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SATURN LAUNCHES

Saturn tions of developed NASA's at

I i s the
under

f i r s t of three generarockets being of the direction The

Saturn-class

Marshall Space F l i g h t Center Alabama. three

Huntsville,

Saturns are the most powerful rockets i n advanced stages of development i n the United States. Saturn I was f i r s t launched October 1961, a t Cape Kennedy, w i t h only the f i r s t stage (5-1) live.

27,

The completely successful f i r i n g was followed by three addit i o n a l successful f l i g h t s testing the clustered engine concept of the f i r s t stage. On the f i f t h f l i g h t t e s t of Saturn

I, made January 29, 1964,

t h e second (S-IV) stage was flown l i v e for the f i r s t time, placing i t s e l f and a payload into orbit for a record-breaking t o t a l tonnage o f 37,700 pounds. Saturn I f l i g h t s w i l l continue through mid-1965. Manned f l i g h t s w i l l not be attempted i n Saturn launches

I, but the f i n a l three

of the 10-vehicle research and development f l i g h t

t e s t program w i l l place i n orbit Meteoroid Technology Satellites. These s a t e l l i t e s are designed to measure and report the meteoroid hazard w i t h which A p o l l o astronauts w i l l be faced. Decisions on the structural design of the parts o f the Saturn/Apol l o Spacecraft which w i l l be exposed i n space w i l l be made from information obtained from these satellites. Most important of the Saturn

missions i s the testing o f

systems and concepts t o be used i n a l l three Saturn rockets. T e s t launchings of the smaller and less costly Saturn

I make

possible fewer research and development launchings of the two larger and more expensive Saturns to be used i n manned space flights. Saturn

I has pioneered the clustered-engine concept,

path-adaptive guidance system, and other systems essential i n development of a heavy duty rocket capability.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Unmanned to will
1I

boilerplate"

Apollo systems

Spacecraft tests spacecraft

be used in manned moon trip. Meteoroid Technology Satellites be housed inside the service

module. Instrument Unit, located between the Apollo model and S-IV stage, contains guidance and control system for the vehicle. BOILERPLATE APOLLO SPACECRAFT

Total Thrust--90,000

pounds.

Propellants--Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen L i f t o f f weight--1 13,500 pounds. Burning Time--About

8 minutes.

Total

Thrust--1.5

million

pounds.

Propel lants--Liquid oxygen/kerosene. L i f t o f f Weight--960,000 pounds.

Burning Time--About 2 1/2 minutes.

Vehicle Stages--Two Total Vehicle L i f t o f f Weight--1.1 million pounds .Note: Dimensions and figures are

approximate and w i l l vary slightly with individual vehicles.

SATURN I ENGINES
Thrust--188,000 pounds. Propel lants--Liquid oxygen/kerosene. Engine i s offspring of Jupiter and Thor engine, selected because o f i t s relative s i m p l i c i t y and proven r e l i a b i l i t y .

H 1
Thrust--15,000 pounds. hydrogen.

Propellants--Liquid oxygen/liquid

Same engine as used i n the Centaur.

R L-1 0

Pioneer

engine

using

hydrogen

as

fuel.

ENGINE TESTING
Engines are tested individually and w h i l e clustered i n their respective stages before reaching the launch pad. Extensive testing a t the Marshall Center and at sites insures vehicle relicontractor

.- -

a b i l i t y on the launch pad.

MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER


Home of the Saturn i s the Marshall Space F l i g h t Center at Huntsville, ities, Alabama. I t i s directed by Dr. Wernher von i s the nation's most complete Braun. Because of i t s unique laboratories and testing facilthe Marshall Center establishment for the development of large rockets. Numerous contractors Saturn i n private industry throughout the nation made development, and testing of major contributions to design,

components, engines and stages.

Public Information O f f i c e , Marshall S p a c e Flight C e n t e r , 1964