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BASIC OF ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS STUDENTS
Basic of Electronics
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
• • • • • •
Atoms and Electrical Charge Current. Voltage. Power Resistance Ohm's Law
1.1. Atoms and Electrical Charge - Discusses the structure of atoms.
Figure 1-1. Model of an Atom Atoms are the building blocks of all matter. They are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every electron has a small negative (-) charge. The proton has the same amount of charge except that it is the opposite, positive (+) charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral and have no charge. The protons and neutrons are located in the center of atoms forming what is called the nucleus and the electrons revolve around them. It is very important to know that particles of like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract. For example, two protons or two electrons will repel each other. However, a proton and a electron will attract. That is how the electrons are held inside the atom. The attraction between the electrons and protons keeps the electrons in orbit much like the gravitational attraction between the sun and its planets.
Basic of Electronics
Figure 1-2. Interaction between electrons and protons Electricity is the flow of electrons so it is necessary to measure the charge. The basic unit for measuring charge is the coulomb or the letter C. 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons!!! 1C = 6.25x10^18 electrons 1.2. Current - Introduces current and ampere. Electric current is the amount of electrons, or charge, moving past a point every second. It is basically the speed of electron flow. The faster the electrons flow, the higher the current.
Figure 1-3. Electron Flow Current is represented by the letter I. The basic unit for measuring current is ampere. Ampere can be abbreviated to amp or just A. 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec Meaning for every amp, there are 6.25x10^18 electrons moving past a point every second. 1.3. Voltage - Potential difference and voltage To make sense of voltage, we will need to make an analogy. Lets imagine that electrons are represented by a marble on a flat plane. At this point, the plane is level and the marble does not move. If the plane is lifted at one side, the marble will roll down to the lower point.
Basic of Electronics Figure 1-4. Analogy electron with a marble In electricity, the high point is a point with lots of electrons and the low point is a point with a lack of electrons. The high point is called the high potential and the low point is the low potential. The difference between these two points is called the potential difference. The larger the potential difference, the larger the voltage.
Figure 1-5. Energy potential Voltage can be thought of as the measure of the pressure pushing the electrons. The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage. Voltage is represented by the letter E. The basic unit of measure is volts or the letter V. One volt will push 1 amp of current through 1 ohm of resistance. Resistance will be discussed in a later section.
1.4. Power - Discusses power or the amount of work a circuit is doing. Power is simply the amount of energy used or the amount of "work" a circuit is doing. Power is represented by the letter P. The basic unit for measuring power is watts or the letter W. To find power, all you need is a simple equation: P=EI or Power equals voltage times current. For example, if E = 9V I = 0.5A then P = 9 * 0.5 P = 4.5W
Basic of Electronics 1.5. Resistance - Discusses electron flow, materials, and the ohm unit. To better understand what resistance is, you must first get an idea of how electrons flow. When an electron is knocked out of an atom, it will fly off and hit another atom. If the electron strikes the atom with enough force, it will knock off another electron. The atom that was just knocked off will hit another atom and so forth.
Figure 1-6. Two electrons Note that every time an electron strikes another, it is transferring its energy. Some of the energy is converted into heat every time it is transferred. The voltage will drop as the energy is transferred over long distances. Thus a long wire has a higher resistance than a short wire. Some materials - such as copper and silver - does not hold on to its electrons very tightly. Therefore it doesn't require much energy to knock off an electron. These materials are called conductors and has a very low resistance to electron flow. Materials such as clay and plastics hold on to their electrons more tightly than conductors. It takes more energy to knock off an electron from these materials. These materials are called insulators and has a high resistance to electron flow. Now, you must understand that this is NOT how electrons really flow; It serves only as something for you to work with. To really know how electrons flow, which we will not get into, you will need to study quantum physics. Resistance is represented by the letter R. The basic unit of measure is ohm or the symbol (Greek omega). In the next section (Ohm's Law), we will show you the relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Resistance will also be further discussed as we introduce the resistor.
1.6. Ohm's Law - The relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. The German physicist, George Simon Ohm, established that voltage in volt, electrical resistance in ohms, and ampereres flowing through any circuit are all related. Ohms’s law states:
Basic of Electronics It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance. Ohm law camn also be sated as asimple formula to calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known. I=E/R Where: I= Current in ampere (A) E= Voltage in volt (V) R= Resistance in ohms (Ω) -6- .
the second resistor will be called R2. All relevant values and component specific information are usually included.Basic of Electronics Chapter 2: Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows how each component connect with another. It is a simple and easy to read outline of the circuit. If there was a second resistor. Below is an example of a schematic diagram: Figure 2-1 A simple schematic diagram As you can see.both of which will be discussed in the components section. Note the "R1" next to the resistor symbol and "R1 470 ohm" below the diagram. Each type of component has a unique symbol and a name (usually 1-2 letters). the triangle in a circle. It's not that tough right? -7- . this diagram has 3 components: the thing with 4 horizontal lines. This tells you what value to use for that component. The triangle in the circle represents the light emitting diode and the wavy lines represent the resistor -. That's all it is to schematic diagrams. Can you guess which is the battery? Yes. and the thing with the wavy lines. the 4 horizontal lines.
a resistor within 5% tolerance should be sufficient.A mini recharable battery. Resistors . As its name implies. Capacitors .A "one way street" for electrons.A component that resist the flow of electrons.Basic of Electronics Chapter 3: Electronics Component • • • • • • Resistors . -8- . Integrated circuits .A component that resist the flow of electrons.Discusses the different configurations of switches. Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in electronics. indicates that the resistor will be within 5% of its value.simply write down the numbers represented by the colors. To get the value of a resistor. A 5% tolerance (gold band) for example. The third band is the multiplier .A component used for switching and amplifying. They are used to add resistance to a circuit. The tolerance bands indicates the accuracy of the values. For most applications. The color bands around the resistors are color codes that tell you its resistance value. 3. hold the resistor so that the tolerance band is on the right. Transistors . Recall that resistance is measured in ohms.it tells you how many zeros to put after the significant figures.An overview of integrated circuits Switches . resistors resist the flow of electrons. Diodes .1. Put them all together and you have the value. The first two color bands from the left are the significant figures .
0 1. 4 band resistors(the ones discussed here) are the most common and should work for most projects.3M etc.000 ohms is 1M.8k as 1K8 etc. Figure 3-1 Schematic and Symbol of Resistor The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1.6 6. They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS. High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily. 3. 12 ohm. 3.2 1. Resistors generate heat.7 3. They never go short circuit.2 2.3 3. One last important note about resistors is their wattage rating.300. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated. and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods. These are 1. 180 ohm.2 This mean that 1 ohm.Basic of Electronics NOTE: There are resistors with more bands and other types for specific applications.8 2. 2200 ohm resistors etc are available. 1000.000 ohms is 3. Most resistors are color coded to indicate their value and tolerance. You should not use a 1/4 watt resistor in a circuit that has more than 1/4 watt of power flowing. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available. it is okay to use a 1/2 watt resistor in a 1/4 watt circuit. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light. (color would change with heat). For example. However. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them. 1000 ohms is 1k. -9- . Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. However. Resistors have a wattage rating.8 8.9 4. Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value. Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks). They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits. it is NOT okay to use a 1/4 watt resistor in a 1/2 watt circuit. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate.7 5. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat.
2.A mini rechargeable battery. -10- . F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0. Figure 3-4 a pair plate of Capacitor This insulator is called the dielectric.7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4. they are never touched again. Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver. Capacitors . Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator. These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel. Examples are volume and brightness controls.Basic of Electronics On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters. 3. Once adjusted.
To find the value.000. These capacitors are polarized so you must connect the negative side in the right place.000pF = 0. polyester. 1F is too large for capacitors. micro = 1/1. The first 2 digit are the significant figures and the third digit is the multiplier. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value. so microfarads(µF) and picofarads(pF) are used. These capacitors are measured in pF. The coding is just like the resistor color codes except that they used numbers instead of colors. -11- . The value of the resistor as well as the negative side is clearly printed on the capacitor. The amount of charge that a capacitor can hold is measured in Farads or the letter F. • Ceramic capacitors are brown and has a disc shape. We will only be discussing two types of the most commonly used capacitors: Ceramic and Electrolytic. you simply decode the 3 digit number on the surface of the capacitor.1µF = 0. This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages. Capacitors are the second most commonly used component in electronics. paper air capacitors etc.0000001F DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit. These capacitors are measured in µF.Capacitors can be charged and discharged.000.000. mica. However.000.Basic of Electronics Capacitor types are named after the dielectric.000 and pico = 1/1. Figure 3-2 Ceramic Capacitor • Electrolytic Capacitors has a cylinder shape. similar to a car battery. meaning that you can connect them in any way. Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity. These capacitors are nonpolarized. If it is necessary. Thus we have ceramic. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current. They can be thought of as tiny rechargeable batteries -.000 So 100.
To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used. They are marked to indicate polarity.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-3 Electrolytic Capacitor They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. -12- . The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added. Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value.1 uF. For example. 102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100. There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode which similar characteristics. Figure 3-4 Color band on Capacitor Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers. Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors. There can be some confusion. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round. A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value. These merge into one wide red band.
one pin is longer then the other. Note: there aren't any bands to identify which pin is anode and which is cathode. Diodes let electrons flow through them only in one direction. Light Emitting Diodes (LED for short) are just like the regular diodes except that it lights up when electrons are flowing through. The longer pin is the anode. When a voltage exceeds the voltage rating going the opposite direction (from anode to cathode). the diode allows the electrons flow.A "one way street" for electrons. Diodes flow from cathode to anode. The cathode side of the diode is marked with a band around it. Figure 3-7 Symbol of LED -13- .3 Diodes . and Light Emitting Diodes. Zener Diodes. the positive side. Figure 3-6 Diodes and its symbol There are basically three different types of diodes: Diodes. However.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-5 Symbol of fix and variable capacitor 3. Zener diodes have a set voltage rating.
A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other. or be part of trendy jewelry etc. If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes. Figure 3-9 Some diode circuit symbols LED The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. -14- . Diodes have two connections. They are often marked with a type number. Diodes come in all shapes and sizes. an anode and a cathode. The cathode is always identified by a dot. It can show when the power is on. act as a warning indicator. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book.Basic of Electronics Diodes are polarised. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a type valve). which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED). Figure 3-8 Mark indicator in Diodes The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. ring or some other mark.
We now know the voltage across. Transistors are used as switches and amplifiers. collector. There aren't any standards for where and what order the physical pins are on the transistors. The transistor is a three terminal solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification. We will discuss two types of transistors: PNP and NPN transistors. The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body. base. The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. as shown in the diagram.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-9 LED circuit It needs to be fed from a DC supply. Figure 3-10 Transistors -15- . voltage stabilization. 3.02 amps. so the current through then both is the same. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0. Both of these transistors has 3 pins: emitter. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts. switching. and the current through the resistor. The diode is in series with the resistor.02 =500 ohms.02 amps). then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. signal modulation and many other functions. with the anode positive and the cathode negative. so be sure to check the packaging when purchasing. Transistors -A component used for switching and amplifying. In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. 0.4. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor. Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections.
or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board. such as a radiator. When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. -16- . in order to fit it into the board (or socket). Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies. When satisfied. Integrated circuits (IC) .An overview of integrated circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are usually referred to as chips. solder the remaining pins. When handling them.5. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat. Most common are 8. Inside them is a tiny piece of semiconductor(usually silicon) with large circuits built in. the following must apply: The emitter is more positive than the base and the collector leads to the negative. Figure 3-11 Symbol of PNP Transistors The NPN transistor is the opposite: The collector must be more positive than the base and the emitter leads to the negative.Basic of Electronics To allow electrons to flow through the collector and emitter of a PNP transistor. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. When soldering. Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. or 16 pin dual in line (dil) chips. discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed. 14. Figure 3-12 Symbol of NPN Transistors 3. ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body.
to increase the voltage available. (logic gates will be discussed in a later section).6. In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. Comparators These IC's compare inputs and gives an output. • • • • • • 3. Other There are thousands of other types. If not. Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types. Operational Amplifiers These are amplifiers. Audio amplifiers These are used to amplify audio. Timers These are counting IC's used for circuits that counts or needs to keep track of time.Basic of Electronics There are millions of different integrated circuits. most contain logic gate circuits. you'll need one of those large reference books that have info on most of the IC's. Works very much like transistor amplifier circuits. Switches Switching IC's are also very much like the switching circuits of transistors. A primary cell is discarded when its chemical -17- . connected in series. Batteries Batteries are assembled from cells. The general types of integrated circuits include: Figure 3-12 Symbol of IC • Logic circuits These IC's are basically decision makers. A lot of IC's are made for a special purpose like digital sound recording. Most IC's come with pinout information and how to use it.
The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad). portable radios etc. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell. -18- .Basic of Electronics energy is exhausted. voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls. Figure 3-14 Internal Resistance of Battery When current is taken from a battery. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases. Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger. Figure 3-13 Symbol of Battery The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity. A secondary cell can be recharged. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE. The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches. The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working. Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger.
if the secondary has half the primary turns. the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field.Basic of Electronics Figure 3-15 Voltage-Current characteristics of Battery This is called POOR REGULATION. (Watts = volts x amps). The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. the lines of force move inwards.-----------------------Number of secondary turns For example. Assuming a perfect transformer. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply . this will happen 50 times a second.1 amp. the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. the lines of force move outwards from the coil.e. If the current is increased. Transformer If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil. Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD. then the turns ratio is 10:1. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns. -19- . with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. as the field moves out or in. Primary voltage --------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns = ----------. 3. the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING.7. It occurs in any type of power supply. then the primary must supply 24 watts. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. As it does this. If the current is reduced. a voltage is induced in the second coil. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then. i.
Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. Since the primary would induce power. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply. into this core. Figure 3-15 Diagram of Transformers -20- . Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core. or no core at all. the core is LAMINATED. called EDDY CURRENTS. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field.Basic of Electronics To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. or in the other direction. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction.
Single Throw This is a two terminal switch that opens and closes a circuit. Switches really don't need any introduction. It simply connects and disconnect a circuit. Switches Discusses the different configurations of switches. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES. This section gives an overview of the contact configurations. Figure 3-16 Diagrams of Inductors 3. Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting. At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting. -21- .9. There are 3 commonly used configurations: SPST. SPDT. Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases. and DPDT. The former may contain a metallic core up its centre. Double Throw This is a three terminal switch that connects one terminal to either of the other two. SPDT = Single Pole. Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire.Basic of Electronics 3. 10 Mhz. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE.8 Inductor Inductors are coils of wire. SPST = Single Pole. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current. Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz. above 1 Mhz only a few turns.
-22- . This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. Fig. Fig.Basic of Electronics DPDT = Double Pole. The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously. Fig. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position. Double Throw This is a six terminal switch that connects a pair of terminals to either of the other two pairs. 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit. 2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position.
push to make". 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. Fig. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. 3p 4w etc. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. When operated a-b opens and b-c closes. It can select 1 of 5 circuits. Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-WaferProximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-RockerDimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-FootThermal-Hall effect 3.10. Occasionly they grow tired and fail. push to break". These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds. 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. If the current rises above this value it will melt. Here are assorted switch types. The Fuse The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current. Fig. 5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch.Basic of Electronics Fig. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch. Therefore special antisurge fuses are fitted. Fig. You can have 2p 5w. If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere. 8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it. (2) a "normally open. Figure 3-17 Fuse Configuration in circuit -23- . Fig. The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply.
both inputs must be at a value of 1.Basic of Electronics 3. This gate only has one input. -24- . one or more inputs must be at a value of 1.11. It is also known as an inverter circuit. Gates Gates are logic circuits. • OR gate To get an output of 1. • NAND gate To get an output of 1. • NOT gate To get an output of 1. one or more of its inputs must be at a value of 0. This section describes the different types of gates and their symbols: • AND gate To get an output of 1. 1(one) is represented by a positive electrical value and 0(zero) is represented by no electricity at all. Logic IC's contain these and other types of gates. • NOR gate To get an output of 1. all inputs must be at a value of 0. They take binary inputs and and gives out a binary result. its input must be at a value of 0.
where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet. Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes). The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. Therefore two speakers are used. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly. and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies. a Crossover Unit is used. The design of enclosures is very complicated. which is attached to the coil. typically 4 or 8 ohms. When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil. C2 and L2 are a high pass filter. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier (see the page on REACTANCE and IMPEDANCE). Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. (there is a page on FILTERS). To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker.11. -25- . a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies. Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up your amplifier. as in stereo systems. In the diagram. Figure 3-18 Diagrams of Speaker The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. they must be in phase. Loudspeakers have Impedance. Loudspeaker The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker. This means that they move out and in together. The movement of the coil causes a cone. Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter.Basic of Electronics 3. When using two speakers together. to move back and forth.
wound on an iron core. to form an electromagnet. by passing current through it. -26- .Basic of Electronics Figure 3-19 Woofer and Tweeter configuration 3. When the coil is energised. the core becomes temporarily magnetised. Figure 3-20 Electromagnetic Relay The magnetised core attracts the iron armature. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. Electromagnetic relay The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil. When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released.12.
000. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above. Value Multiplier In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values.001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLICATION FACTOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tera T 1. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS.000 mega M 1.o n. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad.000 giga G 1.000 kilo K 1.001 nano n 0.000.000.000.c and c.000.000.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad. and 0.13.001 pico p 0. For example 1000.001 micro u 0.000.000 milli m 0.000. 3. To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil. Figure 3-20 Relay position The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available.000.000.000. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil. Practice converting one to another. The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation.000. -27- .000.000.o. There are 1. This can damage other components in the circuit.000. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source.Basic of Electronics The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply.000.000.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz.
Basic of Electronics CIRCUIT SYMBOLS -28- .
Basic of Electronics -29- .
Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel.Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. So when we say "Resistors in series". What happens when resistors are placed side by side -.1.in other words. To calculate what the total resistance is. Capacitors in Parallel . Resistors in Series . you must use this equation: Rt = (R1 * R2) / (R1 + R2) 4.2. simply add up the resistance of the resistors in the series circuit. in a parallel circuit? The result is the total resistance being lower than the lowest resistor.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series.3.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. So what is a series circuit? A series circuit means connecting components one after the other. 4. we mean connecting one resistor after the other: To find the TOTAL resistance.Basic of Electronics Chapter 4 Circuit Concepts • • • • Resistors in Series . Capacitors in Series -30- . Resistors in Parallel . Resistors in Parallel . Capacitors in Series .Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel 4.
3pF. capacitors in series lowers the total capacitance. Unlike resistors in series. 4pF. how do you find the total capacitance of capactors in parallel? Right! You just add it up! So if there are 4 capacitors in parallel and their values are: 2pF.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. use the following equation: Ct = (C1 * C2) / (C1 + C2) Notice that it's the same equation as resistors in parallel Capacitors in Parallel . and 5pF The total value is 2pF + 3pF + 4pF + 5pF = 14pF -31- . To find the total capacitance.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel Now if capacitors in series uses the same equation as resistors in parallel.Basic of Electronics . The total capacitance in a capacitor series circuit is less than the lowest capacitor in the circuit.
Discusses how to solder -32- . there are many holes for plugging in components: The bread board has many strips of metal which run underneath the board that connects the component.1. The metal strips are laid out as shown below: Each strip is a connection. They are very convenient since all you have to do is plug in the components. So whichever components connected to a certain strip are connected to eachother. Breadboards are used for testing and experimenting with electronic circuits.2.Introduces the breadboard. Soldering . The blue strips shown in the illustration are usually used for connecting the batteries and the green strips are for the components. Oh the surface of a breadboard. Using Breadboards . 5.Basic of Electronics Chapter 5 Skills in Electronics 5.
Wash your hands after using solder. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron. your work. -33- . Note that you'll probably want one unless you're the careful type and you're sure you won't burn up anything. apply a coat of solder on the tip. The iron should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. Simply wait for the soldering iron to heat up. Stick the component's leads through the proper holes and bend it so that it'll stay still. to solder the components onto the board. what you need: • • • Soldering iron (around 25W) 60/40 solder and optionally a soldering iron holder.Basic of Electronics First a few safety precautions: Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. and wipe it with a wet sponge. Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. An ordinary plastic flex will melt immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock. not above. Now that you have your circuit boards. cut the leads at the proper length. you must tin the tip. Never put it down on your workbench. you can start soldering. Now. Let the joint cool by itself. Before you solder. Avoid breathing it by keeping you head to the side of. They are very hot (about 400°C) and will give you a nasty burn. Then apply the solder on the lead (not on the tip of the soldering iron). The smoke formed as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. even for a moment! Work in a well-ventilated area. Put the soldering iron tip so that it's touching the lead and the copper at the same time. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use.
Basic of Electronics -34- .
PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!! -35- . Avoid overheating.(This means putting a small blob of solder on the tip of the bit).The process should take only 2-3 seconds. The smoke you see is evaporating flux. Remove the solder. When using printed circuit boards avoid bending wires flat on the board. Rest your hands on the workbench to steady them. Remove the iron. It makes them difficult to remove. to prevent them falling out during soldering. If you have taken too long it will have have solder spikes. Heat the biggest part of the joint for 2-3 seconds. to keep the bit clean. Take precautions against the work moving.Basic of Electronics Cleaning the bit with a damp sponge. Hold the iron like a pen. Reflow soldering is tinning two pieces of wire separately and then reheating to join them together. All soldered joints should be easily removable. Tin the bit for good heat conduction. (use a small vice or sticky tape). Apply solder to the joint not to the iron. frequently. Allow the solder to run over the joint without moving the iron. The shape of the wire should be visible through the solder. Mount components so that value markings are visible. Tinning the bit. Heating the joint and applying the solder Use a damp sponge. Do not carry solder on the bit to the joint.This means a minimum of lead wrapping. Spring component leads out just slightly. If the joint has moved during soldering it will be dull and crinkly. which should normally clean the joint. A good joint is smooth and shiny. A dry joint is a poorly soldered one.
When you can produce good results proceed to the next part of the exercise. 1 -36- . Make the blobs all the same size and shape. A good joint is smooth and shiny. The solder must run along the copper track. together with other advice which may be useful when soldering. then you are taking too long to make the joint.Basic of Electronics Don't allow the blobs to run into each other. Components Chip Holders (DIL sockets) Pictures Reminders and Warnings Connect the correct way round by making sure the notch is at the correct end. dull and crinkly in appearance. (b) A bad joint is unevenly shaped. Many must be placed the correct way round and a few are easily damaged by the heat from soldering. Do NOT put the ICs (chips) in yet. Appropriate warnings are given in the table below. not stand on it like a bead.(c) If there are spikes on the joint. Some components require special care when soldering. See (a).
If there is no danger of touching other parts you can use tinned copper wire. 2 Resistors 3 Small value capacitors (usually less than 1µF) 4 Electrolytic capacitors (1µF and greater) 5 Diodes 6 LEDs 7 Transistors Wire Links between 8 points on the circuit board. Take care with germanium diodes (e.for cathode. Connect the correct way round.near one lead. not c. Easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round. this has no plastic coating and looks just like solder but it is stiffer. Use single core wire. buzzers 9 and other parts with their own wires -37- . The diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . this is one solid wire which is plastic-coated. These may be connected either way round. They will be marked with a + or . for cathode! The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. Transistors have 3 'legs' (leads) so extra care is needed to ensure the connections are correct. yes.g. Connect the correct way round. Connect the correct way round. Take care with polystyrene capacitors because they are easily damaged by heat.Basic of Electronics No special precautions are needed with resistors. single core wire Battery clips. it really is k. OA91) because they are easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round.
pliers. It is often safer to cut the component leads and discard the component. Ensure the joint is completely desoldered by wriggling the wire with a pair of pliers to check for freeness. Ensure the iron bit is well tinned. Heat up the joint to be desoldered until the solder runs. Connect the correct way round. In some cases desoldering braid is useful. Many ICs are static sensitive. soldering iron and solder sucker (desoldering tool). If the operation is unsuccessful resolder the joint and then try again. variable resistors and loudspeakers. Ensure the iron is tinned. cutters. Place the braid on top of the joint.Basic of Electronics You should use stranded wire which is flexible and plasticcoated. At some stage you will probably need to desolder a joint to remove or re-position a wire or component. Components cost a few pence. This should only take two or three seconds. Do not use single core wire because this will break when it is repeatedly flexed. relays. Carefully insert ICs in their holders: make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket then push down firmly with your thumb. including 10 switches. Apply the solder sucker and remove the solder. an assembled printed circuit board may be worth several hundred pounds. then earth your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the ICs. Leave ICs in their antistatic packaging until you need them.Check that all pins are loose on an integrated circuit. Place the iron on top of the braid and allow the solder from the joint to run up the braid. Take great care to avoid damage. Working on a double-sided PCB (where copper tracks are on both sides of the PCB) is more difficult and requires more care. Wires to parts off the circuit board. There are two ways to remove the solder: -38- . stranded wire 11 ICs (chips) DESOLDERING COMPONENTS Tools required . then desolder the leads individually.
Apply both the pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. then the soldering iron. With a desoldering pump (solder sucker) Set the pump by pushing the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt. taking care to avoid burning yourself. The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle. Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible. As the solder melts most of it will flow onto the wick. away from the joint. Then press the button on the pump to release the plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool. Cut off and discard the end of the wick coated with solder. 2. -39- . With solder remover wick (copper braid) Apply both the end of the wick and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint.Basic of Electronics 1. Remove the wick first. If the joint will not come apart easily apply your soldering iron to melt the remaining traces of solder at the same time as pulling the joint apart. After removing most of the solder from the joint(s) you may be able to remove the wire or component lead straight away (allow a few seconds for it to cool).
Multimeters are so named because they have the ability to measure a multiple of variables: voltage. In the hands of someone ignorant and/or careless.Basic of Electronics Chapter 6 Safe Meter Usage Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most valuable skill an electronics technician can master. The most common piece of electrical test equipment is a meter called the multimeter. both for the sake of their own personal safety and for proficiency at their trade. knowing that you are connecting it to live circuits which may harbor life-threatening levels of voltage and current. resistance. This concern is not unfounded. Carelessness more than any other factor is what causes experienced technicians to have electrical accidents. -40- . and often many others. however. the multimeter may become a source of danger when connected to a "live" circuit. current. and it is always best to proceed cautiously when using meters. It can be daunting at first to use a meter.
There are three different sockets on the multimeter face into which we can plug our test leads. and one setting in the middle with a funny-looking "horseshoe" symbol on it representing "resistance. one dashed). and so it requires the user to select which type of voltage (V) or current (A) is to be measured. The parallel lines represent "DC" while the squiggly curve represents "AC. and the tips of the probes are sharp.Basic of Electronics You will notice that the display of this meter is of the "digital" type: showing numerical values using four digits in a manner similar to a digital clock. stiff pieces of wire: -41- . The wires are coated in a color-coded (either black or red) flexible insulation to prevent the user's hands from contacting the bare conductors. Although we haven't discussed alternating current (AC) in any technical detail. which is the common symbol for the electrical unit of ohms. Test leads are nothing more than specially-prepared wires used to connect the meter to the circuit under test. to measure DC than it uses to measure AC." The "horseshoe" symbol is the Greek letter "Omega" (Ω). internally. this distinction in meter settings is an important one to bear in mind. or a dashed line with a squiggly curve over it. two "A" settings. Of the two "V" settings and two "A" settings. The meter uses different techniques. you will notice that each pair is divided into unique markers with either a pair of horizontal lines (one solid." The "V" of course stands for "voltage" while the "A" stands for "amperage" (current). The rotary selector switch (now set in the Off position) has five different measurement positions it can be set in: two "V" settings.
To see how this works. let's look at a couple of examples showing the meter in use." The red test lead plugs into either the red socket marked for voltage and resistance. First.Basic of Electronics The black test lead always plugs into the black socket on the multimeter: the one marked "COM" for "common. depending on which quantity you intend to measure with the multimeter. or the red socket marked for current. we'll set up the meter to measure DC voltage from a battery: -42- .
we'll take a look at an example of using the multimeter to measure AC voltage from a household electrical power receptacle (wall socket): The only difference in the setup of the meter is the placement of the selector switch: it is now turned to AC "V". Now. In both of these examples. creating a spark and perhaps even a ball of flame if the voltage source is capable of supplying enough current! The following image illustrates the potential for hazard: -43- . If this happens. the test leads will remain plugged in the same sockets. a short-circuit will be formed. it is imperative that you not let the probe tips come in contact with one another while they are both in contact with their respective points on the circuit. Since we're still measuring voltage.Basic of Electronics Note that the two test leads are plugged into the appropriate sockets on the meter for voltage. and the selector switch has been set for DC "V".
as they are set for one or the other when checking for voltage or current. The test leads will be kept plugged in the same sockets as for the voltage checks. you should be sure to check all pairs of points in question. when checking for the presence of hazardous voltage.Basic of Electronics This is just one of the ways that a meter can become a source of hazard if used improperly. As we have seen earlier. Using a multimeter to check for resistance is a much simpler task. Also. but the selector switch will need to be turned until it points to the "horseshoe" resistance symbol. both AC and DC voltages and currents can be deadly. so when using a multimeter as a safety check device you should always check for the presence of both AC and DC. the meter should properly display the resistance in ohms: -44- . Touching the probes across the device whose resistance is to be measured. even if you're not expecting to find both! Also. it must be remembered that digital multimeters usually do a good job of discriminating between AC and DC measurements.
it uses a small internal battery to generate a tiny current through the component to be measured. When there is a good. the meter shows almost zero Ω. the meter may even be damaged by the external voltage. The "resistance" mode of a multimeter is very useful in determining wire continuity as well as making precise measurements of resistance. faulty readings will result. solid connection between the probe tips (simulated by touching them together).Basic of Electronics One very important thing to remember about measuring resistance is that it must only be done on de-energized components! When the meter is in "resistance" mode. In a worse-case situation. By sensing how difficult it is to move this current through the component. it would read exactly zero: -45- . If there is any additional source of voltage in the meter-lead-component-lead-meter loop to either aid or oppose the resistance-measuring current produced by the meter. the resistance of that component can be determined and displayed. If the test leads had no resistance in them.
Thus.L. the multimeter is designed to have practically zero ohms of resistance between the test probe tips when the red probe has been plugged into the red "A" (current-measuring) socket." which stands for "open loop"): Another potential hazard of using a multimeter in its current-measuring ("ammeter") mode is failure to properly put it back into a voltage-measuring configuration before measuring voltage with it. The reasons for this are specific to ammeter design and operation. or touching opposite ends of a broken wire. When measuring circuit current by placing the meter directly in the path of current. any additional resistance offered by the meter would impede the electron flow and alter the circuit's operation.Basic of Electronics If the leads are not in contact with each other. there are many mega-ohms of resistance -46- . In the voltage-measuring mode (red lead plugged into the red "V" socket). Otherwise. it is best to have the meter offer little or no resistance against the flow of electrons. the meter will indicate infinite resistance (usually by displaying dashed lines or the abbreviation "O.
A multimeter can be used to check its own current fuse by setting the selector switch to the resistance position and creating a connection between the two red sockets like this: -47- . though. All good-quality multimeters contain fuses inside that are engineered to "blow" in the even of excessive current through them. it's easy to spin the selector switch from the "A" to the "V" position and forget to correspondingly switch the position of the red test lead plug from "A" to "V". The result -. because voltmeters are designed to have close to infinite resistance (so that they don't draw any appreciable current from the circuit under test).Basic of Electronics between the test probe tips. they are still no substitute for clear thinking and caution when using a multimeter. such as in the case illustrated in the last image.will be a short-circuit through the meter! To help prevent this. As convenient as features like these are. the meter itself) from excessive damage. Like all overcurrent protection devices. When switching a multimeter from current.to voltage-measuring mode. most multimeters have a warning feature by which they beep if ever there's a lead plugged in the "A" socket and the selector switch is set to "V". these fuses are primarily designed to protect the equipment (in this case. and only secondarily to protect the user from harm.if the meter is then connected across a source of substantial voltage -.
L. so feel free to experiment on safe. So now that we've seen how to use a multimeter to measure voltage. resistance. what more is there to know? Plenty! The value and capabilities of this versatile test instrument will become more evident as you gain skill and familiarity using it.Basic of Electronics A good fuse will indicate very little resistance while a blown fuse will always show "O. so long as it's an arbitrarily low figure. There is no substitute for regular practice with complex instruments such as these. and current. The actual number of ohms displayed for a good fuse is of little consequence. battery-powered circuits. -48- ." (or whatever indication that model of multimeter uses to indicate no continuity).
required for measuring computer circuits. usually 10M. and they are very unlikely to affect the circuit under test. Measuring Resistance An ohmmeter measures the resistance in ohms of a component or circuit section when no current is flowing through the circuit. just as a water flow meter would measure the amount of water flow. All digital meters contain a battery to power the display so they use virtually no power from the circuit under test.3. To summarize. A voltmeter is connected to a circuit in parallel. the meter or the leads may be destroyed or the fuse will blow by the current available across the battery. This means that on their DC voltage ranges they have a very high resistance (usually called input impedance) of 1M or more. If a meter set to read amperes is connected in parallel.0 Ω = zero resistance OL = an open circuit (no current flows) 7. 7. An ohmmeter contains a battery. The ammeter has to be installed in the circuit (in series) so that it can measure all the current flow in that circuit. Measuring Voltage A voltmeter measures potential of electricity in a units of volts.1. 7. All voltmeters have a large internal resistance so that the current flow through the meter will not effect the circuit being tested. Caution: An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit to measure the current flow in the circuit. -49- . High-impedance meters. is an open circuit.Basic of Electronics Chapter 7 Using Digital Multimeter for Measurement and Testing of Electronic Components Digital multimeter and digital volt-ohm-miliamperemeter are terms commonly used for electronic high-impedance test meter. open and zero readings are as follows: 0. current flows through the test leads and the difference in voltage (voltage drop) between the lead is measured as resistance. Infinity means no connection. Zero ohms on the scale mean no resistance between test leads. Measuring Amperes An ammeter measures the flow of current through a complete circuit in unit of amperes. when the leads are connected to a component.2. such as across a battery. indicating that there is continuity path for the current to flow in a closed circuit.
Basic of Electronics -50- .
either low or high in both directions. According to 11. and should be replaced. When we connect probes to each other. Testing Electronic Components 7. When we distance the probes.2.4. and display tells 0. Digital instrument has another method to test the diodes.4. diode is faulty. positive end of the diode is connected to one probe and negative end to the other probe (11. It has it's own switch position.2b).2a). and very high in other direction.1b. When the multimeter shows low value. value should be very low. diode is ok if it's resistance value is very small in one. buzzing stops. diode's anode is connected to the positive probe of the meter (red probe). Testing diode and Transistor with a multimeter When using an analog instrument to test a diode. -51- . If the value is equal to or near equal. and then it is turned around (11. In the first case. and in the other it should be very high.Basic of Electronics 7. multimeter should sound a buzz which signals a short circuit. and a symbol for open circuit is displayed (this can be either 0L or 1).1. as shown on 11.
According to 11.4c they are low. Diode is faulty if you hear a buzz (closed circuit) or some value which represents infinity.4b. only with switched probes. and the anode is the end of the diode which is connected to probe A (red one). you do the same thing. but the measurements should be opposite: on 11. -52- . and the negative probe is first at the collector and then emitter afterwards.Basic of Electronics Now we conenct probes to the diode (11. and if both of them are functional – transistor is functional as well. all steps are the same. Both diodes should be tested in described way. After that.4a they are high.3b). since they act as two connected diodes. and on 11. If the measured diode was ok. Then we rotate the diode and connect it again (11.3a). positive probe is connected to base. one of the two measurements would have shown a value which represents a minimum voltage that could be conducted through the diode (between 400mV and 800mV). negative probe is connected to the base and you test collector and emitter with a positive probe. both cases should produce a high value on the meter. in both cases resistance should be low. Transistors are tested in a similar fashion. When testing PNP transistors.
high power means low resistance.3. transistor BC140 is tested. where the principle of inverse relations is still in place. In case when there is a need to test high power transistors.8mm will do fine) should be soldered to transistor's pins and then plugged into the instrument. 7.4. Eexceptions are electrolithic and very high value block capacitors. thin wires (0. and it's value lays in range between several tens of ohms (in high power transofrmers) to several hundreds of ohms. Each diode should produce a value between 400mV and 800mV. display shows a value which represents the current amplification coefficient. a special plug where low and medium power transistors fit nicely. Transformers and coils Grid transofrmers are tested by measuring the resistance of the copper wire on the primary and secondary coil. When the positive end of an electrolithic capacitor is connected to a positive probe of an analog instrument. as displayed on 11. Capacitors DC capacitors should produce an infinite value on the instrument. All principles remain the same as with transformers. for example.4. If. Infinite resistance still means disconnected coil. Coils can be tested in the same way as transformers – through their resistance.5. this means that the collector current is 74 times higher than the base current. transistor is plugged into specified slot according to it's type (PNP or NPN) and the switch on the instrument is brought into position with a hFE marking. Many modern day digital multimeters have a tool for direct transistor check. In case transistor works. and the display shows 74. process remains similar to the one with diodes. As displayed on 11. Secondary resistance is lower and is in range between several ohms to several tens of ohms. it's resistance is higher. and a -53- . it is a certain sign that the coil is either poorly connected or the curls are disconnected at some point. and is wound using a thinner wire.Basic of Electronics If you test transistors using a digital instrument. In case an instrument shows an infinite value. Since the primary coil has more curls than the secondary one.5. There is. 7. even to kiloohms (in low power transformers).4.
On the other hand. because by only connecting the probes there should be a short noise heard. Electret microphones don't produce the noise.4.Basic of Electronics negative end to a negative probe. which means that speaker sound is higher than usual. their variable coil has either 4 or 8Ohms in most cases. which goes even to 20%. black on cathode). 7.6 Speakers. or oil or even a graphite pencil. When using an analog instrument on the speakers. we fall back to the diode theory of operation: when anode is positive comparing to the cathode (red probe on anode. If that component was to be used in some audio amplifier. (Even small capacitance components get charged while testing.4. or a variable resistor. it is worth mentionig that the capacitors have considerably wider tolerance than resistors. Testing process is shown on 12. And another source of trouble could be the built-in FET amplifier. If there is no noise. This is a proof that the capacitor is ok. and the needle's movement is the charge stored in the component being discharged.) Variable capacitors are tested by connecting an ohm-meter to them. any other value means that the component is faulty.4. Other Semiconductor Devices To test diodes using this circuit. and the meter should show those values. Same goes for headphones and dynamic microphones. Of course. needle jumps to the lowest value and then gradually comes back towards infinity.5. With this said. speaker is broken. so the needle doesn't have the time to move. or a pot. There are digital instruments that have the ability to measure capacitance. but their discharge time is very short. but this is not a good solution since it is weak and short-lived. Potentiometers To test a potentiometer.4. whole diode acts as a low value resistor. and should be practiced only if there is no replacement for that potentiometer) 7. not much of attention is being paid to the value shown on the actual instrument. 7. in the opposite direction. process is rather simple – you connect the component to probes of an ohm-meter and turn the shaft. which simplifies the process to comparing the value on the capacitor to the one on the display. because any other value is a certain signal that the plates of the rotor and stator are connected which means that the component doesn't work. speakers would produce loud noise or no sound at all while pot is being turned. Needle should point infinity at all times. -54- . sound is lower because in that direction diode acts as a high value resistor. headphones and microphones When testing speakers. and values should do what component's name says – vary. and turning the rotor. this behavior should be linear – jumps and twitches in values mean that the component is not working as supposed to. (“Noisy” pot can be repaired using a special spray.7.
probe A is connected to the base. If both diodes are functional.5. and the other one is connected to transistor's emitter or diode's cathode or the other resistor's side and some kind of sound should be heard from the speaker. or if it “plays” in one of the second two measurements. In both cases. and then probe B is connected first to the emitter. As you can see. So. everything is in functional order. everything is in order.6. Probe A is connected to the collector of the transistor. -55- . transistor is functional as well as shown on 12. A goes where B was connected to and vice versa. We displayed graphically the method of testing photo sensitive components on 12. photo transistors and diodes is NL-NM (or. if the transistor is ok. and then to the collector. If this continues when the component is shadowed using your palm. FET testing is done in similar fashion as testing the bipolar transistors. We then switch probe connections.4a). transistor is faulty if speaker remains silent in the first two measurements.Basic of Electronics DC transistor acts in the same fashion as two connected diodes (11. No Light – No Music). or diode's anode or one side of the photo resistor. if there is no music now.7. One principle that is applicable when testing the photo resistors. which is shown on 12. “music” would have been heard.
then music would have not been heard. so absence of sound while testing tells of some coil connection failure. Components which have coils in them. Checking other components Many other components may be tested using this instrument. closed switches. it is apparent that different resistance values give different output sound. transformers and such conduct electricity. If component doesn't conduct electricity. When testing different resistors. transformers.8. Base rule is: if component is intended to conduct electricity. or open switches. like capacitors. This may be easier and more accurately done using regular ohmmeter on your multimeter. sound will be heard. speakers.Basic of Electronics 7. And from the sound frequency one is possible to tell which coil is primary and which is secondary. With transformers with several secondary coils there is a possibility to find beginning and the end of each of them. coils. but your nerd level will certainly rise sky high if you are able to tell resistor's value from bare sound. So with some experience using this instrument on various resistors it will be possible to tell the resistance of the resistor in question from only the generated sound. -56- . fuses. like different electro motors. or two copper wires on the circuit board which shouldn't be connected. This is the case with resistors.4. headphones.
An exception are electrolithic and block capacitors. especially the larger ones. Length of playing depends on the capacitance of the component. Tone generated by connecting these capacitors to the instrument will change in level and frequency and fade until completely off when capacitor is discharged. -57- . where higher values give longer sound time.Basic of Electronics Functional capacitor will generate no music. which allows for a crude approximation of the component's capacitance.