Basic of Electronics
BASIC OF ELECTRONICS FOR MECHATRONICS STUDENTS
Basic of Electronics
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
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Atoms and Electrical Charge Current. Voltage. Power Resistance Ohm's Law
1.1. Atoms and Electrical Charge - Discusses the structure of atoms.
Figure 1-1. Model of an Atom Atoms are the building blocks of all matter. They are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Every electron has a small negative (-) charge. The proton has the same amount of charge except that it is the opposite, positive (+) charge. Neutrons are electrically neutral and have no charge. The protons and neutrons are located in the center of atoms forming what is called the nucleus and the electrons revolve around them. It is very important to know that particles of like charges will repel and unlike charges will attract. For example, two protons or two electrons will repel each other. However, a proton and a electron will attract. That is how the electrons are held inside the atom. The attraction between the electrons and protons keeps the electrons in orbit much like the gravitational attraction between the sun and its planets.
Basic of Electronics
Figure 1-2. Interaction between electrons and protons Electricity is the flow of electrons so it is necessary to measure the charge. The basic unit for measuring charge is the coulomb or the letter C. 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons!!! 1C = 6.25x10^18 electrons 1.2. Current - Introduces current and ampere. Electric current is the amount of electrons, or charge, moving past a point every second. It is basically the speed of electron flow. The faster the electrons flow, the higher the current.
Figure 1-3. Electron Flow Current is represented by the letter I. The basic unit for measuring current is ampere. Ampere can be abbreviated to amp or just A. 1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec Meaning for every amp, there are 6.25x10^18 electrons moving past a point every second. 1.3. Voltage - Potential difference and voltage To make sense of voltage, we will need to make an analogy. Lets imagine that electrons are represented by a marble on a flat plane. At this point, the plane is level and the marble does not move. If the plane is lifted at one side, the marble will roll down to the lower point.
Basic of Electronics Figure 1-4. Analogy electron with a marble In electricity, the high point is a point with lots of electrons and the low point is a point with a lack of electrons. The high point is called the high potential and the low point is the low potential. The difference between these two points is called the potential difference. The larger the potential difference, the larger the voltage.
Figure 1-5. Energy potential Voltage can be thought of as the measure of the pressure pushing the electrons. The higher the pressure, the higher the voltage. Voltage is represented by the letter E. The basic unit of measure is volts or the letter V. One volt will push 1 amp of current through 1 ohm of resistance. Resistance will be discussed in a later section.
1.4. Power - Discusses power or the amount of work a circuit is doing. Power is simply the amount of energy used or the amount of "work" a circuit is doing. Power is represented by the letter P. The basic unit for measuring power is watts or the letter W. To find power, all you need is a simple equation: P=EI or Power equals voltage times current. For example, if E = 9V I = 0.5A then P = 9 * 0.5 P = 4.5W
Basic of Electronics 1.5. Resistance - Discusses electron flow, materials, and the ohm unit. To better understand what resistance is, you must first get an idea of how electrons flow. When an electron is knocked out of an atom, it will fly off and hit another atom. If the electron strikes the atom with enough force, it will knock off another electron. The atom that was just knocked off will hit another atom and so forth.
Figure 1-6. Two electrons Note that every time an electron strikes another, it is transferring its energy. Some of the energy is converted into heat every time it is transferred. The voltage will drop as the energy is transferred over long distances. Thus a long wire has a higher resistance than a short wire. Some materials - such as copper and silver - does not hold on to its electrons very tightly. Therefore it doesn't require much energy to knock off an electron. These materials are called conductors and has a very low resistance to electron flow. Materials such as clay and plastics hold on to their electrons more tightly than conductors. It takes more energy to knock off an electron from these materials. These materials are called insulators and has a high resistance to electron flow. Now, you must understand that this is NOT how electrons really flow; It serves only as something for you to work with. To really know how electrons flow, which we will not get into, you will need to study quantum physics. Resistance is represented by the letter R. The basic unit of measure is ohm or the symbol (Greek omega). In the next section (Ohm's Law), we will show you the relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. Resistance will also be further discussed as we introduce the resistor.
1.6. Ohm's Law - The relationship between Current, Voltage, and Resistance. The German physicist, George Simon Ohm, established that voltage in volt, electrical resistance in ohms, and ampereres flowing through any circuit are all related. Ohms’s law states:
Ohm law camn also be sated as asimple formula to calculate one value of an electrical circuit if the other two are known.Basic of Electronics It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance. I=E/R Where: I= Current in ampere (A) E= Voltage in volt (V) R= Resistance in ohms (Ω)
the 4 horizontal lines. That's all it is to schematic diagrams. This tells you what value to use for that component. and the thing with the wavy lines. It's not that tough right?
. Each type of component has a unique symbol and a name (usually 1-2 letters). this diagram has 3 components: the thing with 4 horizontal lines. Can you guess which is the battery? Yes. the triangle in a circle. If there was a second resistor. Note the "R1" next to the resistor symbol and "R1 470 ohm" below the diagram.Basic of Electronics
Chapter 2: Schematic Diagram
A schematic diagram shows how each component connect with another. All relevant values and component specific information are usually included. the second resistor will be called R2. The triangle in the circle represents the light emitting diode and the wavy lines represent the resistor -.both of which will be discussed in the components section. It is a simple and easy to read outline of the circuit. Below is an example of a schematic diagram:
Figure 2-1 A simple schematic diagram As you can see.
They are used to add resistance to a circuit. a resistor within 5% tolerance should be sufficient. Capacitors . The first two color bands from the left are the significant figures . Resistors . The third band is the multiplier . Integrated circuits .A component used for switching and amplifying.
3. resistors resist the flow of electrons.Basic of Electronics
Chapter 3: Electronics Component
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Resistors . For most applications. indicates that the resistor will be within 5% of its value.A component that resist the flow of electrons. hold the resistor so that the tolerance band is on the right.A component that resist the flow of electrons.An overview of integrated circuits Switches .Discusses the different configurations of switches. Resistors are one of the most commonly used components in electronics. The color bands around the resistors are color codes that tell you its resistance value.1. Recall that resistance is measured in ohms. To get the value of a resistor.it tells you how many zeros to put after the significant figures. Transistors .simply write down the numbers represented by the colors. As its name implies. Diodes . Put them all together and you have the value. A 5% tolerance (gold band) for example.A "one way street" for electrons. The tolerance bands indicates the accuracy of the values.A mini recharable battery.
180 ohm.8 8.000 ohms is 1M. 2200 ohm resistors etc are available. 3. Faulty resistors have gone open circuit or changed in value. To limit the range of resistor values to a manageable number a preferred range only is available. (color would change with heat). 1000. Other types are carbon film which is a thin layer of carbon on a ceramic rod. and metal oxide and metal glaze on glass rods. They never go short circuit. Wire wound resistors have their value written on them. However. 12 ohm.6 6.8k as 1K8 etc.
Figure 3-1 Schematic and Symbol of Resistor The simplest resistors are made from carbon rod with end caps and wire leads.3M etc.9 4. For example. Some resistors change in value when exposed to light.2 1. Resistors have a wattage rating.0 1.
One last important note about resistors is their wattage rating. However.000 ohms is 3. The higher this rating the more heat they can dissipate. 4 band resistors(the ones discussed here) are the most common and should work for most projects.3M would be written as 3M3 and 1. it is okay to use a 1/2 watt resistor in a 1/4 watt circuit.7 3. You should not use a 1/4 watt resistor in a circuit that has more than 1/4 watt of power flowing.2 This mean that 1 ohm. They are called THERMISTORS and are used in temperature measuring circuits. Most resistors are color coded to indicate their value and tolerance. Decimal points are not used on circuit diagrams (they may be confused with fly specks).2 2.Basic of Electronics
NOTE: There are resistors with more bands and other types for specific applications. 3. Resistors generate heat. Some resistors are designed to change in value when heated. it is NOT okay to use a 1/4 watt resistor in a 1/2 watt circuit. These are 1. Wire wound resistors are used where the resistor has to dissipate a lot of heat.7 5.3 3.300. High stability resistors (marked with a fifth pink band) do not change value easily. 1000 ohms is 1k.8 2. They are called LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTORS.
2. Capacitors .
Figure 3-4 a pair plate of Capacitor This insulator is called the dielectric. Preset variable resistors are internal controls which are adjusted in value by means of a screwdriver. Once adjusted.22 ohm 20% 4R7K= 4. F=1% G=2% J=5% K=10% M=20% R22M= 0.Basic of Electronics
On circuit diagrams tolerance is indicated by the following letters.A mini rechargeable battery.
3. Examples are volume and brightness controls. Capacitors are basically two parallel metal plates separated by an insulator.7 ohm 10% 68RJ=68 ohm 5% Variable resistors are available. These can be operated by means of a knob on the control panel. they are never touched again.
000 and pico = 1/1. capacitors with large charges should be discharged via a resistor to limit the discharge current.Basic of Electronics Capacitor types are named after the dielectric.0000001F DC current cannot flow through a capacitor since the dielectric forms an open circuit. Capacitors are the second most commonly used component in electronics. paper air capacitors etc. 1F is too large for capacitors.000 So 100.
Ceramic capacitors are brown and has a disc shape. Thus we have ceramic. polyester. This can be a hazard if they are charged up to high voltages. similar to a car battery. These capacitors are polarized so you must connect the negative side in the right place. The coding is just like the resistor color codes except that they used numbers instead of colors. If it is necessary.000. so microfarads(µF) and picofarads(pF) are used. micro = 1/1.
. The value of the resistor as well as the negative side is clearly printed on the capacitor. These capacitors are measured in pF.000pF = 0. you simply decode the 3 digit number on the surface of the capacitor. Capacitors can be charged up and store electricity. However. These capacitors are measured in µF.000. To find the value. meaning that you can connect them in any way. mica. The amount of charge that a capacitor can hold is measured in Farads or the letter F.000.000.Capacitors can be charged and discharged. We will only be discussing two types of the most commonly used capacitors: Ceramic and Electrolytic. They can be thought of as tiny rechargeable batteries -.1µF = 0. The first 2 digit are the significant figures and the third digit is the multiplier. These capacitors are nonpolarized.
Figure 3-2 Ceramic Capacitor
Electrolytic Capacitors has a cylinder shape. Capacitors come in all shapes and sizes and are usually marked with their value.
There can be some confusion. For example. The first two digits are the base number and the third digit is a multiplier. It is OK to use a voltage below the maximum value.
. They are marked to indicate polarity. The voltage across the terminals must not exceed this value. 1/C total =1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 etc Variable capacitors are available in which the value can be adjusted by controlling the amount of overlap of the plates or the distance between them.Basic of Electronics
Figure 3-3 Electrolytic Capacitor They are often marked with their maximum working voltage. Some capacitors such as electrolytic and tantalums are polarised. A 2200pf capacitor would have three red bands. To find the total value if they are in series (that is in line with each other) then the following formula is used.000 pF = 100 nF = 0. To find the total value of capacitors in parallel (that is connected across each other) their values are added.
Figure 3-4 Color band on Capacitor Some values are marked in picofarads using three digit numbers. There is a type of diode called the Varicap diode which similar characteristics. Some values are indicated with a colour code similar to resistors. This means that they must be fitted the correct way round. These merge into one wide red band. 102 is 1000 pF and 104 is 100.1 uF.
Diodes let electrons flow through them only in one direction. and Light Emitting Diodes. The cathode side of the diode is marked with a band around it. the diode allows the electrons flow. Zener diodes have a set voltage rating. When a voltage exceeds the voltage rating going the opposite direction (from anode to cathode).
Figure 3-7 Symbol of LED
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Figure 3-5 Symbol of fix and variable capacitor
3. Diodes flow from cathode to anode. Zener Diodes. Note: there aren't any bands to identify which pin is anode and which is cathode.3 Diodes . Light Emitting Diodes (LED for short) are just like the regular diodes except that it lights up when electrons are flowing through. one pin is longer then the other. the positive side.A "one way street" for electrons.
Figure 3-6 Diodes and its symbol There are basically three different types of diodes: Diodes. The longer pin is the anode. However.
an anode and a cathode. This is because an electric current will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only flow one way through a type valve). Diodes come in all shapes and sizes.
. If you know how to measure resistance with a meter then test some diodes.
Figure 3-8 Mark indicator in Diodes The pcb is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. which means that they must be inserted into the PCB the correct way round. The cathode is always identified by a dot.
Figure 3-9 Some diode circuit symbols LED The light emitting diode (LED) is commonly used as an indicator. Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the type number in a data book. It can show when the power is on. or be part of trendy jewelry etc.Basic of Electronics
Diodes are polarised. act as a warning indicator. A good one has low resistance in one direction and high in the other. There are specialised types of diode available such as the zener and light emitting diode (LED). They are often marked with a type number. Diodes have two connections. ring or some other mark.
In our example it is 2 volts and 20mA (0. The transistor is a three terminal solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification. with the anode positive and the cathode negative. and the current through the resistor. The diode is in series with the resistor. as shown in the diagram. The cathode lead is the one nearest a "flat" on the body.02 =500 ohms. The necessary data can be obtained from a catalogue or data book. 3. Resistance = Volts divided by Amps = V/I = 10/0. switching. then the voltage across the resistor is 12-2 = 10 volts. To calculate the value of the series resistor we need to know the diode forward voltage and current and its connections. There aren't any standards for where and what order the physical pins are on the transistors. Transistors -A component used for switching and amplifying.Basic of Electronics
Figure 3-9 LED circuit It needs to be fed from a DC supply. so the current through then both is the same. Since the voltage across the diode is 2 volts and the battery voltage is 12 volts.4. From Ohm's Law we can now calculate the value of the resistor.
Figure 3-10 Transistors
. We now know the voltage across. voltage stabilization. Both of these transistors has 3 pins: emitter. so be sure to check the packaging when purchasing. 0. Transistors are used as switches and amplifiers.02 amps). We will discuss two types of transistors: PNP and NPN transistors. signal modulation and many other functions. Since this is not a standard value we can use a 470 or 560 ohm resistor as this application is not critical of values. collector. base.02 amps.
When fitting new IC's it is often necessary to bend the pins in slightly. When handling them. When satisfied. or 16 pin dual in line (dil) chips. ensure that the IC (or the socket) is the correct way round and that no pins have been bent underneath the body. They should be stored in conductive foam or wrapped in tin foil. IC's can be soldered directly into printed circuit boards. Inside them is a tiny piece of semiconductor(usually silicon) with large circuits built in. 14. Some IC's are damaged by the static electricity which most people carry on their bodies. Solder two diagonally opposite pins (say pin 1 and pin 5 in the diagram below) and check that the IC is flat on the board before soldering the rest. When soldering.Basic of Electronics
To allow electrons to flow through the collector and emitter of a PNP transistor. the following must apply: The emitter is more positive than the base and the collector leads to the negative.An overview of integrated circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are usually referred to as chips. Most common are 8. such as a radiator. solder the remaining pins. or may plug into sockets which have already been soldered into the board. in order to fit it into the board (or socket).5.
Figure 3-11 Symbol of PNP Transistors
The NPN transistor is the opposite: The collector must be more positive than the base and the emitter leads to the negative.
Figure 3-12 Symbol of NPN Transistors
3. discharge yourself periodically by touching some metalwork which is earthed.
. Integrated circuits (IC) . If it is not flat then reflow the solder on the two pins pushing the IC flat.
A primary cell is discarded when its chemical
. The general types of integrated circuits include:
Figure 3-12 Symbol of IC
Logic circuits These IC's are basically decision makers. you'll need one of those large reference books that have info on most of the IC's. most contain logic gate circuits. Switches Switching IC's are also very much like the switching circuits of transistors. Most IC's come with pinout information and how to use it. Works very much like transistor amplifier circuits. (logic gates will be discussed in a later section). Comparators These IC's compare inputs and gives an output. If not. A lot of IC's are made for a special purpose like digital sound recording. Audio amplifiers These are used to amplify audio. connected in series. Operational Amplifiers These are amplifiers. Timers These are counting IC's used for circuits that counts or needs to keep track of time. In a cell chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. Cells may be either PRIMARY or SECONDARY types.6. to increase the voltage available.Basic of Electronics There are millions of different integrated circuits. Other There are thousands of other types.
3. Batteries Batteries are assembled from cells.
The most common secondary cells are the lead/acid and nickel/cadmium (nicad). portable radios etc.
Figure 3-14 Internal Resistance of Battery When current is taken from a battery. Nicads must be charged with a constant current charger. The manganese dioxide absorbs hydrogen gas produced around the carbon rod which would insulate it from the electrolyte and stop the cell working.Basic of Electronics energy is exhausted. The diagram shows that as the current taken increases the terminal voltage decreases.
Figure 3-13 Symbol of Battery The zinc and carbon react with the ammonium chloride ELECTROLYTE to produce electricity.
. Internal resistance increases as the cell ages. A secondary cell can be recharged. voltage is dropped across this internal resistance and the voltage at the battery terminals falls. Lead acid batteries need a constant voltage charger. All cells have INTERNAL RESISTANCE. The most common primary cell is the zinc/carbon (Leclanche) as used in torches. This is not an actual resistor but a characteristic of the cell.
the output coil is the SECONDARY WINDING.7. i. Battery voltages must therefore always be measured ON LOAD.1 amp. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply . then the primary must supply 24 watts. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. the coil becomes surrounded by a magnetic field. If it is a 240 volt primary then the current in it must be 0. the lines of force move outwards from the coil. Assuming a perfect transformer. 3.e. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns. the lines of force move inwards. Primary voltage --------------------Secondary voltage Number of primary turns = ----------. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil. The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. The input coil is called the PRIMARY WINDING. (Watts = volts x amps). If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then. If the current is reduced.-----------------------Number of secondary turns
For example. then the turns ratio is 10:1. It occurs in any type of power supply. If a 24 watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. with the radio etc switched on and drawing current. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. a voltage is induced in the second coil. As it does this. the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. Transformer If you have read the page on ELECTROMAGNETISM then you will know that when a current is passed through a coil. If the current is increased. -19-
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Figure 3-15 Voltage-Current characteristics of Battery This is called POOR REGULATION. as the field moves out or in. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer. if the secondary has half the primary turns. this will happen 50 times a second.
This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. Note that the transformer only works on AC which has a constantly changing current and moving field. called EDDY CURRENTS. the core is LAMINATED. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core. into this core. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. or no core at all. This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply.
Figure 3-15 Diagram of Transformers
. Since the primary would induce power. or in the other direction.Basic of Electronics To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPEDANCE MATCHING. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary.
Basic of Electronics
3. The former may contain a metallic core up its centre. It simply connects and disconnect a circuit. Inductor values of INDUCTANCE are measured in HENRIES. Iron cores are used for frequencies below about 100 kHz. Single Throw This is a two terminal switch that opens and closes a circuit. Reactance increases with frequency and as the value of the inductance increases. and DPDT.
Switches really don't need any introduction. Ferrite cores are used for frequencies up to say. This section gives an overview of the contact configurations. This opposition is called INDUCTIVE REACTANCE. There are 3 commonly used configurations: SPST. SPDT. They may be wound on tubular FORMERS or may be self supporting.
SPDT = Single Pole.
Figure 3-16 Diagrams of Inductors
3. At low frequencies the inductor may have hundreds of turns. SPST = Single Pole. 10 Mhz. Switches Discusses the different configurations of switches. Most inductors have a low DC resistance since they are wound from copper wire. Above 100Mhz the core is usually air and the coil is self supporting. Double Throw This is a three terminal switch that connects one terminal to either of the other two.9.8 Inductor Inductors are coils of wire. Inductors oppose the flow of ac current.
. above 1 Mhz only a few turns.
2 S1 is a "single pole on/off" switch in the off position. 3 This is a "2 pole on/off" switch which completely isolates the lamp from the supply in the off position. -22-
Fig. The dotted line indicates that S1a and S1b are part of the same switch "ganged" together and operate simultaneously. Fig.Basic of Electronics
DPDT = Double Pole. 1 Switches are used to open/close a circuit. Double Throw This is a six terminal switch that connects a pair of terminals to either of the other two pairs. This may be important if it is a high voltage supply. Fig.
When operated a-b opens and b-c closes. (2) a "normally open. Fig. 8 This is a "changeover" slide switch. Fig. Therefore special antisurge fuses are fitted. 5 This is a "2 pole changeover" switch. You can have 2p 5w. These can stand 10 times the rated current for 10 milliseconds. Fig. push to make". Panel-Toggle-Make before break-Pneumatic-WaferProximity-Light activated-Toggle-Rotary Reed-Pull-Locking-Vane-Interlocking-RockerDimmer-Mercury-Tilt-Microswitch Thumbwheel-Key-Wafer-Slide-Float-Optical-FootThermal-Hall effect 3.10. If the current rises above this value it will melt. 3p 4w etc. 6 This is a "single pole 5 way" switch. If the fuse melts (blows) then there is an open circuit and no current can then flow thus protecting the equipment by isolating it from the power supply. Either lamp 1 or lamp 2 is on. Here are assorted switch types. It can select 1 of 5 circuits. If the fuse is black and silvery then it is likely that there is a dead short (very low resistance) somewhere. If a fuse is fitted to withstand this large current there would be no protection against faults which cause the current to rise slightly above the normal value. push to break". Occasionly they grow tired and fail. Again S1a and S1b are part of the same switch. 7 This shows (1) a "normally closed. The unlit lamp is completely isolated from the supply. 4 This is a "single pole changeover" switch. Always find out why the fuse blew before replacing it.
Figure 3-17 Fuse Configuration in circuit
. If the surge lasts longer than this the fuse will blow. The fuse must be able to carry slightly more than the normal operating current of the equipment to allow for tolerances and small current surges. Fig.Basic of Electronics Fig. With some equipment there is a very large surge of current for a short time at switch on. The Fuse The fuse is a piece of wire which can carry a stated current. (3) both used together to make a "changeover" switch.
.11. This section describes the different types of gates and their symbols:
AND gate To get an output of 1. Logic IC's contain these and other types of gates.Basic of Electronics 3.
NOR gate To get an output of 1. It is also known as an inverter circuit. 1(one) is represented by a positive electrical value and 0(zero) is represented by no electricity at all.
OR gate To get an output of 1. its input must be at a value of 0. This gate only has one input. all inputs must be at a value of 0. They take binary inputs and and gives out a binary result.
NAND gate To get an output of 1. one or more of its inputs must be at a value of 0. Gates Gates are logic circuits. one or more inputs must be at a value of 1. both inputs must be at a value of 1.
NOT gate To get an output of 1.
and a small one (a Tweeter) for high frequencies. This happens if the speaker leads are connected correctly. To ensure that the correct frequencies go to the desired speaker. where a coil of wire is suspended in the magnetic field of a circular magnet. When a speech current is passed through the coil a varying magnetic field is generated by the coil. C2 and L2 are a high pass filter. Loudspeakers are mounted in enclosures (boxes).Basic of Electronics 3. Large speakers cannot reproduce high frequencies and small ones cannot reproduce low frequencies. This must be matched to the output impedance of the amplifier (see the page on REACTANCE and IMPEDANCE). When using two speakers together. Therefore two speakers are used. a large one (a Woofer) for low frequencies. Speakers can be connected in series and parallel but the total impedance must match the amplifier impedance. The movement of the coil causes a cone.
. typically 4 or 8 ohms. Loudspeakers have Impedance. C1 and L1 are a low pass filter. Loudspeaker The most common type of loudspeaker is the MOVING COIL speaker.11. Using a lower impedance than the correct one can blow up your amplifier. they must be in phase. which is attached to the coil. This means that they move out and in together. (there is a page on FILTERS). a Crossover Unit is used. to move back and forth. The design of enclosures is very complicated. The loudspeaker is a TRANSDUCER converting one form of energy to another. as in stereo systems.
Figure 3-18 Diagrams of Speaker
The two magnetic fields interact causing movement of the coil. In the diagram. This compresses and decompresses the air thereby generating sound waves.
Figure 3-20 Electromagnetic Relay
The magnetised core attracts the iron armature.
. by passing current through it. to form an electromagnet.Basic of Electronics
Figure 3-19 Woofer and Tweeter configuration 3. the core becomes temporarily magnetised. The armature is pivoted which causes it to operate one or more sets of contacts. When the coil is de-energised the armature and contacts are released. When the coil is energised.12. wound on an iron core. Electromagnetic relay The electromagnetic relay consists of a multi-turn coil.
000.000. The cathode of the diode is connected to the most positive end of the coil. To prevent this a diode is connected across the coil.001 nano n 0. -27-
.000 kilo K 1.000. For example 1000.000 giga G 1.000 milli m 0.000.000. Various coil operating voltages (ac and dc) are available. and 0.000.
Figure 3-20 Relay position The springsets (contacts) can be a mixture of n.c and c.000.000.000.000.o.001 See that 1 microfarad is 1000 nanofarad.000.Basic of Electronics The coil can be energised from a low power source such as a transistor while the contacts can switch high powers such as the mains supply. Practice converting one to another.000 mega M 1. Relays can generate a very high voltage across the coil when switched off.o n. The relay can also be situated remotely from the control source. There are 1.000. Value Multiplier In Electronics we use some very large and some very small values. To make them easier to deal with we use MULTIPLIERS.000.000. The REED RELAY has a much faster operation than the relays described above.000.001 Ohms is the same as 1 picohm PREFIX SYMBOL MULTIPLICATION FACTOR -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tera T 1.13.001 micro u 0. This can damage other components in the circuit.000.000 picofarad in 1 nanofarad.000 Hertz can be labelled 1 Terahertz. The actual contact points on the springsets are available for high current and low current operation.001 pico p 0.
Basic of Electronics
Basic of Electronics
Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel
4.2. Resistors in Series .Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel. To calculate what the total resistance is. you must use this equation: Rt = (R1 * R2) / (R1 + R2) 4.3.1. Resistors in Parallel .in other words. simply add up the resistance of the resistors in the series circuit. Capacitors in Parallel .Discusses Parallel circuits and the result of putting resistors in parallel. in a parallel circuit?
The result is the total resistance being lower than the lowest resistor.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series.Discusses series circuits and the result of putting resistors in series. 4. we mean connecting one resistor after the other:
To find the TOTAL resistance. Capacitors in Series -30-
. Resistors in Parallel . What happens when resistors are placed side by side -.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. Capacitors in Series .Basic of Electronics
Chapter 4 Circuit Concepts
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Resistors in Series . So when we say "Resistors in series". So what is a series circuit? A series circuit means connecting components one after the other.
how do you find the total capacitance of capactors in parallel? Right! You just add it up! So if there are 4 capacitors in parallel and their values are: 2pF.Basic of Electronics . The total capacitance in a capacitor series circuit is less than the lowest capacitor in the circuit. Unlike resistors in series. and 5pF The total value is 2pF + 3pF + 4pF + 5pF = 14pF
.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in parallel Now if capacitors in series uses the same equation as resistors in parallel. 3pF.Discusses the result of putting capacitors in series. use the following equation: Ct = (C1 * C2) / (C1 + C2)
Notice that it's the same equation as resistors in parallel
Capacitors in Parallel . 4pF. capacitors in series lowers the total capacitance. To find the total capacitance.
Discusses how to solder
.1. They are very convenient since all you have to do is plug in the components. there are many holes for plugging in components:
The bread board has many strips of metal which run underneath the board that connects the component.Basic of Electronics
Chapter 5 Skills in Electronics
5. The metal strips are laid out as shown below:
Each strip is a connection. The blue strips shown in the illustration are usually used for connecting the batteries and the green strips are for the components.2. Breadboards are used for testing and experimenting with electronic circuits.Introduces the breadboard. Using Breadboards . Soldering . Oh the surface of a breadboard. So whichever components connected to a certain strip are connected to eachother.
An ordinary plastic flex will melt immediately if touched by a hot iron and there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock.
Before you solder. Then apply the solder on the lead (not on the tip of the soldering iron). even for a moment! Work in a well-ventilated area.
. Simply wait for the soldering iron to heat up. you must tin the tip. The smoke formed as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and quite irritating. what you need:
• • •
Soldering iron (around 25W) 60/40 solder and optionally a soldering iron holder. you can start soldering. Take great care to avoid touching the mains flex with the tip of the iron. to solder the components onto the board. They are very hot (about 400°C) and will give you a nasty burn. Let the joint cool by itself. Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use. and wipe it with a wet sponge. apply a coat of solder on the tip. Wash your hands after using solder. Never put it down on your workbench. not above. Avoid breathing it by keeping you head to the side of. Solder contains lead which is a poisonous metal. The iron should have a heatproof flex for extra protection. Put the soldering iron tip so that it's touching the lead and the copper at the same time. Stick the component's leads through the proper holes and bend it so that it'll stay still. your work. Now that you have your circuit boards. Note that you'll probably want one unless you're the careful type and you're sure you won't burn up anything.Basic of Electronics
First a few safety precautions: Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron. cut the leads at the proper length. Now.
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(use a small vice or sticky tape). If you have taken too long it will have have solder spikes. frequently. Tin the bit for good heat conduction. to keep the bit clean. Do not carry solder on the bit to the joint. Remove the solder. A good joint is smooth and shiny. Reflow soldering is tinning two pieces of wire separately and then reheating to join them together.This means a minimum of lead wrapping. to prevent them falling out during soldering. Take precautions against the work moving. When using printed circuit boards avoid bending wires flat on the board. Rest your hands on the workbench to steady them. Heat the biggest part of the joint for 2-3 seconds. It makes them difficult to remove. If the joint has moved during soldering it will be dull and crinkly. All soldered joints should be easily removable. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT !!!
. Allow the solder to run over the joint without moving the iron. Tinning the bit.Basic of Electronics
Cleaning the bit with a damp sponge. Avoid overheating. The shape of the wire should be visible through the solder.The process should take only 2-3 seconds. Remove the iron. which should normally clean the joint. Heating the joint and applying the solder Use a damp sponge. A dry joint is a poorly soldered one. Mount components so that value markings are visible.(This means putting a small blob of solder on the tip of the bit). Spring component leads out just slightly. The smoke you see is evaporating flux. Apply solder to the joint not to the iron. Hold the iron like a pen.
Appropriate warnings are given in the table below.Basic of Electronics
Don't allow the blobs to run into each other. A good joint is smooth and shiny. When you can produce good results proceed to the next part of the exercise.
. Components Chip Holders (DIL sockets) Pictures Reminders and Warnings Connect the correct way round by making sure the notch is at the correct end. Many must be placed the correct way round and a few are easily damaged by the heat from soldering. (b) A bad joint is unevenly shaped. Do NOT put the ICs (chips) in yet. See (a). The solder must run along the copper track. Make the blobs all the same size and shape.
Some components require special care when soldering.(c) If there are spikes on the joint. not stand on it like a bead. then you are taking too long to make the joint. dull and crinkly in appearance. together with other advice which may be useful when soldering.
Take care with germanium diodes (e. Use single core wire.near one lead. not c. The diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or . Connect the correct way round.for cathode.g. Transistors have 3 'legs' (leads) so extra care is needed to ensure the connections are correct. These may be connected either way round. Easily damaged by heat. this is one solid wire which is plastic-coated. OA91) because they are easily damaged by heat. Connect the correct way round. this has no plastic coating and looks just like solder but it is stiffer.
Small value capacitors (usually less than 1µF)
Electrolytic capacitors (1µF and greater)
Wire Links between 8 points on the circuit board. for cathode! The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. it really is k. buzzers 9 and other parts with their own wires
. Connect the correct way round. Take care with polystyrene capacitors because they are easily damaged by heat.
single core wire
Battery clips. yes. If there is no danger of touching other parts you can use tinned copper wire. Connect the correct way round. Connect the correct way round. They will be marked with a + or .Basic of Electronics No special precautions are needed with resistors.
Ensure the iron bit is well tinned. then desolder the leads individually. Many ICs are static sensitive. Apply the solder sucker and remove the solder. Heat up the joint to be desoldered until the solder runs.Check that all pins are loose on an integrated circuit. an assembled printed circuit board may be worth several hundred pounds. Place the braid on top of the joint. variable resistors and loudspeakers. Components cost a few pence. Carefully insert ICs in their holders: make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket then push down firmly with your thumb. If the operation is unsuccessful resolder the joint and then try again. Ensure the iron is tinned. At some stage you will probably need to desolder a joint to remove or re-position a wire or component. There are two ways to remove the solder:
11 ICs (chips)
DESOLDERING COMPONENTS Tools required . Place the iron on top of the braid and allow the solder from the joint to run up the braid.pliers. Connect the correct way round. Do not use single core wire because this will break when it is repeatedly flexed. Take great care to avoid damage. Ensure the joint is completely desoldered by wriggling the wire with a pair of pliers to check for freeness. Working on a double-sided PCB (where copper tracks are on both sides of the PCB) is more difficult and requires more care. Leave ICs in their antistatic packaging until you need them. cutters.
Wires to parts off the circuit board. This should only take two or three seconds.Basic of Electronics You should use stranded wire which is flexible and plasticcoated. including 10 switches. In some cases desoldering braid is useful. relays. It is often safer to cut the component leads and discard the component. soldering iron and solder sucker (desoldering tool). then earth your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the ICs.
If the joint will not come apart easily apply your soldering iron to melt the remaining traces of solder at the same time as pulling the joint apart.Basic of Electronics 1. The pump will need emptying occasionally by unscrewing the nozzle. Remove the wick first.
2. then the soldering iron. Apply both the pump nozzle and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. Wait a second or two for the solder to melt. Then press the button on the pump to release the plunger and suck the molten solder into the tool. With solder remover wick (copper braid) Apply both the end of the wick and the tip of your soldering iron to the joint. After removing most of the solder from the joint(s) you may be able to remove the wire or component lead straight away (allow a few seconds for it to cool). With a desoldering pump (solder sucker) Set the pump by pushing the spring-loaded plunger down until it locks. Repeat if necessary to remove as much solder as possible. away from the joint. As the solder melts most of it will flow onto the wick. taking care to avoid burning yourself. Cut off and discard the end of the wick coated with solder.
Multimeters are so named because they have the ability to measure a multiple of variables: voltage. It can be daunting at first to use a meter.Basic of Electronics
Chapter 6 Safe Meter Usage
Using an electrical meter safely and efficiently is perhaps the most valuable skill an electronics technician can master. and often many others. however. the multimeter may become a source of danger when connected to a "live" circuit. The most common piece of electrical test equipment is a meter called the multimeter. current. knowing that you are connecting it to live circuits which may harbor life-threatening levels of voltage and current. both for the sake of their own personal safety and for proficiency at their trade. and it is always best to proceed cautiously when using meters.
. Carelessness more than any other factor is what causes experienced technicians to have electrical accidents. In the hands of someone ignorant and/or careless. This concern is not unfounded. resistance.
this distinction in meter settings is an important one to bear in mind. Although we haven't discussed alternating current (AC) in any technical detail." The "horseshoe" symbol is the Greek letter "Omega" (Ω). two "A" settings. or a dashed line with a squiggly curve over it." The "V" of course stands for "voltage" while the "A" stands for "amperage" (current). and the tips of the probes are sharp. The meter uses different techniques. Test leads are nothing more than specially-prepared wires used to connect the meter to the circuit under test. There are three different sockets on the multimeter face into which we can plug our test leads. The rotary selector switch (now set in the Off position) has five different measurement positions it can be set in: two "V" settings. to measure DC than it uses to measure AC. stiff pieces of wire:
. you will notice that each pair is divided into unique markers with either a pair of horizontal lines (one solid. The parallel lines represent "DC" while the squiggly curve represents "AC. and one setting in the middle with a funny-looking "horseshoe" symbol on it representing "resistance. Of the two "V" settings and two "A" settings. internally.Basic of Electronics
You will notice that the display of this meter is of the "digital" type: showing numerical values using four digits in a manner similar to a digital clock. which is the common symbol for the electrical unit of ohms. and so it requires the user to select which type of voltage (V) or current (A) is to be measured. The wires are coated in a color-coded (either black or red) flexible insulation to prevent the user's hands from contacting the bare conductors. one dashed).
depending on which quantity you intend to measure with the multimeter. or the red socket marked for current. First. we'll set up the meter to measure DC voltage from a battery:
." The red test lead plugs into either the red socket marked for voltage and resistance. To see how this works.Basic of Electronics
The black test lead always plugs into the black socket on the multimeter: the one marked "COM" for "common. let's look at a couple of examples showing the meter in use.
In both of these examples. creating a spark and perhaps even a ball of flame if the voltage source is capable of supplying enough current! The following image illustrates the potential for hazard:
. we'll take a look at an example of using the multimeter to measure AC voltage from a household electrical power receptacle (wall socket):
The only difference in the setup of the meter is the placement of the selector switch: it is now turned to AC "V". If this happens. the test leads will remain plugged in the same sockets. Now. and the selector switch has been set for DC "V". it is imperative that you not let the probe tips come in contact with one another while they are both in contact with their respective points on the circuit. Since we're still measuring voltage. a short-circuit will be formed.Basic of Electronics
Note that the two test leads are plugged into the appropriate sockets on the meter for voltage.
it must be remembered that digital multimeters usually do a good job of discriminating between AC and DC measurements. when checking for the presence of hazardous voltage. Touching the probes across the device whose resistance is to be measured. As we have seen earlier. both AC and DC voltages and currents can be deadly. Also. The test leads will be kept plugged in the same sockets as for the voltage checks. even if you're not expecting to find both! Also.Basic of Electronics
This is just one of the ways that a meter can become a source of hazard if used improperly. but the selector switch will need to be turned until it points to the "horseshoe" resistance symbol. Using a multimeter to check for resistance is a much simpler task. the meter should properly display the resistance in ohms:
. so when using a multimeter as a safety check device you should always check for the presence of both AC and DC. you should be sure to check all pairs of points in question. as they are set for one or the other when checking for voltage or current.
When there is a good. If there is any additional source of voltage in the meter-lead-component-lead-meter loop to either aid or oppose the resistance-measuring current produced by the meter. In a worse-case situation. the resistance of that component can be determined and displayed. faulty readings will result. it uses a small internal battery to generate a tiny current through the component to be measured. solid connection between the probe tips (simulated by touching them together). the meter may even be damaged by the external voltage. it would read exactly zero:
.Basic of Electronics
One very important thing to remember about measuring resistance is that it must only be done on de-energized components! When the meter is in "resistance" mode. By sensing how difficult it is to move this current through the component. the meter shows almost zero Ω. The "resistance" mode of a multimeter is very useful in determining wire continuity as well as making precise measurements of resistance. If the test leads had no resistance in them.
Otherwise. The reasons for this are specific to ammeter design and operation. it is best to have the meter offer little or no resistance against the flow of electrons. In the voltage-measuring mode (red lead plugged into the red "V" socket). the multimeter is designed to have practically zero ohms of resistance between the test probe tips when the red probe has been plugged into the red "A" (current-measuring) socket." which stands for "open loop"):
Another potential hazard of using a multimeter in its current-measuring ("ammeter") mode is failure to properly put it back into a voltage-measuring configuration before measuring voltage with it. there are many mega-ohms of resistance -46-
.L.Basic of Electronics
If the leads are not in contact with each other. the meter will indicate infinite resistance (usually by displaying dashed lines or the abbreviation "O. Thus. or touching opposite ends of a broken wire. any additional resistance offered by the meter would impede the electron flow and alter the circuit's operation. When measuring circuit current by placing the meter directly in the path of current.
Like all overcurrent protection devices. such as in the case illustrated in the last image. A multimeter can be used to check its own current fuse by setting the selector switch to the resistance position and creating a connection between the two red sockets like this:
. it's easy to spin the selector switch from the "A" to the "V" position and forget to correspondingly switch the position of the red test lead plug from "A" to "V".to voltage-measuring mode.Basic of Electronics between the test probe tips. though. the meter itself) from excessive damage. these fuses are primarily designed to protect the equipment (in this case. The result -.will be a short-circuit through the meter!
To help prevent this. they are still no substitute for clear thinking and caution when using a multimeter. and only secondarily to protect the user from harm. All good-quality multimeters contain fuses inside that are engineered to "blow" in the even of excessive current through them.if the meter is then connected across a source of substantial voltage -. When switching a multimeter from current. most multimeters have a warning feature by which they beep if ever there's a lead plugged in the "A" socket and the selector switch is set to "V". As convenient as features like these are. because voltmeters are designed to have close to infinite resistance (so that they don't draw any appreciable current from the circuit under test).
L. and current. resistance.Basic of Electronics
A good fuse will indicate very little resistance while a blown fuse will always show "O. so feel free to experiment on safe." (or whatever indication that model of multimeter uses to indicate no continuity). So now that we've seen how to use a multimeter to measure voltage. The actual number of ohms displayed for a good fuse is of little consequence. battery-powered circuits.
. what more is there to know? Plenty! The value and capabilities of this versatile test instrument will become more evident as you gain skill and familiarity using it. There is no substitute for regular practice with complex instruments such as these. so long as it's an arbitrarily low figure.
the meter or the leads may be destroyed or the fuse will blow by the current available across the battery. The ammeter has to be installed in the circuit (in series) so that it can measure all the current flow in that circuit. An ohmmeter contains a battery. such as across a battery. just as a water flow meter would measure the amount of water flow. when the leads are connected to a component. Infinity means no connection. 7.0 Ω = zero resistance OL = an open circuit (no current flows) 7. All voltmeters have a large internal resistance so that the current flow through the meter will not effect the circuit being tested. current flows through the test leads and the difference in voltage (voltage drop) between the lead is measured as resistance.3. usually 10M. Measuring Resistance An ohmmeter measures the resistance in ohms of a component or circuit section when no current is flowing through the circuit. This means that on their DC voltage ranges they have a very high resistance (usually called input impedance) of 1M or more. All digital meters contain a battery to power the display so they use virtually no power from the circuit under test. -49-
. required for measuring computer circuits. Caution: An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit to measure the current flow in the circuit. High-impedance meters. open and zero readings are as follows: 0. A voltmeter is connected to a circuit in parallel. indicating that there is continuity path for the current to flow in a closed circuit.2. Measuring Voltage A voltmeter measures potential of electricity in a units of volts. is an open circuit. Measuring Amperes An ammeter measures the flow of current through a complete circuit in unit of amperes.1. Zero ohms on the scale mean no resistance between test leads. and they are very unlikely to affect the circuit under test. 7.Basic of Electronics
Chapter 7 Using Digital Multimeter for Measurement and Testing of Electronic Components
Digital multimeter and digital volt-ohm-miliamperemeter are terms commonly used for electronic high-impedance test meter. To summarize. If a meter set to read amperes is connected in parallel.
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and should be replaced. either low or high in both directions. and then it is turned around (11.1. It has it's own switch position. In the first case.1b. diode is faulty.2a). When we connect probes to each other.Basic of Electronics 7. When we distance the probes. Testing Electronic Components 7. and a symbol for open circuit is displayed (this can be either 0L or 1). multimeter should sound a buzz which signals a short circuit. Testing diode and Transistor with a multimeter When using an analog instrument to test a diode.
Digital instrument has another method to test the diodes. diode's anode is connected to the positive probe of the meter (red probe). buzzing stops. positive end of the diode is connected to one probe and negative end to the other probe (11. diode is ok if it's resistance value is very small in one.2b).4.4. According to 11. and in the other it should be very high. value should be very low. as shown on 11.2.
. and very high in other direction. When the multimeter shows low value. and display tells 0. If the value is equal to or near equal.
positive probe is connected to base. Diode is faulty if you hear a buzz (closed circuit) or some value which represents infinity. in both cases resistance should be low.Basic of Electronics Now we conenct probes to the diode (11. Then we rotate the diode and connect it again (11. and the anode is the end of the diode which is connected to probe A (red one).3b).4b.4c they are low. since they act as two connected diodes. both cases should produce a high value on the meter.3a). only with switched probes. When testing PNP transistors. According to 11. all steps are the same. If the measured diode was ok. but the measurements should be opposite: on 11.
. one of the two measurements would have shown a value which represents a minimum voltage that could be conducted through the diode (between 400mV and 800mV). and the negative probe is first at the collector and then emitter afterwards. negative probe is connected to the base and you test collector and emitter with a positive probe.
Transistors are tested in a similar fashion. and on 11. Both diodes should be tested in described way. After that.4a they are high. you do the same thing. and if both of them are functional – transistor is functional as well.
Coils can be tested in the same way as transformers – through their resistance. it's resistance is higher. In case an instrument shows an infinite value. transistor BC140 is tested. and is wound using a thinner wire. display shows a value which represents the current amplification coefficient.5.3. even to kiloohms (in low power transformers). There is. Secondary resistance is lower and is in range between several ohms to several tens of ohms. and the display shows 74.4. process remains similar to the one with diodes. Since the primary coil has more curls than the secondary one. where the principle of inverse relations is still in place.4. Capacitors DC capacitors should produce an infinite value on the instrument.5. for example.Basic of Electronics
If you test transistors using a digital instrument. and it's value lays in range between several tens of ohms (in high power transofrmers) to several hundreds of ohms. As displayed on 11. In case transistor works. Infinite resistance still means disconnected coil. and a
. Eexceptions are electrolithic and very high value block capacitors. Many modern day digital multimeters have a tool for direct transistor check. transistor is plugged into specified slot according to it's type (PNP or NPN) and the switch on the instrument is brought into position with a hFE marking. If. this means that the collector current is 74 times higher than the base current. as displayed on 11. All principles remain the same as with transformers. Each diode should produce a value between 400mV and 800mV. it is a certain sign that the coil is either poorly connected or the curls are disconnected at some point. high power means low resistance. 7. When the positive end of an electrolithic capacitor is connected to a positive probe of an analog instrument. thin wires (0. In case when there is a need to test high power transistors. 7.4. Transformers and coils Grid transofrmers are tested by measuring the resistance of the copper wire on the primary and secondary coil.8mm will do fine) should be soldered to transistor's pins and then plugged into the instrument. a special plug where low and medium power transistors fit nicely.
4.5. 7. but this is not a good solution since it is weak and short-lived. it is worth mentionig that the capacitors have considerably wider tolerance than resistors. whole diode acts as a low value resistor. speakers would produce loud noise or no sound at all while pot is being turned.
. which goes even to 20%. and values should do what component's name says – vary.6 Speakers. their variable coil has either 4 or 8Ohms in most cases. but their discharge time is very short. or a variable resistor. needle jumps to the lowest value and then gradually comes back towards infinity.) Variable capacitors are tested by connecting an ohm-meter to them. Other Semiconductor Devices To test diodes using this circuit. Of course. Electret microphones don't produce the noise. any other value means that the component is faulty. or a pot. black on cathode). process is rather simple – you connect the component to probes of an ohm-meter and turn the shaft. in the opposite direction. not much of attention is being paid to the value shown on the actual instrument. because by only connecting the probes there should be a short noise heard. which means that speaker sound is higher than usual. sound is lower because in that direction diode acts as a high value resistor. we fall back to the diode theory of operation: when anode is positive comparing to the cathode (red probe on anode.Basic of Electronics negative end to a negative probe. and should be practiced only if there is no replacement for that potentiometer) 7.4. headphones and microphones When testing speakers. so the needle doesn't have the time to move. Testing process is shown on 12. And another source of trouble could be the built-in FET amplifier. because any other value is a certain signal that the plates of the rotor and stator are connected which means that the component doesn't work. and the needle's movement is the charge stored in the component being discharged. This is a proof that the capacitor is ok. this behavior should be linear – jumps and twitches in values mean that the component is not working as supposed to. which simplifies the process to comparing the value on the capacitor to the one on the display. On the other hand. and turning the rotor. With this said.4. There are digital instruments that have the ability to measure capacitance. Same goes for headphones and dynamic microphones. Needle should point infinity at all times. When using an analog instrument on the speakers.7. (Even small capacitance components get charged while testing. If that component was to be used in some audio amplifier. If there is no noise. speaker is broken. (“Noisy” pot can be repaired using a special spray. or oil or even a graphite pencil. 7. Potentiometers To test a potentiometer. and the meter should show those values.4.
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DC transistor acts in the same fashion as two connected diodes (11. In both cases. No Light – No Music). photo transistors and diodes is NL-NM (or. which is shown on 12. As you can see.6. If both diodes are functional. We displayed graphically the method of testing photo sensitive components on 12.
One principle that is applicable when testing the photo resistors. transistor is functional as well as shown on 12.
. and then to the collector. So. We then switch probe connections.4a). or if it “plays” in one of the second two measurements. probe A is connected to the base. and then probe B is connected first to the emitter. if the transistor is ok.7. transistor is faulty if speaker remains silent in the first two measurements.5. FET testing is done in similar fashion as testing the bipolar transistors. “music” would have been heard. everything is in functional order. A goes where B was connected to and vice versa. and the other one is connected to transistor's emitter or diode's cathode or the other resistor's side and some kind of sound should be heard from the speaker. or diode's anode or one side of the photo resistor. Probe A is connected to the collector of the transistor. If this continues when the component is shadowed using your palm. if there is no music now. everything is in order.
. And from the sound frequency one is possible to tell which coil is primary and which is secondary. Base rule is: if component is intended to conduct electricity. transformers. This may be easier and more accurately done using regular ohmmeter on your multimeter. like capacitors. When testing different resistors. or two copper wires on the circuit board which shouldn't be connected.8. like different electro motors. closed switches. speakers. so absence of sound while testing tells of some coil connection failure. If component doesn't conduct electricity. fuses. With transformers with several secondary coils there is a possibility to find beginning and the end of each of them. headphones. but your nerd level will certainly rise sky high if you are able to tell resistor's value from bare sound.Basic of Electronics
7. coils. or open switches. transformers and such conduct electricity. it is apparent that different resistance values give different output sound. Components which have coils in them. Checking other components Many other components may be tested using this instrument. then music would have not been heard. sound will be heard. So with some experience using this instrument on various resistors it will be possible to tell the resistance of the resistor in question from only the generated sound.4. This is the case with resistors.
An exception are electrolithic and block capacitors. especially the larger ones. Tone generated by connecting these capacitors to the instrument will change in level and frequency and fade until completely off when capacitor is discharged.
. which allows for a crude approximation of the component's capacitance.Basic of Electronics Functional capacitor will generate no music. Length of playing depends on the capacitance of the component. where higher values give longer sound time.