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BASIC OF ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS STUDENTS
Basic of Electronics
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
• • • • • •
Atoms and Electrical Charge Current. Voltage. Power Resistance Ohm's Law
1.1. Atoms and Electrical Charge - Discusses the structure of atoms.
Figure 1-1. Model of an Atom Atoms are the building blocks of all matter. They are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every electron has a small negative (-) charge. The proton has the same amount of charge except that it is the opposite, positive (+) charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral and have no charge. The protons and neutrons are located in the center of atoms forming what is called the nucleus and the electrons revolve around them. It is very important to know that particles of like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract. For example, two protons or two electrons will repel each other. However, a proton and a electron will attract. That is how the electrons are held inside the atom. The attraction between the electrons and protons keeps the electrons in orbit much like the gravitational attraction between the sun and its planets.
Basic of Electronics
Figure 1-2. Interaction between electrons and protons Electricity is the flow of electrons so it is necessary to measure the charge. The basic unit for measuring charge is the coulomb or the letter C. 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons!!! 1C = 6.25x10^18 electrons 1.2. Current - Introduces current and ampere. Electric current is the amount of electrons, or charge, moving past a point every second. It is basically the speed of electron flow. The faster the electrons flow, the higher the current.
Figure 1-3. Electron Flow Current is represented by the letter I. The basic unit for measuring current is ampere. Ampere can be abbreviated to amp or just A. 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec Meaning for every amp, there are 6.25x10^18 electrons moving past a point every second. 1.3. Voltage - Potential difference and voltage To make sense of voltage, we will need to make an analogy. Lets imagine that electrons are represented by a marble on a flat plane. At this point, the plane is level and the marble does not move. If the plane is lifted at one side, the marble will roll down to the lower point.
Basic of Electronics Figure 1-4. Analogy electron with a marble In electricity, the high point is a point with lots of electrons and the low point is a point with a lack of electrons. The high point is called the high potential and the low point is the low potential. The difference between these two points is called the potential difference. The larger the potential difference, the larger the voltage.
Figure 1-5. Energy potential Voltage can be thought of as the measure of the pressure pushing the electrons. The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage. Voltage is represented by the letter E. The basic unit of measure is volts or the letter V. One volt will push 1 amp of current through 1 ohm of resistance. Resistance will be discussed in a later section.
1.4. Power - Discusses power or the amount of work a circuit is doing. Power is simply the amount of energy used or the amount of "work" a circuit is doing. Power is represented by the letter P. The basic unit for measuring power is watts or the letter W. To find power, all you need is a simple equation: P=EI or Power equals voltage times current. For example, if E = 9V I = 0.5A then P = 9 * 0.5 P = 4.5W
Basic of Electronics 1.5. Resistance - Discusses electron flow, materials, and the ohm unit. To better understand what resistance is, you must first get an idea of how electrons flow. When an electron is knocked out of an atom, it will fly off and hit another atom. If the electron strikes the atom with enough force, it will knock off another electron. The atom that was just knocked off will hit another atom and so forth.
Figure 1-6. Two electrons Note that every time an electron strikes another, it is transferring its energy. Some of the energy is converted into heat every time it is transferred. The voltage will drop as the energy is transferred over long distances. Thus a long wire has a higher resistance than a short wire. Some materials - such as copper and silver - does not hold on to its electrons very tightly. Therefore it doesn't require much energy to knock off an electron. These materials are called conductors and has a very low resistance to electron flow. Materials such as clay and plastics hold on to their electrons more tightly than conductors. It takes more energy to knock off an electron from these materials. These materials are called insulators and has a high resistance to electron flow. Now, you must understand that this is NOT how electrons really flow; It serves only as something for you to work with. To really know how electrons flow, which we will not get into, you will need to study quantum physics. Resistance is represented by the letter R. The basic unit of measure is ohm or the symbol (Greek omega). In the next section (Ohm's Law), we will show you the relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Resistance will also be further discussed as we introduce the resistor.
1.6. Ohm's Law - The relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. The German physicist, George Simon Ohm, established that voltage in volt, electrical resistance in ohms, and ampereres flowing through any circuit are all related. Ohms’s law states:
Basic of Electronics It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance. I=E/R Where: I= Current in ampere (A) E= Voltage in volt (V) R= Resistance in ohms (Ω) -6- . Ohm law camn also be sated as asimple formula to calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known.
the second resistor will be called R2. Each type of component has a unique symbol and a name (usually 1-2 letters). This tells you what value to use for that component.Basic of Electronics Chapter 2: Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows how each component connect with another. The triangle in the circle represents the light emitting diode and the wavy lines represent the resistor -. Can you guess which is the battery? Yes. It's not that tough right? -7- . If there was a second resistor. That's all it is to schematic diagrams.both of which will be discussed in the components section. the 4 horizontal lines. Below is an example of a schematic diagram: Figure 2-1 A simple schematic diagram As you can see. It is a simple and easy to read outline of the circuit. this diagram has 3 components: the thing with 4 horizontal lines. All relevant values and component specific information are usually included. and the thing with the wavy lines. the triangle in a circle. Note the "R1" next to the resistor symbol and "R1 470 ohm" below the diagram.
The third band is the multiplier . For most applications.A mini recharable battery. 3. The tolerance bands indicates the accuracy of the values. Recall that resistance is measured in ohms. They are used to add resistance to a circuit.A component used for switching and amplifying. Integrated circuits . A 5% tolerance (gold band) for example. resistors resist the flow of electrons. a resistor within 5% tolerance should be sufficient. To get the value of a resistor.1. Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in electronics.Discusses the different configurations of switches. -8- . Put them all together and you have the value. As its name implies. Transistors . Resistors .An overview of integrated circuits Switches . The color bands around the resistors are color codes that tell you its resistance value.A "one way street" for electrons.simply write down the numbers represented by the colors.Basic of Electronics Chapter 3: Electronics Component • • • • • • Resistors .A component that resist the flow of electrons. hold the resistor so that the tolerance band is on the right. Diodes . indicates that the resistor will be within 5% of its value.A component that resist the flow of electrons. The first two color bands from the left are the significant figures .it tells you how many zeros to put after the significant figures. Capacitors .
8 8.0 1.7 3.000 ohms is 1M. For example. They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS. They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits.Basic of Electronics NOTE: There are resistors with more bands and other types for specific applications. High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available.3 3.7 5. 12 ohm.8 2. They never go short circuit. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light. 180 ohm.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1. Most resistors are color coded to indicate their value and tolerance.2 This mean that 1 ohm. Figure 3-1 Schematic and Symbol of Resistor The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads. Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. 1000 ohms is 1k. Resistors generate heat.2 2. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated. One last important note about resistors is their wattage rating. -9- .3M etc. 3. These are 1. However. 2200 ohm resistors etc are available. it is okay to use a 1/2 watt resistor in a 1/4 watt circuit. Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value. it is NOT okay to use a 1/4 watt resistor in a 1/2 watt circuit. 4 band resistors(the ones discussed here) are the most common and should work for most projects. 1000.2 1. However. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat. 3.300. Resistors have a wattage rating.8k as 1K8 etc. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them.6 6.000 ohms is 3.9 4. (color would change with heat). Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks). You should not use a 1/4 watt resistor in a circuit that has more than 1/4 watt of power flowing. and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods.
Examples are volume and brightness controls. Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator.7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4. they are never touched again. Capacitors . 3. Once adjusted. Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver. F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0. -10- . Figure 3-4 a pair plate of Capacitor This insulator is called the dielectric.Basic of Electronics On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters.A mini rechargeable battery. These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel.2.
Thus we have ceramic. The amount of charge that a capacitor can hold is measured in Farads or the letter F. mica. meaning that you can connect them in any way.000.000. This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages.Basic of Electronics Capacitor types are named after the dielectric.1µF = 0. you simply decode the 3 digit number on the surface of the capacitor. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current.Capacitors can be charged and discharged.0000001F DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit. These capacitors are measured in pF. so microfarads(µF) and picofarads(pF) are used. To find the value. The coding is just like the resistor color codes except that they used numbers instead of colors. 1F is too large for capacitors. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value.000 So 100. If it is necessary. paper air capacitors etc.000. The value of the resistor as well as the negative side is clearly printed on the capacitor. They can be thought of as tiny rechargeable batteries -. Capacitors are the second most commonly used component in electronics. -11- .000pF = 0. • Ceramic capacitors are brown and has a disc shape. These capacitors are measured in µF. Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity. polyester. micro = 1/1.000. The first 2 digit are the significant figures and the third digit is the multiplier. These capacitors are polarized so you must connect the negative side in the right place. similar to a car battery. However.000 and pico = 1/1. We will only be discussing two types of the most commonly used capacitors: Ceramic and Electrolytic. These capacitors are nonpolarized. Figure 3-2 Ceramic Capacitor • Electrolytic Capacitors has a cylinder shape.
A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value. These merge into one wide red band.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-3 Electrolytic Capacitor They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised. There can be some confusion. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. 102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100. Figure 3-4 Color band on Capacitor Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers. -12- . For example. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value. They are marked to indicate polarity. The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them.1 uF. There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode which similar characteristics. To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added. Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors.
one pin is longer then the other. Note: there aren't any bands to identify which pin is anode and which is cathode. However. Figure 3-7 Symbol of LED -13- . and Light Emitting Diodes. Diodes flow from cathode to anode.3 Diodes . When a voltage exceeds the voltage rating going the opposite direction (from anode to cathode). The longer pin is the anode. Light Emitting Diodes (LED for short) are just like the regular diodes except that it lights up when electrons are flowing through. The cathode side of the diode is marked with a band around it. Figure 3-6 Diodes and its symbol There are basically three different types of diodes: Diodes. the positive side. Zener Diodes. Zener diodes have a set voltage rating. Diodes let electrons flow through them only in one direction.A "one way street" for electrons. the diode allows the electrons flow.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-5 Symbol of fix and variable capacitor 3.
It can show when the power is on. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. Figure 3-8 Mark indicator in Diodes The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a type valve). Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. -14- . A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other. Figure 3-9 Some diode circuit symbols LED The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. an anode and a cathode. The cathode is always identified by a dot. They are often marked with a type number.Basic of Electronics Diodes are polarised. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED). If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. act as a warning indicator. ring or some other mark. or be part of trendy jewelry etc. Diodes have two connections.
0. then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. There aren't any standards for where and what order the physical pins are on the transistors.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-9 LED circuit It needs to be fed from a DC supply. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections. and the current through the resistor. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0. signal modulation and many other functions. In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. We will discuss two types of transistors: PNP and NPN transistors. base. We now know the voltage across. as shown in the diagram. switching. Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. with the anode positive and the cathode negative. 3.02 amps. The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. The diode is in series with the resistor. The transistor is a three terminal solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification. Transistors -A component used for switching and amplifying. Figure 3-10 Transistors -15- . Both of these transistors has 3 pins: emitter.4. voltage stabilization.02 amps). Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts. so the current through then both is the same. so be sure to check the packaging when purchasing.02 =500 ohms. The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body. Transistors are used as switches and amplifiers. collector. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor.
discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed. When soldering.An overview of integrated circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are usually referred to as chips. When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. Figure 3-12 Symbol of NPN Transistors 3.Basic of Electronics To allow electrons to flow through the collector and emitter of a PNP transistor. or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board. -16- . Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies. When handling them. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat. ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body. or 16 pin dual in line (dil) chips. Most common are 8. such as a radiator. 14.5. When satisfied. Integrated circuits (IC) . the following must apply: The emitter is more positive than the base and the collector leads to the negative. solder the remaining pins. Inside them is a tiny piece of semiconductor(usually silicon) with large circuits built in. in order to fit it into the board (or socket). Figure 3-11 Symbol of PNP Transistors The NPN transistor is the opposite: The collector must be more positive than the base and the emitter leads to the negative.
The general types of integrated circuits include: Figure 3-12 Symbol of IC • Logic circuits These IC's are basically decision makers. Batteries Batteries are assembled from cells. Timers These are counting IC's used for circuits that counts or needs to keep track of time. • • • • • • 3. Other There are thousands of other types.Basic of Electronics There are millions of different integrated circuits. most contain logic gate circuits. to increase the voltage available. Audio amplifiers These are used to amplify audio. In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. Works very much like transistor amplifier circuits. Comparators These IC's compare inputs and gives an output. connected in series. Switches Switching IC's are also very much like the switching circuits of transistors. Operational Amplifiers These are amplifiers.6. Most IC's come with pinout information and how to use it. A primary cell is discarded when its chemical -17- . Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types. If not. (logic gates will be discussed in a later section). A lot of IC's are made for a special purpose like digital sound recording. you'll need one of those large reference books that have info on most of the IC's.
The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working. portable radios etc. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE. -18- . Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger. voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls. Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger. Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases.Basic of Electronics energy is exhausted. The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches. The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad). Figure 3-14 Internal Resistance of Battery When current is taken from a battery. A secondary cell can be recharged. Figure 3-13 Symbol of Battery The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity.
It occurs in any type of power supply. the lines of force move outwards from the coil. As it does this. 3. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. (Watts = volts x amps). The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING. the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. Primary voltage --------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns = ----------. Transformer If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. the lines of force move inwards. Assuming a perfect transformer. the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply . if the secondary has half the primary turns.1 amp.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-15 Voltage-Current characteristics of Battery This is called POOR REGULATION. i. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO.e. a voltage is induced in the second coil. then the turns ratio is 10:1.7. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns.-----------------------Number of secondary turns For example. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. as the field moves out or in. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then. -19- . the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING. If the current is increased. If the current is reduced. this will happen 50 times a second. then the primary must supply 24 watts. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0.
Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core. Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. or in the other direction. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. called EDDY CURRENTS. Since the primary would induce power. into this core. the core is LAMINATED. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply. Figure 3-15 Diagram of Transformers -20- . Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. or no core at all.Basic of Electronics To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary.
Switches Discusses the different configurations of switches. SPDT = Single Pole. 10 Mhz. Double Throw This is a three terminal switch that connects one terminal to either of the other two. This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE. There are 3 commonly used configurations: SPST. They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting. Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting. SPDT.8 Inductor Inductors are coils of wire. -21- . At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. The former may contain a metallic core up its centre. Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire. Switches really don't need any introduction. Single Throw This is a two terminal switch that opens and closes a circuit. Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. above 1 Mhz only a few turns. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES. SPST = Single Pole.Basic of Electronics 3. This section gives an overview of the contact configurations.9. Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz. It simply connects and disconnect a circuit. and DPDT. Figure 3-16 Diagrams of Inductors 3. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current.
Fig. -22- . 2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position.Basic of Electronics DPDT = Double Pole. This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously. Fig. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position. 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit. Fig. Double Throw This is a six terminal switch that connects a pair of terminals to either of the other two pairs.
The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. 8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value. If the current rises above this value it will melt. These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds.Basic of Electronics Fig. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-WaferProximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-RockerDimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-FootThermal-Hall effect 3. 3p 4w etc. If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere. When operated a-b opens and b-c closes. push to break". (2) a "normally open. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. Here are assorted switch types. 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. You can have 2p 5w. The Fuse The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current. Fig.10. push to make". With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. Figure 3-17 Fuse Configuration in circuit -23- . Fig. 5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch. Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it. Fig. It can select 1 of 5 circuits. Occasionly they grow tired and fail. 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. Fig. The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch. Therefore special antisurge fuses are fitted.
• NOR gate To get an output of 1. both inputs must be at a value of 1. all inputs must be at a value of 0. It is also known as an inverter circuit. • NAND gate To get an output of 1.11. • NOT gate To get an output of 1. its input must be at a value of 0. -24- .Basic of Electronics 3. 1(one) is represented by a positive electrical value and 0(zero) is represented by no electricity at all. • OR gate To get an output of 1. This gate only has one input. They take binary inputs and and gives out a binary result. Logic IC's contain these and other types of gates. one or more inputs must be at a value of 1. This section describes the different types of gates and their symbols: • AND gate To get an output of 1. Gates Gates are logic circuits. one or more of its inputs must be at a value of 0.
Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up your amplifier.Basic of Electronics 3. Figure 3-18 Diagrams of Speaker The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. Loudspeakers have Impedance. In the diagram. This means that they move out and in together. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves. (there is a page on FILTERS). When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil. which is attached to the coil. Therefore two speakers are used. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier (see the page on REACTANCE and IMPEDANCE). a Crossover Unit is used. they must be in phase. Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes). a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies.11. When using two speakers together. C2 and L2 are a high pass filter. Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly. To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker. typically 4 or 8 ohms. The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. as in stereo systems. where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet. The movement of the coil causes a cone. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter. and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies. -25- . to move back and forth. Loudspeaker The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker. The design of enclosures is very complicated. Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance.
12. Electromagnetic relay The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil. Figure 3-20 Electromagnetic Relay The magnetised core attracts the iron armature. the core becomes temporarily magnetised. When the coil is energised. to form an electromagnet. wound on an iron core. When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-19 Woofer and Tweeter configuration 3. -26- . by passing current through it.
Practice converting one to another.000.000.000 mega M 1.000. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil.000 kilo K 1.000.000 giga G 1.o n. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS.000.000.c and c.000.13.001 pico p 0.001 micro u 0.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad. This can damage other components in the circuit.o.000 milli m 0.000.000.000. There are 1. and 0. The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation. Value Multiplier In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values.000. 3.Basic of Electronics The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off. Figure 3-20 Relay position The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n.000. To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil. -27- .001 nano n 0.000.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad.000.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz.000. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above.000. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source.001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLICATION FACTOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tera T 1. For example 1000.000.
Basic of Electronics CIRCUIT SYMBOLS -28- .
Basic of Electronics -29- .
Basic of Electronics Chapter 4 Circuit Concepts • • • • Resistors in Series . Resistors in Parallel . So what is a series circuit? A series circuit means connecting components one after the other.in other words.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. So when we say "Resistors in series". in a parallel circuit? The result is the total resistance being lower than the lowest resistor. simply add up the resistance of the resistors in the series circuit. we mean connecting one resistor after the other: To find the TOTAL resistance. Capacitors in Series -30- .1.3. 4.2. What happens when resistors are placed side by side -.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel 4. Resistors in Series . To calculate what the total resistance is. Capacitors in Series . you must use this equation: Rt = (R1 * R2) / (R1 + R2) 4.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel. Capacitors in Parallel . Resistors in Parallel .
Unlike resistors in series. and 5pF The total value is 2pF + 3pF + 4pF + 5pF = 14pF -31- . To find the total capacitance.Basic of Electronics . use the following equation: Ct = (C1 * C2) / (C1 + C2) Notice that it's the same equation as resistors in parallel Capacitors in Parallel . 3pF. capacitors in series lowers the total capacitance.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. The total capacitance in a capacitor series circuit is less than the lowest capacitor in the circuit.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel Now if capacitors in series uses the same equation as resistors in parallel. 4pF. how do you find the total capacitance of capactors in parallel? Right! You just add it up! So if there are 4 capacitors in parallel and their values are: 2pF.
Introduces the breadboard. Oh the surface of a breadboard. The blue strips shown in the illustration are usually used for connecting the batteries and the green strips are for the components.Basic of Electronics Chapter 5 Skills in Electronics 5.Discusses how to solder -32- . Soldering . So whichever components connected to a certain strip are connected to eachother.1.2. Using Breadboards . Breadboards are used for testing and experimenting with electronic circuits. there are many holes for plugging in components: The bread board has many strips of metal which run underneath the board that connects the component. The metal strips are laid out as shown below: Each strip is a connection. They are very convenient since all you have to do is plug in the components. 5.
Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. The smoke formed as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. Now. you can start soldering. cut the leads at the proper length. Wash your hands after using solder. An ordinary plastic flex will melt immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock. what you need: • • • Soldering iron (around 25W) 60/40 solder and optionally a soldering iron holder. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use. to solder the components onto the board. Note that you'll probably want one unless you're the careful type and you're sure you won't burn up anything. Before you solder. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron. even for a moment! Work in a well-ventilated area. Put the soldering iron tip so that it's touching the lead and the copper at the same time. your work. The iron should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. Let the joint cool by itself. Stick the component's leads through the proper holes and bend it so that it'll stay still. apply a coat of solder on the tip. not above. They are very hot (about 400°C) and will give you a nasty burn. and wipe it with a wet sponge.Basic of Electronics First a few safety precautions: Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. -33- . Then apply the solder on the lead (not on the tip of the soldering iron). Never put it down on your workbench. Avoid breathing it by keeping you head to the side of. Now that you have your circuit boards. you must tin the tip. Simply wait for the soldering iron to heat up.
Basic of Electronics -34- .
Reflow soldering is tinning two pieces of wire separately and then reheating to join them together. The smoke you see is evaporating flux. When using printed circuit boards avoid bending wires flat on the board. All soldered joints should be easily removable. which should normally clean the joint. Mount components so that value markings are visible. Hold the iron like a pen. It makes them difficult to remove. Heating the joint and applying the solder Use a damp sponge. to prevent them falling out during soldering.(This means putting a small blob of solder on the tip of the bit). Do not carry solder on the bit to the joint. Tin the bit for good heat conduction. If you have taken too long it will have have solder spikes.The process should take only 2-3 seconds. A good joint is smooth and shiny. Avoid overheating. Allow the solder to run over the joint without moving the iron. (use a small vice or sticky tape). Remove the solder. The shape of the wire should be visible through the solder. frequently. to keep the bit clean.This means a minimum of lead wrapping. Tinning the bit. Heat the biggest part of the joint for 2-3 seconds.Basic of Electronics Cleaning the bit with a damp sponge. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!! -35- . A dry joint is a poorly soldered one. Rest your hands on the workbench to steady them. Spring component leads out just slightly. Take precautions against the work moving. Apply solder to the joint not to the iron. If the joint has moved during soldering it will be dull and crinkly. Remove the iron.
When you can produce good results proceed to the next part of the exercise. Do NOT put the ICs (chips) in yet.(c) If there are spikes on the joint. A good joint is smooth and shiny. not stand on it like a bead. Some components require special care when soldering.Basic of Electronics Don't allow the blobs to run into each other. dull and crinkly in appearance. Appropriate warnings are given in the table below. Components Chip Holders (DIL sockets) Pictures Reminders and Warnings Connect the correct way round by making sure the notch is at the correct end. The solder must run along the copper track. 1 -36- . together with other advice which may be useful when soldering. (b) A bad joint is unevenly shaped. See (a). then you are taking too long to make the joint. Make the blobs all the same size and shape. Many must be placed the correct way round and a few are easily damaged by the heat from soldering.
OA91) because they are easily damaged by heat. it really is k.near one lead. Take care with polystyrene capacitors because they are easily damaged by heat. this is one solid wire which is plastic-coated. Transistors have 3 'legs' (leads) so extra care is needed to ensure the connections are correct. for cathode! The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. Easily damaged by heat.g. If there is no danger of touching other parts you can use tinned copper wire. The diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . These may be connected either way round. 2 Resistors 3 Small value capacitors (usually less than 1µF) 4 Electrolytic capacitors (1µF and greater) 5 Diodes 6 LEDs 7 Transistors Wire Links between 8 points on the circuit board. Connect the correct way round. this has no plastic coating and looks just like solder but it is stiffer. Connect the correct way round. single core wire Battery clips. Use single core wire. Connect the correct way round. buzzers 9 and other parts with their own wires -37- . They will be marked with a + or . yes. Connect the correct way round. Connect the correct way round. not c. Take care with germanium diodes (e.for cathode.Basic of Electronics No special precautions are needed with resistors.
an assembled printed circuit board may be worth several hundred pounds. This should only take two or three seconds. soldering iron and solder sucker (desoldering tool). then desolder the leads individually. If the operation is unsuccessful resolder the joint and then try again. Connect the correct way round. Working on a double-sided PCB (where copper tracks are on both sides of the PCB) is more difficult and requires more care. relays. Place the braid on top of the joint. Do not use single core wire because this will break when it is repeatedly flexed.Basic of Electronics You should use stranded wire which is flexible and plasticcoated. Ensure the joint is completely desoldered by wriggling the wire with a pair of pliers to check for freeness. then earth your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the ICs. Leave ICs in their antistatic packaging until you need them. Heat up the joint to be desoldered until the solder runs. In some cases desoldering braid is useful. It is often safer to cut the component leads and discard the component. Carefully insert ICs in their holders: make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket then push down firmly with your thumb. Place the iron on top of the braid and allow the solder from the joint to run up the braid. cutters. stranded wire 11 ICs (chips) DESOLDERING COMPONENTS Tools required . Wires to parts off the circuit board. Apply the solder sucker and remove the solder. including 10 switches. Ensure the iron is tinned. Many ICs are static sensitive. At some stage you will probably need to desolder a joint to remove or re-position a wire or component. Ensure the iron bit is well tinned. variable resistors and loudspeakers.Check that all pins are loose on an integrated circuit. Components cost a few pence.pliers. Take great care to avoid damage. There are two ways to remove the solder: -38- .
Apply both the pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. With solder remover wick (copper braid) Apply both the end of the wick and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. Then press the button on the pump to release the plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool. -39- . then the soldering iron. As the solder melts most of it will flow onto the wick. After removing most of the solder from the joint(s) you may be able to remove the wire or component lead straight away (allow a few seconds for it to cool). If the joint will not come apart easily apply your soldering iron to melt the remaining traces of solder at the same time as pulling the joint apart.Basic of Electronics 1. Cut off and discard the end of the wick coated with solder. taking care to avoid burning yourself. The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle. With a desoldering pump (solder sucker) Set the pump by pushing the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt. Remove the wick first. Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible. 2. away from the joint.
however. This concern is not unfounded. Carelessness more than any other factor is what causes experienced technicians to have electrical accidents. Multimeters are so named because they have the ability to measure a multiple of variables: voltage. the multimeter may become a source of danger when connected to a "live" circuit. current. both for the sake of their own personal safety and for proficiency at their trade. and often many others. and it is always best to proceed cautiously when using meters. -40- . resistance. In the hands of someone ignorant and/or careless. It can be daunting at first to use a meter. knowing that you are connecting it to live circuits which may harbor life-threatening levels of voltage and current. The most common piece of electrical test equipment is a meter called the multimeter.Basic of Electronics Chapter 6 Safe Meter Usage Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most valuable skill an electronics technician can master.
The meter uses different techniques. Test leads are nothing more than specially-prepared wires used to connect the meter to the circuit under test. which is the common symbol for the electrical unit of ohms. to measure DC than it uses to measure AC. stiff pieces of wire: -41- . you will notice that each pair is divided into unique markers with either a pair of horizontal lines (one solid. one dashed). this distinction in meter settings is an important one to bear in mind.Basic of Electronics You will notice that the display of this meter is of the "digital" type: showing numerical values using four digits in a manner similar to a digital clock. Of the two "V" settings and two "A" settings." The "V" of course stands for "voltage" while the "A" stands for "amperage" (current)." The "horseshoe" symbol is the Greek letter "Omega" (Ω). and one setting in the middle with a funny-looking "horseshoe" symbol on it representing "resistance. The parallel lines represent "DC" while the squiggly curve represents "AC. internally. There are three different sockets on the multimeter face into which we can plug our test leads. or a dashed line with a squiggly curve over it. and so it requires the user to select which type of voltage (V) or current (A) is to be measured. The wires are coated in a color-coded (either black or red) flexible insulation to prevent the user's hands from contacting the bare conductors. and the tips of the probes are sharp. Although we haven't discussed alternating current (AC) in any technical detail. two "A" settings. The rotary selector switch (now set in the Off position) has five different measurement positions it can be set in: two "V" settings.
depending on which quantity you intend to measure with the multimeter." The red test lead plugs into either the red socket marked for voltage and resistance. or the red socket marked for current. First.Basic of Electronics The black test lead always plugs into the black socket on the multimeter: the one marked "COM" for "common. we'll set up the meter to measure DC voltage from a battery: -42- . let's look at a couple of examples showing the meter in use. To see how this works.
creating a spark and perhaps even a ball of flame if the voltage source is capable of supplying enough current! The following image illustrates the potential for hazard: -43- . we'll take a look at an example of using the multimeter to measure AC voltage from a household electrical power receptacle (wall socket): The only difference in the setup of the meter is the placement of the selector switch: it is now turned to AC "V". a short-circuit will be formed. and the selector switch has been set for DC "V". the test leads will remain plugged in the same sockets. In both of these examples. it is imperative that you not let the probe tips come in contact with one another while they are both in contact with their respective points on the circuit. If this happens.Basic of Electronics Note that the two test leads are plugged into the appropriate sockets on the meter for voltage. Since we're still measuring voltage. Now.
when checking for the presence of hazardous voltage. both AC and DC voltages and currents can be deadly. you should be sure to check all pairs of points in question. the meter should properly display the resistance in ohms: -44- . as they are set for one or the other when checking for voltage or current. The test leads will be kept plugged in the same sockets as for the voltage checks.Basic of Electronics This is just one of the ways that a meter can become a source of hazard if used improperly. Touching the probes across the device whose resistance is to be measured. Using a multimeter to check for resistance is a much simpler task. but the selector switch will need to be turned until it points to the "horseshoe" resistance symbol. Also. even if you're not expecting to find both! Also. As we have seen earlier. it must be remembered that digital multimeters usually do a good job of discriminating between AC and DC measurements. so when using a multimeter as a safety check device you should always check for the presence of both AC and DC.
In a worse-case situation. By sensing how difficult it is to move this current through the component.Basic of Electronics One very important thing to remember about measuring resistance is that it must only be done on de-energized components! When the meter is in "resistance" mode. If the test leads had no resistance in them. it would read exactly zero: -45- . When there is a good. the meter may even be damaged by the external voltage. the resistance of that component can be determined and displayed. solid connection between the probe tips (simulated by touching them together). faulty readings will result. If there is any additional source of voltage in the meter-lead-component-lead-meter loop to either aid or oppose the resistance-measuring current produced by the meter. The "resistance" mode of a multimeter is very useful in determining wire continuity as well as making precise measurements of resistance. the meter shows almost zero Ω. it uses a small internal battery to generate a tiny current through the component to be measured.
The reasons for this are specific to ammeter design and operation.Basic of Electronics If the leads are not in contact with each other. Thus. the multimeter is designed to have practically zero ohms of resistance between the test probe tips when the red probe has been plugged into the red "A" (current-measuring) socket. there are many mega-ohms of resistance -46- . In the voltage-measuring mode (red lead plugged into the red "V" socket).L." which stands for "open loop"): Another potential hazard of using a multimeter in its current-measuring ("ammeter") mode is failure to properly put it back into a voltage-measuring configuration before measuring voltage with it. or touching opposite ends of a broken wire. Otherwise. any additional resistance offered by the meter would impede the electron flow and alter the circuit's operation. When measuring circuit current by placing the meter directly in the path of current. the meter will indicate infinite resistance (usually by displaying dashed lines or the abbreviation "O. it is best to have the meter offer little or no resistance against the flow of electrons.
such as in the case illustrated in the last image.will be a short-circuit through the meter! To help prevent this. All good-quality multimeters contain fuses inside that are engineered to "blow" in the even of excessive current through them. Like all overcurrent protection devices. and only secondarily to protect the user from harm. A multimeter can be used to check its own current fuse by setting the selector switch to the resistance position and creating a connection between the two red sockets like this: -47- . As convenient as features like these are. they are still no substitute for clear thinking and caution when using a multimeter. When switching a multimeter from current.to voltage-measuring mode. The result -.Basic of Electronics between the test probe tips. though. the meter itself) from excessive damage.if the meter is then connected across a source of substantial voltage -. it's easy to spin the selector switch from the "A" to the "V" position and forget to correspondingly switch the position of the red test lead plug from "A" to "V". these fuses are primarily designed to protect the equipment (in this case. most multimeters have a warning feature by which they beep if ever there's a lead plugged in the "A" socket and the selector switch is set to "V". because voltmeters are designed to have close to infinite resistance (so that they don't draw any appreciable current from the circuit under test).
L. battery-powered circuits. The actual number of ohms displayed for a good fuse is of little consequence. There is no substitute for regular practice with complex instruments such as these. and current. -48- ." (or whatever indication that model of multimeter uses to indicate no continuity). so long as it's an arbitrarily low figure. So now that we've seen how to use a multimeter to measure voltage.Basic of Electronics A good fuse will indicate very little resistance while a blown fuse will always show "O. so feel free to experiment on safe. resistance. what more is there to know? Plenty! The value and capabilities of this versatile test instrument will become more evident as you gain skill and familiarity using it.
is an open circuit. -49- . High-impedance meters. the meter or the leads may be destroyed or the fuse will blow by the current available across the battery.1. usually 10M. required for measuring computer circuits. just as a water flow meter would measure the amount of water flow.Basic of Electronics Chapter 7 Using Digital Multimeter for Measurement and Testing of Electronic Components Digital multimeter and digital volt-ohm-miliamperemeter are terms commonly used for electronic high-impedance test meter.0 Ω = zero resistance OL = an open circuit (no current flows) 7. indicating that there is continuity path for the current to flow in a closed circuit. Measuring Amperes An ammeter measures the flow of current through a complete circuit in unit of amperes.2. when the leads are connected to a component. The ammeter has to be installed in the circuit (in series) so that it can measure all the current flow in that circuit. and they are very unlikely to affect the circuit under test. current flows through the test leads and the difference in voltage (voltage drop) between the lead is measured as resistance. Infinity means no connection. 7. Measuring Resistance An ohmmeter measures the resistance in ohms of a component or circuit section when no current is flowing through the circuit. If a meter set to read amperes is connected in parallel. All digital meters contain a battery to power the display so they use virtually no power from the circuit under test. 7. A voltmeter is connected to a circuit in parallel. Zero ohms on the scale mean no resistance between test leads. To summarize. Caution: An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit to measure the current flow in the circuit. such as across a battery. An ohmmeter contains a battery. Measuring Voltage A voltmeter measures potential of electricity in a units of volts. This means that on their DC voltage ranges they have a very high resistance (usually called input impedance) of 1M or more. All voltmeters have a large internal resistance so that the current flow through the meter will not effect the circuit being tested.3. open and zero readings are as follows: 0.
Basic of Electronics -50- .
Basic of Electronics 7. and display tells 0. When the multimeter shows low value.2a). Digital instrument has another method to test the diodes.2b). diode is faulty. and then it is turned around (11.4. and a symbol for open circuit is displayed (this can be either 0L or 1).1.4. -51- . value should be very low. When we distance the probes. If the value is equal to or near equal. Testing diode and Transistor with a multimeter When using an analog instrument to test a diode. In the first case. positive end of the diode is connected to one probe and negative end to the other probe (11. It has it's own switch position. as shown on 11. and should be replaced.2. multimeter should sound a buzz which signals a short circuit. buzzing stops. either low or high in both directions. According to 11. diode is ok if it's resistance value is very small in one. diode's anode is connected to the positive probe of the meter (red probe). Testing Electronic Components 7. and very high in other direction.1b. and in the other it should be very high. When we connect probes to each other.
one of the two measurements would have shown a value which represents a minimum voltage that could be conducted through the diode (between 400mV and 800mV). According to 11. only with switched probes. both cases should produce a high value on the meter.3a).3b). negative probe is connected to the base and you test collector and emitter with a positive probe. After that. since they act as two connected diodes. If the measured diode was ok.4c they are low. you do the same thing. and the anode is the end of the diode which is connected to probe A (red one). Then we rotate the diode and connect it again (11. Transistors are tested in a similar fashion.Basic of Electronics Now we conenct probes to the diode (11. and on 11.4b. positive probe is connected to base. all steps are the same. and the negative probe is first at the collector and then emitter afterwards. -52- .4a they are high. When testing PNP transistors. Both diodes should be tested in described way. Diode is faulty if you hear a buzz (closed circuit) or some value which represents infinity. and if both of them are functional – transistor is functional as well. in both cases resistance should be low. but the measurements should be opposite: on 11.
Basic of Electronics If you test transistors using a digital instrument. this means that the collector current is 74 times higher than the base current. it's resistance is higher. Capacitors DC capacitors should produce an infinite value on the instrument. Transformers and coils Grid transofrmers are tested by measuring the resistance of the copper wire on the primary and secondary coil.5. All principles remain the same as with transformers. where the principle of inverse relations is still in place. process remains similar to the one with diodes.5. for example. and is wound using a thinner wire. Coils can be tested in the same way as transformers – through their resistance. Many modern day digital multimeters have a tool for direct transistor check. As displayed on 11. 7. In case transistor works. transistor BC140 is tested. transistor is plugged into specified slot according to it's type (PNP or NPN) and the switch on the instrument is brought into position with a hFE marking. 7. When the positive end of an electrolithic capacitor is connected to a positive probe of an analog instrument. In case an instrument shows an infinite value. There is. even to kiloohms (in low power transformers). display shows a value which represents the current amplification coefficient. Infinite resistance still means disconnected coil. Each diode should produce a value between 400mV and 800mV. Since the primary coil has more curls than the secondary one. In case when there is a need to test high power transistors.8mm will do fine) should be soldered to transistor's pins and then plugged into the instrument. If. high power means low resistance. Eexceptions are electrolithic and very high value block capacitors.3. it is a certain sign that the coil is either poorly connected or the curls are disconnected at some point. and a -53- . thin wires (0. Secondary resistance is lower and is in range between several ohms to several tens of ohms.4. as displayed on 11.4. and the display shows 74. a special plug where low and medium power transistors fit nicely. and it's value lays in range between several tens of ohms (in high power transofrmers) to several hundreds of ohms.4.
but this is not a good solution since it is weak and short-lived.4. If that component was to be used in some audio amplifier. it is worth mentionig that the capacitors have considerably wider tolerance than resistors. and should be practiced only if there is no replacement for that potentiometer) 7. Other Semiconductor Devices To test diodes using this circuit. or oil or even a graphite pencil. On the other hand. Of course. (Even small capacitance components get charged while testing. which means that speaker sound is higher than usual. And another source of trouble could be the built-in FET amplifier. Testing process is shown on 12. any other value means that the component is faulty. in the opposite direction. 7. speaker is broken. There are digital instruments that have the ability to measure capacitance. whole diode acts as a low value resistor.) Variable capacitors are tested by connecting an ohm-meter to them.4. which goes even to 20%. not much of attention is being paid to the value shown on the actual instrument.6 Speakers. we fall back to the diode theory of operation: when anode is positive comparing to the cathode (red probe on anode. their variable coil has either 4 or 8Ohms in most cases. headphones and microphones When testing speakers. and values should do what component's name says – vary.5. -54- . and the needle's movement is the charge stored in the component being discharged. This is a proof that the capacitor is ok.4. and turning the rotor. process is rather simple – you connect the component to probes of an ohm-meter and turn the shaft. sound is lower because in that direction diode acts as a high value resistor. speakers would produce loud noise or no sound at all while pot is being turned. If there is no noise. Electret microphones don't produce the noise. and the meter should show those values. because by only connecting the probes there should be a short noise heard. Same goes for headphones and dynamic microphones. When using an analog instrument on the speakers. With this said.Basic of Electronics negative end to a negative probe. Potentiometers To test a potentiometer. or a variable resistor. because any other value is a certain signal that the plates of the rotor and stator are connected which means that the component doesn't work. 7. which simplifies the process to comparing the value on the capacitor to the one on the display. or a pot. but their discharge time is very short. black on cathode). this behavior should be linear – jumps and twitches in values mean that the component is not working as supposed to. needle jumps to the lowest value and then gradually comes back towards infinity.7. Needle should point infinity at all times. (“Noisy” pot can be repaired using a special spray.4. so the needle doesn't have the time to move.
Basic of Electronics DC transistor acts in the same fashion as two connected diodes (11. Probe A is connected to the collector of the transistor.6.7.4a). and then probe B is connected first to the emitter. No Light – No Music). -55- . A goes where B was connected to and vice versa. transistor is faulty if speaker remains silent in the first two measurements. photo transistors and diodes is NL-NM (or. if the transistor is ok. or diode's anode or one side of the photo resistor. As you can see. or if it “plays” in one of the second two measurements. and the other one is connected to transistor's emitter or diode's cathode or the other resistor's side and some kind of sound should be heard from the speaker. probe A is connected to the base. “music” would have been heard. If this continues when the component is shadowed using your palm. everything is in functional order. If both diodes are functional. We displayed graphically the method of testing photo sensitive components on 12. if there is no music now.5. In both cases. We then switch probe connections. transistor is functional as well as shown on 12. everything is in order. One principle that is applicable when testing the photo resistors. which is shown on 12. FET testing is done in similar fashion as testing the bipolar transistors. So. and then to the collector.
or two copper wires on the circuit board which shouldn't be connected. headphones. -56- . like different electro motors. closed switches. like capacitors. This is the case with resistors. sound will be heard. And from the sound frequency one is possible to tell which coil is primary and which is secondary. With transformers with several secondary coils there is a possibility to find beginning and the end of each of them. transformers. Base rule is: if component is intended to conduct electricity. transformers and such conduct electricity. If component doesn't conduct electricity. it is apparent that different resistance values give different output sound. This may be easier and more accurately done using regular ohmmeter on your multimeter. then music would have not been heard. or open switches. So with some experience using this instrument on various resistors it will be possible to tell the resistance of the resistor in question from only the generated sound. so absence of sound while testing tells of some coil connection failure. Components which have coils in them.Basic of Electronics 7.8.4. speakers. Checking other components Many other components may be tested using this instrument. fuses. coils. When testing different resistors. but your nerd level will certainly rise sky high if you are able to tell resistor's value from bare sound.
Tone generated by connecting these capacitors to the instrument will change in level and frequency and fade until completely off when capacitor is discharged. which allows for a crude approximation of the component's capacitance. especially the larger ones.Basic of Electronics Functional capacitor will generate no music. where higher values give longer sound time. An exception are electrolithic and block capacitors. -57- . Length of playing depends on the capacitance of the component.
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