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11 WELLINGTON ST. .. p.Ixlhx ^ €a'B (!Ebucafianal Merits. BY C. 1879. MASON. B. SO cents. TOEONTO: ADAM MILLEE & CO.A„ FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. .) PRICE. Re2}rintcd from Mason^s Shorter Enijlinh Grarmnar... WEST. LONDONo SECOND EDITION. {Public School Edition.

in the year 1679. in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. ..Bntered according to Act of Parliament of Canada. hy Adah Milleb & Co.

enable him to Nothing is more useless and even hurtful than of mechanical directions to to furnish the learner with tell any kind the Parts of Speech. learner is The taken by easy stages from the simplest English work to the most difl&cult constructions in the language. an adverb or a preposition by recognizing its meaning and function in the sentence. The The present to work is a reprint in a separate form of the Exercises appended Grammar." work have been retained to prevent the cost of preparing new plates. and of their forms and combinations. and there are some good works of that kind which have either a scanty apparatus of exercises or none references to the paragraphs of that at all. of what possible iise can it be for him to give it a name by the application of some empirical rule relating to its position. or something of the sort this fashion % When in he has managed to say that "now" is an adverb. Beginning with the simplest elements of a sentence. and acquires by degrees the power of analysing and parsing the most complicated constructions. my recently published " Shorter Englisli Every effort has been made to render these exercises as serviceable as possible to those who wish to guide their pupils to a real understanding of the structure of English sentences.PREFACE. li the use of these exercises I strenuously urge tlie upon teachers patient and unflinching compliance with directions given for guiding the pupil to a thorough understanding of the fimctions o words and forms. If he cannot tell that a word is a verb. or . he learns step by step the functions of the various Parts of Speech. and the exercises themselves are so arranged that they may be nsed with any good text-book of English Grammar.

Streatham Hill. Janucury. really "against" a preposition. A tolerably long and Avide experience justifies sloiv me in afihming most strongly that examinations. P. for He is simply using wonis without a perception of their is meaning. but) impatience have been wasted in going over and over again the same unintelligent repetition. while his knowledge this delusion is itself a bar to his acquisition of the only kind of knowledge which could be of is any use to him. 1879. knows no more than he did than this. €hristchuech Koad. and dreary and repulsive to the pupil. C. and they had better devote such intellect as they have to simpler pursuits. MASON. show how deplorably time and round of mechanical and (not patience. If the pupil till too is young older .IV . of far too I'he bane much of our ordinary school work is the ignorant impatience of teachers to get their pupils "over the ground. into Nay. and careful teaching pays best even at The specimens of parsing and analysis that I see yearly in hundreds of instances. Avorse he is deluded fancied the idea that is knows and something. ." that is to say. he before. through a certain number of pages of some text-b. Dlikesell. the matter he a mere sham. wait he he is too dull. talvC him patiently over the ground again and again till the difficulties stupidity will have vanished. to master the proper if explanation readily. No dull matter what the suliject may be. Xone but learners of abnormal hold out against this kind of treatment. ok. profitless It is this that renders school "lessons" wearisome to the teacher. learners never find a lesson when they feel that they are really learning something. PREFACE.

). 5. 4. Find out some uncouth cell Where brooding darkness spreads his jealous wings. S. Say (or write) ten common of the following things 2.EXERCISES. Say I. : Common Nouns and Exercise 1. The traveller ascended Helvellyn. (or write) ten proper girls. names of each I. — Definition of a Noun. of Number. called Pegasus. Houses or parks. Rivers or mountains. March is a cold month. My uncle is the captain of the 'Bellerophon. Things to eat. Boys or Towns. in Exercise 2. or to play with. 7. &c. I like May soldiers had a weary march. nouns which are names of 3. 31-37). He sailed round Cape Horn swallows are birds. 4. The Fido. and the Proper Nouns in another John likes school. 5) II. Trees and flowers. She brought me a bunch of may. me of" (See 349. Things that you see in the room. Of Cerberus and blackest midnight bom.' We "O Solitude! where are thy charms?" " Hence. 6.' Lie down. Ships. 177 EXERCISES. My brother has a horse called Dobbin. N . — Definition Modes of form- mg the plural (§§ 47. The boys were : Bellerophon rode a winged horse reading about the battle of Agincourt. Dogs or horses. in the 'Petrel. Petrels and eclipse of the sun. nouns which are the Animals. Preliminary Lesson. That cow has lost a horn. The horse that won the race was Eclipse. loathed Melancholy. 3. saw an King Arthur's sword was called Excalibur. to wear. 2. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns (§§ Proper Nouns. Write the Common Nouns in the following sentences one list.). Singular and Plural. Distinction between Preliminary Lesson. I." "You may avoid that too with an He wants to know the why ifs?" § " Tellest thou 'if'" (Shaksp. Some stuff or material. better than June. and the wherefore of everything. Countries.

Bees. Waves. Mr. The Lords and Commons. because in the sentence. Victory.* fly. The barristers and : solicitors. note). but about that/or which the word stands. Negro. III. Death. and the verb us something. Mice. Wife.shine. Bruises. The first chapter. Exercise 4. Enemy. The Prince of Wales.178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The office of sheriff. The Lord Mayor. The princes and dukes. Write the plural of each of the followhig nouns Chimney. A court of justice. The evangelist Matthew. Staves. Preliminary Lesson. (§§ Agreement of the verb with its subject 179. Birds . John works. Down came the rain. Horses neigh. It is in the noininative case. Scarf. Cargo. through grace. Trespasses. Duty. '' Boys play. Grass. Exercise Boot. &c. Our I The Book of Common Prayer. Ass. Flies. what they do Thus. tells . • Not about the subject. . Loaf.Snow falls. Stuff. Point out thd subject and the verb in each of the following sentences. B. The Solicitor-General. Valley. not about a word. The life of Dr. . Pies. St. Dray. — Use of capital letters (§ 6. Lice. Preliminary Lesson. Thus ends the tale. Verbs. where is thy common supplications. Then cometh the end." 'Boys' is the subject. Up went the rocket. : Echo. Beware of confusion about this. that is. The House of Commons. A We sting ? IV. Cries. The Duke of Bedford. An object in the student of the Middle Temple. Copy out the following examples two or three times and then write them from dictation The mayors of provincial towns. have a good hope William the Conqueror. Oxen. James The prescription of the doctor. John the Evangelist. Lies. Predicate. Feet. Subject. because the subject of a sentence is only a word. — Definition of Verb. Capital Letters. Noses. Justice.. Play' is a verb it tells us something ' . The Lord Chief speak of lords and commoners. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. it stands for that about which we tell something by means of the verb. Trees. Buoy. Write the singular of each of the following nouns Arches. middle distance. Sky. Convoy. 3. and explain their functions. the First. Leaf. The recorder of these events. The death of th^ emperqr. Thrush. Cats scratch. : Sheaf. Johnson. Exercise 5.Soldiers fight. The Cape of Good Hope. Halves Kine. about boys. The house of mourning. Nooses. 374). Sentence. Stars Geese cackle. Calf. In came William. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight. Speech. Children. The clemency of the conqueror. The Recorder of Carlisle. A. Here comes papa. Pence. Sentences. Use of the Nominative Case. Sheriff Johnson. Osprey.

Graze. Blow. Goats' milk is wholesome. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. 6. Cows.Intransitive Verbs. The wind. Sings Howl. Put a subject of the proper number before each of the following verbs : Shine. .). (§§ 182. Scratch. 'J'he baker's bread was spoih. Stars. The sun. Day. Sinks. Pray. The masters heard the boys' The boys tore the master's book. The boy pulled the kitten's tail. Shriek. Parsons.EXERCISES. Cry. Dawn. Put some verb or other with each of the following nouns. 179 Exercise Grass. Sink. Works. child. Exercise 6b. The keeper caught the vixen's cubs. The following Sail. Water. &C. Ships. Draw one line under those nouns in the following sentences which are in the nominative case plural two lines under those which are in the possessive case singular and three lines under those which are in the possessive case plural and show in each instance to what other noun the noun in the possessive case is attached. Tom's horse's leg was broken John's day's work is nearly finished. Prelinmtary Lesson. Mice. The John. Chatter. Mary. Grow. are verbs of which you can make use : Fight. Glitters. J^reiimi7iary Lesson. Sing. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever. Howl. The Owls. Fall. The Possessive Case. Horses. Rain. Preach. Squeal. Scratches. Twinkle. children's A We VI. Plays. The bird's leg was broken. Dogs. ." II 22 Men's lives are short. Soldiers. John's hands are dirty. Break. The bird. The birds have built nests in the farmer s bam. Hens' eggs are white. Squeak. The Object The Objective Case . Run. Puss. lessons. 183). Float. lap. (§^ 67. cheese was made from the goat s milk. The leaves. Run. — Formation and use of the Possessive Case . Work. The voices are loud. Appear. Shine. Paul's this morning. Speaks. Lions. Boys. as " I found Henry's book and William's slate. Play. went to St. The boy taxed the masters' The men heard of their wives' danger. Trees. I bought this paper at the stationer's. so as to make a sentence : candle. — Distinction between Transitive Verbs and of a Verb. Roar. Dances. Flies. Swim. V. The kittens are in Mary's patience. The bakers' shops were shut. The horses ate the oxen's food. The farmers' barns are full of corn. Growl. Sing. Kick. This may be done by placing the same numeral over each. Arrive. He lodges at the baker's.

screamed. and explain the use of " the Object as follows John struck the ball' The word ball is the object of the verb. The boys play in the garden. Mary died. because it stands for that which is the object of the action denoted by the verb. boys learn lessons. Exercise line Write out the following sentences. In the following examples put in an object where it wanted to show what the action denoted by the verb is done to The boy hates. intransitively. The butcher killed the pig. The sun is ": shines. I. two lines under those that are used intransitively. Make a dozen sentences containing a subject. The girls dance. as " I always wash [myself] with " The visitors withdrew [themselves] " cold water " Exercise line . as intransitive verbs . The hound chased the hare. and three under those that are used reflectively. The boys waste time. The man sank his fortune in the undertaldng. and an object. a transitive verb. as reflective verbs 183). The dog bit. the horse. The lightning struck. The man broke his leg. and two lines under the intransitive : verbs Men eat bread. The man desires. and draw one under the verbs that are used transitively. Bakers make bread.I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The man spoke The man spoke well. travellers started yesterday. and a dozen containing a subject and an intransitive verb. The dog howled. and reflectively. Men pray. The dog barked. The hunter started a hare. Mary wrote. Write out the following sentences. . A lion deThe horse kicked the groom. Sheep eat grass. Exercise 7. Exercise 10. 3. The pig squealed. as in Exercise 5. The boy struck his brother. 11. Verbs used transitively. Birds build. The voured a sheep. Bii'ds twitter. A verb should be treated as a transitive verb used reflectively whenever a reflective pronoun can be supplied as an object so as to make the sense more complete. The ship sank. Cats mew. Preliminary Lesson. The child Exercise 9. The The boys play in the yard. The horse neighs. The sun warms. : The the French. The girl plays piano. VII. the use of the Subject." : — ' groom kicked John touched Henry. Cats eat mice. Rain fell. and draw one 8. The parson preaches. The horse carries. —Verbs used {with a difference of meaning) . as transitive verbs (§ 2. under the transitive verbs. Clouds covered. In the following sentences point out which nouns are In each case explain subjects of verbs and which are objects of verbs. The sheep graze.

VIII. Task. cut his finger. Prelimhiary Lesson. T\\q furrows are not straight. Work. He turned the snake twists and turns about. The thief tried the lock. Fly.EXERCISES. 218. as verbs. He has not shaved this morning. Beat. delighted the audience. Owls hoot. She decks herself with ornaments. The barber shaved me yesterday. He made off as fast as The The The man he could. Dig. The singer transitively Find a dozen other verbs that may be used both and six that may be used reflectively without being followed by a reflective pronoun. Forms and use of the Personal Pronouns. His safe return rejoiced us all. Eye. He slipped a shilling into my hand. The merchant returned the goods. Steam comes out of the kettle. Get your umbrella. The children drink milk. to illustrate their use. He 12. in such sentences as Iron is heavy and The women iron ' * — the shirts. The boy tried The traveller returned yesterday. The Personal Pronotins. The maid fnilks the cow. Cover. or a verb (because it tells you what some person or thing does) : took a pinch of j«2{^ John snjiffs the candle. The town surrendered. He ornat>ients the table with plate. He gave up the game. He We Exercise used : — i. Shoe. &c. Take the words in italics in the following sentences. Pocket. out of the room. Name. and say in each case whether the word is a noun (because it is the name of something). He made a noise. PinCh. 227). squared accounts. The governor sunendered the town. Get out of my way. old man slipped on the ice. The cook steams the meat. Take this chair. He cut away pretty quickly. The passengers crowd the deck. Seat.' Exercise 13. Personal Preliminary Lesson. Get up. and make sentences Exercise and intransitively. inflexions of verbs (§§ 131. and of the Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. Exercise Find twenty more words which may be used either as nouns or as verbs. I withdrew my claim. l8t hard. The laundress irons the shirts. The earth turns round. IX. Hook. The irons are hot. A crowd filled the square. 2. audience hooted the speaker. Gneifurrcmis the brow. He has twisted his ankle. 14. The judge tried the prisoner. You had better give in. Words used both as Nouns and ' as Verbs. Take yourself off. The deputation withdrew. I delight to hear him. We all rejoiced at his success. Get thee gone.. 15. Form. Make sentences in which the following words are as nouns . ^^^lip. — . Study the meaning and use of the word iron. Pen.

foes. Preliminary Lesson. dog's master beat the dog with a stick When the boys have finished the boys' because the dog bit the master's leg. Thomas's brother arrived ? John's pony is lame. I We . and which in thsir turn resemble what appeared previously in the author's ' First Notions of Grammar. Con- cord of Verb and Subject 218. Did I hurt you? You have spoilt my book. X. Arm you against your other Bethink you of some expedient. admire him because he is brave. and state what nouns the pronouns stand for : where John John's mother has sent John to school. I saw your father yesterday. Substitute pronouns for nouns wherever they are proper in the following sentences. The their ball. the boys will go out to play.l82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. will learn to read. The boys have lost The horse ran away with his rider. Exercise 17. The boy has hurt her. the garden. XI. Did I not tell thee so? mother. and explain their use in the same way as that of the nouns in Exercises 5 and 7. Exercise 16. You have hurt me. The master praised the boy because he was attentive. — Difference between the Direct Object and . They will love you if you are good. He has torn her church.) Exercise 18. We took them home. I will I will lay me down. I will arm me. My sister will call upon your Your brother has sent for me. the Indirect Object of a verb (§§ 74 370. Preliminary Lesscni. it is John's I found it in Get thee gone. 374. and which are objects. Draw one line under those nouns and pronouns in ' These exercises are very like some that have recently appeared elsewhere. and the proper names for the pronouns : Has John's father has come home John saw Thomas in the garden. John will lend Thomas John's knife. Point out which pronouns in the following sentences are subjects of verbs. You will meet us there. 227.* Suppose John is speaking to Thomas. Will Thomas give John Thomas's stick. Look at this book. John has had John's dinner. Direct Object and Indirect Object. Mary has lost Mary's thimble. substitute the proper pronouns for their names in the following sentences. I often see her at shall see you to-morrow.' . 4). the girl When was old enough. Exercise 19. Parents love their children. lessons. bethink me. Thy friends are here. her mother sent her to school. — Inflexions of verbs (§§ to mark Person. Pronouns as Subjects and Objects of Verbs. They left us yesterday. frock.

our losses. Freliininary Lesson. took good care. XII. He bleeds to death. Find a dozen verbs which may have objects of each and make sentences to illustrate their use. Shall we go and kill us venison ? We will buy you a watch. They met us in the street and gave us some apples. She strikes her brother. We make us comforts of This will last you all the year. Money has been taken . Conjugation of Verbs. Will you lend me a shilling? I gave him a book. A. Change the verbs in the following sentences into each of the other tenses of the Indicative Mood. I fetched a box on the ears. He gives me an apple. Parts of which the 257). He him a wife. He We We We B. The dog was barking. I will get me a new coat. Change the verbs in each of the other tenses successively of the Indicative Passive Voice naming the tenses as you do so : the following sentences into Mood in the A. tive —Formation of (§§ all the tenses in the Indica- Mood of the Active Voice. Mary fetched the beer. stood in the street. He dealt the cards. He breaks his word. 183 the following sentences which are direct objects of verbs. be struck. him Hand that lady to her seat. We XIII. We will disguise us. : draw water. and two lines under those which are indirect objects : John gave Thomas a kick. The letter will The wine was drunk. Exercise 22. Strong Verbs. Tense Forms of the Passive Voice. The sun shines. I hold the reins. Strong Verbs. Prelhninary Lesson. He seethes the flesh. into bed. Send me to him. kind. The soldiers fight bravely. They ate some bread. dealt me a hard blow. He drinks some ale. She spills the water. successively naming the tenses as you do so . He was A stone was thrown. Pour your neighbour out a The policeman took the man to prison. It lay on the ground. Indicative — Formation of the various tenses of the (§ Mood of the Passive Voice 187 . compound tenses are made up 204-209. Tiie servant sweeps the met our friend at his house.EXERCISES. The cock crew. Wt'ak Verbs. You sold your horse. Exercise 21. throws a stone. He slew his foe. Let every soldier hew him down a bough. slain. He tells a lie. Hand He got took the poor man a loaf. Pass me the salt. We shall be written. 257). Exercise 20. I read many books. Tense Forms of the Active Voice. Active Voice. The man knelt down. spent their money. . You see the house. The kind woman glass of beer. We crept They room. that lady the bread* Send me a letter.

had been sold by the butchers. are drinking the beer. 'l"he men The men will be carrying the hay will have finished the work before night. are caught by cats. and then alter them as in the last exercise. Too much was expected by them. are spoken. The John broke the window. A vcr]) in the Passive Voice has no direct object. and draw one under those verbs which are in the active voice.184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. verb in the active voice. Weak Verbs. The men We We the room. The door was opened by nurse. Write out the following sentences. This have received a lette. The servant had swept to-morrow." put " The cat was bitten by the dog " letter " put " letter is being written by me " : A : will please you. The object qf an action need not be expressed by the grammatical object of a verb.-. and two lines under those which are in the passive voice (§§ 187. A new house will be built by my brother. however. Change all the following sentences so as to use active verbs instead of passive verbs in the same tense : The sparrow was caught by the boy. cat killed the rat. The archers are shooting arrows. — the Passive Voice instead of the Active. Exercise 28. . 205) Exercise 27. the object of in the Active tlie verb Voice becomes the subject of the Verb in the Passive* (§ 186). Thus for " The dog bit the for " I am writing a cat. We were overtaken by a storm. line : Arrows are shot by the archers. to be a Transitive Verb. Make in the passive voice. tive. Mice me. XIV. Exercise 25. sheep will be shorn. The B. The children had been scolded by the The wine had been drunk by the butler. Make a dozen sentences containing a transitive Exercise 24. All ordinary passive verbs are transiIt docs not cease. He is • Beware of the mistake of saying that the subject of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the object of the verb in the Passive Voice. The boys have eaten the cake. They had not counted the cost. Mutual Relation of the Active and Passive Voices* When an action is described by means of Prelimina?y Lesson. Kind words is out of the till. The sparrow will be built. The wine was spilt. Goods have bee« stolen. Exercise 23. Meat children are scolded by the nurse. That surprises me. Change all the following sentences so as to use passive verbs instead of active verbs. were gathering nuts in the wood. The letter was written by us. and then a dozen sentences containing a transitive verb alter them as in the last exercise. The The caught. report The house is spread.

sheep. Napoleon. Mistress. Sir. Caterer. author. nursemaid. dog. boy. sister. Giant. Ten nouns of ambiguous or common gender. cart. Give the feminine nounS that correspond to the masculine nouns. cock. ling all day. gartiener has vain. The money will have been spent in We are losing time. Ten masculine common nouns. " John's brother has found a shilling. Drake. Author. 2. Cow. — house. lass. John. Earl. 5. Parsing. hen. The men are drinking beer. Sister. I shall be travelling all night.— 'Ssigm^ca. queen. 185 the money. tiger. non. Exercise 29. sovereign. aunt. lioness. London. ox. fox. Ten masculine proper nouns.EXERCISES. nephew. boar. Girl. Daughter. Empress. Lass. led across the river. He is gone.'" Jolm's is a Proper Noun of the Masculine Gender [because it . Maria. 6. France. the kind of work 4. Bull. Votsfry. bird. ship. goose. uncle. that part of speech that is. that does in the sentence the accidence of the word the construction of the word in the sentence. WitcTi. The AgamemThe jNJaria. The troops were being The officer was leading the troops across the river. ruler. running. Bachelor. Preliminary Lesson. —To parse a word you must is. Duchess. Hind. form. box. speaker. Buck. slate. Governess. Ten feminine common nouns.'don and formation of Genders 39^6). man. State the gender of each of the following nouns girl. state i. 4. XV. judge. elephant. Mirrderess. it and to what subdivision of what the function of the word 3. and the masculine nouns that correspond to the feminine nouns in the following list : — Nun. mother. servant. The been mowing the lawn. to what it belongs . Gender (§§ of Nouns. rreliiuinary Lessoji. Time is being wasted. William. footman. vixen. lord. 7. tree. king. Examples of Parsing. Ten neuter common nouns. pig. Nephew. Lady. He is spending all The town was taken by assault. lady. Thames. Ten feminine proper nouns. desk. 2. Aunt. baby. We were travelbe blamed for this. Write down i. pen. The wine was being drunk. maid. Actor. Robert. . Boar. The Victory. Ram. I shall The men are come. gander. cousin. Exercise 30. infant. horse. Ten neuter proper nouns. Hart. brother. part of speech. 3. Jane. : Exercise 28. XVI. Doe.

Mood. and may denote any other of the same class]. [It is a verb because it tells us something about John's brother. and it is transitive because it denotes an action which is done to some object. Present Perfect Tense. pleased). because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject he. found). and is in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive verb has found [that is. ' Has found (find. Future Indefinite Tense. t . It is in the Singular Number. is a Transitive Verb of the Strong Conjugation found.' It has shilling for its object. . Indicative (please.' • When pupils have gained some readiness in parsing. pleased. ' ' ' Shilling of the Neuter Gender [because it is the name of something which is not a living being. It is in the Singular Number. the name ' ' Brother it is a Common Noun of the Masculine Gender [because denotes a male person.' ' ' Me a Personal Pronoun of the First Person and of Comment Gender. or her]. namely brother ']. Number. ^He will please .l86 is . because it stands for that to which the action denoted by the verb is is a Common Noun ' ' directed]. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and in the Possessive Case the attributive relation to) the noun brother [because it denotes that John possesses something. Indicative Mood. of a in the Singular depending on (or in It is ' ' ' male person and is that person's own name*]. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. and when parsing is written. and is in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb has found' [that is. of the Weak Conjugation It is in the Active Voice. and may be used for any other thing of the same class]. '\i the context shows whether the speaker is a male or a female person.] It is in the Active Voice. such explanations as those in brackets may be omitted .«<?. but in oral work. [It stands for the speaker without naming him. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject brother. and in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive active verb is ' will please.'' He is a Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person and Masculine Gender [because it stands for a male person who is neither the speaker nor the person spoken to] in the Singular Number and in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb will please [that is. It is in the Singular Number. and for beginners they arc of the utmost importance. ' ' ' Will please which is is a transitive verb [because it denotes an action directed to an object].Substitute Masculine or Feminine.

" njend is a Transitive Verb [because it denotes an action which is done to something]. 20. if the singular Thou is expressed or understood. You have lost the sight. Hand mej Henr}-'s father will give her j a new book. Exercise 32. and pronouns following sentences. * See last note. the bread. The hunters were chasing hares. Israel. The cat has scratched her. i.' ' ' ' . and 22. Imperative Mood. Preliminary Lesson. She had been bitten by the dog. It is in the Singular Number. ' ' because xi).' * In parsing this word state that it is in the objective case. They called her back. He was running away. Read the letter. Tell me 1 the news. John. Carefully guard beginners against the common. and in the Singular Number and First Person to agree with its subject I. . ' — Nature and ' use|| of a Qualitative Adjec- * You is always a ^m»«w«rt//ca/ plural.se. wards. and verbs in Exercises XVII.' . Plural Numbert and Second Person. Parse all the verbs. Parse the nouns.s usually understood is the plural you. news. 19. The masons are building a hou. § Get thee behind me.Vouns are names. You will be overtaken by the sterni. and not its name. but ob\'ious blunder. it is the Indirect Object of the verb Lend {See Seclion Exercise 31. We have heard the news." but a thing marking word. The hare The house was pulled down.' ' ' " Lend ' me a shilling. The soon have finished the work. Adjectives of Quality. even when it refers to o«? person." is a Personal Pronoun of the First Person of common* (or ambiguous) gender. Many new houses have been built. the verb is singular but the subject which i. in the Passive Voice. ' ' ' • Me ' is in the Objective Case. Future Indefinite Tense. Go thou and do likewise. I ' ' ' ' Shall be seen is a Transitiv^e Verb [because it denotes an action that is directed to an object].' It is the a«w«a/ that is black. The men saw Henry's cousin yesterday. Indicative Alood. to agree with its subject you understood. In 'a black dog' the adjective black does not mark any quality belonging to the name dog..EXERCISES. An adjective is not a ' noun-marking word.§ hand mej the bread. Of course. Hear ye. frock will be mended. pronouns. " 187 I shall ' be seen. stands for the person about whom something is said by means of the verb]. I lent the iiianj a pound. of saying that 'adjectives denote the qualities 0/ nouns. nouns. Mary's frock was torn by the dog.) § Parse this word as a Vocative or Nominative of address. except those in italics : in the The hunters caught a hare. girl's We will 19. and is hi the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb shall be seen [that is. because it is the indirect object of the verb (See Section xi Ex.e. II ' ' ' . John's sister has told me+ the was being chased. She gave me+ a shilling. in the Active Voice.

The girls are ready. Much money men can resist waited several hours in the cold room. Demonstrative Adjectives Preliminary Lesson. Write out the following sentences. joined attributively to the noun 'bonnets. " / will ^ive you sofue jnoney. He wore a great. It tells us (indefinitely) how much money we are speaking about. Dogs are faithful. Dogs are faithful Sinful The poor little bird is dead. " It tells * ' Exercise 34. ' : XVIII. pleasures are often alluring. .1t * great' and 'small' are Adjectives of Quality. and two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. and draw one line under the Adjectives of Quality. Tom's horse is are white. They do not tell ns lunu th. ' ' ' ' both hands. Idle boys hate lessons. . of Quantity.' Pick out the Adjectives of Quality in the following sentences.l88 . The bird's feathers Ripe fruit is wholesome. — Nature and use of Demonstrative Adjec- Different sorts of Demonstrative Adjectives (§ 95). Adjective of Quality. travelled all night. and treat each of them in the same way as ' smart in the above examples He rides a black horse.'" Here ' smart is an Adjective of ' ' Quality joined predicatively to the noun ' bonnets. black horse. He is a vulgar little boy. The naughty. My little brother is ill. — Nature and use of Adjectives of Quantity.iking about. Great* riches bring much care. Preliminary Lesson. We Many men ? love vicious pleasures. He is a ready speaker. We I have no money. woollen cloak. Rude boys are disagreeable. Many men possess great riches. and is therefore sometimes an Adjective of Quality. tive (or Adjective of Quality) Attributive and predicative use of Adjectives (§§ 80-84 \ 90)' ' ' Smart is an Exercise 33. XIX. John bought twelve pears. " The girls wore smart botmetsP It is It shows of what sort the ' bonnets are. but they describe its size. Adjectives of Quantity. The naughty children ate some apples. brown. bony. He rode a girl has large black eyes. The bird has white feathers. The poor woman has I have little t hope of many troubles." 'Twelve is an Adjective us how many pears we are speaking about. ' or Quantitative Adjectives {§§ 91-94). strong. • Mind much of a or Adjectives of Relation. and treat each of the latter in the same way as twelve and some in the above sentences. thing we are spe. The The cat caught a great black rat. Thin ice is dangerous. Hold out success. brings much care." Some is an Adjective of Quantity. Have you any money ? Will you have some bread Few strong temptation. Examples. heavy. animals. tives. + 'Little' is used for both purposes.' " The girls' bonnets are smart. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and sometimes an Adjective of Quantity. greedy little boy ate twenty pears.

Every device has Either alternative is disagreeable. bearing in mind that several adjectives belong (with a slight difference of meaning) sometimes to one class. without reference to quality or quantity. These sheep are last Look at the Bring me my new boots. My apple is ripe. that Interrogative Pronominal Adjectives (or Interrogative Adjective Pronouns) J belong to the class of Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives) . been tried. Any* fool might see that. and three lines under the Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives). It points out a certain knife." 'That' It is a Demonstrative Adjective. It qualifies points out a certain book without describing it. He has but little discretion. this relates to guatttity. or qualifies. I have but one brother.) Look carefully at the definitions. This She word. He spent half a day with me. or Adjective of Relation. • t of Adjectives. Some * thief has stolen my watch. the noun book. We arrived on the second day. Write out the following sentences. —Study §§ 1 05-1 16. I went to see him one day lately. Each child received a penny." I I 2 3 2 3 Give me that large book. Some people like this loud music. bell. It qualifies (or is joined is attributively to) the noun ' knife. She was my first lore. thus : " We 4 4 heard of the poor old man's sudden death.' Exercise 35.EXERCISES. " Give 189 me that book. Comparison Preliminary Lesson.]! news have you heard? What X nonsense he talks have the A A ! XX. sometimes to another. Second thoughts are best. (See §§ 92. He has a large head and little eyes. An enemy hath done this. There was no other way left.' ' " He ' lent me ' his knife. We had some + beef for dinner. You will know better one day. and draw one line under the Adjectives of (2ualit\'. Which J wine do you prefer? What. 166. Indicate what noun feach adjective belongs to. second line in this page. two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. That last song was capital. little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. boy will is idle. She is my first cousin. little child might lead him. Neither version of the story is correct. Here Here Mind this word word is a demonstrative pronominal adjective (or indefinite adjective pro- noun). His first attempt was a failure. No other course is possible. Those little boys are my cousins. Any man could tell you that. John is his half brother. We walk every other day. Ring the fat." His a Possessive Pronominal Adjective or Possessive Adjective Pronoun. by putting the same numeral over both the adjective and the noun. Have you any + money? I have not the least appetite. 169.

and is virtues.' (Rich. blithe. XXI.' [' These 'points to the men." These in the Plural Number. wealthier. brightest. mightiest. gentler. monstrous. high. Parsing of Adjectives. rudest. lovely.] virtues. gay. handsome. fresh. splendid.] It is in the Positive Degree. merry. handsomest. but does not describe or enumerate them. slower.' to limit the application of a noun. idle. richer. joined predicatively to the noun men. virtues (§§ 89. winsome.* [li points (or Pronominal) Adjective. or their substitutes Large. § 85. worst. Preliminary adjective it is. happy.) describes the quality of a noun. all three degrees of the following adjectives sweetest. gentlest. : rudest. in the Comparative Degree. [It denotes how much esteem is spoken of.' it does not in the least alter the meaning of the noun.' attached attributively to {or qualifies) the : An Adjective of Quantity.] : —A — Demonstrative Adjective Richer ' : An Adjective of Quality [it describes certain men]. big. joined attributively to the noun ' men. — sort of in what degree of comparison its it is. sad. This expression is legitimate only if the to qualify a noun' means 'to denote some quality of that for which the noun standi. quarrelsome.' It is joined* attributively to {or qualifies) the noun ' : — Numerous Much. " His numerous His A Demonstrative : won much esteem . sprightlier. this mistake must be carefully ' guarded against. last.tgo ENGLISH GRAMMAR. slenderest. hearty. steeper. tame. wittier. better.) Those : —A qualifying the Demonstrative Adjective in the Plural Number. Write down Prettier. out certain virtues. of the following adjectives. —An Adjective noun ' of Quality in the Positive Degree. richest. more.] virtues. crudest. noun jnen understood (see § 96). tenderer. ' • phrase ' or As generally used. healthy. rich. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees : Exercise 38.) ' — " These men are richer than those. fierce. great. beautiful. nastiest. state Examples. holy. attached attributively to the noun most. &c. mad. clever.' (Much. it is attached either attributively or predicatively three degrees of comparison. cold. Lastly.. justest. finest. dull. common. more. full. and to what noun 84). bright. thereforo. near. but does not describe or enumerate them. tidiest. To parse an adjective state what Lessen. red. rich. gentle. duller. . It is [It describes the virtues spoken of. ' An (See it If the smacks strongly of the blunder of saying that an adjective term is used.' adjective is often said to ' qualify a noun.

T/ies(' are my children. He bought the handsomest lady's dress in the shop. One ' is an Indefinite Substantive Pronoun. Each boy shall have a great piece of cake. Few men are his superiors. or refer to its quantity.] It is joined attributively to the Exercise 37. Give me the other hand. the adjective itself must be regarded as a substantive (§ 98J. When ihis and that are not attached to a noun expressed or understood. I went to see him one day lately. Have you any other sisters ? Of these wines I prefer the red to the white. and in the Nominative or Objective case (§ 145). The wisest men are sometimes mistaken. B. 7Vta( is the least atonement he can make. Parse all the adjectives (including the articles) in Those in italics qualify a noun which is the following sentences. His few remaining acres were sold. Attend carefully to those examples where there is a noun in the possessive case. which will you have? That is the ripest pear. I will not have atty. My younger sister is ill. The tall corporal's hat was knocked off. I have had a whole day's anxiety. Will that little boy have anymore fruit? Give me the other volume. but does not describe it. The schools are well managed. * An adjective may be attached to a pronoun as well ' as to a noun. Your elder brother lost some money yesterday. which is here qualified by the demont strative adjective the X An article always belongs to some noun expressed or understood. That little girl has no milk. Will you have hot or cold milk? Which boy is the cleverest? Here is bread. 97). of the Neuter Gender. He fitted a Chubb's patent lock to his desk. My youngest brother has gained the second prize in his class. The little girls' frocks were torn. He is quite a ladies' man. ' ' ' ' . understood. She wore a large man's hat on her head. You will know some day or oi/ier. will you have some? No. He cropped the black horse's tail. A dense cloud hid the sun. Here are two books. Some persons are too hasty. A. The girls' lessons are too long. Supply the noun when necessary. girls' Exercise 38. The poor suffer more than the rich. Which of these books is yours? Where are the others ?+ John is //4if cleverest % in the class.' ' " or Interrogative Adjective Pronoun.EXERCISES. and see which nouns the adjectives qualify (§§ 96. Ripe apples are nicer than sour * ones. He took a three days' journey. I have done a good day's work. Others (in the plural) is a Substantive Pronoun. She is the prettiest of all my cousins. they must be parsed as Demonstrative Pronouns (not as Demonstrative Adjectives). When no noun can be conveniently supplied with the adjective. He keeps a large boys' school. Few and brief were the prayers we said. \_ltpomfs interrogatively /^ a certain hand. He has gained many more prizes than his elder brother. The large linen-draper's shop at the comer is on fire. ' 191 Which hcmd will you have ? Which :— A Demonstrative Adjective noun hand. He teaches at the large boys' school. Give me some more meat. The elder boys' behaviour was excellent. Every * one was quiet. Some careless person has upset the ink.

Exercise 39. brief. I can never believe that. It is of no use trying to help him. often stands for an infinitive mood. but this I would not allow. large. italics in the fullovving Parse the words in sentences : That was a great disappointment to us. jealous. if it be not He said that the matter was self-evident. blue. just. good. man. infant. XXII. It is impossible to tell It grieved him to lose so much money. B. He does not frighten me by that. jovial. to surrender . child. popular. and your father that will amuse him. give it. infirm.' ' that. soft. I This is the very coinage of your brain. able. leader. Abstract Nouns. Give the abstract nouns derived from the following nouns Friend. magistrate. silent. To comply with your request is difficult. 329)- Exercise 40. temperate. wide. believe it. meek. wicked. simple. a gerund. for the gerund ' It or infinitive that denotes such an act or fact in an abstract form. I think it very strange that he It is very likely that he will come to-morrow. martyr. Read these letters to His father threatened to disinherit him. zz. mayor. colonel. is I Our duty to my claim. ' This and that are sometimes employed in a for a 2.192 . king. useful. humble. ' this. you will suffer for it. but I could obey the dictates of conscience. that man. white. durable. poor. — Nature and formation of Abstract Nouns 314. hold my tongue about the matter. Preliminary Lesson. distant. I will call upon you to-morrow I will help you if it is possible. splendid. ihat brought him to his senses. but I could absolutely impossible. son. for the act or fact stated in a sentence 4. brilliant. This quite altered our plans. did not tell me. it to me. regent. (§§ 32. State clearly what the words in sentences : italics stand for in the following not manage hoped to get here before noon. for an infinitive mood . red. I. but he would not not see it. sovereign. The demonstratives noun . sweet. broad. We all knew that the attempt was hopeless. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. shall How be content with that. long. father. obstinate. I think it best to // vexes me that he should act in this way. dead. merry. quick. monstrous. priest. It would have been better for him if he had never known if it is convenient. prudent. but I woi/td not consent to that. . pious. able. dare you tell me that ? I cannot undertake this. ' ' ' similar manner.' and ' it ' may or gerund with its adjuncts 3. Give the abstract nouns which correspond to the following adjectives : Pure. sheriffj captain. widow. If you do not give up these bad habits. worthy. sad. sharp. however difficult // may be. what the result will be. stand. abundant. slow. innocent. He asked me There is a pen. He thought of enlisting as a soldier. bad. or a sentence that is going to be used. wise. . : relation. sour. near.

193 Give the Adjectives from which the following Abstract Nouns : are derived Nobility. That is the nature of the animal. and explain the difference of meaning in each case Exercise : nobility. E. depart . . action. . . dearth. height. acidity . ductility. health. splendid painting yesterday. The We poverty o . invert . . arrange . and draw one under the nouns used in their adstraci sense. senility. . growth tilth decision coercion defence derision. rascality . justify. . breadth. suspend conceal steal . . The steeple is of immense height. . absolve . composition. death. please . advance. Some poetry is hardly worth the fine arts. D. uprightness . magnanimity. Nothing relieved of the height. brevity . patience. boredom . Write out the following sentences. . C. stupidity. measure. . . Form Abstract Nouns (not ending following verbs . depth . hate. . con^ tract . infirmity. Give the verbs from which the following Abstract derived : Nouns . valour. youth. thrift . depress . line 41. proceed . width. pressure. wisdom. These alms-houses are the refuge of old age and I admire nobility of character. condescend . heroism. Intrusion . displace . addition. . Give the adjectives or nouns from which the following abstract nouns are formed — : Fickleness impertinence dependence . seize . . thieve . depth. F. weigh. protect . grandeur. exact . sleepiness. insipidity. soon reached the summit in all ages. amplitude. . move. Can you tell me the age of that child ? This has been the case to our gaze. mortality weakness durability. derange . patience . infirmity. strength. deviate . . elevation. . Painting was his chief pursuit. shrievalty venience piety . steal. treat . . crown . girlhood. debase .EXERCISES. prosperity. rigidity. mayoralty . multiply . The vast field of nature is open reading. I bought a the solitude of his existence. elegance. laughter. strength . suppleness. abstract. height . ponderosity. declension. interrogate . width. complete . and two lines under those used in their concrete sense. convene . suppleness elegance . degrade . . fix . judgment. wisdom. durability. grandeur. He made a solitude and called it peace. invent . conhumility . acidity. in -ing) corresponding to the deride Offend . dissect . Sculpture is one of He has the gift of poetry. erase. sing. suction . fickleness. candour. deceive . sonority. He aspired to enter the ranks of the sculptures over the porch are very fine. are estrangement seclusion injection thought flight reflection conception adaptation . dependence. destroy . greenness. legibility.

' Exercise 42. We lay down to sleep. My friends live yonder. adjective. or Adverbs of Time answer the is to be taken." (or is There shows the place where my uncle lives question Where does my uncle live '). modifying the adjective bad. They rode along together.194 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Preliminary Lesson. John often writes to us. The children played indoors. Mary plays beautifully. He went away. XXIII.' ' ' is it is bad an ' ** He came yesterday Yesterday is the question ' When did he come ? '). modifying the verb ' came." it is Seldom answers Therefore " the question How often do we see him?' an Adverb of Time modifying the verb see. modifying the verb rises. Adverbs." ' ' Too or is a word which shows to what degree that answers the question how bad ? Therefore Adverb of Degree.' ' .' ^ * My uncle lives there. Now attend to me. When ? ' ' How long ' ? ' ' How ' ' often ? ' Adverbs of ' ' Whence ? Place answer the questions Where ? Adverbs are usually said to modify* the verb. We went thither. modifying the verb ' lives. It ' "i answers the an Adverb of Place. adverb to which they are attached (§§ 259-265). I will go thither directly. They Boon returned. ' Manner * answer the question How ? ' Adverbs of Adverbs of Degree show to other adverb questions ' what degree or extent' the meaning of a verb. Therefore Adverb of Time. She is upstairs. denoted by the verb is performed. Deal as in the above examples with each of the Adverbs in the following sentences : I saw him yesterday. " Whither ' ? adjective. Examples. The troops fought splendidly.' *' a word that shows when he came (or answers an it is We seldom see him." is Abruptly a word that shows how the mountain rises (or answers the question How does the mountain rise ')• Therefore it is an Adverb of Manner. He went straightway.'' ' " Thai is too bad. He always contradicts me. • To modify a verb is to state some modt or condition. ' ' in or under which the action . — Nature and use of Adverbs. or The mountain rises abruptly from the plain.

4-1. adjective) some verb or adjective (§§370. Parse the nouns in italics in the following sentences : time have I played with him. We have got thus far on our journey. The children were here I would rather not go. Exercise adverbs in italics in well. travelled all night. parative degree. He turned his head another Thee. You speak too He is very learned. He walked yflr/z^^r than I did. I get up earlier than you. He is a year older than I am. John reads He My Exercise 45. Exercise 43. rapidly. or even standing by itself. Oh I am so tired. They get up very early. The bird is quite dead. He comes here four times a week. I have seen him many times. XXIV. He is less restless to-day. soonest. This is many deg7-ees better than that. He is more composed. it of adverbs Exercise 48. adjective. adjective. ! much surprised. I way. I shall see you next week. but Thomas reads better. Make half a dozen sentences to illustrate the use each sort of adverb contained in the preceding examples. of State the Degree of Comparison of each of the the following sentences. Make and ten containing adverbs ten sentences containing adverbs in the comin the superlative degree. The project was monstrously foolish. He works harder than ever. Vou write worse than your brother. The noun should be parsed often does duty for an adverb. To parse an Adverb state to which class belongs. Parse the Adverbs in Exercises 42 and 44. brother came He is most attentive to his work. He was the least alarmed of all. That happened a year ago. and point out what verb. He comes oftener than ever. modifying (either singly. I placed my hand thus. He slept all night. He Many a . He qjften comes here. He is far too extravagant. Day by day we magnify He comes bothering me day after day.EXERCISES. That poor man is the worst hurt. He was an extremely wicked man. or adverb it modifies (§§ 274-276). Parsing of Adverbs. I am I am much obliged to you. NounB used Lesson. He is most careful in his conduct acted tnore prudently than his friend. and what verb. I am almost penniless. or when taken 267). Exercise 47. last. adjective or noun in the objective case with an Prelimmary some equivalent phrase. I would sooner die. X95 Stand so. what its degree of comparison is (if it admits of comparison). Do not tell so many stories. with its as being in the Adverbial Objective. I am very He walked backwards. — A Adverbially. 3 . or adverb it modities. They very soon returned. very much obliged to you. giving the three degrees.

and become identical in form with adjectives. Much remains to be done. The town forth bound is ten viilcs distant. come a day day and night. He is more con1 am much happier. ^// bloodless lay the untrodden snow. We have much He is ?nuch worse to-day. used with an adverbial force. but inoj'c remains behind. being impossible to supply These (like nouns) are often any particular noun with them. and the adverbs : — gave him ait I had." Here much is an adjective qualifying money. ' ' " Much has been revealed. ceedings. He is all powerful here. are used as substantives. He came sooner. I • 'No/ as an adverb. '^ Here '•''He is no better.' and more' is an adjective qualifying ' ' * money understood. Adjectives used Adverbially. 1 have enough. his brother has more. You know most about it. cause for thankfulness. the substantival adjectives. On the other hand. He travelled arrived post- XXV. brother. that I had uiy ]iains for nothing. will you have a little ? He told me less than his brother. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. I will follow you through He is my Ixst friend I did my best. many adverbs which once ended in -e have lost that inflexion." Here '«(?'is an adverb modifying the adverb ' ' better. carefully distinguishing the adjectives proper.' " He has not much money . He is the best dressed thich and thin. the subjects of the verbs that follow them. could hear no more. modifying (i) a verb. man in the room. and Adverbs reduced to the form of Adjectives." He is not much happier!'' an adverb. may be taken as the simple adverb 'na' = never (A.196 could not haste. When they are used as subjects or objects of verbs. Do not let us hear ?nore of that. or after prepositions. they should be parsed as substantival adjectives. He slept (?// niylit. I He is_«o * wiser than before. I have no ink. it especially those of Quantity. ' Exercise 48.S.). That is all nonsense. They once had the dative inflexion. Parse the words in italics in the following senences. The long and tlie short of it is. '''/do not 'much'' ' is much admire him. Preliminary — Many them adjectives. We hand and foot. He knows more than he tells. (2) an adjective. He has more ability than hi!. tented. Lesson.^'' Here tnuck and 'more' are substantives. . He has lost a//. or (more sitnply) as substantives. Here is some wine. It is better now to parse as simple adverbs. In general I approve of his proMuch depends upon his answer. .

' in sufficient when it here an adverb modifying 'more. She not wherefore they were come together. it is an adjective.{// over the yard.' denotes personal resemblance. Whoever is most diligent will meet with ?nost success.S.show that more could have no meaning as a quantitative adjective. He has «<? wtTcf ** sense than a goose. ni. my very heart. The more part knew The more the merrier {§ 265. Do not take more trouble." (Compare the German «o<:/i and the French encore. Such a round of pleasures is wearisome. modifying the verb will take. He is more to blame than I am. He is XXVI. || have not meat enough. through the helmet. ' ' ' more. t Enough a substantive. You are very much in fault. Take no more H trouble. and no (= A. We were just starting. \ •s ziery tall. ' Words which they ' join (§§ 277. He was discoursing about the true and the just. The future is hidden from our gaze. let me hear some tnore.' The sense is I will take in \ rtr/i/Z/^V). Enough has been done. You know best. Come near the fire. I will not take any more. He is a better writer than I am. I have heard a little about that affair. I ask {cixnpX more. more is equivalent to further. He ran all round the park. is not any more diligent than he was before. I will accept nothing less. little gratitude. I did my best. I heard (Z /. Rela- which they indicate. Jt This word is an adjective qualifying the substantive 'nothing. cry did knock against love John best. is little That expect not a a tnost lovely prospect. else* He was is but I Nobody there. Preliminary Lesson. More is here an . I heard a// the speech. no trouble in addltum [to what you have taken]. The corn was scattered . Do your best. earth turns i-ound. I am your equal. The I A\y best friend. I cannot say more. In That decision was right. He is likeW my brother. abundance. ' II Some ' ' ' is More does not measure the "i That is.) little reflection will .' The next example is different .p little He shows but better.adverb. tions * is ' Prepositions. When it denotes that one ac'ii'n resembles another. He cut right future times he will be famous. He is less restless than he was yesterday. whole qidintiiy of trouble taken.EXERCISES. That is a pretty picture. You are very kind. I will take one more § glass. He is pretty sure of the prize. They have money enough.' and therefore is a quantitative adjective attached to the noun. He He is no wiser than I. He sailed all round the world. meaning. You must take me for better or worse. have enough and to spare. ' + When like ' ' ' ' .' An adjective used as a substantive may still J be modified by an adverb. O Lord. when joined to a singular noun like glass. He was moi-e frightened than hurt.' never') is an adverb modifying ' ' ' ' ' never used as an adverb. He wears a round hat. and I will take no less. He is no tnore contented than he used to be. Will you lake some more wine. /// weeds thrive apace The The house is ill built. i9. I cannot write a7ty better. We are near neighbours. I We from him./ one glass. He swore like a trooper. He bought two mo)'e loaves.' 'nothing inferior in amount. 5).' except Else is always an adverb ' IS best taken as an adverb. 278). The construction of this sentence is our guide to that of the four "No" is ' ' ' : — ' A ' ' ' uext. Hear the right. I ne'er shall look upon his like again. *• Here more does measure the whole quantity of ' sense. That is the very least you can do. — Nature and use of Prepositions.W We heard nothing inore of him. We have a choice between good and ///. He was a very thunderbolt of war. There is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. it is an adverb.

Tliere is a garden behind the house. person (me). She stayed within the house. in A Exercise 50. He works at the factory. We shall start the day after to-morrow." ' Of is a preposition governing the pro' noun 'me' in the objective It shows the relation of an Exercise 49. The box was painted within and without. and joining it to the verb leaped. The storm passed by. walked along the road. The tub is full of water. "He Is afraid of me . " ' I see a mouse on ' noun floor It shows the ' thefloor. My father lives London. table. I will come by and by. I am fond of music. Examples. 284). Pie rode outside. blow on the head knocked him down. 51. Grief at the loss of his money turned him crazy. cut a piece off. When (§§ there is no noun or pronoun governed by Exercise tences : it is an adverb 279. He We We . Come along. I rode inside the omnibus. I told you all tliat before. Run routtd the The earth turns round. Do not sit on the table.' (mouse) to another (floor)." ' Over ' is a preposition governing the noun wall in the objective case. ' ' On is and joining B. relation of one i/n'/t_g' a preposition governing the it to the noun * mouse. and joining it to the adjective attribute (afraid) to ^. it. People in trouble often go to him.^ in the objective case.' It shows the relation of an act (leaping) to a thnig (wall). He spoke to me at the close of the meeting.198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. " He leaped over the wall.—ThQ same word is often used both as an adverb and as a preposition. When it governs a noun or pro- noun. it is a preposition. XXVII. He cut " Three thousand a piece off\hc loaf The stick is loo long . afraid. and ten in which it shows the relation of an attribute to a thing. He shrank from the danger. We saw the men in armour. ran after me. ' ' C. books on the table. Parse the words in itahcs in the following sen- He got up behind. The love of money is the root of Dick rode to York. same way as case. He spoke of me. Adverbs and Prepositions. A. I saw Jane in the kitchen. He departed before my arrival. Make ten sentences in which a preposition shows the relation of a thing to a thing j ten in which it shows the relation ot an action to a thing . I have in my hand a letter from my father. That comes after. I am anxious about liis safety. I am weary of work. Do not lag behind. Preliminary Lcsson.' the in the Parse the prepositions in the following sentences in above examples : Pick up the books on the floor. We arrived the day before yesterday. walked by the river. Do not touch the all evil.

In. Nattire Shall. to agree with ' its the Active Voice. Past Indefinite Tense. verbs (§ Mustf and can Examples. in the Active Voice. The Preliminary Lesson.' in in ' Forget verb ' : — A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. and make sentences to illustrate their use."* so money come withal. I'll perfect him withal Exercise 52. ber and First Person. " / 10 ill never forget yoit.EXERCISES. Find a dozen words which may be used either as Adverbs or as Prepositions. but is . the Singular Numsubject /.' in it * ' Withal. in the Active Voice. in the Active Voice. dicative Mood. iliary Infinitive Mood.^'' 'May' is a defective (notional) verb. to agree with its subject thou. .^'' " Her cause and yours. t The so-called Potential Mood is a perfectly unnecessary invention. XXVIII. in the Active Voice. governs.' Mood.' « He did his duty.'' You may go. never precedes the word which placed :it the end of the sentence. Present Tense and in the Plural Number. will. (§§ 194. depending on (or and in the governed by) the verb " 'shall.' when used as a preposition.'' is 'Steal' a Transitive Verb. depending on " TJiou shall not steal. 184)." A defective (notional) verb Will and Indicative Mood. and in the [or the object of) the (simple) Infinitive will. Indi' Mood. and do and use of the Simple Infinitive as notional and as atixare always notional verbs. in the Mood. Present Tense and in the Singular Number and the Second Person." 'Did' is a Indicative notional Transitive Verb. may. and Number and the Third Person to agree with Active Voice. depending on (or governed by) the verb ''may. 199 " Nothing comes amiss. 195). the Singular its subject ' He. and in the (simple) Infinitive Mood. Infinitive (simple) Mood." "I must wait and watch withal. —A. ." ' Shalt cative ' is a defective (notional) verb .' ' ' Go ' is a Transitive Verb. and the Second Person to agree with its subject you. Present Tense ' ' : — ' . ducats we freely cope your courteous pains withal.

Parse all the verbs in the following sentences. or the compound phrase shall depart may be parsed as the future tense of the verb it ' ' 'depart' depends upon in the same manner depart. depart may be parsed separately. He durst not go home. You might have gone an hour ago. stay. You need not stay.' But then any form is emphatic when it is emphasized. You shall not have it. infinitive The simple ' ' in ' ' ' as The two verbs shall and the preceding examples. You do assist does not differ in the least in sense from you assist. He shall not know of it. I will do my best. " / shall soon departs Here ' shall ' is an auxiliary (not a notional) verb. He could not reply.' " He will come presently Here 'will' ^ is a mere auxiliary of the future tense. and specify in the case of the finite verbs whether they are used as notional or as auxiliary verbs : — can dance.' The verb does not itself constitute an emphatic form. nr else taken with the dependent infinitive. It does not assert that he is able or is pertnitted to vex me. I could leap over that wall once. You would not have my help when you might. + See \ 2IO. ' ' " He does this that he ' may -vex me. Does your father know of this? May I come in? Thou shalt not steal. and is in the Subjunctive Mood itself The notion of power or permission has altogether vanished. He says that he will not come. It may be treated like shall' the last example. "You do * assist the storm. You must go directly.''' " Did you hear the rain f " ' ' In these examples ' do ' and ' did ' are mere auxiliaries. We • When ' do ' is separately. I shall I will go with you. He did what he could. I dare not go back. That boy shall be made to hold his tongue.2©0 ENGLISH GRAMMAR.way as the simple tense for which it is a substitute. You may go. They would keep on making a noise. He would not come when I called him. He said that he would not come. The compound form is emphatic only when an emphasis is laid upon the do. is Exercise 53. He will soon return. and the compound in the same. ' a mere auxiliary (whether emphatic or unemphatic) it may be parsed form may be parsed Did knock' may ' : ." Here 'may a mere auxiliary of the Subjunctive Mood. The cry did J knock against my very heart. I cannot do what I will. m " Yotc do assist the storm. We will never yield When shall \ you see your brother? Wherewithal shall a young to threats. Thus be treated as eiiuivalent to knocked. He said that he did not choose to come. man cleanse his way ? 1 did not call yesterday lest I might seem intrusive.' Sue the preceding examples. The notion of volition is entirely lost sight of. You need not be alarmed.

to indicate its construction.' and governing 'attempt' in the objective case. He came to pay me some money. When it denotes the purpose or cause of an action or state. He did his best to ruin me." 'It' is a Neuter Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. I am sorry to hear* that.* He is too clever to make* such a mistake. Such a fellow is not fit to live. the ' ' — " He thinks it better not to co7ne" Here ' it of the verb thinks. 196). To work hard is the way to succeed. possible /<? go on.* The boys had a long task to do. forming the real subject of the verb is. To obey is useless to ask him. I shall be sorry /<? leave. Sometimes it expressea the came of the state deoeted by the adjective. to show that an infinitive is coming. and Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. and ten in which it does the work of an adverb.' ' 'To make': in A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice.' and the infinitive to come ' is ' ' is the temporary object the real object." Here to meet is a transitive verb in the Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. tive. The water is not fit to d?-ink. or infinitive — ' B. and modifies the preceding adjective. found it advisable to return. I was not prepared to hear that news. went up to the man to ask our way. We We We Make ten sentences in which a gerundial infinitive the subject of a verb ten in which it is the object of a verb . " // is tiselcss to make the atte/npt.' ' ' Exercise 54. I am glad to hear* it. The and neuter pronoun * it' is often used as a temporary or pro- visional subject or object. used wiih the force of an adverb modifying the verb 'ran. in the Singular Number and Nominative Case. Parse the verbs in italics and the following sentences in the way indicated above : word ' it ' in the better than sacrifice. is . She was overjoyed to hear* of her son's return. Help me io carry this.EXERCISES. He was rude enough to contradict * me. I am delighted to see* you. As it the subject or object of another verb it does the work of a substantive. found it imfind* you so much better. 201 infini- Preliminary Lesson. The master called the boy to say his lesson. He dislikes to be kept waiting. • In these cases the gerundial infinitive does the work of an adverb. Nature and use of the gerundial with to' (§§ 194. Active Voice. He hopes to hear from you soon.* I am happy to They are come to stay with us. . " He ran to meet me. Exercise 55. forming the temporary subject of the verb is. It is // is easy to see that. He is anxious to do* his duty. does the work of an adverb.

in building. He is delighted fell in with a ship sailing to America. were late in consequence of having lost+ at having succeeded -i* in his design. Exercise 56. J Forty and six years was this temple By sedulously doing his started before the rising of the sun. He went to see the hunting of the snark. He strode Seeing* man A We We We We My bowing right and left to his guests. Lesson.' ' ' " Smiling faintly. arrived there first through His conduct is in keeping with his professions. I see a is believing. Oblige me by all leaving the room. There is here a confusion between the Abstract Noun. He died in consepricking of my thumbs. riding on horseback. I like reading. 202. and draw one line under the Abstract Nouns in -ing j two lines under the Gerunds three lines under the imperfect (Active) participles : . Gervmds and Prelimmary Lesson. Thinking ' had belter be taken in such con.202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. By the noble partner you greet with great prediction of noble having.' to which it is of the verb joined attributively. "You do draw my spirits from me with new lamenting § ancient oversights " (Shaksp. In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward. 282.struci Here a is a preposition {= at iir in). we advanced into duty he gained the approbation of all. 5). He was angry at my going away. — Study §§ 197-202. up the hall quence of pricking his hand with a poisoned dagger. § ' ' ' . — Participles proper. taking a short cut. It is impossible to construct the abstract noun in -j»^ with a past participle. Quitting the forest. There was a great deal of shouting and clapping of hands. PreUminary ordinary (§§ '' Parsing of Participles. he pressed my hand. Participles used absolutely 201. This must be treated as a compound gerund. ' fan. Participles used as Qualitative Adjectives. our way." 'smile. the fire blazedfiercely." the Perfect Participle of the verb 'honour. I lay a thinking. lying witness He hates lying. Write out the following sentences. ' Fanned by the wind. XXIX.' • When the verbal noun in -ing does not govern an object it may be treated as a simple abstract noun. qualifying the noun master. excessive reading of novels is injurious.)i XXX. Participles.and the Gerund.' used as an Adjective of Quality.^'' Fanned is the Perfect (or Past) Participle ' qualifying the '' noun ' fire. withdrew his demand. 370. The I like reading history. ought to be punished. No good can come of your doing On some opposition being made he that. tions as the Abstract Noun in -ing. 'Smiling' is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb qualifying the pronoun ' he. something wicked this way comes.' My honou7'ed master bade me Honoured' is tell you this. the open plain.

He bought a deferred annuity. dressed in their fine clothes. Look at that smiling villain.' &c. joined attributively to the ' ' noun ' Morn. The ship was built of iron. I am surprised that you do not see that. splendid charger. Where do you live ? and I live there. Use of the verb Do. XXXI. The string is stretched too tight. we will be with you to-morrow. towerinjj in her pride of place. and preceded by a pipe and tabor. I caught sight of the thief climbing in at the window. The poor man was hurt. or taken together as equivalent to ' heard. —The elements of an Interrogative sentence its ' same way as those of the declarative Compare Did you hear ? and 'I did hear t Who told you so ? and He told me so Whom did you meet ? and I met John. The poor man is badly hurt. Sleep. A A Exercise 58." Smiling is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb ' smile.' ' ' . the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister. I plunged in. Generally speaking he dines at home.' are related to each other in the sentence which would be ' complete answer. you have done falcon. upon uneasy pallets stretching thee. he has done very well. The general rode in front. mounted on a " Why rather. one containing those in which the verb be and the perfect participle form a tense of the passive voice.' Considering is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb 'conThings is a noun in the objective used absolutely (§ 282).' Exercise 57. Study § 214. he strode into the circle. They were slain by order of the captain.. Smiling scornfully.* the other containing those in which the participle is a mere qualitative adjective : upon the by contract. " Considering all thitigs. The captives were already slain.' " Hail. Parse the Participles in the following sentences : Hope deferred maketh the heart sick." Barring accidents. Preliminary Lesson. * * ' ' j ' . was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. t ' Did ' and hear may be parsed separately. and hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber. of a certain act. in the second class wft get a statement of the results of the act. Being apprised of our approach.EXERCISES. The The ship was built rack. wounded spirit who can bear? liest thou in smoky cribs. smilitig Morn. The prisoner was starved to death. than in the perfumed chambers of the great. I was surprised by his behaviour. He was children are famished." ' 203 sider. The troops were surprised by the enemy. ' ' ' ' ' ' * * In these we get a statement of the actual doing.' used as an ordinary Qualitative Adjective. Considering your age.' &c. very well. the object of the transitive participle ' considering. ' ' ' case. Accoutred as I was. Interrogative and Negative Sentences. He was stretched stretched upon his bed. and separate the following sentences into two groups.

full. or some adjective or adverb. X In cases like this. Take the answers them into the negative form.' ' ' ' ' . in the possessive case depending on the noun 'pen.] .u t Mind that an interrogative adverb modifies either the verb of the sentence in which it ' ' occurs. and the same numeral is placed after an interrogative pronoun and the preposition that governs it. [In the first few sentences (s) is put after the subject and (o) after the object of the verb.' u. and then XXXII. Imperative Second Person Singular. and adverbs in the following Parse the verbs and the interrogative pronouns and sentences (§§ 152-154 270). and then parse all the words in each : Have you any money? Did your Did you say so? Does your sister sing well? Will your father return tomorrow? Shall you be afraid to go? (See | 210. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. " Sentences. when it is an interrogative pronoun. Go thou and do • likewise^ Go ' is Mood. — Study § 191. Imperative Preliminary Lesson.' • an intransitive verb in the Active Voice. Exercise 61. to agree with its subject Parse whose as an interrogative pronoun of common gender. called me ? What (<?) did you say ? Which («) way is the shortest ? What did you eat for supper? On what (rt) day do you set out? Where (3) do (i) do you hope for (i) ? (2) are you writing to (2) ? you live (3) ? (4) far (4) did you walk ? {s) Who What (0) Whom How ? Which boy made that noise ? What author do you did you see ? On what day are you waiting for ? do you set out? Where did you find that book? Whither are you going? Whose * pen is this? What happened yesterday ? What comes ? next like best Whom Whom What ails you? In which house does your uncle live? What poet's writings please you most ? On what day do you set out ? When f will you t come ? t did you do that ? How t many persons were present ? often do you write home? t do you say that ? How t soon will you come ? Where J are you going to ? Where J do you come from ? How How Why Write answers to all the questions in this exercise in turn these answers into the negative form. and after an interrogative adverb and the word that it modifies and (.) Will you meet me there to-morrow? Did the man go away? Have the boys hurt themselves? Are you happy? brother do that? turn Exercise 60.a) is placed after those interrogative pronouns (or pronominal adjectives) which qualify the nouns that they precede. Exercise 59. 'thou. Give the complete sentences which are answers to the following questions. . to the preceding questions.204 . should be taken as doing duty for an interrogative pronoun. 'where governed by the preposition to or from.

EXERCISES.
'

205
it

Do

'

is

subject
"

parsed in the same way, except that thou understood.
'
' '

agrees with a

Let

nie sec that''
'

'Let and
'

a transitive verb in the Active Voice, Imperative second person plural, to agree with its subject understood.*
is

Mood,
'

in the

you

'

See

is a transitive verb in the Active Voice, and in _the ' (simplej infinitive mood depending on (or governed by) the

verb

'

let.'

'Me
Let me go. Let him see
cautious in

'

is

in the objective case,
all

governed by

'

let.'

Exercise Q^. Parse Come hither,

the words in the following sentences

:

boys ?t Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. it. Let me be Let us be spared this annoyance. Let us pray. the business. Do be quiet, boys.

XXXIII. Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.
Preliminary Lesson.
"

— Study

§§

144

— 164.

He is iJian 'Who' is
a.

wJio

is

beloved by

everybody.''''

a Relative Pronoun, of the Masculine Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'man.' It is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb is beloved.' It joins the clause who is beloved by all to the noun man.'
'

'

'

'

" That

is

the lady luhose
is

husband you met yesterday."

'Whose'

a Relative Pronoun of the Feininine Gender in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'lady.' It is in the Possessive Case depending J on (or qualifying) the noun 'husband.' It joins the clause whose husband you mot yesterday to the noun lady.'
'
'

'

"//dvv

is

the matt
'

whom you
'

wished

to see."

Here
" }'ou
'

whom

is

in the objective case, the object of the

verb

'to see.'

have not brought mc the book that T asked you for." is a Relative Pronoun of the Neuter Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent book.' It is in the objective case, governed by the preposition for.' It joins the clause that I asked you for' to the noun book.'

That

'

'

'

'

'

You is always a fcraviiiintical plural. Parse 'boys as a Vocative, or Nominative of Address. If who.<;e be treated as the possessive case of a substantive pronoun, it must be parsed t like a noun in the possessive If whose be regarded as on a par Vkfith ttiy, our, his, &c., it must be dealt with as an adjective.
*
'
'

t

'

'

'

'

2o6

.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

The construction of a relative clause is word for word the same as that of the clause which results when a demonstrative pronoun, or the antecedent noun is substituted for the relative. Thus That I asked you for' is hke 'I asked you for it (or the book) ': 'Whose husband you met her husband yesterday.' y(?li met yesterday is lilce
' ' '

Exercise 63. Parse all the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, and test the construction by substituting demonstratives for the I'elatives as in the above examples
:

painted that picture here is the pen which I gave you ? I who am poorer than you are, am contented. Thou, who wast my friend and guide, hast forsaken me. You, who have done the damage, must repair it. We who are well ofl should pity and help the poor. He is a man whose appearance is j repossessing. The boys whose w oik is finished may go out to play. He that is down need fear no fall. I will show you the horse which I bought yesterday. The picture which pleased you so much was painted by my brother. You have not brought me the volume that He is the yery man that I was speaking oi. Their soriows' 1 asked for. shall be multiplied that hasten after another God. It is that that grie\es me. " Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, This that you tell me is incredible. which art my near'st and dearest enemy?" ''I am that very duke which was thrust from Milan." "Whosoever* hath, to him shall be given." " Eles.'-ed is he whosoever shal' not be offended in Me." He doth sin that doth belie the dead. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall I e showtd before the whole congregation. Thty are but faint-hearted whose courage fails in time of danger. He to-day that .sheds his blocd with me shall be my brother. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the dog if.ai worried the cat that killed the rat that ate lihe malt that lay in the house "that Jack built.'
is

The man whom you met
last year.
1'

my

died

never saw the

The artist who man whom you speak ol.
brother.

W

'

Exercise 64. The antecedent of the neuter relative which is often the fact stated in a previous sentence, or the (implied) gerund or infinitive which expresses that act or fact in an abstract manner, as, " The king's two sons are stolen away and fled, which (namely, the fact that the king's two sons are stolen away and fled) puts upon them suspicion of the deed." State clearly what ii'/z/V// stands lor in the following sentences
' ' ' '
:

promised to follow my advice, which was the best thing he could do. "And, studied hard all the morning, after which we went for a walk. which is more than all these boasts cnn be, I am beloved of Hcrmia." *' I see thee still, and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, which was not so " Thou didst smile, which raised in me an undergoing stomach (i.e. before." courage to otdurc).'"

He

We

Exercise 65.
omitted
in

Supply (and parse) the relative pronouns which are the following sentences (sec § 164).
that of the simple relatives.

• The parsing of these compound rel.itives does not differ from They should be described as compound, or indc/itiitc relatives.

EXERCISES.
Pay me the money you owe me.

207

You have not sent the goods I bought received the money I sent you ? That is the place I "I have a mind presages very man I was looking for. went to. me such thrift, that I should questionless be fortunate. " That is not the way Those are the very words he used. Is the task I set you finished yet ? I came. He is not the man I expected.
yesterday.

Have you You are the

Make
supplied.

a dozen sentences in

which a suppressed
'

relative

may be

Exercise 66. When which accompanies and qualifies a noun, it should be parsed as a Conjunctive Pronominal Adjective.' It then generally refers to the 'general sense of the last sentence, but has no Parse which in the special antecedent in place of which it stands. following sentences
' '
'

'

'

:

I may be detained longer than I expect, in which case do not wait for rne. hope you will stay till Tuesday, on which day I expect my brother. He made a humble confession, by which means he averted his lather's displeasure.
I

Exercise 67. Supply the antecedents which are understood in the following examples
:

Who
we
raise
I

steals

my

purse, steals trash.

"Who was

we

will

whom

dislike.

make fast. I may neither And whom he strikes, his

the thane, lives yet. clioose whom I would, nor refuse
cruel tushes slay.

Whom
said

Whoever

"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted." I That is not what 1 sent dread what * is coming. I hear what you are saying. you for. You are telling me what is incredible. I cannot consent to t what you ask. That is just what I cannot understand. You have not done what Have you found what you were looking for ? What astonished you promised. me most was his imprudence. What pleases you will please me.
that, told

a falsehood.

XXXIV.

Relative (or Conjunctive) Adverbs.

Prdiniinary Lesson.

— Study

§§

262

— 265.
that clause to the predicate

Conjunctive adverbs modify a verb, adjective, or adverb in the
clause which they introduce,

and Join

of the principal clause.
If a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition (§ 406) it joins its clause to the antecedent

noun.

Exercise
sentences
:

68.

Parse

the

conjunctive

adverbs

in

the

following

* Parse ' w/wi" as a neuter Relative Pronoun relating to a suppressed antecedent, whenever the sense of the sentence remains the same if that ivhich is substituted for 'tt'hut.' + Mind that this preposition does not govern what (which is the object of to ask '), but its suppressed antecedent that.'
'
'

'

'

'

'

2o8
I

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

was not at home when you called. I shall see you when I return. He This lay where he had fallen. I will follow you whithersoever you go. Co Tell me the reason why you left the room. is the house where I live. bought Show me the shop where you back to the place whence you came. him whenever 1 can. Wherever he lives, he will be happy. I go to see that.
still

Exercise 69.
Herein do

ceded by prepositions for the adverbial compounds.
thereof

In the following sentences substitute pronouns pre(See § 146.)

Thereon I pawn my credit. She dares not I exercise myself. 1 will hereupon confess I discovery. heart accords thereto. am in love. Present to her a handl.erchief, and bid her dry her weeping eyes therewith. Whereunto shall I liken this generation ? Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? You take from me the means whereby I live.

make

My

Exercise 70.
sentences
I
:

Make

the

reverse

change

in

the

following

long to

know

the truth of this at large.

Thy

food shall be withered roots

The earth is the Lord's and its and husks in which the acorn cradled. lulness. Take this chain, and bid my wife disburse the sum on the receipt
of it.

XXXV.
rrclivimary Lesson.

Conjunctions.
classification of

Conjunctions

(§§

285

— —

Study the definition and

295).

parse a conjunction state what Part of Speech it is, and of what class, and state what words or sentences it couples together. The pairs both— and,' either or,' and neither nor,' may be taken together and parsed as correlative and co-ordinative conjunctions, joining such Subordinative conjunctions usually and such words or sentences. join the clause which they introduce to the predicate of the principal The conjunction than joins its clause to the preceding clause. comparative adjective or adverb.
' '

To

'

'

'

Exercise

71.

Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences

:

He neither came nor sent an excuse. A. He is jioor, but he is contented. He went out quickly and slammed the door. He shot a hare and two rabbits. Both [ohn and Henry came to see me. I will both lay me down in peace and I can neither eat nor [can Either I am mistaken, or you are. [I will] sleep.
1] sleep.

He told me that he had no money. You I have heard that he said so. If I had seen him, I would have spoken to be inmished if you do that. He would not help me, though he knew that I was in need. Though hand join hand in hand, the wicked shall not be unjjunishcd. You will lose tlie Take heed lest you fall. He spoke loud that prize unless you work harder. My I might .hear him. I cannot give you' any money, for I have none. He is richer than his brother [is]. He comes brother is taller than you are. oftener than [lie] ever [came]. As that is the case, I will come.
B.
will

him.

when followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case.) ^ it occurs in the Show me that picture. = XXXVI.. but are conjunctions when followed by a clause containing a finite verb with its subject : — John arrived after his brother. I will go no^d<. I must believe it.00k at § 349. ye shall all likewise perish. He wasted his time in play . but We We I will stay. but merely refer by their meaning to something that has gone before carefully distinguishing the conjunctions : — He came because I called him. 148. is rich. are prepositions. They stayed nntil the next day. Nature and use of the Subjunctive 423. N'ow you are here. their money was spent. I believed. He is contented. They will go away before night. therefore have I spoken. I . the word ' Make five or six sentences to illustrate each use of that. t When 'as' is used twice over correlatively. that you see at the beginning of the a conjunction. Except ye repent. He says that we shall never succeed. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. Play me the tune that I like so much. &c.. &c. consequently he lost the prize.EXERCISES. 145. Do not go before I come.) — Mood * 1. You may go. (§§ 192. left after the concert was over. tlie P . have not eaten since yesterday. He is very rich nevertheless he is unhappy. There is not a man here that I can trust. I hear that he has ' to know that that t/iat '* Exercise 74. He was sorry after he had said it. Since you say so. AH except John were present. you may as well stay. bearing in mind that words like before^ after. and tkeirfore lie is He is as t stingy as he never unhappy. and the latter from the adverbs which have no syntactical connecting force. &c. 5. that he may deceive me. from the relative or conjunctive adverbs. They stayed in Paris until I will wait until you return. 289. Pie walked before me. There is nobody but me at home. Parse the word tliaf wherever following sentences. That is otherwise) I would give you true and also new. the second conjunctive. (Look at §§ 144. Exercise 73. He did not say that. The Preliminary Lesson. That book is mine.' Exercise 75. He does that that he may vex me. They that will be rich fall into temptation. He is man that I want. it. 2og Exercise 72. Come 7uhen I call you. else { some. 430. since. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. He has not smiled since his son died. I lent you that book the very that you might read You ought clause is lost that book that I lent hint. He left soon after came. I have no money. Subjunctive Mood. because I told you that before. first 'as' is always de>itoitstraiivc. I am afraid that he says that.

. but He would be angry if he kne^v of it. Take care that dinner Live temperately that you may live {\ 423) long. If I had any If he zvere to swear to it. carefully distinguishing the moods and noting whether the verb relates The to what is actual fact. or expresses one of the subjunctive ideas. He would not have kept it to himself. He may\ liave been in the house. ]mst. He would not tell me if 1 asked him. He would have been " Had I had just finished when you came in. He . not open the door when I knocked. The old man might be seen daily sitting in the porch. He ivoid i I but died M\ hour before this chance. and blister you all o'er. it is very strange).' 'would. He would have open:d the door if you had knocked. He came that he might beg money of me. they labour in vain that build it. he kept it all to himself. Eiercise 78. Oh that it were with me as in days that are money. I will never forgive him.2IO • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. merely to denote past time. If yovL had sent for m% 1 woiild If you lucre generous. If that was his reply. He says that thnt he may vex mt. it was a very did it. I haa lived a blessed time. You may keep the book. use of a past form in relation to present ii/ne. Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences.//. he had knozvn of it. it could not do it when he trieil. referring to present time. !>-en able. thing worse happen to you.e. or of a past perfect. desei-ves to be punished. I did not see him." He tvoidd open the door if you knocked. Last winter However bad the weather roses might be found blooming at Christmas. and explain in each case why the subjunctive is used : Beware lest someready for me by two o'clock. Make ten sentences in which the if^ and ten in which the subjunctive is used. \ That is. if angry after Exercise 73. You should % ftot tell lies. This herb may be met with almost everywhere.. it is possible that zDould have been in his power. foolish one. it is possible that he was in the house. • ' ' ' ' .\\e news. I would have done it if I had If this 'Mere true he would not deny it. not as auxiWary verbs See Seciion XXVIII. Except the Lord Peace be to his ashes.e. is one of the marks of the Subjunctive Mood : — Wju in IV* go. more diligent. He <:('///</ not be kinder if he were vay brother. he He could not do that if he tried. I luouldl were a weaver. It may have been my fault {i. I would givi it to you.Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. If he had heard the news.. he would seriously displease me. If he If he had done it. when there is no reference to any other event. could %\Vig psalms or anything. ha I heai-d \." It is past in form.' &c. It nmy be very strange {i. I south-west blo7ii on ye. You might have won the prize if you had been possible that it was my fault). he would have confessed it. &c). he would take a walk every day. it is but it is quite true. It follows the analogy of ought is indicative. The boys would not be quiet when I begged them to be so. X This use of and the other preterite-present verbs. build the house.'•/// have come U he had wished {i. in the indicative mood must be parsed as notional. and yet it should is peculiar.e. yon zuould help me. ' indicative is used • ' May. have come. If he If he were to make such a reply it -would be very foolish. be ! A Exerciss 77. might be. I luould not believe it. If he did that he If he has betrayed his trust.

Attributive Adjuncts. summing up and repeating its import in a single noun which serves as the antecedent to a relative as. person is or thing meant. the I'ope's Ui^inte. Explain and parse the nouns : in italics in the fallowing examples The general made a vigorous onset on the left of the Hne. and the possessive inflexion is only put after the second of the two nouns. an act which nearly cost him his life." my brother Willi.EXERCISES. He energetically declared that he knew nothing about the matter . 362 -364. In such a phrase as " My brother William's dog. Parse the itaUcs the following He has gone to see liis au. Pan- duir. the following examples. One noun in the possessive is never put in apposition to another. are responsible.el for the defendant argued that there was no case to go before a jury . a — When in the noun is attached without a consaid to be junction to another noun or pronoun. description Apposition.' .* in Exercise sentences : 79. often used to represent the fact stated in a previous senthen stands in a kind of apposition to the sentence.im's must be parsed as a compound proper noun. distinguish them carefully Exercise pronouns in : — • That is. adjuncts are attached to the same noun. The coun-. at the end of the compound name. 211 XXXVII. My brother Robert is expected. Preliminary Lesson. XXXVIII." is A noun tence. to give a more complete of the it. " Pie attempted to ascend the mountain without a guide. Fetch your luide Johii's spectacles. Preliminary Lesson. that is. Exercise 80. came to England. He has alienated even you. It . and to what they are attached.it Jaiu-. an accident for which I apologized. a denial for which I was not prepared. in the possessive case. — Nature and classification of Attributive (§§ Phrases that do the work of Adjectives. and in each case state of what When two or more they consist. a viamxuvre which distracted the enemy's attention from the main attack. but the t>vo nouns are treated as a single cotnpoitnd name. it is in apposition to and same number and words in case. a vieiv which was supported by the summing-up of the judge. You. Adjuncts. I trod upon his corns. depending on ' ' 'dog. provided Dtle case is the nominative or objective.) Point out the attributive adjuncts of nouns and 81. his earliest friend. the author of that report.

His right to the property was disputed. The friends of the prisoner are very rich. verbs. Thus in the above sentences the attributive adjuncts are ' complex attributive adjunct walking in the garden. Vou are to blame. by a hit) He \f. lame. Adjuncts. . You be glad to hear the ne7vs. will : We quickly. He obtained permission to go. Come started early. What X [== for wkat purpose) ntud \vt any further witness? Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that He came (= • in which) I loved it first. He is worthy of your love. across the park. of tills itind may contain a noun which has adjuncts of its own att^ched to it.«£'/j' kind.' ' clothed in a long white robe. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. I have a great deal to say to you. He is [by] a great deal % worse. ' long. and f'ltrascs that attributive adjunct consists of the adjective or participle tixel Iter with nil the words are attached to it. I saw a house to let further on. brother is My A rattling storm came on. constitutes an Adverbial Adjunct. we This is no time for trifling. Give me now leave to leave thee.' t Select from Exercise st all the examples of the Gerundial Infinitive used adverbially. He will be none (= by nothing) the wiser. You are to return I am to take you home. His right to adopt that course was challenged. Madam Sylvia entreated me to call. Where are i?x/ri?. adjectives or other adverbs.212 John's coat . The book is worth a guinea. He is a little better to-day. Leave of absence was refused him.' and ' white ' are adjuncts of the noun robe.Vv good temper. X He left the very day that X{— on 7vhich) I came. He spoke eloquently. cousin Henry died last week. t were talking about your I shall brothtr. That is This is the hour thatX (= at which) the reason tkat\ [=for which) I did it.muchX (i. Adverbial Adjuncts. (§§ — by modifying 370-— 372. Preliminary Lesson. He is worthy of admiration. I am fond of reading. To save time let us walk I was given to tmdeistand that you had left town. He is not a bill better (i. you go away? B. Fearing to be caught in the rain.e. by muck) richer than I am. I am none the worse. borrowed William's big two-bladed knife. are iti fault. returned. It is [by] many degrees j colder. Nature and classification of Adverbial Words and phrases which do the work of Adverbs. Go thctwayX (i. A clothed * We A A XXXIX. man soon reached the top of the mountain.e. In these examples a noun (or substantive pronoun) in the objective.) Exercise 82. IVhy did you Hcru) many persons were there ? find a truer friend ? Vou struck Tom mc with his fist. Do not talk fad. to see We me. Thus 'a.e. a man walking * in the garden. He is in an ««/«/w. He came forth l)ound handX and/c?('/. without a preposition The A ' i before it." &c. fo-morro7V. />y that -way). I see My Tom's pony is in a long white robe came up to me. Whose hat did you take ? I bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. adjective or adverb the adverbial adjuncts in italics in the following sentences are respectively attached A. Collect all the sentences in Exercise 48 which contain adverbial adjuncts. State to what verb. friend in need is a friend indeed. seedy. The prisoner's guilt is manifest.

D. Six frozen 'cuinters spent. He was his bill. will be here to-night. " were talking about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday.* The rest must perish. E. He is not like his sister. I have fought a good fght. quickly. I am fond of riding on horseback. He approached me dagger in hand. had nothing to do. Wait a bit. It rained all see your brother next 'ucck. return with welcome home from banishment. Do wt' the favour of hearing Yl<i \s \\\ie his father. To reign is worth ambition. their great leader slain. be modified by adverbs as well as any other forms of the verb. On reaching home we found that the rest had arrived before us." the words about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday constitute an adverbial adjunct to the verb 'were talking' while to your brother' and yesterday are adjuncts of the verb happened. You are to come home directly. I was asked hrgixen his past offences. were all talking of tiie accident. roiitid. He accompanied us most of the way. What is the matter with you ? He is too ready to take offence. I cannot ride to-day. rained every The wall isjifty feet high. We were told our faults. There is a church a mile distant from the town. The dead were refused burial. are glad to see you. ^^'c 213 d<jy. The cloth is worth a guinea a yard. what I have to say. " Bloodshot The his eye. gave the Iwy a book on his birthday. Housing and saddle bloody red. and then show what words are modified by the subordinate adjuncts which the entire group contains. I will pay you your account soon. \>YOceeA. My object having been attained. It day last week. My pony being lame. than I am. adjective or adverb they are attached :— . Thus in. He prayed for a displeased with your conduct. I am not disposed to sell the horse. first Exercise We . sentences state of what they consist.' 84:. the troops withdrew. The battle oz'er. Pass nie the salt. This flower blooms all the year barefoot." adjuncts. and to what verb. The horses being exhausted we covXd no\. I They walked He advanced cap in hand. live in constant fear. He built a wall ten feet thick. He slept an untroubled sltep. You are spending your time to no purpose. I will paint jjv« a picture. I am content to be silent. He is a year older They arrived yesterday. C. his nostrils spread. ' ' ' ' ' ' We * \ Come more Add Gerunds started very early.iy examples all those in Exercise iq which contain an Indirect Object. Do not talk so fast. He was paid Point out the adverbial adjuncts in the following Exercise 83. I am satisfied. F. We cannot live our lives over again.EXERCISES. I They speedy deliverance. I shall went to the theatre last nig/tt. am much We We We We Why . He spoke unusually well. Lord Marmion's steed rushed by. He was promised a rocking-horse. loose rein dangling from his head. this question. . t I shall be glad to to these ra. In the case of the following complex adverbial point out to what the oitire group of words is attached. did you say that ? \N here were you on duty last night ? He comes here every day.

(See §§ 370— 372. I see him most days. 4). Every evening next week is engaged. except those in the absolute construction. Every cvfuiug the day. I am looking at the man standing with his t)ack to of going to the theatre.2 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. What is called the Cognate Object is really one kind of adverbial objective. I am fond hear of your safe arrival. i. fuss What is the use of all this shot a great quantity of game on the moor. the half of every day in bed. 2\ that is. The master praised the boy at the top of the class. carefully distinguishing the adverbial objective from the other uses of that case : pay you next ivtrk. I will We We We . He is not prone to We rely on your promise. made up . XL. haviour. Papa goes to London every (fay. which must (now) be parsed as being in the nominative absolute. Parsing Exercise 87. He spends every other day in London. He spends have lost half sat up half the night. mind what he was about. about the matter? I am delighted to see you in good health. I must express my displeasure at your befond of the pastime of angling. We shall spend next tveck in London. We were The advantages of travelling in foreign counvexed by his rudeness to you. The place abounds in good Do you see that man on horseback? He has given up riding water to drink. You have displeased me l)y your behaviour. I cannot walk a step farther. He shouted to the boys at the top of his voice. the window. are attributive adjuncts. He gave hnii his best wine to drink. of Adverbial Adjuncts.e. In the following examples show which of the phrases of a preposition and a noun do the work of an adjective (see § 362. the Objective Case used adverbially). Reliance on his promises behaviour of this kind. He is too feeble to make adhered to his determination to make the attempt. Make a dozen sentences in which a^ preposition followed by a noun or pronoun forms an attributive adjunct. Exercise 85. in adverbial phrases. by unflagging industry. We arrived an He was in too much haste to hour too late.) Parse the words in italics in the following sentences.. I am greatness. Most days are joyless to me. and a dozen in which it forms an adverbial adjunct. He is a man of great industry. arc engaged wc have a rubber.e. He escaped by leaping over the ditch. must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective Case (i. You should do your best to repair your fault by working harder. the attempt. Nouns occurring and not go- verned by prepositions. He Exercise 86. What is my duty to my neighbour? He is useless. A man addicted to self-indulgence will not rise to He is fond of angling. on horseback. are adverbial adjuncts and show to what word each is attached. That is a good stream for angling. and which do the work of an adverb (see § 370. Do your duty to him. He accomplished the task tries are very great. He did nothing towards helping me out of my difficulties.

Both brothers were All those present present. Who only son. We have wasted half the day. Do comes next ? He has lost his We _what you please. I feel soniewhat indisposed. ' It means it is X II ' • Enough may be a substantive. You must go. t We have not enough to eat. my soul till I am ezh-nd with him. The rest must perish.vky and the loherefore of everything. for you are sent for. Some twenty persons were present. ' either 'besides. but that he fears me less. 54). You must spend less money.' adjective. He need not be afraid.sus. He bought three score sheep {\\ 362. There were a dozen men there. Less . Either road is difficult.' or 'otherwise. Exercise 89. Others may believe it. Lead I cannot count the times I have told him that twenty times. left iiixt ([ay. He takes the medicine every three hours {\\ 173. these sayings. They have bread enough and to spare. I have not told you one //rtZ/'of what was said. He even insulted me to my face. You may break him. a certain number of mei:' . I have not tnuch time. every evening next the ' 215 iveek. He would liave said fno7-e if I had not stopped him. I will both lay me down in peace and sleep heard it. We have other things to attend to. Come this way. 2 . sir. Intt you will never bend him. All is lost. He knows most about the matter. Give him more air. He must needs pass through Samaria He told me much of what liad happened. 55 . Be 'iVell assured of that. that I have told him that. He spoke to all but me. paying special attention to the constructions that are not obviously consistent with the rules: The multitude were of one mind (§ 376). It is not that he loves me more. He knows something about it. They gave us trouble enough. There was but a minute to spare. need in this business ? What ! Did you not get my letter ? He wants to know the 7. Parse the following sentences. He lived a hundred years (§ 362. Some men (i. I have somrwhat to say unto thee. ' Exercise 88. He sat up all night. They sent for you. Parse "but 'in the last sentence. You are sent for. What shall we do next? He sat next meat dinner. There is no one /'«/ pities him. we started. I do not believe cither's account of the matter. Nothing can or shall content It is an ez'en chance. I never drink either beer or wine. He is all powerful at court. their great leader slain. He I am mueh pleased with you. We went over dry fooi. else"^ he would not look so mysterious. All save one perished. but Some here is not an adverb.' never an adjective. 2).e.than that would have been enough. He lived ten years there. wavThe horses having been harnessed. He needs strict oversight. It came to pass about an eight days after. His needs will be well supplied. I have nobody else to look to. Why! he is as rich as Croe. only be quick about it.EXERCISES. It was built some % ten years ago. I would do it but that I am forbidden. He will have the expense and the trouble besides. have only four shillings left. 471). Well. The battle was fought on this || * Else + ' is always a mere adverb. It is usually an adverb ' Some' had better be taken as an namely twenty. but I cannot. I am //'?// inclined to believe it. and what did you do What need we any further witness ? What shall we next ? I am not 7vell. Both John and I were present. tences Parse the words in italics in the following sen- :— He will have the expense besides all the trouble.

terrified rich old uncle has left him a large estate in Yorkshire.i If the subject be the interrogative ' who.it. tired with intends to sell it. The passengers are side* the river. of a preposition that by the whole of what it stands (or. . Preliminary Lesson. II ' ' ' Divide the following sentences in a similar way . He passed six months aboard the ship. subject.' it had better come first . king with the Lords and Commons form the legislature {\ 377)' Who ' XLI. ran away at full speed. and must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective. Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that % down {S/iaksp. is I an adverbial adjunct. The horse. between the Difference Nature of a siinple sentence. Macb.' being here the representative of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition. When will return to town ? Stibj. Does your uncle the doctor know of this? Went not my spirit with thee ? Wlience did the author of that book get his materials ? Who in the world told you that? Why did you send the poor man away ? How many shillings have you in your purse ? • There is no occasion to supply ' of. The construction wiirsometimes be clearer in the priinary division. + To jiarse quickly replace 'I'h. Divide the following sentences and the logical predicate : into the logical This naughty child has torn his clothes. ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES. A The play. The i'oys came home child has hurt himself. Leave the room I must see him. appetite that J he sits this instant.2l6 . Exercise § 90. by the lightning. I. Full many a flower is born to blush miseen. Your brother.).'"' may be put first. f all on board the ship. The John's parents have sent him to school. divided. " When will your brother return to town. The children. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 3. My little brother has fallen ilown. if the predicate be Thus. exercises may be taken for practice in parsing as well as S The examples in the following ' ' We ' ' ' m analysis. logical Subject and Predicate. Questions may be divided in a similar inanner.).' P7-cd. and see § 2S1.' have an adverbial phrase a.ssuming the function Compare the following sentences. and that quickly. Simple Sentences. last night. friends of that little boy have sent him to sea. and the grammatical — Subject and Predicate. The owner of that estate fJismayed at the prospect they beat a retreat. riseth from a feast with that keen. The I loved it first' (/(/. came indoors.

barn (The) (impudent) fellow (not being satisfied with my alms) began to abuse me. So in Milton." 'Therefore' is not aeonjunction. (My brother John's) pony (A) man (carrying a great sack of flour) came into the has broken his leg.' Grammatically you can make nothing of afraid but an adjective. Thus from " ha\e already heard the news. You will by these very stop his proceedings. ''His meek aspect.' or any confusion between participles and verbal nouns. (Disgusted t by so many acts of baseness) (the man's) friends (all) deserted hhn. died at their posts. poor little brother's) (pet) bird was shot. The field is already being reaped. simple means He has in the Exercise 92. In analysis and ^aisxu^ grammatical /'or}n is the The point in question has nothing to do with any servile imitation of Latin essential thing Grammar.' and because they were disAdjectives may be used in the same way. dependent sentence beginning with a demonstrative often occurs where the sense implies grammatical connection. 'lake the following sentences and put with the subject in each the ivhole of tlie verb that belongs to it. (The) (Chubb's) (patent) lock \\. titere/otc have I spoken. gusted. and state in which the each case of ' In the first few sentences the words or groups of words forming separate adjuncts are enclosed in brackets. though the same notion o{ because clings to the expression. John's account of the affair alarmed me. The brave soldiers of the garrison The old church has fallen into ruins rich old uncle left him his property horseman. wrapped in a huge cloak. The work will very proliahly be finished before night. I have been all the morning trying to make out this problem.o my desk) has been (Despairing t of success) ke picked. The component parts of a compound tense are often separated by the intrusion of adverbial adjuncts. We shall in due time know all about it.EXERCISES. The handle of the pump in the yard is broken. entered the yard. and yet they often involve an advcrhial force . the leader halted. (Good) water (for drinking) was scarce. because he despaired of success. I shall most likely hear from you lo-morrow. silent. in grammatical subject is enlarged (see what the enlargement consists. (This) law. (the (My (The) house (on the other side of disgrace of our statute book) was repealed." We We We shall soon reach our destination. I had at last with infinite trouble surmounted the difficulty.' 'Afraid of being betrayed into an ambuscade. an int The grammaticalfonit of a sentence often lags behind its logical hiifort. abandoned the undertaking. the street) is on fire. Thus. Make (or find) dozen sentences § 388). yet spake. as '' I believed.' So participles and participial phrases are (grammatically speaking) attributiz'c adjuncts ." Here silent means although it was silent. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . meaning for that reason. Which boy knows his lessons? What poet's works please you most? What goods are most in A A demand ? What naughty little boy broke the window a ? Exercise 93. without the other words. * and separate the grammatical subject and its adjuncts (My) (poor) (little) brother has hurt himself. most unfau' manner been deprived of his rights."' take " have heard. He is of all enchantingly beloved.' but grammatically it is nothing more than an adjective. 217 Exercise 91. Take the following sentences logical subject in each into the in the way shown in § 490. but a demonstrative adverb. as here.

My . 'amusing'. much money will be enough for you? What foolish notion possesses you? A little girl's voice was heard in the garden. the several adverbial adjuncts of the predicate in each. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. Considering his age he has done pretty his steps. Veryll few men could have done that. To see the construction properly. Thus ended a war * of ten years' My We Whom This ended that most unpleasant business. Account. You say so to tease me. collect contiibutions. did you see at the concert ? The girl is admired by everybody. 'An'. Remember that 'how' is an adverb.-iko care in the analysis not to separate attributive words from the adverbial adjuncts that may be attached to them. praised the boy at the top of the class. and the several Thus John sent to us an amusing attributive adjuncts of the object._. C II I. cousin arrived last night. write down : Take the sentences in the last three exercises. horse fell down the head.n follows the verb. 96. were strenuously advised to turn back.2lS ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Who spoke last ? Whom did you hear at church this morning? Hoping to find an easier road. hill stinds a stone cross. 2. absence ? I desire nothing more ardently. 4. . He sent his hat round to rapidl)' turned round in the direction of the report. A large dog's bark was ^^ || * Mind that the subject very ohe. sentence with the next. To do this jiroperly requires time. I saw the occurrence That lazy boy did not go out of doors all the through a gap in the wall. The master I saw a soldier on horseback. f I met some gipsies in my ramble. On the top of the in the road. Separate the following sentences into two groups. Exercise 94. Howl! well at the examination.you heard the news? Have those little boys finished their morning.e. one consisting of those in which there is a grammatical object of the predicate verb. the other consisting of those in which there is not a grammatical object. 3. Then take the sentences in the first group and set down separately the object of the verb in each.^ work ? Everybody admires John's little sister. has a subject. T Observe th. We We Exercise 95. The boys have been forbidden to enter the orchard. duration. § In questions the subject is often so placed as to break the predicate (when it is a compound form of the verb) into two parts. He Have you read this author's last us a droll story about his brother. 'of the proadjuncts of Object: ceedings.' Object : Attributive account of the proceedings. My brother Henry told me J that. Crying Latin exercises during my To act thus will displease his father. Down came the rain. we left our companions How did you find your way ? He used a stick to support at the brid.^t this phrase does not show where the act of seeing touk place. He had the impudence to tell me to hold my tongue. and Exercise sentences Give the complete analysis of the following Every finite verb in a sentence John's account of the affair alarmed me. They shook the depths of the desert gloom with their hymns of holy chter. Have. give the complete ansiver to the question.' : — — ' told were greatly amused by his story. t Contrast this Look at \ 370. will not help you out of the difficulty. The man struck the poor little boy on The boys were rewarded for their diligence." i.

subjects Exercise 93. your spirits wildly peep.' The phrase objective) absolute. He found his brother We have bought a pretty little calf a month old.ittributive and adverbial.}: man talks! Which [horse] of these horses is to be sold? He eats his food like § a hog. Teach me He was taught Greek (§ 372) by his uncle. XLII. Thus. Brother left. I. a melancholy band. We arrived. 4. desire? Whom did you find walkiuij in the ijaiden? Whose umbrella did you take? Whose exercise has the fewest faults? The poor man's wife died He fell liead foremost into the ri\er. in weakest bodies. We had a purpose to be his purveyor. Take the following pairs of subjects and verbs and btild up sentences by putting in objects.EXERCISES.' The dead were refused burial (§ 372). against the owl. originally formed a nominative (or Look at \ 370. dress My cousin's were sold by auction. his silver skin laced with his golden Vjlood. the words in Exercises 94 and 96. .' you may make Men of weak character. Boy lost. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. strongest works. came. " This He died a happy death. Forth at your eyes. 498 — 500). Give me* a cup of tea. is here an adverb. What more do you wrath may find some wor^e way to our destruction. thy statutes. " Take thee * stei^. Horse threw. Some ladies' dresses . Here shall be done a deed of dreadful return interrupted our game note. her young ones in her nest. from Men rob. Loaf was bought. X Look. of scusj as 'train' or 'instruct-' ' ' ' II ' ' teach'' having Lhc same kind . Man struck. 'Ago' is a shortened form of 'agone. Theie by Duncan. ' !Ex:sr3ise 97.' ' ' Birds Sister build.ike ? Hero man had better be taken as the direct object. Who ever experienced anything like kindness at his hands? Who but a fool would talk like that ? What have you done with the money? What arrant nonsense that foolish was torn. They advanced step by last nigh'.' 'Teach erring man|| to spurn the rage of gain. he sat. and objects. — Nature (§§ Incomplete Predication 391 i§§ — 396). and construction of Verbs of Moile of analysing sen- tences in which they occur * \ 493. that too I told you* all that an Jiour agot. Prcliininary Lesson. I return you * my best thanks. they move. and enlarging the subjects. The Downward poor wren will fight. Men found. Ship carries. with as many adjuncts. Children went. led astray by temptation. Make a dozen other sentences and verbs of your own chooiing. soinetimes rob their unsuspecting friends shamefully. Parse all in a similar way with Exercise 99. His lying fast asleep. predicates. at § 371. heard in the distance 219 The tall lady's An empty bird's silk nest was found. Conceit. said. as you can. where they are wanted.

He grew rich suddenly.220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. that when the brains were out. When it is not accompanied by a complement of some sort. Analyse the following sentences containing ObjecComplements of verbs of incomplete predications {^ 391. (See § 374. He is considered a pretty good player. He is named John.Kamples : Such things have been. prisoner guilty. ready. When the state that is the result of the action is denoted. The We are the man would die. imprudent. He is not thought a fool. Parse the preceding sentences. He became my friend.' {iV. He called the man a liar. § Exarcise 101. He felt tired. He was wounded by an arrow. He is an honest man. He became very rich in a short time. In accordance with 393 (which see) account for the case of the complement either by saying that the verbs be. They entered laughing. deem this step very This measure rendered the plot abortive. tive Exercise 103. He cfjnsidcrs this course expedient.' ' an action. Analyse the following sentences containing SubjecComplements of verbs of Incomplete Predication — : are honest. They We you in this. the participle that follows is merely an adjective' of quality.B.) tion of ' Point out carefully the various uses of the verb in the following e. He is going away. He is my cousin's friend. The verb to be is a verb of incomplete predication it is employed in making a compound tense of a verb in either the active or the passive voice. I think him clever. In such cases the compound form denotes the performance. I am sure of pleasing He is insane. as He is going I was saying He is gone He was struck. I pronounce the wine We We . the continuance.' &c. The jury pronounced the consider him a fine player.. I am in doubt about that.' become. He was called a fool for his pains.' ' .) ' ' Exercise 102. or the comple- when ' . He stood silent (see § 391). The boy was blamed for that.— An adverb or adverbial phrase is not a complement. He stood rubbing his eyes. The poor soldier is badly wounded. We were delighted by the concert. He was called an enthusiast by his friends. That appears very plausible. I am deliglited to see you. 395) : He painted the wall white. take the same case after them as before them. it is usually called an Auxiliary Verb. The dog ran away howling. He made us all merrj'. He sat twiddling his thumbs. sweet. She looks very pretty. I am trying to do it. The air feels keen. The boys rushed shouting into the playground. or (as it is sometimes called) the verb of exist jncc. to be is a verb of complete predication. The poor man was starve 1 to death. They made Henry king. or (better) by saying that the complement is in the predicative relation to the subject. You have made your hands dirty.' ' . Where are you ? Where have you been all the morning ? is He in the parlour. The children are half starved. The wine tastes got quite tired. time has been.' But when used to form a tense of another verb. tive Exercise 100. The prisoner was pronounced guilty of homicide. This delay is trying to our patience. He was elected Emperor.

In sentences like '• How am I to do it ?" •' You are to be quiet. I canThey . and in the attributive relation to the noun which is the object of the verb. He ought to pay me. are supposed to have lost their way. They urged us to come. t In many of these constructions. You might have found an easier way. Analyse the following sentences containing Infinitive Complements. I will depart. He directed the man to wait.the condition of that which is spoken about.) They can haste. Show where the complementary infinitive has itself a complement.EXERCISES. I do so long to see him. I We sing. That may perhaps be true. They invited us to come. He ought not to do this. was bidden to stand aside. Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests. They besought us to come to their help. That looks pretty. He is not to be endured. or to its complement. Indeed [ did not say so. He is believed to have perished. complements are in reality in the Objective Relation to the verbs of incomplete J These predication. . It grieved me sore. They may take the money return shortly. The stones have made my lect * In parsing an infinitive mood of this sort it must be described as the complement of the verb of incomplete predication. He set Let us pray. He instructed the man to wait. 221 He made the bear dance.^ (See § 396. I forbid you to touch that. * He made his horse canter. He has travelled far and wide. These secontive dary complements. have a good scolding. The cry sounded clear and shrill. That He was ordered to sit down. excellent. He told the man to wait He asked me to come.) Show carefully whether adverbial adjuncts are to be attached to the verb cf incomplete predication. in which the subjeccomplement is a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 394). Nothing could be more unfortunate. This kind of life to was considered He is believed to be mad. the audience laughing. as well as the primary ones. step be very imprudent. His voice sounded feeljle. I We must make must go home. Exercise 105. Exercise 104. The bell sounded cracked. will They may be answered. The people wept sore. this gerundial infinitive is scarcely distinguishable from an adverbial adjunct expressing purpose. You ought to be more cautious. That cannot be allowed. He ordered the man to wait. He bade the man wait. They have not made the street wide enougii. They He is thought to have poisoned the man. Parse the preceding sentences. (See § 493. His voice sounded feebly. Analyse the following sentences. carefully distinguishing those cases in which a verb is followed by a complejiicnt from those in which it is followed by an adverbial adjimct. Exercise 103. Exercise 107. Analyse the following sentences." the infinitive is certainly adverbial. write well. See whether the word in question denotes. its complement. or the manner in which an action is done. shall You can be rewarded.-hall not hear you. are in the predicative Do not confound the object of a verb with relation to the subject. He spoke loud.

Complex Objective Phrases. heard the man say so. having the preceding noun or pronoun in the objective case as its subject.1 preposition. XLIV. or provisional subject." that there is found the man dead.' and represented provisionally by 'it. The task go to Ireland. I expectedt the travellers to be here by this fault ? being in The duke will time. remembering that the conjunction that does not enter into the structure of the clause which it introduces. When 'it' is employed as a temporary. See note on § 395.* Preliminary Lesson. clauses (§§ — Nature. The whisper came soft sounds clear. I liket a knave to meet with his deserts. + Notice that the meaning of this verb is quite complete in itself. Her voice clear.amc . Exercise 108. set it down as such. He rubbed his This delay will make us late. ' In constructions of this sort the verb in the infinitive mood may be parsed as being the verb in an objective infinitive phrase. and place after it the substantive clause as the real subject. feltt the air fan my cheek. The whole of the following phrase is the object of it. It is too late forj the was too difficult forij: him to hope to succeed. face sore. Exercise 109. ' ' . I believet the man to be innocent. and structure of substantive 401—405). He rubbed his face hard. The water runs clear. The wind sits fair forj news to travellers to arrive to-night. I I never grant this forfeiture to hold. and low to our ears. t Here llu Infinitive phrase is governed by . Analyse the substantive clauses separately. late. Substantive Clauses. &. ' * These objective complements distinction infinitive phrases are often scarcely distinguishable from infinitive moods but it will be seen on consideration that there is the £. The water is frozen hard. They came XLIII. Complex Sentences. Preliminary Lesson. but that interrogative words do. I have heard Have you ever known+ the man confess trees.' In that case the analysis of the sentence will of course be different. between ' He made used as kind of the child cry ' ' between ' He made the rpan angry and ' He and He saw the child fall.<Sed as the (real) subject of chaunced.c. In the following sentences a substantive clause (or noun-sentence. form. In the example given in § 547 it is quite possible that we ought to regard 'this proud Sarazin to meete me as an infinitive phrase of the same kind u. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Analyse the bcntences in the mode indicated in § 515. as it is often termed) is the subject. [people] say that he is very rich. We wishf you to come to-morrow.222 sore. Analyse the following sentences containing ob- jective infinitive phrases — He heardt the wind roar through the I saw the thief try to pick a gentleman's pocket. The bird sang The ship passed clear of the rock. — Study : § 397. being either pronouns or adverbs. The trees whispered soft and low.

I thought it J strange that he should leave without calling on me. How completely you are What signifies what weather we have ? mistaken can easily be shown. note. It is very probable ihat he will not arrive not true that he said so. I am hopeful that he will soon get better. ' The that this It often does duty as a temporary or provisional object. I want to know when this old happened. 223 Before analysing the sentences in this and the succeeding Exercises. ' ' . Advise if§ this be worth attempting. That he said so is undeniable. How I found the matter out is no concern of yours. it to be a disgrace that he had so utterly failed. Tell him I cannot see him to-day. I know that handwriting. draw a Une * under the entire set of words which form the substantive clause. ' ' . like a nominative iS 404). Methought the ? It was only yester- Methinkst move. See § 403 and § 244. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. with all the adjuncts that may be attached to either of these. Who How long I shall stay here is uncertain. It is to-day. it is Thence that I to your assistance do It is how rich he is ? a question how far make love. Was on Tuesday that Exercise 110. What does it signify he was justified in that proceeding. day that I saw him. it Anon methought he went away JNlethinks he hath no drowning mark upon billows spoke. Tell me what you think of all this. Smith? you are. puzzles me. I shall succeed. Deal with it as in the case of t that is. Tell me how the honour of addressing Mr. I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night. (See § 512. and then the subject substitute that clause for the it. He made it a condition that I should become security for the payment. or of a phrase equivalent to a would come. What we are to do next is the question." § ' If has here the force of whether*. that he knew We Exercise 111. t The introductory conjunction that' is often omitted. I tliink I have Tell me who told you. or noun-sentence. the wood began to him. or comes after a preposition participle. The circumstance that he was present must not be disregarded.) That he did the deed is quite certain. He is confident that are resolved that that shall not occur again. stantive clause transitive verb I is : Analyse the following sentences in which a sub" the object of a verb. The idea that I can comply with his request fact that * To those who are acquainted with my larger grammar I need hardly observe mode of marking sentences has not been borrowed from the later works of others. first analyse the sentence without the substantive clause. or is used absolutely with a absolute : you say so is enough for me. Analyse the following sentences in which a substantive clause is in apposition to a noun. unless it has a subject and a finite verb.EXERCISES. He told me he knew all about the matter. He felt Try how far you can jump. thinks. can have told you that. remembering that you have not got a complete substantive clause. What his capacity is signifies nothing. It is uncertain what the result will be. I heard that he had arrived. Try if you can decipher that letter. It does not matter what he It is uncertain how long I shall stay.

Analyse the following sentences ' ' : (= on the condition) that you are back by " For nothing hold me so it please thee hold {i.' It is often used without any adverbial force. I convinced him that he was mistaken. For that I love your daughter. He could not get rid of the idea that I was his enemy. in which the SubClause forms an Adverbial Adjunct to a verb or adjective (like the Latin accusative of limitatioti. or closer definition). ENGLISH GRAMMAR.' Is he a captain? He is sfl 'He is a fool. we shall know what to do.' The ' . I came on the chance that I might find you at home.e. Who ! The word so is only a substantive demonstrative pronoun t used adverbially. Oh yet I do repent me of my fury that I did kill them. go on without me..dertook the business in the expectation that he would help me. can want the thought how monstrous it was for Malcolm and for Donalbain to kill their gracious father ? He sent me word that he would come anon. not brought your brother." "So please my lord {i. He is desirous that I should return. There was a rumour that the army had been defeated.." § That is I am sorry on this account. it may have a substantive clause in apposition to it. I would not believe the story but that you avouch it. and so strengthened form 'as' (also. co. In case* you should see him. lie did this to the end that lie ni^^h. I am content.i2 4 is alisurJ. Provided this report be confirmed. Transitive verbs govern an object. In case I am not there.' + ' ' ' * ' I drank a pint or so his is brother. I am certain that he never said so. bring him with you.' of wine. Provided that he consents. which may be described as an objective adjunct to the noun. I am persuaded that that is the wiser course. but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money gratis." You may go where you like so ' ) Exercise 112. see no sign that the fever stantive Analyse the following sentences. 'on the condition that it please my lord to quit the fine. Being essentially a substantive. There is no fear that he will fail. t 'I'hat is. not because they are predicative words. I hate him for he is a Christian. I will undertake the business. He has obtained my consent that he should go to college. I Ui. We welcomed these indications that spring was near. or as regards this. in which an inaccompanied by an interrogative word supplies the place of a substantive clause beginning with an interrogative finitive : Note the omission of ' that. Nouns that do this may have a substantive clause after them. ' I convinced him 7vtt/t respect to tliis point. Exercise 114. regard) that dinner time. but because they denote a tt'ansitive action. nothing me a something dear to thee. ? 165) often has a pronominal force.t'. I must advance the colours of my love.' ' Analyse the following sentences I : is abating. That is a proof that he knows nothing about the matter. % I <im sorry that you are not well. Analyse the following sentences. \ We are glad that you have come at last. as in I told you so.ivlnce me. We are disappointed that you have Exercise 113. That depends upon how you did it.

Do you know I saw the captain in whose ship you will sail. What sad talk was that wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. Whereon (=: on which) forms an adverbial adjunct to ride. — Nature. The difficulty is how to get there. parsed as a compound adverb. Underline the adjective clauses in each of the following sentences. X See § 165. and a dozen in which it is omitted. • Remember that the Adjective Clause must contain a subject and a finite verb of its own. and lastly analyse the adjective clause separately* : serpent that did sting thy father's life. 411.. now wears his crown. In me thou seest the twilight of such day. . Thy food shall be husks wherein the acorn cradled. Unto l)ad causes swear such creatures as+ men doubt. The rest {i. As' must be treated as equivalent to a relative pronoun. Ihrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.Supply the relatives which are omitted in the sen- tences in Exercise 62.e. He had many heavy burdens to bear. Where to get puzzles nie. Thou speak'st to such a man that is no Vou fleering tell-tale. and then analyse them. as. ' ' ' ' as it is is in the attributive relation to § The clause the complentent of the predicate in its own clause. You are welcome to my help. Make (or find) a dozen sentences containing adjective clauses in which the relative is expressed. ' ' ' help. I know not how to thank you to How the money sufficiently. to do next. the pressure of which nearly crushed him. 116.' It must be t See § 162. — Adjective Preliminary Lesson tive Clauses. 413). This cloth is not such [cloth] as I asked for. He never knows when to go. Deal in a similar way with the sentences in Exer- Exercise 117. repose ') is labour which is not used for you. Exercise 118.]. will soon find such peace wliich it is not in the power of the world to give. XLV. I am considering what I know not where to get food. 225 do it is the difficulty. then analyse the entire sentence. His behaviour is not such [Ijehaviour] as I like. The ' Exercise cise 61. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul. and construction of Adjec- Clauses (§§ 406 Exercise 115. the gentleman to whom this park belongs ? Infected be the air whereon t they ride. I taught him how to do it.EXERCISES. Analyse the following sentences in which the Adjective Clauses have a Relative Adverb in place of a Relative Pronoun governed by a Preposition (§ 406). form. and then analyse the sentences. such as§ it is. after sunset fadeth in the west. I have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love asj I was wont to have.' and the quasi-relative ' as ' is .

or treat the clauses as Adjective Clauses used substantively (§ 408). ' Exercise 123. and tJiis. " It (the person) " It (the — ' 'The handle towards my . and then parse the sentences : Repeat what you have just said. Go.' &c.* ? Who that thus cried It is a dagger which j Analyse the sentences in Exercise 65. must not dictate to me what I am to do.' 'where. clause. is..so. was the owl. is. He knows well enough what he ought to do. Exercise 120. was John. The pronouns 'who' and 'which. Return to the place whence you came. The word what sometimes introduces an adjective and sometimes an indirect question. He soon repented of what he had done. Exercise 122. Make (or find) a dozen sentences illustrating each use of what. Exercise 119." creature) that shrieked. was John who said so. I'his is what he did.236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Analyse the following sentences.' and analyse them. Pray tell me what ails you. that. the handle towards my hand ? That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold. having a relative force." clause 'which hand' is attached to this. f was it the eye of cliildhood that fears a painted devil. Do what you can in this business. carefully distinguishing the subtantive clauses from the adjective clauses. You may supply the suppressed antecedents. You have only told me what I know I know what you said about me. I will show you the shop where I bought these apples. It was the owl that shrieked. and find out what is the already. Do you know the source whence he obtained this information? The fortress whither the defeated troops had fled was soon captured.' and the pronominal adverbs 'when. Was that your brother who knocked at the door? Is that a scar that you have on your hand? It was a gun-shot that killed him. are saying. The reason why you cannot succeed is evident.' a nominative absolute belonging to the adjective clause. ' ' Analyse the following sentences. in which the Adjective Clauses are attached to (and explain) the neuter demonstrative It pronouns it. You matter. which is a substantive What is interrogative when it cannot be replaced by that which (§ 409). eitlier Exercise 121. ' ' clause. That is precisely what he ought to have done. * t That That ' t Tlie adjective hand is who said . . when used as the equivalents of relative pronouns governed by prepositions. I cannot make out what you I do not understand what you are saying. I can remember the time when there were no houses here. have the same twofold use the adverbs. Is this I see before me.

In London he made the acquaintance of my brother.' as a relative. where we parted company. what few vain marbles can.' ai)d joining the clause whei) I see you to the predicate ' wilj ' We ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' tejh' . Clauses (§§ Adverbial Sentences. while. Tell me where he is. never has an antecedent expressed.* after execution. Being shown into a grand apartment. modifying the verb 'see. then you know that till you told me. Next day they renewed the fight. X Which is the object of denying. Exercise 128. have no such force. See where* he looks out of the window. and then analyse these \ clauses separately I will tell secret'l were a man. 416). I knew when* seven justices could not take I have seen when.' to which a substantive clause beginning with 'that' was in apposition. till. way with the sentences in Exercises XLVI. before. in a similar Exercise 125.Prdbninary Lesson. whom he visited frequently. I could not make out whom he was alluding to. first underlining you the Analyse (and parse) the following sentences. have an adverbial construction in their own clavises. That is why* I am angry. tjonoiirable ladies sought my love. While he is here we * In the analysis supply an antecedent no'in. not know when quarrel. Analyse the following sentences. form. after the Adverbial Clauses. Tell me where Tell me why you are so angry. 'when' should be described as a connective adverb. — Nattire. That is where* I live. ' : — matter will re-word. That is why* I did it. but that the Conjunctions after. I do they will arrive. While has nothing to do with the relative pronoim. S have here a nominative absolute. which I denying. when I see you. but as independent sentences as though and with a. which he read. you live. up a Exercise 124. This modest stone. In parsing a sentence of this kind. That is howt he always treats me. It is an old noun meaning 'time. May truly say. . when a loud clap of thunder warned us to quicken oiir steps. judgment hath repented o'er his doom. Sic. treating the clauses containing a relative not as adjective clauses. demonstrative pronoun were substituted for the relative (§ 413) ' . Analyse the following sentences : 227 Find out who did that. &c. I delivered my letter. and structure of Adverbial 414—435). which madness would gambol from. Deal 63 and 65.' § Remember that the conjimction or pronominal adverbs when. which lasted till the evening..EXERCISES. I did not shall have no peace. ' Here lies an honest man. Adverbial Clauses relating to Time (§ 1.' By this tune we had traversed half the distance. ivhere. j they fell I the sick and died. How. forming an adverbial adjunct io/eli. When you durst do it. Whom we raise we will make fast. ivhithcr. We travelled together as far as Paris. The omission of that gave to while a conjunctive force.

I must believe it. He so It weak is stand.So' and the clause nrst ' The as ' is disclose' are co-ofdinate adverbial adjuncts of 'rose. more. Exercise 127. He do not always write as we pronounce.' the ' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of wider. He came He toils hard that he may get rich. He is asj : avaricious as his brother is generous. you go.' How ' is a relative or connective adverb modifying far. he followed Seat yourselves wherever there is room.) The first modifies 'higher'. Analyse and parse the following sentences Where thou dwellest. I will dwell. Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner and Degree (§ 418).' as the tree falls are co-ordinate . Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause. me. the village preacher's modest mansion rose. sot it will lie. the more he wants. He still Adverbial Clauses relating to Place (§ 417). as good as she is beautiful. How We 4. Exercise 128. therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice. The§ higher you climb. left the room as I 1 shall be gone before you are up. • 'There' and /he clause 'where ' + t . ' ' ' — _ clause. the second relative. He retired to his about that matter. the prospect. into temptation. Since you say so. the less I like him. Because Thou hast been my help. Do as I tell you [to do].2 28 • ENGLISH GRAMMAR.adverbial adjuncts of will lie.' Each modifies the adjective in its demonstrative. I will forgive him. Analyse and parse the following sentences : because I sent for him. please. She is star shooteth from the sk)-. is care that soil all be ready.' and joining the adverbial clause (which is co-ordinate with so ') to the second far. : I will follow you. the second modifies 'wider. Wherever lay where he fell. because then it can do no harm. Take I I called own room lest on him that I might tell him that he might study quietly. that he cannot so dark tl>at we cannot see. we had left plague [be] upon signifies asking. Ho\v|| far the substance of my praise doth wrong this a bright shadow. Analyse and parse the following sentences As the tree falls. He such a liar that nobody believes him. As he lias begged my pardon. Take heed ye fall am tired that I is am ready to drop.' . Ex3rcise 129. You may come whenever you 2. so glides he in the night from Venus' eye. When I am determined I always listen to The fool is happy that he knows no reason.' 11 The demonstrative 'so' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' 'tired. the second demon§ Here the main clause is the second one. I'll charm there's not a soul to give you an answer? arrived after the air to give a sound while you peiform your antic round. I cannot tell you his age. and Consequence (§ 421—423). There. The more he has. Whithersoever I went. so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. strative. for I do not know it. Purpose. when thieves cannot be true to one another. always does as he promises [to do]. A when He He entered.* where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. The second (See § 420. ' The first the' is relative. What it.' the clause explaining the indefinite meaning of the. 3. the wider will be The longer I know him. He is aware that I did not come.

wliat he will [say] he will ne\ er convince me. I am not afraid of in the wife. XLVII. shall be counselled I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this. he never pleases tiie man. Were you my brother I could not do it for you. \ Co!d is in reality the complement of the preJicite. this day shall gentle his condition. Whatever may be the consequence. whatever one does [find] of the family Cold§ as it is.EXERCISES. — Exercise 130.' in apposition 'o the adverb 'so. Underline the clauses in the way shown in § 514 and in the first few sentences : He said i) he would return 2) the book when he had read ^ (i).' ' II If ' is omitted J 434. 4. Big as he is. I cu|i of sack be my poison.' but an attributive adjunct t Mind that ' ' ' ' ' of the verbal noun han:^in. 1 would have finished the work had it been . possible.' which is in reality a substantive pronoun used adverbially. _' when your (2) father died. he cannot succeed without industry. j I shall not believe him.^ »_„^ Tell i) _ it. . him. 229 5. You will not succeed unless you try harder. Do not confound tn. first treating the substantive clause as a whole.s construction with that of such a sentence as ' I believe whatever he J Aiialyse th. I will not come your address." he construciinn in this and the following sentences is very peculiar. J will do Whatever he may say. Complex Subordinate Clauses. me how (I)- old you were 2) J. You will see him though 1 shall not [see him]. Ex3rcis3 131. In the following sentences a substantive clause contains a subordinate clause within it.. But ^' i) that my foot slipped 2) as I tui-ned the corner "^(^7""" ' * This construction consists of a substantive clause '[that] I lose not honour. Be he ne'er so vile. and afterwards analysing it separately. says. I wish i) > (2) the l)oy (I) would finish the task 2) I set him. he is rich he is not contented. The lady's fortune must not go out one may find comfort in the money. Hypothetical and Concessive Clauses (§§ 424 434. Say [he] \\hat 1 have said. Ihe construction is the same as if we had 'however cold I ' ' it is.). However great his abihties may be. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. Though unless you invite me. An (=^ if ) I have not ballads made on you all. if I escape hanging for killingt that rogue. let a So* 1 lose not honour in seeking to augment it.) So has no adverbial relation to any word in the clause vhich it introduces. Had I kno\vn|| this I should have acted differently.' (\ 362.s. {St'e Exercise iii. Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition. Do [he] what he can [do].. and sung to filthy tunes. Whenccsoever the money comes it is welcome.. Analyse the following sentences : — I would have called on you. for killing is not an adverbial aJjiuict of escape. Analyse the sentences. 1 shall go out. if I had known If you call you will see him.

which contain complex adjective clauses The person i) who told 2) you that I said so. is mistaken. your friend found out where I live. ^ they most breed and haunt. The eighth too late. There are men <" (.' . A child i) : ^'^ .' t Observe that the substantive clause is as in: 'I say [th. won the race. The man i) who does the best 2) that he can [do] deserves praise. I have . The house where Iiave only Exercise 133. whom you may say.' t 'What' is in :— 'they know [that] that nuist folJovv. (2) " My foolish rival i)" that her father likes (I) ii) 2) only for his possessions are so huge. I think he will soon retrieve his Who told I should like to know how misfortunes if he sets to work with good-will. . observed the air is delicate first. Nor failed they to express how much they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. The construction is the same broken by I say. must be punished.. The time has been that when able to answer those of which I make no secret.s (2) 2) that does not mind when he is spoken to.„ ^ 1 he construction will be best the nominative case. (2) •• is gone with her. make him swear to keep for ever. done what I told you I would do. would never have known. (2) I I should report that l) which — (I) (2) say 2) I saw. tences. They fear what J yet they know must I have secret reasons which I forbear to mention because you are not follow.' seen by substimting the jenjonstrative ' ' .) i) who care 2) not what they say. ' . the subject of must. should have Where (I). Analyse the following sentences which contain complex adverbial clauses I wrote l) to him 1 will not leave i) till I know 2) that he is out of danger. Fleance killed. which I did should be answered. who bears a glass which shows me many more. Analyse on similar principles the following senExercise 132.atl I saw it.=- observed* l) the air is . : (I) ( 2) ' In analysis put I have • This clause breaks up the continuity of the substantive clause. appears. he father will ask him where he has been.(2) 2) delicate. . Now methinksyou teach me how a beggar I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. The right valiant Banquo walked the brains were out the man would die. you that I built the house which you see? He fears that his But that I told him who did it.t I I lived when I was in town has been pulled down. if it pleases you.230 I ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

Exercise 134. when] useful [things] of hurtful [things we can create. XLVIII. . Our purer essence then will overcome the noxious vapour of these raging fires. It was so hot in the valley that we could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when we were higher up among the mists. Analyse the following sentences. — Study carefully § : 440. Men who see heard I clearly how you have. * Exercise 135. These present no new features.] inured. The two or more co-ordinate sentences which make up the compound sentence simply have to be analysed joins them. §§ 439. You will be punished if you do not come when you are called. be much obliged (2) i) if you will repeat the story 2) (2) which you have just heard. which in its turn contains a third : I was grieved when I bore among if his neighbours. when we know we have so many real ones to encounter.EXERCISES.) XLIX. Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous when great things of small [things we can create.use their gifts and powers. I will give you no more money till I see how you use what report. I have not decided whether I will go • Two or three are filled up by way of example. Don't let us make imaginary evils. (0 He soon left the house when he heard that I was coming. [will] not feel [the noxious vapour of these raging fires]. 2) how anxious he was. whene'er I sleep or play. he had not they ought to act when they meet with obstacles. when] prosperous [things] of adverse [things] we can create. portion of Hcither-^nar t Suppress the cciijutictive by substituting not—twt. Compound Sentences. are invaluable helpers. each of which contains a subordinate clause containing a second. Sentences. with the (§ omission of the conjunction that 436. It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who al. or [our purer essence. Test the accuracy of the following contracted sentences in the manner shown in analyse them separately 440 : then them up and You must either be quiet or [you must] leave the room. how he had obtained the character which he know that he would never have spread such a believed what your brother told him. immediatelv because (i) 231 I shall I knew . He seldom drinks wine because he finds that it disagrees with him. 551 fill — 556. He yields neither t to force nor t to persuasion. Contracted FriUmijmry Lessofi. separately. My day or night myself I make.

till he can fill up the ellipses when the elliptical sentences are dictated. but I will— King is an adverbial adjunct of 'will shed'.. but scarcely removes my suspicions. nor that a bad we call." you return come and tell me the news. " Bad men boast their specious deeds on earth." The full meaning here is force. He pursued. Is but the more a fool. or he to Hecuba?" L. and die on mine own s^word ?" " Swords I smile at." Roman fool. He was so kind as [a man would be kuul] to give me this book. nothing can When touch him further. you pursue this course you will not injure me. king'). and thought of the future with As the years went on. ' : — ' ' : ' ' dtar lilooJ ' iS:c. but you will ruin yourself.' Feels' and 'thmks' are intransitive. He looks as stupid as an owl [looks stupid]. malice domestic." wine or beer? " Nor steel nor poison... of a preposition ('but') followed by a substantive cl. Would you rather drink but thinks can know. He is not so clever as his brother [is clever]. If ENGLISH GRAMMAR. " Wiles let them I may forgive. Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses. or when they need. but + I will raise the down-trod ' • Which object of the verb ' taste ' to be repeated as the object of the verb ' know." " See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow. — Study §§ 443. wealth [is good] as [lie would tell me] if I did not know that before. As she sat in the old arm-chair she pondered with bitter grief over the past. He grows worse and worse. having grace. He stood aside so as [a man would stand aside] to let me pass. in default of my raising . scandals increased and multiplied.232 or not. He looked as [he would look] if he could kill me. I'll shed my ' ' . Pirlimbtary Lesson. That discovery relieves. He allowed no day to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud. and fell who fell. what pleasure I." him. (That is. . Unless you alter your conduct you will offend your friends and bring disgrace upon yourself. from o'er with zeal. It is better to die than [it is good] to live in such misery. but could not overtake the retreating enemy. [Let the pupil study and practise these. self-love to such obedience paid? " " Nor this a good. not now. "Why should I play the contrive who need. He is as brave a man as [a brave man] ever lived. brandished by man that's of a woman born. foreign levy. I had rather die than [I would soon] endure such a disHe is better to-day than [he was well] yesterday. the more a knave. shuddering fear. I have as good a right to the money As [matters stand] for me." " Who wickedly is wise or madly brave. first supplied the words that are understood. Analyse the following sentences.] Exercise 136. I'll shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust. which glory excites. but I can never forget his ingratitude to me. 557 — 564. have nothing to do with it.) The boy played truant as [it is] usual. He is a man in that degree\)X'XV^ in which degree brave a man ever lived. t The logical intention of an attributive adjunct is often greater than its mere grammatical " (Although he is soj old as he is [old]. I will as you [have a good right to th-^ money]. which * who but feels can taste. 01 t ^'vs he is [old] he is hale and hearty. weapons laugh " What's Hecuba to to scorn.iuse. or close ambition varnished "What praise could they receive. and reason to restrain." " Freely they stood who stood. consisting t 'J'he whole phrase." " Two principles in human nature reign. The sense is — Leaving out the case that I will raise king (that is." urge. I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon than He told me that wisdom is better than [I would soon be] such a Roman. in the way indicated in the first few examples.

It is not so bad to suffer misfortune as to deserve it. but nf>t so strong. What . up the ellipses : Analyse the following sentences. He recommended me as a person very fit for a travelling tutor. You are no Will you be so good as to lend me that knife ? worse off than your brother. I should be piped and sung to. Herein fortune shows herself more kind than is her custom For myself alone I would not be so ambitious as to wish myself much better. . 233- An "Mortimer as high in the air as this unthankful king [is h'gh in the air]. Take 'as as doing duty for a relative pronoun (= which blunder '). He procured a room as near the prison as could conveniently be found. he is little better than a beast. I am not such a As to your proposal. He accompanied me as far as to the end of the street. in supposing) I did it. I could find it* in my heart to bestow it all on your worship. This is better than if we had lost everything. Exsrcise 137. He is better to-day than yesterday. He died as one that had been studied in his death to throw away the dearest thing he owed (= owned). More is due than more than all can pay.('. but not so fond of play as of idleness. The full phrase is such as the following "As I were a shepherdess. his brother. Wisdom is ofttimes nearer when we stoop than when we soar. See § 165. My pupil understood the art of guiding in money matters much better than I. I cannot assent to it. I would dance at maypoles " {Ben ycnsott^ Cynth.' &c. 3'ou tell me. I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. He is as a great a rascal as ever lived My feet are as cold as a stone. I should earn mere as a crossing-sweeper. The people of Paris are much fonder of strangers that have money than of those that have wit. He has no redeeming qualities whatever [redeeming qualities there are]. Rev. it passes belief.). The boy is more He is no happier than before. showing the construction of the real object ' to bestow. he cared not to can be worse than to dwell here ? Present fears are le^s than horrible imaginings. + ' ' ' : * Provis^ional object. He was wiser than to risk his money in that undertaking. They dreaded not more the adventure than his voice forjjidding. He is as tall a man as ever I saw. When he is best. l)e at all. say at what age a poet grows divine. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sang of chaos and eternal night.. About him all the sanctities of Heaven stcod thick as stars. He spoke to me as if I were a He tliief. This construction is the counterpart (with a connective instead of a demonstrative adverb) i of the use of so' followed by a substantive clause to denote a condition or hypothesis (See Exercise 130). /. Art thou not sensible to feeling as to sight. He is more agile than troublesome than ever. . How could you make such a blunder as to suppose I did it ? None could be found so bold as to oppose him. having first filled Rather than be less. eis a dairy-wench. as 'twere a careless trifle. looked as if he could kill me. As to what fool as to do that. I never attend to such requests as that. For none made sweeter melody than did the ]70or blind boy. If I were as tedious as a king [is tedious]. He told me that wisdom was better than weahh as if I did not know that before. he is a little worse than a man and when he is worst. What [will happen] if I don't tell you? His wages as + [he is] a labourer amount to twenty shillings a week. How could you make such a blunder as t [you made] to suppose (/. He is fonder of play than of work. 'twere not as good a deed as [to] drink [is a good deed] to turn frue man and leave these rogues. IV. If time improve our wit as well as wine.EXERCISES. I speak not as in absolute fear of you.

by the side of the pool sat on a three-legged stool. 11. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid .Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed.§ The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 7. A man 5. . 10. night 3. that yew-tree's shade. solitary reign.* Save t where the beetle wheels his droning And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. sable mantle of the silent night Shut from the world the ever-joysome light. • I-ook carefully to see is t Supply 'those regions' (or something of that kind). battered and decayed. Or waked to extasy the living lyre. 8. Beneath those rugged elms. Lightly and brightly breaks away The morning from her mantle gray. he skirted still of that mighty hill. freighted clouds at anchor lie. His daily teachers had been woods and Love had he found Waiting till in huts where poor men lie. Kicking his heels on the dewy sod. Right sharp and quick the bells Rang out from Bristol town. The 9. light through chinks that time has made. And putting in order his reel and his rod. The soul's Lets in 6. 13. sight. Here We The in cool grot and mossy cell rural fays and fairies dwell. new dark cottage. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING. Molest her ancient.234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. rills. which the subject here. 12. adjunct modifying 'air. flight. . From yonder ivy-mantled tower The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such X as. % Take ' each — laid as a nominative absolute. heap. The last two lines form an adverbial t Supply ' persons. wand'ring near her secret bower. the west wind blows.' and take 'as as a ' ' relative pronoun (§ 164). 4. j I. all 2. The gallant The margin All alone tall king. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the And all the air a solemn stillness holds. 14. Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring Each in his narrow cell for ever laid.

* all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries. The Muse has broke the twilight gloom To cheer the shiv'ring native's dull abode.EXERCISES.t Thy tooth is not so keen. thou winter wind. flaming. He that fights and runs away. which the God of nature hath placed in our power. blow. ' ' ' • Supply 'which' before 'omitted. That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high. 17. But that II To tell 25. from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To 27. 235 There. modifying the verb is bound. My 24. When § I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself. hour is almost come. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul. He He that that down need fear no low no pride. His Hstless length at noontide would he stretch. Our sport shall be to take what + they mistake. May live to fight another day. If : 18. leads on to fortune Omitted.). |' . 1 Sec § 5C0. t See § 529. at the foot of yonder nodding beech.. 'for retiring. bottomless perdition. And pore upon the brook that babbles by. Thou art not so unkind As man's ingratitude.' Then 'which omitted' is a nominative absolute. Where shaggy forms o'er ice-built mountains roam. we were base enough retire to desire it. 23. Night.e.' fall.' and the whols lentence '[which] omitttd— m'series is a second adjective clause qualifying tide. taken at the flood. Because thou art not seen. 15. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong. 21. Although thy breath be rude. &c. In climes 16. I am forbid the secrets of my prison house. Blow. We are not weak if we make a proper use of those means 26. sable goddess.' See 5 524. 19. it is now too late to from the contest is is {i. There is a tide in the affairs of men Which. 22. from her ebon throne In rayless majesty now stretches forth Her leaden sceptre o'er a prostrate world. 20. beyond the solar road. § See § 406.

t 36. 33. 38. § 595. lets go by The important acting of your dread command. man goes loose (see § 516). Lay not That^ not your 42.236 28. must I have the half of anything that impart this same paper brings you. but my madness speaks. o'er. save Heaven? Do you not come your tardy son to chide. 45. How his audit stands. 39. quotation t I! _ Sec Sec § 434. merely a complex substantive. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Ran 34. But in battalions. The great man down. That. 46. night descending. 32. Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed. 5. my native land'. See § 520. is The night long that never finds the day. . lapsed in time. that this 44.§ who knows. it 29. A is not a dependent clause. When I did first my love to you.t Their perfume take these again. they come not single spies. That we would do. trespass. that flattering unction to your soul. Now. 40. J you mark his favourite flies The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. am content so thou wilt have so. would [that] you had won the fleece that he hath 35. Would'st thou not stir in this. See § 563. lost. Breathes there the man with soul so dead. and passion. ^ { . 43. indirections find directions out. evil that The men do h\es after them. . Miss that which one unworthicr may • § ** See § 367.'' || 41.* That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf. it ii II See § 521. I freely told you [that] all the wealth [which] had lost. When They I they do choose have the wisdom by their wit to freely lose. Who 'This 47. the proud scene was 31.''** attain. How dangerous is it When sorrows come. blind Fortune leading me. . Thus do we of wisdom and of reach With windlasses and with assays of bias By 37. is my own. So may I. I in these veins. we should do when we would (§ 459). I 30.See § 370. 6. Sec § 403. never to himself hath said.

will surely injure the reputation he designs to assist (§ 459)- 50. if Your wnfe would give you little thanks were by to hear you make + the offer.' ' in the analysis. nature's vigour working at the root. which I did make him swear to keep for ever. surest virtues thus from passions shoot. 51. . 49 He that claims either for himself or for another the honours of perfection. for that. It truth. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. For May is on the lawn. How* If far the substance of it. Herein Fortune shows herself more kind than is her cus- tom 57. in underprizing my praise doth wrong the so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. As fruits. to the ' ' The ' so t an adverbial adjunct far' A hypothetical See § 397. this will not suffice.' Omit and entire clause ' that follows so. 60. 48. Repent t but you that you shall lose your friend. Their savage eyes§ turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music. On The savage stocks inserted. is * ' ' ' How' and is here relative or conjunctive.' . ungrateful to the planter's care. I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. (^= whether). 61. ' How—it' is co-ordinate with X § Nominative absolute. While from the purpling east departs The star that led the dawn. You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. . she 58. growling at the gate. doth appear you are a worthy judge. 59. These honours peace to happy Britain brings.EXERCISES. Blithe Flora from her couch upstarts. 56. And he repents not that he pays your debt. (§ 563). Affrisfhts the beggar whom he longs to eat. learn to bear. clause without if. 55. 237 Benighted wanderers the forest o'er Curse the saved candle and unopening door While the gaunt mastiff. fonning an adverbial adjimct to make. it must appear that malice bears down 54. shadow 53. 52. Whilst light and colours rise and fly Lives Newton's deathless memory (§ 551). Wild 62.

while his Chloe.' Supply the. You'd think [that] no fools disgraced the former reign. rope. Why^ 70.' t ' ' ' II ' ' ' ' .conspired to form to be conspired not to form to admire.thee ' modifies 'seems. Fortune cannot change her mind.' A contracted compound Adjective Clause. to fortune. raise pleasure to her height Through the meanest object's sight. ! we rove. ! 69 first .' the suppressed subject of the imperative 'think. ' skill. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Hypothetical clause without if modifying the verb ' ' breathes. to 67. dear. hast at least bestowed one penny well.§ posterity will treat thy name . learning. That now she knows Vi^'hen X I 66. In my former days of bliss Her divine skill taught me this.' The adverbial clause when . Did ** not some grave examples yet remain.' Substantive clause in apposition to Before 'raise' repeat that I could.' why ' as an interjection.relative that before I saw. Shall one whom|| Nature. Who And • scorn [that] a lad should teach his father having once been wrong will be so still. And 65. better precepts if you can impart.' this. Go. After ' do ' supply impart better precepts. and me.' 238 63.' Supply ' ' ' which ' before 'we used. blind to wit and worth. used to love ! Kindling former smiles again In fading eyes that long have wept 64.' (2) admired. through all life When Losing unblest life that made / Should* some notes we In days of boyhood meet our ear. lovely rose Tell her that wastes her time . mankind a shame. Separate it into (i) 'Whom Nature Whom Nature . friends. I'll follow them with all my heart. Prepares a dreadful jest for all mankind.' TJ Talte •• Hypothetical clau&e without if. that future times may tell Thou 68. How sweet and fair [He] Who thinks that To Think how And buy a resemble her to thee she seems to be. Sigh.' t § In apposition to 'thou. Oh how welcome breathes the strain Wakening thoughts that long have slept. birth conspired To form not to admire but be admired. do. Thatt from everything I saw I could some invention draw . Adieu E'en take the counsel which I gave you Or. Weds the rich dulness of some son of earth ? If this advice appear the worst.

But know we not that he who intermits task and duties of the day. 76.f Besides. Of little And.' clause in apposition to fate. ancient times conspired to disallow 71. Then A I too we hurt ourselves. to share his joyous sport. that refuse To flow. a fate attends on all I write. In sooth. where Thou hast built For Thy own glory in the wilderness. is we stoop • In full t — 'You may suppose that the man ' ' That is \ A substantive is of the zeal of foals expressed in rhyme. they say I bite.EXERCISES. But most of all the zeal of fools in rhyme. 79. useful to the State. Yet praise Thee with impassioned voice.* you may suppose.' little use. While heard a thousand blended notes. . "What then was new. with grateful heart Called on the lovely wanderer who bestowed That timely light. oft-times nearer when when we soar. Untunes full oft the pleasures of the day. when to defend single verse we quarrel with a friend. Cannot forget Thee here. 75. lifting a bright eye towards the crescent moon. that may forget Thee in the crowd. The zeal of fools offends at any time. when purposes are lightly changed? The appointed 78. ThatjJ when I aim at praise. methinks. Yet let me show a poet's of some weight. In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. soldier. Up 'J']. I will My lips. 74.' &c. in a grove I sate reclined. with love's familiar privilege decried the wealth that is your own. You have 80 Wisdom Than Verily. Checking the finer spirits. Who says in verse what others say in prose. what had been ancient 72. 239 Had now ? use the man. though no 73. Among these rocks and stones methinks I see More than the heedless impress that belongs To lonely nature's casual work. The nightly hunter.

362). Are either of those pens yours? Johnson's ' 175). 374). 14. "How No pale each worshipful and reverend guest Rise from a clergy or a city feast " (§ 175). 20. (J 57). 21. Having finished the chapter the volume was shut {^^ 351. and not other men's opinions. ! 15. is What sort of a man he ? all 31. : You and me Let you and will take a I take a walk (§ 287). 17. 30. You did not ought to do that (§§ 184. 386). calves' head. 18. 28. Is 12. In modern English two negatives destroy one another. 11. constitute our respon- sibility (§ 374). What signifies promises without performance ? (^ 374). 7. Every man and boy showed sound but order their their joy by clapping (§ their hands ($ I7S). walk (§^ 191. This is the greatest error of the rest (§ 109). giving reasons for each correction 1. 22. great profit (§ 374). 9. he older than her? 487). 19. 3. (J Let each esteem other better than themselves Lives of the Poets' are reprinting (§ 175). (^ 175). (§ 376). a better writer than (J me (J 487). 5. 24. . 26. He is (§ not one of those 24). who fancied what feared" (§ 464). 10. "'Twas Love's mistake. Good own voices were heard and not mean savings produce (^ 374). 395). 231). Everybody has their faults (^ 175). Correct the following sentences.240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 2. Tiiere are 23. Neither John nor Henry were Either he or I are in fault ($ church (§ 386). 8. who interferes in matters that do not concern him 29. The The effluvia was disgusting intention of these persons are uncertain (§ 374). FAULTY SENTENCES FOR CORRECTION. He was one of the wisest men that has ever lived (J§ 447. 27. 16. at 6. 13. 4. Nor want nor cold his course delay many ways of dressing a 386). (§ Six months' interest are due 374). 25. Where was you all last night? ($ 374). Neither of them are better than they ought to be Our own John is conscience. I do not like those kind of things. it 32.

are put in the plural because they are father's many. 40. has turned against m» a (§ 448. He He is the most admired of the other dramatists {$ 109). 58. 48. The I fleet are under orders to blouses sail (§ 376). 36. 69. 47. The peasantry wears 376). The of all other follies the most pernicious (§ 72). 241 (§ Homer There as well as Virgil were studied on the oanks of the Rhine (J 386J. (§ wore a large and a very shabby hat see a red and white flag ? 454). come with him is 287). somebody or between you other. Between you and he a great fool (§ 277). (§ 41. and at his brother's lives were spared. . (§ 54. I forget who (§ 487). 60. 386). 33. Nor {§ (J 44.2. 43. This injury has been done brother (§ me by my ($ friend. I. 59.EXERCISES. \Vhom do you a Such a think called on me yesterday ? (§ 379). 35. Divide that cake 68. He told John and I to I. 3). all 49. 38. him whom 2). Nothing but grave and serious studies delight him 374). (§ A numerous party Shakspere is were assembled 376). 55. 63. I heard that from 67. man whom I think deserves encouragement ({ man as him would never say that (§ 487). (§ He was angry is me asking him the question ? 484). 57. ij. I forget (§ 484 ). There is nothing to show who that belongs to (§ 277). (§ 287). Somebody whom four. A versifier and poet are two different things (§ 454). What the use of you talking like that told me. {§ 487). 62. 386). A hot and cold spring were found near each other love of drink is (§ 454). These kind of people are my abhorrence. 50. 66. I had treated like a brother. Who He is do you think I met this morning ? (§ 366). 53. 46. 64. (^ have read the second and third chapter eye nor listening ear an object find 454). 52. is sometimes more than one auxiliary to a verb (J 374). Call at Smith's the bookseller's My friend. 39. 56. 34. greater than any dramatist. Who Men His can this letter be from? 61. he whom I treated like 450. 51. (§ Can you I can see neither 454). whom nor avarice nor pleasure are in fault (§ move Not you but John 374). 109). 37. 45. 65. 379). (§ Parliament have been prorogued 376).

exercise i. 85. 84. 74. coldly this morning 393).242 70. have my aunt. wish to cultivate a further acquaintance with you. 96. for 86. (§ 89. They seemed to be nearly dressed alike. 80. He is not only famous for his riches. 90. He The did no more than fact of you was his duty to is have done. is ? 73. When will we get there? He has not yet began his (§§ 209. This is the greatest misfortune that ever has or could (§ 44°)95. 79. 97. Whom Who I feel do men say that he (§ 379). Nobody She I in their senses would have done that (J 464). You have weakened instead of strengthened your case ({ 278). sings bettter than me it (§ 487). as knowledge (440). 92. New World 454). {ii. 94. It is I that he fears (^ 461). 1824. 87. as well as read them in a book (§§ 464. my uncle. 93. me that say so (§461). Nobody gives so is much trouble as he does. 75. do not know who send {§ 366). 78. died Sept. and even more so. 72. 386). and my father's leave (^ 449). He not only ought but shall do 440). A nation has no right to violate the treaties they have made (§ 464). 1874 (§ 378). A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture. 83. 81. (§ He The raved like one out of their mind Atlantic separates the Old and lies 464). 91. 71. He was hoped as rich or even richer than his father (J 440). (J She looked cold on her lover 393). I 104. 2io). I little thought was him 394). 5. I expected to have been at 105. 210). . I would like to see him (J§ 209. 88. I cannot tell I I you how much to pains have been spent on him. having said so enough me {§ 484). 98. ? do men declare him it to (§ (§ be (J 394). 103. Sincerity as valuable. home when you it (§ called. but for his wisdom (§ 440). (§ (§ 226). 82. happen to me Each It is strives to cheat the other in their own way (§§ 175. 102.). loi. born Jan. Here John Brown. These flowers smell very sweetly 393). ENGLISH GRAMMAR. to immediately succeed. 76. 99. 464). 77. I think I will be gone by the time you come 100.

The Thames is derived from the Latin Thamesis. Let us not increase our hardships by dissensions 108. 136. Regard is to be had to every one's circumstances. He has only done that much of his task. other. humble one. doom 123. His younger days were spent get to France (§ England. 131. 128. 120. in 1 14. The service was impressive. He wrote a moderately sized volume. When I get home I another as 119. but it lacked either grandeur or beauty. lips with fire (§ 456). an idea suddenly occurred to me. Hoping to hear 116. that length of days impose {§ 456). J. It 127. i). 115. {$ 440). 366). B. Valerie's was one of those impulsive. More than one emperor prided himself upon his skill as a swordsman (§ 456). No civil broils 118. is 394).EXERCISES. waiting for an opportunity to 362. (§ 362. 135. 117. can tell did not hear. 133. fair Let thee and Severe the my 122. and had bettter be you this much. We trust that by supplying a genuine and most superior class of article. 129. dwell (§§ 287. The centres of each compartment are ornamented with a star (§ 175). In reading you should sit as uprightly as possible. This dedication among each that has. . 121. no use talking so. believe me yours truly. eager natures that longs for a confidante 112. was going to have written him a letter. i). from you soon. another joke which she suppressed (§ 439). 126. M. 243 While walking in my garden. 113. 132. healths and abilities. These plantations are lain out by rule and line (§ 226). (§ Let the same be she that thou has appointed Of all men else I have avoided thee. or shall be published 109. Profusion as well as 124. voice inspire. (§ 456). hallowed cell. 130. 107. have since his death arose (§ 226). He is a boy of nine years old {\ 287). may serve for almost any book is. Doth he not leave the ninety and nine. whom nobody in the world loves O Thou my Who touched Isaiah's For ever in this I. no. 125. parsimony are to avoided. He made I 134. I see the being than love her (§ 487). and goeth into the wilderness and seeketh that which is gone astray ? (§ 440). He drew a line of about six inches long I (§ 278). 106. 111. to increase the confidence so many years bestowed on Mr.

and its introduction into our Public Schools. MILLER. Nov. Bet for admission to Miller's Edition contains all High Schools. St. LESSONS. Aylmer High School. after fully comparing the various editions that have been recommended.. we beg leave to report. 30th. F. — Carried unanimously. so that what is learned by a pupil in an elementary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book is used. J. Moods.A. a. Town Inspector. the authorized book for advanced classes for Public Schools. a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. Co. Cloth Extra.TO AVOID CONFUBtON. was moved and seconded adopted. N. M. is adopted by the Schools of Montreal. Co. The MILLEe'S neu^ Authorized SWIITON'S Grammar. with a view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools. Head Master STEELE. Thomas. Manitoba.. Inspector. BUTLEK. To the President and Association Members of the In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of the Association. ADAM MILLEIl & CO. B. appointing the undersigned a Committee to consider the respective merits of different English Grammars.M. It " St. is authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. we believe that " Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupUs and would urge its authorization on the Government. McMillan. J. is the recent examination Papers MIIiliGR'S STFINTOrV'S LANGUAGE LESSONS County of Elgin Teachers authorized by the Education Department of Ontario. Thomas High School. that. b. McLEAN. ASK FOB MILLER'S SAINTON'S LANGUAGE LESSONS. 1878. The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to Mason''8 mason's Grammar. . of Elgin Model School. In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Definitions of tbe Parts of Speech are novir made identical witb General Treatment The Classlflcatlon of Pronouns.A. A. that the report be received and E*riee. '• A.CAMPBELL. Verbi^t are the same as in Book. SSc. BY J. and Mason's Text Miller's Edition is prepared as an introductory Text Book for Mason's Grammar. UNGOIIGE Qrammar. A.

London.S. Bracebridge. All pupils who intend to enter a High School or to become students for Teachers' Certificates. Trenton Falls." In my opinion the best introductory Text-book to Mason's Grammar. . would save time by using it. and the book admirably helps the judicious teacher in making correct thinkers and ready readers and writers. classification and general treatment are extremely simple and satis' factory. Cobourg.. Perth. Bclle¥llle.The New Inthorized Elementarj ((rammnr. A Provincial H. and St. Catharines. PortHop«. Beaforth. Straihroy. as other editions are in the market. St. J. That the Teachers at this Convention are of opinion that Miller's Swinton Language Lessons. H.)anee.' by McMillan. Model School. and leave little to be unlearned in after years. Brockville. Uamiltou. Quebec. M. Mitchell. May 17. John's.. Among them are used excluand Model Ottawa. Lindsay. Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons is sively in nearly all the Principal Public Schools of Ontario. WOOD. 1878 " Resolved. held at Brussels. Na. CAESON. P. The definition's in " Miller's Swinton Language Lessons" are brief. Eesolution passed unanimously by the Teachers' As sociation. The arrangement of the subjects is logical and progressive. Schools of Winuiprg. St. MILLER'S SWINTOH'S LANGUAGE LESSOHS. (North Huron). Brantford. Thomas. Neiv Foiuidland. B. since the definitions. Heaford. clear and exact. W. Whitby.. 1st W. Bxbridge. Listowelt Adopted by the Protestant Schools of Blontreal and Levi College. Be careful ta ask for MILIER'S !»>TI>TeN. Windtor. Clinton. Manitoba. is the best introductory work on Grammar for Public School use.

BICHABD LEWIS.. M. H. Fellow of Unitbbsiit Colleob.. 8. With to De dMlrod. UA..A.A.South Hastings. the grammars that I have seen..M.D. all BelleviUe and. H.C. Incomparably the best text book for the senior classes of our high schools that has yet been ofCered to the Canadian public. Newmarket. Omemee. M. a.. Loncok. I. S. definition and abundant illustrations without stereotyped rules thereby making the study even attractive. I consider it by far best English grammar for high school purjioses that has yet "Mu«oa" and "Fleming" nothing more seeoia appeared. He immediately sent me Masoin. PRICE Upwards 76 CENTS.. I this school. M.. H.. Kingston CoUegiate Institute. in A. liXJ). Of best. KNIGHT. It will be well received by teachers and advanced pupils. JOHN JOHNSTON. F.. Principal. M. P.. Cobourg Col. P.P. AliEX. P. rank in M. H. Caledonia. Head Master. SIM. It Is an excellent and reliable work. J.A. C. • • • Mason'sGrammaris just such abook as many teachers have been hoping to see introduced into om: schools.A. S.M. M. Mason's grammar will be found a most valuable class-book gs pecially for the instruction of advanced classes in English. H.. OakviUe of three years ago I asked a grammar school nspectoi the old country to send me the best grammar publi bed there. Dufferin School Toronto. its method being to teach the subject by explanation. KING. D. High School. — JOHN SHAW. H.A. H.. M. Ab a philosophical treatise its discussion of doubtful points anA Its excellent methods and definitions cannot fail to give it a high the school tiie estimation of the best judges of such works teachers of the country. Institute.. I consider Mason's the MORRISON. The chapter on the Analysis of diflBcult sentences is of itself sufficient to place the work far beyond any English grammar hitherto before the Canadian pubUc.MacHENBT. B. With Examina4iion Papers by W. have ordered it to be used in tlie . H. J. MASON. M... B. Houston..ENGLISH GKAMMAE BY C.. S. It has reached a twenty-first edition in and 1 have no doubt it -will meet with the same high apEngland preciation in this Province.

and it supplies a long-felt \rant.-PERCENTAGE. PRICE. J. M. PRICE. A. GOGGIN.D .. H. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic.Mentel Arithmetic. RATIO. It is just what is wanted for "waking up mind" in the school room. Dr. ANALYSIS. DIMOCK. D.A. McLELLAN. is a credit to Canadians. Model School. unless what we call Mental Arithmetic is thoroughly and yatematicaUy pursued. Head Master Model and Its Public types of practical questions and sugggestive in methods. McLellan's Mental Arithmetic contains a great number of useful problems well adapted to aevelop by regular gradations the thinking powers of the pupil. CLABKE. B. of M.. is worth BB a clerk or accountant 50 per cent more than the prodigy who can boast of having " gone " through his written arithmetic half a dozen times. Same progress cannot be made in Mathematical work. its its Simple In Schools.. 46C. Dr. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic supplies a want that we shoiild have had supplied in W. A. 80c. After two woeka use of class I am convinced that it is the book with much superior to any of the American texts that have been used here both as to the grading of questiont and the style of the problems. &C. and to suggest similar examplea for the use of the t«aoher. Port Hope. Dr. series bids fair to take a good place in seho- work. varied in Prom THE WE8LEYAN. FRACTIONS. A boy who is conversEint with the principles of Mental Arithmetic.B. as given this little text-book.. arrangement. D. J. PART ll. S. -FUNDAMENTAL RULES. it is the best book of its kind that I have examined. LL. H. Fart I. Inspectoi High Schools.. PART 1. . Picton. Provincial our Schools long ago. PROPORTION. The laatio Halifax. By J. H. A. Nova Scotia. M. my J.M. Ont. Nova Scotia. A. m DEACON. Principal Ingersoll Model School.

ADAM MILLER & Co. Highly recommended by the leading Teachers of Ontario.A.A. B. Prince Edward Island. Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamhlin Smith's Arithmetic. M. 176 Faees. Toronto. Frio* 25 Cents. Authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec. Head Master Model School. Adopted in a number of the Schools of Newfoundland. By Thomas Kirkland. Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction. Within one year the iOth thousand haa been issued. . Cloth Szfcra.. NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. Science Master Normal School. Toronto.One of the most popular Text Books erer published. Manitoba... and William Scott.

is led almost unconsciously to the great field of the unknown. Price 25 Cents. Arithmetic is pre-eminent if taught by logical methods and this work places it in the power of the younger classes to be benefitted by such methods.. By Thomas Kirkland. Head Master Model School. that makes his earlier arithmetical studies a pleasure and a profit.. W. Toronto. 2nd and 3rd of our schools. Head Master Provincial Model Nova Scotia. H. Head — — . D. B. have examined it speak of ooiuion.. 176 Pages. I B. Cobourg. The Elementary Arithmetic by Kirkland and Scott I can heartily recommend to our teachers.A. a copious and well selected assortment of exercises. M. this book with increasing pleasure and can in almost unqualified recomnaendation.B. JAMES DUNCAN. As a preparatory Arithrnetic 1 have not seen its equal. MoKAY. as it offers.B. The arrangement is natural and comprehensive. Schools. Public I School Inspector. W. As a discipline of the mind in tea-hing the pupil to think and reason. a good arrangement and conciseness in definition and A. Science Master Normal School. DIMOCK. Principal Essex Model and Windsor Central SchooL After a thorough perusal of the Elementary Arithmetic by jKirkland & Scott. It is. The questions are in clear. by a Btep. Master.. ty the arrangement of the principles presented and the exercises laid down. East Middleiex. Since failures in Arithmetic are mainly due to a want of power in independent analysis to a lack of knowledge of the unitary method and of skill in its application this volume which discusses the ijroblems'on independent methods will be cordially welcomed by teachers. W. B. Math. Principal of Pictou Academy and Public Schools. The young pupil. Master Ottawa it is in- consider cended. in addition to our present text-book. RIDDELL. and have no hesitation in saying that I consider it the best Elementary Arithmetic which I have yet seen. attractive language. terse. A. it (fcc. well adapted for the purpose for which JOHN DBAENESS. I have examined your Elementary Arithmetic on the unitary system by Kii'kland and Scott. I have no hesitation in saying that it is better adapted to the schools of this country than any similar book that has come within the range of my twenty-seven years experience.NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. Normal School. B.A. A very praiseworthy feature of the book is the large number of examples and problems pecuUar to so small a work.A. explanation. It is admirably adapted to the requirements of grades Ist. my . and William Scott. SPKAGUE. to Hajnblin Smith's Cloth Extra.. in the best eiamentary Arithmalao I have examined. LL. hitended as an Introdtictory Text-Book Arithmetic. Model and Public Schools.

A. FROM NOVA Bities of SCOTIA. AuthoriMed by th» Minitter of Edueatien.A. They will also prove of great service to pupils desiroua of passing the grade tests. and Nonnal WM. M.. Authorieed hy Ihe Council of Public Inatruction. BL " Eaxnblin Smith's arithmetic seems very suitable to the neoe»« our public schools. Science Master School. Head Master Model • Sohool. The author appears not to rely so much on set rules as upon explanations and the clearing of seeming obscurities. Bsrrington. Nora Sootla. ADAPTED TO CAMAOIAM CVKKSaCT BT THOMAS glRTTLAND. The appendix and examlation papers are important and valuable features. F. Authorited by the Chief Supt. M. B. have much pleasure in certifying to the nperiority of the Canadian edition of Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic over any text book on that subject that has yet come under my notice. as the examples have been mostly culled nrom Examination papers.A. I cordially recommend its nse to all those desirous of obtaining an acquaintance with this branch of Dsefol knowledge. Ontario- 4tli Edition. DOAl^TE.A. 0. M. 0. I therefore think that Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic should to placed on the authorixed U»t of books for pabllo schooU. Manitoba.THREE EDITIONS SOLD —OF— IN SIX MONTHS HAMBLIN SMITH'S ARITHMETIC. so that pupils may readily comprehend the questions and proceed to the solutions. Inspector of Schools." W. Gmnberland.. —"It has a value oandidatM preparing for public examination. Inspector of Sohoola. "I ANDBEWS. SOOTT. B. and ths examination papers are invaluable as aids to teachers in thorough training. The exercises are admirable. QiMftMi Beeommended by the Senate of the Univ. Ontario. It if Eractical. Toronto. 76 Cents. DANAGH. indeed I may say that I have not seen any other work on tnis branch that is so specially ealculated to assist the student in passing with credit offlctal t*$ta. for Hamblin Smith's Abithmbtio.. N. Price. Inspector for Qaeen'a Co. N.* . of Balifax. I Bball b« pleased to recommend its early introduction. A. complete and comprehensive. Education..

" u R. " I have read them through carefully and consider them the best works on the subject for the use of schools that I have ever seen.CREIGHTON'S EPOCHSOF ENGLISH HISTOHY tional Q. Johnson. •' — J. "The series is admirably adapted for the use of teachers." G. Co. Head Master Erantford Central School.. and have certainly never met with any sketch of the periods embraced by the two volumes of Epochs' you sent me.A. H. and shall. High School pupils. so much out of place a textbook on this subject. D. Inspector.. Barrie. " led to express my admiration of the very concise and systematic method of arrangement adopted in them. B.A. M. DouGAN.A. I can. MOEOAN. I." . "The 'Epochs of English History' will be valuable aids in the preparation of pupils for the 2nd class and intermediate examinations. Hamilton. C.A. M. "I have been for many years. K. N. paper. and the more advanced classes of our Public Schools. and typoby graphical execution is all that could be desired. They have the advantage of confining the attention of the learner to definite periods. P. <3rand help these to the study of English History in its only raway hy epochs in the life of the English Nation and her in" Epochs of History'' mark an epoch in the study of iV* Btitutiona.. They are clear and succinct in statement and convey a large amount of information. which united in so singularly excellent a manner. I shall introduce them in the schools here and encourage their use in those of the vicinity. I should think their introduction into schools is much to be desired. I am particularly pleased with their simplicity of style and fair method of stating occurrences. and without any attempt at rhetorical flourishes. and thus enabling him to master diificult historical subjects without attempt ing to digest and memorize too much at once. and will he perused with pleasure and profit by many who are neither teachers nor pupils. S. S. S. but a study of the grand sequence of cause and effect by which the facts in tha world's life have been created. Ont. Picton. Mackintosh." Am ROBT. accuracy." ' Wm. H. M. S. brevity. Wilkinsoh.. in binding. Lindsay. "I am quite conscientious in saying that it is one of the best digests of History that I have seen. H. PL ATT. It forms a valuable addition to the valuable collection of school books you have issued. W. M. Hastings. B. •• ± am glad to see these brief serials authorized by the Minister of Education.A. Principal High School. Tou have done good service to Canadian students and teachers issuing a Canadian edition which. Haldimand.. an earnest student of History. Schools. cordially recommend them to every teacher who wishes to make hlstoiy not an effort of memory alone. rendering them particularly suitable for students. and tending in no small degree to nrn'note a better system of pursuing this important study. They are written in the most entertaining style." '• Ci/ARKE Moses. M.." s Wm.. Orb. P. and deserves especial commendation for giving just what the pupil ought to know without any extraneous matter. Inspector. and a clear comprehension of the logic of History. I shall be happy to gee them in the bands of all my pupils. including my University course. Brighton. Caledonia. B. Madoc. It is remarkably clear and concise. and P. P.

and transactions therein contained.. Nova Scotia. JOHN AMBROSE. The definitions. A. S. " I am very much pleased with the aimplicity and & Clare's Bookkeeping. forms. S. HART." myself. thoroughbess of Beatty THOS. We . 3rd Ed. M. and its examples ample. Ontario. and now wc are introducing Beatty & Clare's Houkfind tbwn jmt what w« need in their respective sut^eeta.. I Beaty & Clare's Bookkeeping. for ve» k Treatise on Simolb and Double Entry Book-Keepino. the perspicuity of the instructions. — " Besides D." W. T. Winnipeg. Supt. Insp. MORSE. Manitoba. are plain and simple. PRICE. Insp. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping has had a careful perusal. Insp. Belleville." J.. M.A. Torontb. Nova Scotia. looking over this book have submitted it to the inspection of practical bookkeepers who agree with me in the propriety of recommending it as a school book. - 70 CENTS. Schools. Inspector for Cnmberland. vid have much pleasure in saying that the work is just what is wanted for boys who desire to acquire in a short time such knowledge as will fit them for business*" KEV. L. ANDREWS.A.. DANAGH. Co. Shelburne Co. DOANE. the practical bearing of the transactions. Digby. C. & IM CLARE'S lOOK-KEEPI m. Schools. and cannot but ai^mire the simplicity of the outline. FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND MANITOBA. Hants. G. SMITH.. of Schools.Keeping and Writing Master.. and Sauubl Clare. H. C.. D.. Its directions are minute and to the point. Schools. will recommend this work to any teacher or pupil preparing for examination. its simplicity alone is sufScient to secure for the book a place in our schools throughout (he Dominion. McGILLIVRAY.' kceping. Beattt. Annapolis Co.BEATTY By S. N. Nova Scotia.A. Normal School. It commends itself to teachers as a text book and to all others desirous of acquiring a knowledge of this important branch. Book. A. Authorized by the Minister of Education. Colchester County. yet comprehensive and practical. AutJiorized by the Chief Supt. It is well adapted for use in the public schools. S. Beoommended by tlie Covmcil of Public Instruction. with which the principles of bookkeeping are explained and illustrated. Inspector for Queen's Co. Schools. Education. Quebeo. Principal Ontario Commercial College. " Several months ago we introduced Mason's English Grammar inte Manitoba College.M. N. while it is su£Bciently comprehensive for all practical purposes. Nova Scotia.. Insp. Nova Scotia. S. " I have examined Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping and find it to be an excellent work. "I have carefully looked over Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping is an admirable work. " I have looked into Beatty_& Clare's Bookkeeping. M. A. and the varied commercial character of the whole work. P. HioH AND Public Schools.

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