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BASIC OF ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS STUDENTS
Basic of Electronics
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
• • • • • •
Atoms and Electrical Charge Current. Voltage. Power Resistance Ohm's Law
1.1. Atoms and Electrical Charge - Discusses the structure of atoms.
Figure 1-1. Model of an Atom Atoms are the building blocks of all matter. They are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every electron has a small negative (-) charge. The proton has the same amount of charge except that it is the opposite, positive (+) charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral and have no charge. The protons and neutrons are located in the center of atoms forming what is called the nucleus and the electrons revolve around them. It is very important to know that particles of like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract. For example, two protons or two electrons will repel each other. However, a proton and a electron will attract. That is how the electrons are held inside the atom. The attraction between the electrons and protons keeps the electrons in orbit much like the gravitational attraction between the sun and its planets.
Basic of Electronics
Figure 1-2. Interaction between electrons and protons Electricity is the flow of electrons so it is necessary to measure the charge. The basic unit for measuring charge is the coulomb or the letter C. 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons!!! 1C = 6.25x10^18 electrons 1.2. Current - Introduces current and ampere. Electric current is the amount of electrons, or charge, moving past a point every second. It is basically the speed of electron flow. The faster the electrons flow, the higher the current.
Figure 1-3. Electron Flow Current is represented by the letter I. The basic unit for measuring current is ampere. Ampere can be abbreviated to amp or just A. 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec Meaning for every amp, there are 6.25x10^18 electrons moving past a point every second. 1.3. Voltage - Potential difference and voltage To make sense of voltage, we will need to make an analogy. Lets imagine that electrons are represented by a marble on a flat plane. At this point, the plane is level and the marble does not move. If the plane is lifted at one side, the marble will roll down to the lower point.
Basic of Electronics Figure 1-4. Analogy electron with a marble In electricity, the high point is a point with lots of electrons and the low point is a point with a lack of electrons. The high point is called the high potential and the low point is the low potential. The difference between these two points is called the potential difference. The larger the potential difference, the larger the voltage.
Figure 1-5. Energy potential Voltage can be thought of as the measure of the pressure pushing the electrons. The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage. Voltage is represented by the letter E. The basic unit of measure is volts or the letter V. One volt will push 1 amp of current through 1 ohm of resistance. Resistance will be discussed in a later section.
1.4. Power - Discusses power or the amount of work a circuit is doing. Power is simply the amount of energy used or the amount of "work" a circuit is doing. Power is represented by the letter P. The basic unit for measuring power is watts or the letter W. To find power, all you need is a simple equation: P=EI or Power equals voltage times current. For example, if E = 9V I = 0.5A then P = 9 * 0.5 P = 4.5W
Basic of Electronics 1.5. Resistance - Discusses electron flow, materials, and the ohm unit. To better understand what resistance is, you must first get an idea of how electrons flow. When an electron is knocked out of an atom, it will fly off and hit another atom. If the electron strikes the atom with enough force, it will knock off another electron. The atom that was just knocked off will hit another atom and so forth.
Figure 1-6. Two electrons Note that every time an electron strikes another, it is transferring its energy. Some of the energy is converted into heat every time it is transferred. The voltage will drop as the energy is transferred over long distances. Thus a long wire has a higher resistance than a short wire. Some materials - such as copper and silver - does not hold on to its electrons very tightly. Therefore it doesn't require much energy to knock off an electron. These materials are called conductors and has a very low resistance to electron flow. Materials such as clay and plastics hold on to their electrons more tightly than conductors. It takes more energy to knock off an electron from these materials. These materials are called insulators and has a high resistance to electron flow. Now, you must understand that this is NOT how electrons really flow; It serves only as something for you to work with. To really know how electrons flow, which we will not get into, you will need to study quantum physics. Resistance is represented by the letter R. The basic unit of measure is ohm or the symbol (Greek omega). In the next section (Ohm's Law), we will show you the relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Resistance will also be further discussed as we introduce the resistor.
1.6. Ohm's Law - The relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. The German physicist, George Simon Ohm, established that voltage in volt, electrical resistance in ohms, and ampereres flowing through any circuit are all related. Ohms’s law states:
I=E/R Where: I= Current in ampere (A) E= Voltage in volt (V) R= Resistance in ohms (Ω) -6- .Basic of Electronics It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance. Ohm law camn also be sated as asimple formula to calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known.
It's not that tough right? -7- . the 4 horizontal lines. the triangle in a circle. the second resistor will be called R2. Below is an example of a schematic diagram: Figure 2-1 A simple schematic diagram As you can see. This tells you what value to use for that component. Note the "R1" next to the resistor symbol and "R1 470 ohm" below the diagram. All relevant values and component specific information are usually included. The triangle in the circle represents the light emitting diode and the wavy lines represent the resistor -. Each type of component has a unique symbol and a name (usually 1-2 letters). and the thing with the wavy lines. It is a simple and easy to read outline of the circuit. If there was a second resistor.Basic of Electronics Chapter 2: Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows how each component connect with another. this diagram has 3 components: the thing with 4 horizontal lines. Can you guess which is the battery? Yes.both of which will be discussed in the components section. That's all it is to schematic diagrams.
The color bands around the resistors are color codes that tell you its resistance value.Discusses the different configurations of switches. The third band is the multiplier . Put them all together and you have the value. indicates that the resistor will be within 5% of its value. Recall that resistance is measured in ohms. The first two color bands from the left are the significant figures .Basic of Electronics Chapter 3: Electronics Component • • • • • • Resistors . a resistor within 5% tolerance should be sufficient.An overview of integrated circuits Switches . To get the value of a resistor.simply write down the numbers represented by the colors. Resistors . 3. Capacitors . For most applications. As its name implies. A 5% tolerance (gold band) for example. Diodes . resistors resist the flow of electrons.1. -8- .A "one way street" for electrons. Transistors . They are used to add resistance to a circuit.A component that resist the flow of electrons. Integrated circuits . Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in electronics.A mini recharable battery.A component used for switching and amplifying.A component that resist the flow of electrons. hold the resistor so that the tolerance band is on the right. The tolerance bands indicates the accuracy of the values.it tells you how many zeros to put after the significant figures.
1000 ohms is 1k.2 This mean that 1 ohm. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat. One last important note about resistors is their wattage rating. Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. However. Figure 3-1 Schematic and Symbol of Resistor The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads.8 2. Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks).2 1.0 1. They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS.7 3.8k as 1K8 etc. Most resistors are color coded to indicate their value and tolerance. Resistors have a wattage rating. and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods.6 6. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them.2 2. They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits.9 4. However. 12 ohm.000 ohms is 3.Basic of Electronics NOTE: There are resistors with more bands and other types for specific applications.000 ohms is 1M. Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value. (color would change with heat). it is okay to use a 1/2 watt resistor in a 1/4 watt circuit.300.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1.8 8. 2200 ohm resistors etc are available. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated. 3. High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily. it is NOT okay to use a 1/4 watt resistor in a 1/2 watt circuit. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available.3M etc. Resistors generate heat.3 3. These are 1. They never go short circuit. 180 ohm. You should not use a 1/4 watt resistor in a circuit that has more than 1/4 watt of power flowing. 4 band resistors(the ones discussed here) are the most common and should work for most projects. 1000. 3. -9- . For example.7 5. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light.
Basic of Electronics On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters. Figure 3-4 a pair plate of Capacitor This insulator is called the dielectric. Capacitors . These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4. Examples are volume and brightness controls. Once adjusted. Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator.7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available. F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0.A mini rechargeable battery. 3. Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver. they are never touched again. -10- .2.
This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages. If it is necessary. polyester. 1F is too large for capacitors. mica.000. Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity. you simply decode the 3 digit number on the surface of the capacitor. so microfarads(µF) and picofarads(pF) are used.000 So 100. The first 2 digit are the significant figures and the third digit is the multiplier.Basic of Electronics Capacitor types are named after the dielectric. Figure 3-2 Ceramic Capacitor • Electrolytic Capacitors has a cylinder shape. We will only be discussing two types of the most commonly used capacitors: Ceramic and Electrolytic.0000001F DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit. • Ceramic capacitors are brown and has a disc shape.000. similar to a car battery. They can be thought of as tiny rechargeable batteries -. meaning that you can connect them in any way. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value. These capacitors are polarized so you must connect the negative side in the right place. These capacitors are measured in µF. paper air capacitors etc. These capacitors are nonpolarized.Capacitors can be charged and discharged. -11- .000.000. To find the value. Thus we have ceramic.000pF = 0. The amount of charge that a capacitor can hold is measured in Farads or the letter F. The coding is just like the resistor color codes except that they used numbers instead of colors. These capacitors are measured in pF. However. The value of the resistor as well as the negative side is clearly printed on the capacitor. Capacitors are the second most commonly used component in electronics. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current.1µF = 0.000 and pico = 1/1. micro = 1/1.
102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100. These merge into one wide red band. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round. There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode which similar characteristics. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value. For example. A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors. To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added. There can be some confusion. -12- . They are marked to indicate polarity. The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-3 Electrolytic Capacitor They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. Figure 3-4 Color band on Capacitor Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them. The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier.1 uF. Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised.
3 Diodes . Light Emitting Diodes (LED for short) are just like the regular diodes except that it lights up when electrons are flowing through. The longer pin is the anode. Zener Diodes. Diodes flow from cathode to anode. Note: there aren't any bands to identify which pin is anode and which is cathode. However. and Light Emitting Diodes. The cathode side of the diode is marked with a band around it.A "one way street" for electrons.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-5 Symbol of fix and variable capacitor 3. Zener diodes have a set voltage rating. When a voltage exceeds the voltage rating going the opposite direction (from anode to cathode). Figure 3-6 Diodes and its symbol There are basically three different types of diodes: Diodes. the positive side. one pin is longer then the other. Figure 3-7 Symbol of LED -13- . the diode allows the electrons flow. Diodes let electrons flow through them only in one direction.
Figure 3-9 Some diode circuit symbols LED The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. or be part of trendy jewelry etc. which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. Figure 3-8 Mark indicator in Diodes The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. Diodes come in all shapes and sizes.Basic of Electronics Diodes are polarised. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. ring or some other mark. It can show when the power is on. -14- . The cathode is always identified by a dot. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a type valve). act as a warning indicator. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED). Diodes have two connections. They are often marked with a type number. A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other. an anode and a cathode.
as shown in the diagram. Transistors are used as switches and amplifiers. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0. The transistor is a three terminal solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-9 LED circuit It needs to be fed from a DC supply. collector. Figure 3-10 Transistors -15- . The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body. base. 3. Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. with the anode positive and the cathode negative. signal modulation and many other functions. We will discuss two types of transistors: PNP and NPN transistors. We now know the voltage across. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections. 0.02 amps). In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. There aren't any standards for where and what order the physical pins are on the transistors. so the current through then both is the same. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts.4. so be sure to check the packaging when purchasing.02 amps.02 =500 ohms. The diode is in series with the resistor. switching. and the current through the resistor. Transistors -A component used for switching and amplifying. then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. Both of these transistors has 3 pins: emitter. voltage stabilization.
Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. Most common are 8. ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. -16- . Inside them is a tiny piece of semiconductor(usually silicon) with large circuits built in. such as a radiator. in order to fit it into the board (or socket). When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. or 16 pin dual in line (dil) chips. When satisfied. the following must apply: The emitter is more positive than the base and the collector leads to the negative. Figure 3-11 Symbol of PNP Transistors The NPN transistor is the opposite: The collector must be more positive than the base and the emitter leads to the negative. Integrated circuits (IC) . or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board. 14. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. When handling them. When soldering. discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed.Basic of Electronics To allow electrons to flow through the collector and emitter of a PNP transistor. solder the remaining pins. If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat.5.An overview of integrated circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are usually referred to as chips. Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies. Figure 3-12 Symbol of NPN Transistors 3.
6. to increase the voltage available. • • • • • • 3. Switches Switching IC's are also very much like the switching circuits of transistors. The general types of integrated circuits include: Figure 3-12 Symbol of IC • Logic circuits These IC's are basically decision makers. you'll need one of those large reference books that have info on most of the IC's. Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types. Works very much like transistor amplifier circuits.Basic of Electronics There are millions of different integrated circuits. Other There are thousands of other types. Most IC's come with pinout information and how to use it. Audio amplifiers These are used to amplify audio. If not. A primary cell is discarded when its chemical -17- . (logic gates will be discussed in a later section). Operational Amplifiers These are amplifiers. Timers These are counting IC's used for circuits that counts or needs to keep track of time. most contain logic gate circuits. In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. A lot of IC's are made for a special purpose like digital sound recording. connected in series. Comparators These IC's compare inputs and gives an output. Batteries Batteries are assembled from cells.
A secondary cell can be recharged. Figure 3-14 Internal Resistance of Battery When current is taken from a battery. Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases. The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches. The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working. Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger. -18- .Basic of Electronics energy is exhausted. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell. voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls. Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. Figure 3-13 Symbol of Battery The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity. portable radios etc. The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad).
the lines of force move inwards. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING. Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD. as the field moves out or in. the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. the lines of force move outwards from the coil. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. then the turns ratio is 10:1. 3.e. It occurs in any type of power supply.7. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns. with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. then the primary must supply 24 watts. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then. As it does this. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. -19- . the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. if the secondary has half the primary turns.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-15 Voltage-Current characteristics of Battery This is called POOR REGULATION. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet.1 amp.-----------------------Number of secondary turns For example. (Watts = volts x amps). Transformer If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil. this will happen 50 times a second. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0. If the current is reduced. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. Primary voltage --------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns = ----------. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply . If the current is increased. i. Assuming a perfect transformer. a voltage is induced in the second coil.
Basic of Electronics To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. Figure 3-15 Diagram of Transformers -20- . This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. Since the primary would induce power. or in the other direction. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. called EDDY CURRENTS. or no core at all. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. into this core. the core is LAMINATED.
There are 3 commonly used configurations: SPST. Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz. Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire. This section gives an overview of the contact configurations. At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. Switches really don't need any introduction.8 Inductor Inductors are coils of wire. and DPDT. They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting. Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting. This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE. SPST = Single Pole.9. 10 Mhz. SPDT = Single Pole. above 1 Mhz only a few turns. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current. Switches Discusses the different configurations of switches. SPDT. Figure 3-16 Diagrams of Inductors 3. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. -21- . Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases. It simply connects and disconnect a circuit. Single Throw This is a two terminal switch that opens and closes a circuit. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES. The former may contain a metallic core up its centre.Basic of Electronics 3. Double Throw This is a three terminal switch that connects one terminal to either of the other two.
Basic of Electronics DPDT = Double Pole. Fig. Fig. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position. The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously. Double Throw This is a six terminal switch that connects a pair of terminals to either of the other two pairs. Fig. This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit. 2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position. -22- .
Basic of Electronics Fig. The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply. push to break". (2) a "normally open. 5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch. 8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere. Occasionly they grow tired and fail. Here are assorted switch types. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. You can have 2p 5w. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value. Fig. It can select 1 of 5 circuits. 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. Fig. The Fuse The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current. Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it. These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds.10. If the current rises above this value it will melt. With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. push to make". Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-WaferProximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-RockerDimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-FootThermal-Hall effect 3. Fig. Fig. Figure 3-17 Fuse Configuration in circuit -23- . Therefore special antisurge fuses are fitted. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. When operated a-b opens and b-c closes. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. 3p 4w etc. 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch.
11. They take binary inputs and and gives out a binary result. 1(one) is represented by a positive electrical value and 0(zero) is represented by no electricity at all. -24- . • NOR gate To get an output of 1. • OR gate To get an output of 1. one or more of its inputs must be at a value of 0. all inputs must be at a value of 0. • NAND gate To get an output of 1. • NOT gate To get an output of 1. Logic IC's contain these and other types of gates. This gate only has one input. Gates Gates are logic circuits. This section describes the different types of gates and their symbols: • AND gate To get an output of 1. It is also known as an inverter circuit. its input must be at a value of 0. both inputs must be at a value of 1.Basic of Electronics 3. one or more inputs must be at a value of 1.
Therefore two speakers are used. -25- . Figure 3-18 Diagrams of Speaker The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. In the diagram. where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet. The movement of the coil causes a cone. The design of enclosures is very complicated. typically 4 or 8 ohms. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter. To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker. a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies. Loudspeaker The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker. C2 and L2 are a high pass filter. to move back and forth. and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies. When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil. a Crossover Unit is used. Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes). When using two speakers together. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier (see the page on REACTANCE and IMPEDANCE). Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance. they must be in phase. Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up your amplifier. (there is a page on FILTERS).11. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly. This means that they move out and in together. as in stereo systems. The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. Loudspeakers have Impedance. which is attached to the coil. Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves.Basic of Electronics 3.
by passing current through it. to form an electromagnet. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-19 Woofer and Tweeter configuration 3. Figure 3-20 Electromagnetic Relay The magnetised core attracts the iron armature. Electromagnetic relay The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil. When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released. the core becomes temporarily magnetised. When the coil is energised. wound on an iron core.12. -26- .
To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS.000.000 milli m 0.000.o.000.000.000.000.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad.000 kilo K 1. 3.001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLICATION FACTOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tera T 1. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source.001 pico p 0. For example 1000.001 micro u 0.000.000 mega M 1.000.Basic of Electronics The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply.000. There are 1. Practice converting one to another. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available.000. and 0.000 giga G 1.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil.13.001 nano n 0. This can damage other components in the circuit.000.000.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz.c and c. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off.000.000.000. -27- . Figure 3-20 Relay position The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n.o n. Value Multiplier In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values.000. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above. The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation.000.
Basic of Electronics CIRCUIT SYMBOLS -28- .
Basic of Electronics -29- .
Capacitors in Series -30- . So when we say "Resistors in series".Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel 4.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel. simply add up the resistance of the resistors in the series circuit. Capacitors in Parallel . Resistors in Parallel . Capacitors in Series .Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. we mean connecting one resistor after the other: To find the TOTAL resistance. What happens when resistors are placed side by side -.Basic of Electronics Chapter 4 Circuit Concepts • • • • Resistors in Series .3.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series.2.1. 4. Resistors in Parallel . So what is a series circuit? A series circuit means connecting components one after the other. To calculate what the total resistance is. in a parallel circuit? The result is the total resistance being lower than the lowest resistor.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel. Resistors in Series .in other words. you must use this equation: Rt = (R1 * R2) / (R1 + R2) 4.
Basic of Electronics . Unlike resistors in series. capacitors in series lowers the total capacitance.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel Now if capacitors in series uses the same equation as resistors in parallel. The total capacitance in a capacitor series circuit is less than the lowest capacitor in the circuit. and 5pF The total value is 2pF + 3pF + 4pF + 5pF = 14pF -31- . use the following equation: Ct = (C1 * C2) / (C1 + C2) Notice that it's the same equation as resistors in parallel Capacitors in Parallel . 4pF.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. 3pF. To find the total capacitance. how do you find the total capacitance of capactors in parallel? Right! You just add it up! So if there are 4 capacitors in parallel and their values are: 2pF.
Breadboards are used for testing and experimenting with electronic circuits.Discusses how to solder -32- . The blue strips shown in the illustration are usually used for connecting the batteries and the green strips are for the components. They are very convenient since all you have to do is plug in the components. Soldering . Oh the surface of a breadboard.Introduces the breadboard. So whichever components connected to a certain strip are connected to eachother.1.2.Basic of Electronics Chapter 5 Skills in Electronics 5. there are many holes for plugging in components: The bread board has many strips of metal which run underneath the board that connects the component. Using Breadboards . 5. The metal strips are laid out as shown below: Each strip is a connection.
-33- . and wipe it with a wet sponge. cut the leads at the proper length. Now. Before you solder. you must tin the tip. Put the soldering iron tip so that it's touching the lead and the copper at the same time. Simply wait for the soldering iron to heat up. An ordinary plastic flex will melt immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock. apply a coat of solder on the tip. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron. Wash your hands after using solder. Stick the component's leads through the proper holes and bend it so that it'll stay still. Then apply the solder on the lead (not on the tip of the soldering iron). They are very hot (about 400°C) and will give you a nasty burn. Let the joint cool by itself. The smoke formed as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. Note that you'll probably want one unless you're the careful type and you're sure you won't burn up anything. not above. The iron should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. even for a moment! Work in a well-ventilated area. Avoid breathing it by keeping you head to the side of.Basic of Electronics First a few safety precautions: Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. your work. you can start soldering. to solder the components onto the board. Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. what you need: • • • Soldering iron (around 25W) 60/40 solder and optionally a soldering iron holder. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use. Now that you have your circuit boards. Never put it down on your workbench.
Basic of Electronics -34- .
This means a minimum of lead wrapping. All soldered joints should be easily removable. Do not carry solder on the bit to the joint.(This means putting a small blob of solder on the tip of the bit). Avoid overheating. If you have taken too long it will have have solder spikes. to prevent them falling out during soldering. which should normally clean the joint. When using printed circuit boards avoid bending wires flat on the board. Spring component leads out just slightly. Take precautions against the work moving. Remove the iron. Heat the biggest part of the joint for 2-3 seconds. A dry joint is a poorly soldered one. frequently. to keep the bit clean. Mount components so that value markings are visible. Allow the solder to run over the joint without moving the iron. Heating the joint and applying the solder Use a damp sponge. Tin the bit for good heat conduction. If the joint has moved during soldering it will be dull and crinkly. Tinning the bit. Apply solder to the joint not to the iron. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!! -35- . Hold the iron like a pen. Rest your hands on the workbench to steady them. (use a small vice or sticky tape). A good joint is smooth and shiny.The process should take only 2-3 seconds. Reflow soldering is tinning two pieces of wire separately and then reheating to join them together. The shape of the wire should be visible through the solder.Basic of Electronics Cleaning the bit with a damp sponge. It makes them difficult to remove. The smoke you see is evaporating flux. Remove the solder.
(b) A bad joint is unevenly shaped. The solder must run along the copper track. Make the blobs all the same size and shape. A good joint is smooth and shiny. 1 -36- .Basic of Electronics Don't allow the blobs to run into each other. See (a). then you are taking too long to make the joint. not stand on it like a bead. Do NOT put the ICs (chips) in yet. Many must be placed the correct way round and a few are easily damaged by the heat from soldering. dull and crinkly in appearance. When you can produce good results proceed to the next part of the exercise. Components Chip Holders (DIL sockets) Pictures Reminders and Warnings Connect the correct way round by making sure the notch is at the correct end.(c) If there are spikes on the joint. together with other advice which may be useful when soldering. Appropriate warnings are given in the table below. Some components require special care when soldering.
Connect the correct way round. for cathode! The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. Easily damaged by heat.for cathode. it really is k. If there is no danger of touching other parts you can use tinned copper wire. single core wire Battery clips. Use single core wire. this has no plastic coating and looks just like solder but it is stiffer.Basic of Electronics No special precautions are needed with resistors. They will be marked with a + or .near one lead. this is one solid wire which is plastic-coated. OA91) because they are easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round. buzzers 9 and other parts with their own wires -37- . Connect the correct way round. not c. yes. Connect the correct way round. Transistors have 3 'legs' (leads) so extra care is needed to ensure the connections are correct. Take care with polystyrene capacitors because they are easily damaged by heat. Take care with germanium diodes (e. 2 Resistors 3 Small value capacitors (usually less than 1µF) 4 Electrolytic capacitors (1µF and greater) 5 Diodes 6 LEDs 7 Transistors Wire Links between 8 points on the circuit board.g. Connect the correct way round. These may be connected either way round. The diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or .
variable resistors and loudspeakers. Leave ICs in their antistatic packaging until you need them. If the operation is unsuccessful resolder the joint and then try again. Do not use single core wire because this will break when it is repeatedly flexed. Apply the solder sucker and remove the solder. Wires to parts off the circuit board. It is often safer to cut the component leads and discard the component. Place the iron on top of the braid and allow the solder from the joint to run up the braid. including 10 switches. Carefully insert ICs in their holders: make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket then push down firmly with your thumb. There are two ways to remove the solder: -38- . cutters. At some stage you will probably need to desolder a joint to remove or re-position a wire or component. Working on a double-sided PCB (where copper tracks are on both sides of the PCB) is more difficult and requires more care. In some cases desoldering braid is useful. then earth your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the ICs.Check that all pins are loose on an integrated circuit. Take great care to avoid damage. soldering iron and solder sucker (desoldering tool). stranded wire 11 ICs (chips) DESOLDERING COMPONENTS Tools required . an assembled printed circuit board may be worth several hundred pounds. This should only take two or three seconds.Basic of Electronics You should use stranded wire which is flexible and plasticcoated. Place the braid on top of the joint. Ensure the iron bit is well tinned. Many ICs are static sensitive.pliers. Heat up the joint to be desoldered until the solder runs. Connect the correct way round. relays. Ensure the joint is completely desoldered by wriggling the wire with a pair of pliers to check for freeness. Components cost a few pence. Ensure the iron is tinned. then desolder the leads individually.
The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle. If the joint will not come apart easily apply your soldering iron to melt the remaining traces of solder at the same time as pulling the joint apart. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt. taking care to avoid burning yourself. 2. Apply both the pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. away from the joint. -39- . As the solder melts most of it will flow onto the wick. Remove the wick first. Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible.Basic of Electronics 1. After removing most of the solder from the joint(s) you may be able to remove the wire or component lead straight away (allow a few seconds for it to cool). Cut off and discard the end of the wick coated with solder. With solder remover wick (copper braid) Apply both the end of the wick and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. then the soldering iron. With a desoldering pump (solder sucker) Set the pump by pushing the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks. Then press the button on the pump to release the plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool.
-40- . and it is always best to proceed cautiously when using meters. This concern is not unfounded. Carelessness more than any other factor is what causes experienced technicians to have electrical accidents. The most common piece of electrical test equipment is a meter called the multimeter. It can be daunting at first to use a meter. knowing that you are connecting it to live circuits which may harbor life-threatening levels of voltage and current. Multimeters are so named because they have the ability to measure a multiple of variables: voltage. the multimeter may become a source of danger when connected to a "live" circuit. however. In the hands of someone ignorant and/or careless. and often many others.Basic of Electronics Chapter 6 Safe Meter Usage Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most valuable skill an electronics technician can master. current. resistance. both for the sake of their own personal safety and for proficiency at their trade.
Test leads are nothing more than specially-prepared wires used to connect the meter to the circuit under test.Basic of Electronics You will notice that the display of this meter is of the "digital" type: showing numerical values using four digits in a manner similar to a digital clock. Although we haven't discussed alternating current (AC) in any technical detail. The wires are coated in a color-coded (either black or red) flexible insulation to prevent the user's hands from contacting the bare conductors. two "A" settings. which is the common symbol for the electrical unit of ohms." The "horseshoe" symbol is the Greek letter "Omega" (Ω). and the tips of the probes are sharp. The meter uses different techniques. you will notice that each pair is divided into unique markers with either a pair of horizontal lines (one solid. The parallel lines represent "DC" while the squiggly curve represents "AC. to measure DC than it uses to measure AC." The "V" of course stands for "voltage" while the "A" stands for "amperage" (current). internally. The rotary selector switch (now set in the Off position) has five different measurement positions it can be set in: two "V" settings. or a dashed line with a squiggly curve over it. this distinction in meter settings is an important one to bear in mind. stiff pieces of wire: -41- . There are three different sockets on the multimeter face into which we can plug our test leads. one dashed). Of the two "V" settings and two "A" settings. and one setting in the middle with a funny-looking "horseshoe" symbol on it representing "resistance. and so it requires the user to select which type of voltage (V) or current (A) is to be measured.
let's look at a couple of examples showing the meter in use.Basic of Electronics The black test lead always plugs into the black socket on the multimeter: the one marked "COM" for "common. To see how this works." The red test lead plugs into either the red socket marked for voltage and resistance. we'll set up the meter to measure DC voltage from a battery: -42- . or the red socket marked for current. First. depending on which quantity you intend to measure with the multimeter.
a short-circuit will be formed.Basic of Electronics Note that the two test leads are plugged into the appropriate sockets on the meter for voltage. the test leads will remain plugged in the same sockets. If this happens. In both of these examples. and the selector switch has been set for DC "V". Since we're still measuring voltage. we'll take a look at an example of using the multimeter to measure AC voltage from a household electrical power receptacle (wall socket): The only difference in the setup of the meter is the placement of the selector switch: it is now turned to AC "V". creating a spark and perhaps even a ball of flame if the voltage source is capable of supplying enough current! The following image illustrates the potential for hazard: -43- . Now. it is imperative that you not let the probe tips come in contact with one another while they are both in contact with their respective points on the circuit.
it must be remembered that digital multimeters usually do a good job of discriminating between AC and DC measurements. but the selector switch will need to be turned until it points to the "horseshoe" resistance symbol. Using a multimeter to check for resistance is a much simpler task. The test leads will be kept plugged in the same sockets as for the voltage checks. when checking for the presence of hazardous voltage. as they are set for one or the other when checking for voltage or current. both AC and DC voltages and currents can be deadly. As we have seen earlier. you should be sure to check all pairs of points in question.Basic of Electronics This is just one of the ways that a meter can become a source of hazard if used improperly. the meter should properly display the resistance in ohms: -44- . Also. Touching the probes across the device whose resistance is to be measured. even if you're not expecting to find both! Also. so when using a multimeter as a safety check device you should always check for the presence of both AC and DC.
In a worse-case situation. The "resistance" mode of a multimeter is very useful in determining wire continuity as well as making precise measurements of resistance. the resistance of that component can be determined and displayed. it uses a small internal battery to generate a tiny current through the component to be measured. By sensing how difficult it is to move this current through the component. the meter shows almost zero Ω. When there is a good.Basic of Electronics One very important thing to remember about measuring resistance is that it must only be done on de-energized components! When the meter is in "resistance" mode. If there is any additional source of voltage in the meter-lead-component-lead-meter loop to either aid or oppose the resistance-measuring current produced by the meter. faulty readings will result. the meter may even be damaged by the external voltage. solid connection between the probe tips (simulated by touching them together). If the test leads had no resistance in them. it would read exactly zero: -45- .
the meter will indicate infinite resistance (usually by displaying dashed lines or the abbreviation "O. there are many mega-ohms of resistance -46- .Basic of Electronics If the leads are not in contact with each other. it is best to have the meter offer little or no resistance against the flow of electrons. Thus." which stands for "open loop"): Another potential hazard of using a multimeter in its current-measuring ("ammeter") mode is failure to properly put it back into a voltage-measuring configuration before measuring voltage with it.L. The reasons for this are specific to ammeter design and operation. the multimeter is designed to have practically zero ohms of resistance between the test probe tips when the red probe has been plugged into the red "A" (current-measuring) socket. In the voltage-measuring mode (red lead plugged into the red "V" socket). When measuring circuit current by placing the meter directly in the path of current. any additional resistance offered by the meter would impede the electron flow and alter the circuit's operation. or touching opposite ends of a broken wire. Otherwise.
they are still no substitute for clear thinking and caution when using a multimeter.will be a short-circuit through the meter! To help prevent this. All good-quality multimeters contain fuses inside that are engineered to "blow" in the even of excessive current through them.if the meter is then connected across a source of substantial voltage -. because voltmeters are designed to have close to infinite resistance (so that they don't draw any appreciable current from the circuit under test).Basic of Electronics between the test probe tips. it's easy to spin the selector switch from the "A" to the "V" position and forget to correspondingly switch the position of the red test lead plug from "A" to "V". A multimeter can be used to check its own current fuse by setting the selector switch to the resistance position and creating a connection between the two red sockets like this: -47- .to voltage-measuring mode. Like all overcurrent protection devices. such as in the case illustrated in the last image. though. most multimeters have a warning feature by which they beep if ever there's a lead plugged in the "A" socket and the selector switch is set to "V". As convenient as features like these are. these fuses are primarily designed to protect the equipment (in this case. the meter itself) from excessive damage. The result -. and only secondarily to protect the user from harm. When switching a multimeter from current.
Basic of Electronics A good fuse will indicate very little resistance while a blown fuse will always show "O. what more is there to know? Plenty! The value and capabilities of this versatile test instrument will become more evident as you gain skill and familiarity using it. so feel free to experiment on safe. so long as it's an arbitrarily low figure. -48- . The actual number of ohms displayed for a good fuse is of little consequence. There is no substitute for regular practice with complex instruments such as these. So now that we've seen how to use a multimeter to measure voltage. battery-powered circuits. resistance.L." (or whatever indication that model of multimeter uses to indicate no continuity). and current.
Measuring Voltage A voltmeter measures potential of electricity in a units of volts. The ammeter has to be installed in the circuit (in series) so that it can measure all the current flow in that circuit. Zero ohms on the scale mean no resistance between test leads.Basic of Electronics Chapter 7 Using Digital Multimeter for Measurement and Testing of Electronic Components Digital multimeter and digital volt-ohm-miliamperemeter are terms commonly used for electronic high-impedance test meter. To summarize. just as a water flow meter would measure the amount of water flow. Measuring Resistance An ohmmeter measures the resistance in ohms of a component or circuit section when no current is flowing through the circuit. usually 10M. such as across a battery.2. This means that on their DC voltage ranges they have a very high resistance (usually called input impedance) of 1M or more. open and zero readings are as follows: 0. the meter or the leads may be destroyed or the fuse will blow by the current available across the battery. An ohmmeter contains a battery. A voltmeter is connected to a circuit in parallel. and they are very unlikely to affect the circuit under test. Measuring Amperes An ammeter measures the flow of current through a complete circuit in unit of amperes. indicating that there is continuity path for the current to flow in a closed circuit. required for measuring computer circuits. All voltmeters have a large internal resistance so that the current flow through the meter will not effect the circuit being tested. 7.1. Infinity means no connection.3. All digital meters contain a battery to power the display so they use virtually no power from the circuit under test. current flows through the test leads and the difference in voltage (voltage drop) between the lead is measured as resistance. -49- .0 Ω = zero resistance OL = an open circuit (no current flows) 7. If a meter set to read amperes is connected in parallel. Caution: An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit to measure the current flow in the circuit. High-impedance meters. 7. when the leads are connected to a component. is an open circuit.
Basic of Electronics -50- .
According to 11. -51- . When the multimeter shows low value. It has it's own switch position. Digital instrument has another method to test the diodes. buzzing stops. either low or high in both directions.1b. and then it is turned around (11.2a). and should be replaced. diode is faulty. and a symbol for open circuit is displayed (this can be either 0L or 1).4. In the first case. positive end of the diode is connected to one probe and negative end to the other probe (11.4. When we distance the probes. diode's anode is connected to the positive probe of the meter (red probe). diode is ok if it's resistance value is very small in one.2. multimeter should sound a buzz which signals a short circuit. When we connect probes to each other. Testing Electronic Components 7. and very high in other direction.Basic of Electronics 7. as shown on 11.2b). Testing diode and Transistor with a multimeter When using an analog instrument to test a diode. and display tells 0. and in the other it should be very high.1. value should be very low. If the value is equal to or near equal.
-52- .4a they are high.3b). both cases should produce a high value on the meter. since they act as two connected diodes. but the measurements should be opposite: on 11. Then we rotate the diode and connect it again (11. one of the two measurements would have shown a value which represents a minimum voltage that could be conducted through the diode (between 400mV and 800mV). When testing PNP transistors.3a).Basic of Electronics Now we conenct probes to the diode (11.4b. positive probe is connected to base. negative probe is connected to the base and you test collector and emitter with a positive probe. Transistors are tested in a similar fashion. and if both of them are functional – transistor is functional as well. in both cases resistance should be low. and the anode is the end of the diode which is connected to probe A (red one). you do the same thing. and on 11.4c they are low. After that. According to 11. If the measured diode was ok. only with switched probes. all steps are the same. and the negative probe is first at the collector and then emitter afterwards. Diode is faulty if you hear a buzz (closed circuit) or some value which represents infinity. Both diodes should be tested in described way.
Eexceptions are electrolithic and very high value block capacitors. 7. Many modern day digital multimeters have a tool for direct transistor check. As displayed on 11. Since the primary coil has more curls than the secondary one. thin wires (0. and the display shows 74. a special plug where low and medium power transistors fit nicely. If. In case transistor works. where the principle of inverse relations is still in place.Basic of Electronics If you test transistors using a digital instrument. transistor BC140 is tested. All principles remain the same as with transformers. Coils can be tested in the same way as transformers – through their resistance. process remains similar to the one with diodes. 7. Transformers and coils Grid transofrmers are tested by measuring the resistance of the copper wire on the primary and secondary coil. it's resistance is higher. There is. even to kiloohms (in low power transformers). transistor is plugged into specified slot according to it's type (PNP or NPN) and the switch on the instrument is brought into position with a hFE marking.4. and a -53- . and it's value lays in range between several tens of ohms (in high power transofrmers) to several hundreds of ohms. display shows a value which represents the current amplification coefficient. high power means low resistance.5.5. When the positive end of an electrolithic capacitor is connected to a positive probe of an analog instrument. Each diode should produce a value between 400mV and 800mV.4. this means that the collector current is 74 times higher than the base current. as displayed on 11. In case when there is a need to test high power transistors. In case an instrument shows an infinite value.4. Capacitors DC capacitors should produce an infinite value on the instrument. and is wound using a thinner wire. Infinite resistance still means disconnected coil.8mm will do fine) should be soldered to transistor's pins and then plugged into the instrument. it is a certain sign that the coil is either poorly connected or the curls are disconnected at some point. Secondary resistance is lower and is in range between several ohms to several tens of ohms. for example.3.
but this is not a good solution since it is weak and short-lived.6 Speakers. With this said. speakers would produce loud noise or no sound at all while pot is being turned.7. On the other hand.) Variable capacitors are tested by connecting an ohm-meter to them.4.5. and values should do what component's name says – vary. black on cathode). in the opposite direction. Same goes for headphones and dynamic microphones. because any other value is a certain signal that the plates of the rotor and stator are connected which means that the component doesn't work. If that component was to be used in some audio amplifier. or a pot. If there is no noise. and the meter should show those values. And another source of trouble could be the built-in FET amplifier. Electret microphones don't produce the noise. but their discharge time is very short. which simplifies the process to comparing the value on the capacitor to the one on the display. sound is lower because in that direction diode acts as a high value resistor. we fall back to the diode theory of operation: when anode is positive comparing to the cathode (red probe on anode. not much of attention is being paid to the value shown on the actual instrument. This is a proof that the capacitor is ok. or a variable resistor. (“Noisy” pot can be repaired using a special spray. 7. (Even small capacitance components get charged while testing.4. Other Semiconductor Devices To test diodes using this circuit.4. and should be practiced only if there is no replacement for that potentiometer) 7. 7. There are digital instruments that have the ability to measure capacitance. any other value means that the component is faulty.Basic of Electronics negative end to a negative probe. whole diode acts as a low value resistor. which goes even to 20%. process is rather simple – you connect the component to probes of an ohm-meter and turn the shaft. When using an analog instrument on the speakers. or oil or even a graphite pencil. headphones and microphones When testing speakers. needle jumps to the lowest value and then gradually comes back towards infinity. so the needle doesn't have the time to move. this behavior should be linear – jumps and twitches in values mean that the component is not working as supposed to. their variable coil has either 4 or 8Ohms in most cases. and turning the rotor. it is worth mentionig that the capacitors have considerably wider tolerance than resistors.4. -54- . because by only connecting the probes there should be a short noise heard. Needle should point infinity at all times. Testing process is shown on 12. Potentiometers To test a potentiometer. which means that speaker sound is higher than usual. speaker is broken. and the needle's movement is the charge stored in the component being discharged. Of course.
everything is in order. if the transistor is ok. -55- . which is shown on 12. everything is in functional order. One principle that is applicable when testing the photo resistors. In both cases. So. or if it “plays” in one of the second two measurements. As you can see. photo transistors and diodes is NL-NM (or. If this continues when the component is shadowed using your palm. No Light – No Music).7. Probe A is connected to the collector of the transistor. We displayed graphically the method of testing photo sensitive components on 12. and then to the collector.4a). if there is no music now. “music” would have been heard. and then probe B is connected first to the emitter. FET testing is done in similar fashion as testing the bipolar transistors.6. and the other one is connected to transistor's emitter or diode's cathode or the other resistor's side and some kind of sound should be heard from the speaker. We then switch probe connections. A goes where B was connected to and vice versa. transistor is faulty if speaker remains silent in the first two measurements. or diode's anode or one side of the photo resistor.5. If both diodes are functional. probe A is connected to the base.Basic of Electronics DC transistor acts in the same fashion as two connected diodes (11. transistor is functional as well as shown on 12.
So with some experience using this instrument on various resistors it will be possible to tell the resistance of the resistor in question from only the generated sound.8. -56- . coils. or two copper wires on the circuit board which shouldn't be connected. it is apparent that different resistance values give different output sound. fuses. Components which have coils in them. This is the case with resistors. When testing different resistors. so absence of sound while testing tells of some coil connection failure. or open switches. like capacitors. Checking other components Many other components may be tested using this instrument. but your nerd level will certainly rise sky high if you are able to tell resistor's value from bare sound. sound will be heard. If component doesn't conduct electricity. like different electro motors. And from the sound frequency one is possible to tell which coil is primary and which is secondary. transformers. transformers and such conduct electricity. Base rule is: if component is intended to conduct electricity.Basic of Electronics 7. closed switches. speakers. then music would have not been heard.4. With transformers with several secondary coils there is a possibility to find beginning and the end of each of them. headphones. This may be easier and more accurately done using regular ohmmeter on your multimeter.
where higher values give longer sound time.Basic of Electronics Functional capacitor will generate no music. An exception are electrolithic and block capacitors. -57- . which allows for a crude approximation of the component's capacitance. especially the larger ones. Tone generated by connecting these capacitors to the instrument will change in level and frequency and fade until completely off when capacitor is discharged. Length of playing depends on the capacitance of the component.
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