a second resistor.both of which will be discussed in the components section. That's all it is to schematic diagrams. the triangle in a circle. and the thing with the wavy lines.
A mini recharable battery. Integrated circuits . The third band is the multiplier . Transistors . -8- .A "one way street" for electrons. Put them all together and you have the value.it tells you how many zeros to put after the significant figures. To get the value of a resistor. Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in electronics. Resistors .1. hold the resistor so that the tolerance band is on the right.An overview of integrated circuits Switches .Discusses the different configurations of switches.Basic of Electronics Chapter 3: Electronics Component • • • • • • Resistors .A component that resist the flow of electrons.A component that resist the flow of electrons. As its name implies. Diodes . indicates that the resistor will be within 5% of its value. Recall that resistance is measured in ohms. A 5% tolerance (gold band) for example. The first two color bands from the left are the significant figures . For most applications. The color bands around the resistors are color codes that tell you its resistance value. resistors resist the flow of electrons. The tolerance bands indicates the accuracy of the values.A component used for switching and amplifying. Capacitors .simply write down the numbers represented by the colors. a resistor within 5% tolerance should be sufficient. They are used to add resistance to a circuit. 3.
it is NOT okay to use a 1/4 watt resistor in a 1/2 watt circuit.3M etc. You should not use a 1/4 watt resistor in a circuit that has more than 1/4 watt of power flowing. They never go short circuit. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate.2 This mean that 1 ohm. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated.000 ohms is 1M. Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value.7 3.8k as 1K8 etc. Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat. For example. 12 ohm.2 2. They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits.2 1. These are 1. Resistors generate heat.000 ohms is 3.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1. High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily. 3. -9- . 2200 ohm resistors etc are available. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light.9 4. However.8 8. 180 ohm. and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them. 1000.3 3. One last important note about resistors is their wattage rating.6 6. it is okay to use a 1/2 watt resistor in a 1/4 watt circuit.0 1. Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks). They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS.Basic of Electronics NOTE: There are resistors with more bands and other types for specific applications.8 2. 4 band resistors(the ones discussed here) are the most common and should work for most projects. However. Resistors have a wattage rating. Most resistors are color coded to indicate their value and tolerance.7 5. Figure 3-1 Schematic and Symbol of Resistor The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads. 3. 1000 ohms is 1k.300. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available. (color would change with heat).
Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver.7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available. 3.Basic of Electronics On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters.A mini rechargeable battery. -10- . Examples are volume and brightness controls. Capacitors . Once adjusted. Figure 3-4 a pair plate of Capacitor This insulator is called the dielectric.2. Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator. they are never touched again.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4. F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0. These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel.
Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity.1µF = 0.000. Figure 3-2 Ceramic Capacitor • Electrolytic Capacitors has a cylinder shape. The value of the resistor as well as the negative side is clearly printed on the capacitor. -11- .000pF = 0. These capacitors are polarized so you must connect the negative side in the right place. These capacitors are measured in pF. you simply decode the 3 digit number on the surface of the capacitor. However. micro = 1/1. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current. paper air capacitors etc. The first 2 digit are the significant figures and the third digit is the multiplier.000.000. To find the value. similar to a car battery. meaning that you can connect them in any way. We will only be discussing two types of the most commonly used capacitors: Ceramic and Electrolytic. so microfarads(µF) and picofarads(pF) are used.000 So 100.000. Capacitors are the second most commonly used component in electronics. mica. The amount of charge that a capacitor can hold is measured in Farads or the letter F. • Ceramic capacitors are brown and has a disc shape. These capacitors are nonpolarized.000 and pico = 1/1.Basic of Electronics Capacitor types are named after the dielectric. These capacitors are measured in µF.0000001F DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit.Capacitors can be charged and discharged. The coding is just like the resistor color codes except that they used numbers instead of colors. They can be thought of as tiny rechargeable batteries -. Thus we have ceramic. 1F is too large for capacitors. This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages. polyester. If it is necessary.
There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode which similar characteristics. -12- . Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors. There can be some confusion. The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value. These merge into one wide red band. For example. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value. The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. Figure 3-4 Color band on Capacitor Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-3 Electrolytic Capacitor They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. 102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round.1 uF. Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised. They are marked to indicate polarity. To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added.
Diodes let electrons flow through them only in one direction. Light Emitting Diodes (LED for short) are just like the regular diodes except that it lights up when electrons are flowing through.3 Diodes . one pin is longer then the other. Zener diodes have a set voltage rating. Diodes flow from cathode to anode. The cathode side of the diode is marked with a band around it. When a voltage exceeds the voltage rating going the opposite direction (from anode to cathode). Zener Diodes. Figure 3-6 Diodes and its symbol There are basically three different types of diodes: Diodes.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-5 Symbol of fix and variable capacitor 3. Figure 3-7 Symbol of LED -13- . and Light Emitting Diodes. Note: there aren't any bands to identify which pin is anode and which is cathode. However. the positive side.A "one way street" for electrons. The longer pin is the anode. the diode allows the electrons flow.
A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other. Figure 3-9 Some diode circuit symbols LED The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. They are often marked with a type number. which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. ring or some other mark. Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. Figure 3-8 Mark indicator in Diodes The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. act as a warning indicator. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a type valve). Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED). an anode and a cathode. Diodes have two connections. -14- . If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. or be part of trendy jewelry etc. The cathode is always identified by a dot.Basic of Electronics Diodes are polarised. It can show when the power is on.
The diode is in series with the resistor. The transistor is a three terminal solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification. We will discuss two types of transistors: PNP and NPN transistors. In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor.02 =500 ohms. with the anode positive and the cathode negative. 0.02 amps).Basic of Electronics Figure 3-9 LED circuit It needs to be fed from a DC supply. Transistors -A component used for switching and amplifying. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts. The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. so the current through then both is the same. so be sure to check the packaging when purchasing. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0. collector. Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. Figure 3-10 Transistors -15- . The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body. voltage stabilization.4. We now know the voltage across. base. as shown in the diagram.02 amps. 3. Both of these transistors has 3 pins: emitter. switching. then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. signal modulation and many other functions. and the current through the resistor. Transistors are used as switches and amplifiers. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections. There aren't any standards for where and what order the physical pins are on the transistors.
-16- . Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies. When soldering. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed. Most common are 8. Figure 3-12 Symbol of NPN Transistors 3.5. the following must apply: The emitter is more positive than the base and the collector leads to the negative. If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat. Integrated circuits (IC) . Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. Figure 3-11 Symbol of PNP Transistors The NPN transistor is the opposite: The collector must be more positive than the base and the emitter leads to the negative. or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board.Basic of Electronics To allow electrons to flow through the collector and emitter of a PNP transistor. in order to fit it into the board (or socket). such as a radiator. or 16 pin dual in line (dil) chips. When handling them. Inside them is a tiny piece of semiconductor(usually silicon) with large circuits built in. When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. 14. solder the remaining pins.An overview of integrated circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are usually referred to as chips. ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. When satisfied.
Audio amplifiers These are used to amplify audio.Basic of Electronics There are millions of different integrated circuits. Comparators These IC's compare inputs and gives an output. Switches Switching IC's are also very much like the switching circuits of transistors. A lot of IC's are made for a special purpose like digital sound recording. Works very much like transistor amplifier circuits. A primary cell is discarded when its chemical -17- . connected in series. The general types of integrated circuits include: Figure 3-12 Symbol of IC • Logic circuits These IC's are basically decision makers. • • • • • • 3. Other There are thousands of other types. Batteries Batteries are assembled from cells. Timers These are counting IC's used for circuits that counts or needs to keep track of time. In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types. (logic gates will be discussed in a later section). most contain logic gate circuits. Most IC's come with pinout information and how to use it. If not. to increase the voltage available. Operational Amplifiers These are amplifiers.6. you'll need one of those large reference books that have info on most of the IC's.
voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE.Basic of Electronics energy is exhausted. portable radios etc. The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working. -18- . Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger. A secondary cell can be recharged. Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger. The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad). Figure 3-13 Symbol of Battery The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell. The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches. Figure 3-14 Internal Resistance of Battery When current is taken from a battery. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases.
the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. As it does this. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns. If the current is reduced. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING. Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD. Primary voltage --------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns = ----------. It occurs in any type of power supply. the lines of force move inwards. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply . if the secondary has half the primary turns.1 amp. then the primary must supply 24 watts. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. -19- . Transformer If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil. i. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0. If the current is increased. Assuming a perfect transformer. the lines of force move outwards from the coil.7. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts.-----------------------Number of secondary turns For example. a voltage is induced in the second coil. 3.e.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-15 Voltage-Current characteristics of Battery This is called POOR REGULATION. (Watts = volts x amps). as the field moves out or in. this will happen 50 times a second. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. then the turns ratio is 10:1.
This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply. or in the other direction. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core. Since the primary would induce power. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. into this core. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. called EDDY CURRENTS. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. or no core at all. Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. Figure 3-15 Diagram of Transformers -20- .Basic of Electronics To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. the core is LAMINATED. the coils are wound on a metal CORE.
SPDT. Double Throw This is a three terminal switch that connects one terminal to either of the other two. It simply connects and disconnect a circuit. Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz. Figure 3-16 Diagrams of Inductors 3. At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. Single Throw This is a two terminal switch that opens and closes a circuit. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES.9. This section gives an overview of the contact configurations.8 Inductor Inductors are coils of wire. SPST = Single Pole. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. above 1 Mhz only a few turns. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current. SPDT = Single Pole.Basic of Electronics 3. Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases. and DPDT. 10 Mhz. Switches Discusses the different configurations of switches. Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting. There are 3 commonly used configurations: SPST. Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire. Switches really don't need any introduction. They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting. This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE. -21- . The former may contain a metallic core up its centre.
Fig. -22- . This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit.Basic of Electronics DPDT = Double Pole. Fig. Double Throw This is a six terminal switch that connects a pair of terminals to either of the other two pairs. The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position. 2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position. Fig.
The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply. Here are assorted switch types. Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. (2) a "normally open. The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. Figure 3-17 Fuse Configuration in circuit -23- . push to break". 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. If the current rises above this value it will melt. 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. 8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. Fig. Fig. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. Fig. If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere. push to make". Fig. Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-WaferProximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-RockerDimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-FootThermal-Hall effect 3. The Fuse The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value. When operated a-b opens and b-c closes.Basic of Electronics Fig. Occasionly they grow tired and fail. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. It can select 1 of 5 circuits. These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it.10. With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch. 3p 4w etc. Therefore special antisurge fuses are fitted. You can have 2p 5w. 5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch.
its input must be at a value of 0. • NAND gate To get an output of 1. all inputs must be at a value of 0. both inputs must be at a value of 1. This gate only has one input. • NOR gate To get an output of 1. 1(one) is represented by a positive electrical value and 0(zero) is represented by no electricity at all. They take binary inputs and and gives out a binary result. This section describes the different types of gates and their symbols: • AND gate To get an output of 1. one or more inputs must be at a value of 1.11. Gates Gates are logic circuits. • NOT gate To get an output of 1. Logic IC's contain these and other types of gates. one or more of its inputs must be at a value of 0.Basic of Electronics 3. It is also known as an inverter circuit. • OR gate To get an output of 1. -24- .
to move back and forth. Figure 3-18 Diagrams of Speaker The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves. When using two speakers together. When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil. Loudspeaker The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker. This means that they move out and in together. Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up your amplifier. Loudspeakers have Impedance. as in stereo systems.Basic of Electronics 3.11. where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet. The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. -25- . C2 and L2 are a high pass filter. they must be in phase. a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies. The movement of the coil causes a cone. Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes). a Crossover Unit is used. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter. Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier (see the page on REACTANCE and IMPEDANCE). (there is a page on FILTERS). which is attached to the coil. To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker. and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies. In the diagram. typically 4 or 8 ohms. Therefore two speakers are used. The design of enclosures is very complicated. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly.
When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released. When the coil is energised. the core becomes temporarily magnetised. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. Figure 3-20 Electromagnetic Relay The magnetised core attracts the iron armature.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-19 Woofer and Tweeter configuration 3. -26- . by passing current through it. Electromagnetic relay The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil. wound on an iron core. to form an electromagnet.12.
Figure 3-20 Relay position The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n.001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLICATION FACTOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tera T 1.001 pico p 0. To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil.001 nano n 0.000.Basic of Electronics The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply.001 micro u 0.000. Practice converting one to another.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad.o n. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil.000.000.000 kilo K 1.000. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source.000.000. There are 1. For example 1000. 3. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off.000.000 milli m 0.c and c.000. Value Multiplier In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values.000.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad.000. This can damage other components in the circuit.000.13. The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz.000 giga G 1. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS.000 mega M 1.000. -27- . and 0.000.000.o.000.000. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available.
Basic of Electronics CIRCUIT SYMBOLS -28- .
Basic of Electronics -29- .
in a parallel circuit? The result is the total resistance being lower than the lowest resistor. So what is a series circuit? A series circuit means connecting components one after the other. To calculate what the total resistance is. simply add up the resistance of the resistors in the series circuit. we mean connecting one resistor after the other: To find the TOTAL resistance. Capacitors in Series -30- . Resistors in Series .3.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. you must use this equation: Rt = (R1 * R2) / (R1 + R2) 4.in other words.2. Resistors in Parallel . 4. So when we say "Resistors in series".Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. Resistors in Parallel .Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel.Basic of Electronics Chapter 4 Circuit Concepts • • • • Resistors in Series . Capacitors in Series . What happens when resistors are placed side by side -. Capacitors in Parallel .Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series.1.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel 4.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel.
4pF. The total capacitance in a capacitor series circuit is less than the lowest capacitor in the circuit. capacitors in series lowers the total capacitance.Basic of Electronics . 3pF.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. Unlike resistors in series. how do you find the total capacitance of capactors in parallel? Right! You just add it up! So if there are 4 capacitors in parallel and their values are: 2pF. To find the total capacitance. use the following equation: Ct = (C1 * C2) / (C1 + C2) Notice that it's the same equation as resistors in parallel Capacitors in Parallel . and 5pF The total value is 2pF + 3pF + 4pF + 5pF = 14pF -31- .Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel Now if capacitors in series uses the same equation as resistors in parallel.
Basic of Electronics Chapter 5 Skills in Electronics 5.1. there are many holes for plugging in components: The bread board has many strips of metal which run underneath the board that connects the component. Soldering .2.Discusses how to solder -32- . They are very convenient since all you have to do is plug in the components. Using Breadboards .Introduces the breadboard. Oh the surface of a breadboard. Breadboards are used for testing and experimenting with electronic circuits. The metal strips are laid out as shown below: Each strip is a connection. 5. The blue strips shown in the illustration are usually used for connecting the batteries and the green strips are for the components. So whichever components connected to a certain strip are connected to eachother.
Basic of Electronics First a few safety precautions: Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. -33- . Wash your hands after using solder. apply a coat of solder on the tip. Stick the component's leads through the proper holes and bend it so that it'll stay still. Simply wait for the soldering iron to heat up. An ordinary plastic flex will melt immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock. They are very hot (about 400°C) and will give you a nasty burn. Let the joint cool by itself. Put the soldering iron tip so that it's touching the lead and the copper at the same time. The iron should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. Note that you'll probably want one unless you're the careful type and you're sure you won't burn up anything. and wipe it with a wet sponge. your work. to solder the components onto the board. even for a moment! Work in a well-ventilated area. Now that you have your circuit boards. Avoid breathing it by keeping you head to the side of. you must tin the tip. Now. Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. you can start soldering. Never put it down on your workbench. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use. The smoke formed as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron. cut the leads at the proper length. Then apply the solder on the lead (not on the tip of the soldering iron). what you need: • • • Soldering iron (around 25W) 60/40 solder and optionally a soldering iron holder. not above. Before you solder.
Basic of Electronics -34- .
Take precautions against the work moving. A dry joint is a poorly soldered one. to prevent them falling out during soldering. The smoke you see is evaporating flux. to keep the bit clean. Tinning the bit.(This means putting a small blob of solder on the tip of the bit).The process should take only 2-3 seconds. All soldered joints should be easily removable. (use a small vice or sticky tape). Mount components so that value markings are visible. Hold the iron like a pen. Remove the iron. which should normally clean the joint. A good joint is smooth and shiny. It makes them difficult to remove. Avoid overheating. Reflow soldering is tinning two pieces of wire separately and then reheating to join them together. If the joint has moved during soldering it will be dull and crinkly. Spring component leads out just slightly. If you have taken too long it will have have solder spikes.Basic of Electronics Cleaning the bit with a damp sponge. Apply solder to the joint not to the iron. Allow the solder to run over the joint without moving the iron. Heat the biggest part of the joint for 2-3 seconds. Remove the solder. The shape of the wire should be visible through the solder. Heating the joint and applying the solder Use a damp sponge. Tin the bit for good heat conduction. Do not carry solder on the bit to the joint. Rest your hands on the workbench to steady them.This means a minimum of lead wrapping. When using printed circuit boards avoid bending wires flat on the board. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!! -35- . frequently.
then you are taking too long to make the joint. See (a). Some components require special care when soldering. Do NOT put the ICs (chips) in yet. together with other advice which may be useful when soldering. Components Chip Holders (DIL sockets) Pictures Reminders and Warnings Connect the correct way round by making sure the notch is at the correct end. not stand on it like a bead. Make the blobs all the same size and shape. 1 -36- . dull and crinkly in appearance.(c) If there are spikes on the joint. The solder must run along the copper track. A good joint is smooth and shiny. When you can produce good results proceed to the next part of the exercise.Basic of Electronics Don't allow the blobs to run into each other. (b) A bad joint is unevenly shaped. Many must be placed the correct way round and a few are easily damaged by the heat from soldering. Appropriate warnings are given in the table below.
this has no plastic coating and looks just like solder but it is stiffer.Basic of Electronics No special precautions are needed with resistors. Connect the correct way round. Connect the correct way round.near one lead. buzzers 9 and other parts with their own wires -37- . Take care with polystyrene capacitors because they are easily damaged by heat. If there is no danger of touching other parts you can use tinned copper wire. Easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round. They will be marked with a + or . OA91) because they are easily damaged by heat. for cathode! The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. it really is k. single core wire Battery clips. Connect the correct way round. Use single core wire. Connect the correct way round. These may be connected either way round. The diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or .for cathode. Take care with germanium diodes (e. this is one solid wire which is plastic-coated. Transistors have 3 'legs' (leads) so extra care is needed to ensure the connections are correct. 2 Resistors 3 Small value capacitors (usually less than 1µF) 4 Electrolytic capacitors (1µF and greater) 5 Diodes 6 LEDs 7 Transistors Wire Links between 8 points on the circuit board. not c. yes.g.
It is often safer to cut the component leads and discard the component. Take great care to avoid damage. including 10 switches. Heat up the joint to be desoldered until the solder runs. relays. Apply the solder sucker and remove the solder. soldering iron and solder sucker (desoldering tool). Many ICs are static sensitive.Check that all pins are loose on an integrated circuit. Connect the correct way round. Do not use single core wire because this will break when it is repeatedly flexed. There are two ways to remove the solder: -38- . This should only take two or three seconds. Working on a double-sided PCB (where copper tracks are on both sides of the PCB) is more difficult and requires more care. Ensure the iron bit is well tinned. In some cases desoldering braid is useful. Ensure the iron is tinned. Wires to parts off the circuit board. If the operation is unsuccessful resolder the joint and then try again. Ensure the joint is completely desoldered by wriggling the wire with a pair of pliers to check for freeness.Basic of Electronics You should use stranded wire which is flexible and plasticcoated. Carefully insert ICs in their holders: make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket then push down firmly with your thumb. Components cost a few pence. then desolder the leads individually. variable resistors and loudspeakers. an assembled printed circuit board may be worth several hundred pounds.pliers. cutters. Leave ICs in their antistatic packaging until you need them. Place the iron on top of the braid and allow the solder from the joint to run up the braid. stranded wire 11 ICs (chips) DESOLDERING COMPONENTS Tools required . At some stage you will probably need to desolder a joint to remove or re-position a wire or component. then earth your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the ICs. Place the braid on top of the joint.
Then press the button on the pump to release the plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool. With solder remover wick (copper braid) Apply both the end of the wick and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. With a desoldering pump (solder sucker) Set the pump by pushing the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks. If the joint will not come apart easily apply your soldering iron to melt the remaining traces of solder at the same time as pulling the joint apart. Remove the wick first. After removing most of the solder from the joint(s) you may be able to remove the wire or component lead straight away (allow a few seconds for it to cool). Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible. Apply both the pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. As the solder melts most of it will flow onto the wick. 2. then the soldering iron. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt.Basic of Electronics 1. away from the joint. -39- . The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle. Cut off and discard the end of the wick coated with solder. taking care to avoid burning yourself.
This concern is not unfounded. Multimeters are so named because they have the ability to measure a multiple of variables: voltage. the multimeter may become a source of danger when connected to a "live" circuit. both for the sake of their own personal safety and for proficiency at their trade. and often many others. It can be daunting at first to use a meter. knowing that you are connecting it to live circuits which may harbor life-threatening levels of voltage and current. The most common piece of electrical test equipment is a meter called the multimeter. Carelessness more than any other factor is what causes experienced technicians to have electrical accidents.Basic of Electronics Chapter 6 Safe Meter Usage Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most valuable skill an electronics technician can master. In the hands of someone ignorant and/or careless. current. however. -40- . resistance. and it is always best to proceed cautiously when using meters.
which is the common symbol for the electrical unit of ohms. one dashed). Of the two "V" settings and two "A" settings. you will notice that each pair is divided into unique markers with either a pair of horizontal lines (one solid. The parallel lines represent "DC" while the squiggly curve represents "AC. Although we haven't discussed alternating current (AC) in any technical detail. The wires are coated in a color-coded (either black or red) flexible insulation to prevent the user's hands from contacting the bare conductors. and so it requires the user to select which type of voltage (V) or current (A) is to be measured. There are three different sockets on the multimeter face into which we can plug our test leads. and one setting in the middle with a funny-looking "horseshoe" symbol on it representing "resistance. or a dashed line with a squiggly curve over it. stiff pieces of wire: -41- . to measure DC than it uses to measure AC. this distinction in meter settings is an important one to bear in mind. internally. and the tips of the probes are sharp." The "horseshoe" symbol is the Greek letter "Omega" (Ω). The meter uses different techniques. two "A" settings. Test leads are nothing more than specially-prepared wires used to connect the meter to the circuit under test.Basic of Electronics You will notice that the display of this meter is of the "digital" type: showing numerical values using four digits in a manner similar to a digital clock. The rotary selector switch (now set in the Off position) has five different measurement positions it can be set in: two "V" settings." The "V" of course stands for "voltage" while the "A" stands for "amperage" (current).
or the red socket marked for current.Basic of Electronics The black test lead always plugs into the black socket on the multimeter: the one marked "COM" for "common. let's look at a couple of examples showing the meter in use. depending on which quantity you intend to measure with the multimeter. To see how this works. we'll set up the meter to measure DC voltage from a battery: -42- ." The red test lead plugs into either the red socket marked for voltage and resistance. First.
it is imperative that you not let the probe tips come in contact with one another while they are both in contact with their respective points on the circuit. Now. and the selector switch has been set for DC "V". the test leads will remain plugged in the same sockets. If this happens.Basic of Electronics Note that the two test leads are plugged into the appropriate sockets on the meter for voltage. we'll take a look at an example of using the multimeter to measure AC voltage from a household electrical power receptacle (wall socket): The only difference in the setup of the meter is the placement of the selector switch: it is now turned to AC "V". Since we're still measuring voltage. a short-circuit will be formed. In both of these examples. creating a spark and perhaps even a ball of flame if the voltage source is capable of supplying enough current! The following image illustrates the potential for hazard: -43- .
As we have seen earlier. Touching the probes across the device whose resistance is to be measured. Using a multimeter to check for resistance is a much simpler task. so when using a multimeter as a safety check device you should always check for the presence of both AC and DC. you should be sure to check all pairs of points in question. Also. as they are set for one or the other when checking for voltage or current. both AC and DC voltages and currents can be deadly. but the selector switch will need to be turned until it points to the "horseshoe" resistance symbol. when checking for the presence of hazardous voltage. it must be remembered that digital multimeters usually do a good job of discriminating between AC and DC measurements.Basic of Electronics This is just one of the ways that a meter can become a source of hazard if used improperly. the meter should properly display the resistance in ohms: -44- . The test leads will be kept plugged in the same sockets as for the voltage checks. even if you're not expecting to find both! Also.
By sensing how difficult it is to move this current through the component. If the test leads had no resistance in them. the meter shows almost zero Ω. If there is any additional source of voltage in the meter-lead-component-lead-meter loop to either aid or oppose the resistance-measuring current produced by the meter. In a worse-case situation. it uses a small internal battery to generate a tiny current through the component to be measured. it would read exactly zero: -45- . When there is a good. the meter may even be damaged by the external voltage. solid connection between the probe tips (simulated by touching them together). faulty readings will result. the resistance of that component can be determined and displayed.Basic of Electronics One very important thing to remember about measuring resistance is that it must only be done on de-energized components! When the meter is in "resistance" mode. The "resistance" mode of a multimeter is very useful in determining wire continuity as well as making precise measurements of resistance.
When measuring circuit current by placing the meter directly in the path of current. Thus. there are many mega-ohms of resistance -46- . any additional resistance offered by the meter would impede the electron flow and alter the circuit's operation. the meter will indicate infinite resistance (usually by displaying dashed lines or the abbreviation "O." which stands for "open loop"): Another potential hazard of using a multimeter in its current-measuring ("ammeter") mode is failure to properly put it back into a voltage-measuring configuration before measuring voltage with it. it is best to have the meter offer little or no resistance against the flow of electrons. the multimeter is designed to have practically zero ohms of resistance between the test probe tips when the red probe has been plugged into the red "A" (current-measuring) socket. In the voltage-measuring mode (red lead plugged into the red "V" socket). Otherwise. The reasons for this are specific to ammeter design and operation.L.Basic of Electronics If the leads are not in contact with each other. or touching opposite ends of a broken wire.
A multimeter can be used to check its own current fuse by setting the selector switch to the resistance position and creating a connection between the two red sockets like this: -47- . Like all overcurrent protection devices. most multimeters have a warning feature by which they beep if ever there's a lead plugged in the "A" socket and the selector switch is set to "V".if the meter is then connected across a source of substantial voltage -.to voltage-measuring mode.will be a short-circuit through the meter! To help prevent this. The result -. and only secondarily to protect the user from harm. these fuses are primarily designed to protect the equipment (in this case.Basic of Electronics between the test probe tips. All good-quality multimeters contain fuses inside that are engineered to "blow" in the even of excessive current through them. they are still no substitute for clear thinking and caution when using a multimeter. such as in the case illustrated in the last image. When switching a multimeter from current. it's easy to spin the selector switch from the "A" to the "V" position and forget to correspondingly switch the position of the red test lead plug from "A" to "V". the meter itself) from excessive damage. though. because voltmeters are designed to have close to infinite resistance (so that they don't draw any appreciable current from the circuit under test). As convenient as features like these are.
so feel free to experiment on safe.Basic of Electronics A good fuse will indicate very little resistance while a blown fuse will always show "O. There is no substitute for regular practice with complex instruments such as these. what more is there to know? Plenty! The value and capabilities of this versatile test instrument will become more evident as you gain skill and familiarity using it. -48- . resistance. so long as it's an arbitrarily low figure." (or whatever indication that model of multimeter uses to indicate no continuity). and current. So now that we've seen how to use a multimeter to measure voltage. The actual number of ohms displayed for a good fuse is of little consequence.L. battery-powered circuits.
2. If a meter set to read amperes is connected in parallel. the meter or the leads may be destroyed or the fuse will blow by the current available across the battery. such as across a battery. Caution: An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit to measure the current flow in the circuit. 7. indicating that there is continuity path for the current to flow in a closed circuit. A voltmeter is connected to a circuit in parallel. just as a water flow meter would measure the amount of water flow. All digital meters contain a battery to power the display so they use virtually no power from the circuit under test. All voltmeters have a large internal resistance so that the current flow through the meter will not effect the circuit being tested. This means that on their DC voltage ranges they have a very high resistance (usually called input impedance) of 1M or more. open and zero readings are as follows: 0. Infinity means no connection.3.0 Ω = zero resistance OL = an open circuit (no current flows) 7. and they are very unlikely to affect the circuit under test. when the leads are connected to a component. current flows through the test leads and the difference in voltage (voltage drop) between the lead is measured as resistance.Basic of Electronics Chapter 7 Using Digital Multimeter for Measurement and Testing of Electronic Components Digital multimeter and digital volt-ohm-miliamperemeter are terms commonly used for electronic high-impedance test meter. Measuring Amperes An ammeter measures the flow of current through a complete circuit in unit of amperes. High-impedance meters.1. The ammeter has to be installed in the circuit (in series) so that it can measure all the current flow in that circuit. An ohmmeter contains a battery. required for measuring computer circuits. Measuring Resistance An ohmmeter measures the resistance in ohms of a component or circuit section when no current is flowing through the circuit. Zero ohms on the scale mean no resistance between test leads. is an open circuit. -49- . Measuring Voltage A voltmeter measures potential of electricity in a units of volts. To summarize. 7. usually 10M.
Basic of Electronics -50- .
Basic of Electronics 7. and a symbol for open circuit is displayed (this can be either 0L or 1). If the value is equal to or near equal. value should be very low. Testing diode and Transistor with a multimeter When using an analog instrument to test a diode. diode is ok if it's resistance value is very small in one. Digital instrument has another method to test the diodes. as shown on 11.1.2. diode is faulty. and then it is turned around (11. positive end of the diode is connected to one probe and negative end to the other probe (11. When we distance the probes. diode's anode is connected to the positive probe of the meter (red probe). When the multimeter shows low value. and in the other it should be very high. Testing Electronic Components 7.2b). buzzing stops. According to 11. either low or high in both directions.4. In the first case. multimeter should sound a buzz which signals a short circuit. When we connect probes to each other.4. and very high in other direction.1b. and should be replaced.2a). and display tells 0. It has it's own switch position. -51- .
one of the two measurements would have shown a value which represents a minimum voltage that could be conducted through the diode (between 400mV and 800mV). you do the same thing.3a). only with switched probes. and the anode is the end of the diode which is connected to probe A (red one). After that. but the measurements should be opposite: on 11. positive probe is connected to base. Transistors are tested in a similar fashion. When testing PNP transistors. all steps are the same. and the negative probe is first at the collector and then emitter afterwards. since they act as two connected diodes. Then we rotate the diode and connect it again (11. Both diodes should be tested in described way.3b). in both cases resistance should be low.Basic of Electronics Now we conenct probes to the diode (11. both cases should produce a high value on the meter. -52- . Diode is faulty if you hear a buzz (closed circuit) or some value which represents infinity. and on 11. negative probe is connected to the base and you test collector and emitter with a positive probe. According to 11.4b. If the measured diode was ok.4a they are high. and if both of them are functional – transistor is functional as well.4c they are low.
Basic of Electronics If you test transistors using a digital instrument. When the positive end of an electrolithic capacitor is connected to a positive probe of an analog instrument. transistor BC140 is tested.3. display shows a value which represents the current amplification coefficient. Infinite resistance still means disconnected coil. Eexceptions are electrolithic and very high value block capacitors. In case transistor works. Many modern day digital multimeters have a tool for direct transistor check. As displayed on 11. 7. Since the primary coil has more curls than the secondary one. as displayed on 11. Each diode should produce a value between 400mV and 800mV. Transformers and coils Grid transofrmers are tested by measuring the resistance of the copper wire on the primary and secondary coil. process remains similar to the one with diodes. If. and it's value lays in range between several tens of ohms (in high power transofrmers) to several hundreds of ohms. Secondary resistance is lower and is in range between several ohms to several tens of ohms. Capacitors DC capacitors should produce an infinite value on the instrument. it's resistance is higher. for example. All principles remain the same as with transformers.4. a special plug where low and medium power transistors fit nicely.4. 7. and a -53- . even to kiloohms (in low power transformers). There is. In case an instrument shows an infinite value. this means that the collector current is 74 times higher than the base current.5. transistor is plugged into specified slot according to it's type (PNP or NPN) and the switch on the instrument is brought into position with a hFE marking. In case when there is a need to test high power transistors. and is wound using a thinner wire. and the display shows 74.8mm will do fine) should be soldered to transistor's pins and then plugged into the instrument.5. thin wires (0. high power means low resistance. Coils can be tested in the same way as transformers – through their resistance.4. it is a certain sign that the coil is either poorly connected or the curls are disconnected at some point. where the principle of inverse relations is still in place.
which simplifies the process to comparing the value on the capacitor to the one on the display. (“Noisy” pot can be repaired using a special spray. or a pot. -54- . any other value means that the component is faulty. Testing process is shown on 12. but this is not a good solution since it is weak and short-lived. their variable coil has either 4 or 8Ohms in most cases. Potentiometers To test a potentiometer.6 Speakers. speakers would produce loud noise or no sound at all while pot is being turned.7.) Variable capacitors are tested by connecting an ohm-meter to them. because any other value is a certain signal that the plates of the rotor and stator are connected which means that the component doesn't work. This is a proof that the capacitor is ok. whole diode acts as a low value resistor. so the needle doesn't have the time to move. needle jumps to the lowest value and then gradually comes back towards infinity. There are digital instruments that have the ability to measure capacitance.4. Electret microphones don't produce the noise. in the opposite direction.4. and turning the rotor. but their discharge time is very short. which goes even to 20%. headphones and microphones When testing speakers. sound is lower because in that direction diode acts as a high value resistor. it is worth mentionig that the capacitors have considerably wider tolerance than resistors. which means that speaker sound is higher than usual. and the meter should show those values.4.5. black on cathode). we fall back to the diode theory of operation: when anode is positive comparing to the cathode (red probe on anode. On the other hand. and values should do what component's name says – vary. process is rather simple – you connect the component to probes of an ohm-meter and turn the shaft. because by only connecting the probes there should be a short noise heard.4. Other Semiconductor Devices To test diodes using this circuit. Same goes for headphones and dynamic microphones. 7.Basic of Electronics negative end to a negative probe. Needle should point infinity at all times. and should be practiced only if there is no replacement for that potentiometer) 7. this behavior should be linear – jumps and twitches in values mean that the component is not working as supposed to. and the needle's movement is the charge stored in the component being discharged. (Even small capacitance components get charged while testing. If there is no noise. or a variable resistor. 7. When using an analog instrument on the speakers. With this said. or oil or even a graphite pencil. speaker is broken. not much of attention is being paid to the value shown on the actual instrument. And another source of trouble could be the built-in FET amplifier. If that component was to be used in some audio amplifier. Of course.
6. If this continues when the component is shadowed using your palm.Basic of Electronics DC transistor acts in the same fashion as two connected diodes (11.7. “music” would have been heard. photo transistors and diodes is NL-NM (or. everything is in functional order. and then to the collector. So. or diode's anode or one side of the photo resistor. If both diodes are functional. FET testing is done in similar fashion as testing the bipolar transistors. everything is in order.5. which is shown on 12. As you can see. probe A is connected to the base. if the transistor is ok. transistor is faulty if speaker remains silent in the first two measurements. We then switch probe connections.4a). In both cases. and the other one is connected to transistor's emitter or diode's cathode or the other resistor's side and some kind of sound should be heard from the speaker. No Light – No Music). One principle that is applicable when testing the photo resistors. or if it “plays” in one of the second two measurements. A goes where B was connected to and vice versa. if there is no music now. Probe A is connected to the collector of the transistor. transistor is functional as well as shown on 12. and then probe B is connected first to the emitter. We displayed graphically the method of testing photo sensitive components on 12. -55- .
transformers and such conduct electricity. transformers. headphones. speakers.8. fuses. Components which have coils in them. it is apparent that different resistance values give different output sound. like different electro motors. This may be easier and more accurately done using regular ohmmeter on your multimeter.4. sound will be heard. but your nerd level will certainly rise sky high if you are able to tell resistor's value from bare sound. So with some experience using this instrument on various resistors it will be possible to tell the resistance of the resistor in question from only the generated sound. like capacitors. coils. closed switches. If component doesn't conduct electricity. Checking other components Many other components may be tested using this instrument. And from the sound frequency one is possible to tell which coil is primary and which is secondary. then music would have not been heard. or open switches. -56- . When testing different resistors.Basic of Electronics 7. Base rule is: if component is intended to conduct electricity. or two copper wires on the circuit board which shouldn't be connected. so absence of sound while testing tells of some coil connection failure. With transformers with several secondary coils there is a possibility to find beginning and the end of each of them. This is the case with resistors.
especially the larger ones. An exception are electrolithic and block capacitors. where higher values give longer sound time. Tone generated by connecting these capacitors to the instrument will change in level and frequency and fade until completely off when capacitor is discharged.Basic of Electronics Functional capacitor will generate no music. which allows for a crude approximation of the component's capacitance. Length of playing depends on the capacitance of the component. -57- .
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