Chapter 7: The American Revolution (1776-1786) -The Evolution of the Continental Army -1778: Call for soldiers

throughout the country -Valley Forge: The major starting point  about 11,000 soldiers gathered -Soldiers were in poor condition (No food, no clothes, no shoes) -Nearly 1,000 African American soldiers joined -Some women joined to take care of the soldiers The War for Independence -British troops: Well-supplied, well disciplined, and powerful. -American troops: Some experience from the Continental War, homeland advantage. -The geography of Eastern America made the existence of one vital center impossible. -The Patriots fought on their homeland, with troops spread throughout the nation. The Patriot Forces -More than 100,000 served in the Continental Army (Commanded by Washington) -Citizens wanted to serve in the community of their choices, and commanders of their choices, and avoided disciplines. -Washington wanted a full-scale army to face off the British -Failing military campaigns stimulated the Congress to enlarge state quota and prolong the term -In the backcountry and the South, Patriots and Loyalists engaged in violence -Evolved into powerful force, but shortage of supplies and pay led to mutinies. -Patriots seized control of local government in most communities -Women assumed the management of family business -Many casualties at the Battle of Germantown many women enlisted as men The Loyalists -A fraction of the population: Loyalists (or Tories) -Some enlisted in British army, and some were recent immigrants -New York, Pennsylvania, Georgia -Patriots prohibited speaking and writing against revolution -Patriots punished Loyalists by issuing bills of attainder (later illegalized by US Constitution) -Infamous turncoat: Benedict Arnold -Many fled to Canada

The Campaign for New York and New Jersey -Early July of 1776: British began their operation at New York City -American troops fortified in Brooklyn -Late August: British attack  Many American casualties; Washington’s troop was vulnerable under fire. -Patriots lost at Long Island, and withdrew to Manhattan -September 6, 1776: British tried to negotiate  asked to repeal the Declaration of Independence  Led to another fight -British attacked Manhattan  American position at Harlem Heights prevented large destruction  British navy outflanked. -British overran Fort Washington and Fort Lee -Many soldiers deserted or ended their terms -Christmas night 1776, Washington crossed to Delaware, defeated the Hessian forces in Trenton, NJ. The Northern Campaigns of 1777 -July 6:Burgoyne took Fort Ticonderoga, but later was harassed by Gates, and retreated to Saratoga. -October 19: Burgoyne surrendered -July: Howe’s troops left New York -August: Howe’s troops landed at the northern end of Chesapeake Bay -September 11: British outflanked American defense at Brandywine Creek Washington fell back -British attacked American at Paoli  March towards Philadelphia -September 26: British gained Philadelphia -October 4: Washington tried to counterattack, but failed -Continental Congress continued at York The French Alliance and the Spanish Borderlands -Americans were sustained by French and Spanish loans -France and Spain sought to regain American territories -Benjamin Franklin went to Paris and asked for recognize of America as an independent nation -Comte de Vergennes inclined to support America (still feared Independent America) -In England, the Whigs opposed the war -December 1777: The news of Burgoyne’s surrender  Prime Minister wanted peace talk in Paris with Franklin -Victory at Saratoga and other perspectives made French openly support America -Spain was also supplying Americans in New Orleans -Americans failed to make an alliance with Spain (Spanish were aware of American threat to New Spain) -Spanish pursued independent strategy against Britain -Spring of 1778: Lord North sent a peace commission to repeal all tax acts -June 1778: Clinton’s British army left Philadelphia (feared French entrance)

-June 28: Battle of Monmouth (British defeated American to gain orderly retreat to New York City) -Patriots saw victory imminent -French-American joint attack on British failed at New Port, RI  American defensive war Indian Peoples and the Revolution in the West -Iroquois was the most powerful -America: Iroquois should keep out -Britain: Iroquois should join British side -Iroquois joined Britain  to protect their homeland -British officials called the support of Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws  gave them arms from British arsenal until Spanish took it in 1781 -Resulted in ferocious fighting in backcountry -Mohawk leader Joseph Brant collected the warriors -1777 and 1778, Iroquois and Loyalist forces raided the northern frontiers of New York and Pennsylvania The War in the South -1775: Lord Dunmore declared to free any slaves or indentured servant who would fight for Britain  More than 800 slaves revolted -December 1778: Clinton sent a force from New York against Georgia -October 1779: Clinton evacuated Rhode Island -British marched to Charleston, and forced the surrender of more than 5000 American troops -1781: Patriot used fugitive (guerilla) warfare Yorktown -Stalemate in Northeast -French troop of General Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau landed on Newport, RI. -1781: French joins Washington’s forces -French and Americans surrounded the British encampment -After failing to escape, British forces in Yorktown surrendered. -British public was not against the war The Articles of Confederation -The first written constitution of the United States -Took place in the Continental Congress -November 1777: Articles of Confederation were formally adopted -Created a national assembly (the congress) -National postal system and standard weight and measurement -March: The Articles of Confederation took effect

Financing the War -Congress financed the Revolution through grants and loans from other countries and by issuing paper currency -Congress called on the states to raise taxes -Most states refused, and used their state money -Morris: Persuaded Congress to charter a “Bank of North America” in PA. -Financed the war through the deposit in the bank Negotiating Independence -Peace talk in Paris 1782: Benjamin Franklin vs. British emissary -Recognizing of United States as an independent nation and removal of British forces. -Large territories, and fishing water rights -June 1781: United State negotiations to be supervised by French -Britain acknowledged United States as free, sovereign, and independent nation, and agreed to withdraw its troops, and gave fishing rights -September 3, 1783: Final Treaty of Paris between United States, Great Britain, France, and Spain was signed. The Crisis of Demobilization -British continued to occupy New York City, Charleston, and series of western posts between the surrender at Yorktown and the signing of Treaty of Paris. -Pensions promised to Continental Army officers  feared the loss of power after the war  petitioned for five years of full pay  Congress rejected -Washington occluded military coup, and persuaded the congress to turn the pension to bonus pay -May 1783: Demobilization started -1784: Only a few hundred remained. The Problem of the West -America now pressed for more land -John Jay tried to negotiate, but had to deal with the debt first -1784: Congress agenda on expansion -Land Ordinance of 1785: Provided for the survey and sale of western lands -Divided land into townships to decrease chaos -Northwest Ordinance of 1787: Congress established a system of government for the territory north of the Ohio. -Major achievement of the Colonial Congress The Broadened Base of Politics -More political participation -Mass meetings where people met, spoke, and voted -New England Pamphlet of 1776: The need for one powerful, voted congress -Some conservatives wanted a strong executive and an upper house.

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