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Ixlhx ^ €a'B (!Ebucafianal Merits.. BY C. LONDONo SECOND EDITION. .A„ FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. MASON. WEST. 11 WELLINGTON ST. 1879. TOEONTO: ADAM MILLEE & CO.. ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. Re2}rintcd from Mason^s Shorter Enijlinh Grarmnar. ..) PRICE. {Public School Edition. B. p. SO cents.

. in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture..Bntered according to Act of Parliament of Canada. hy Adah Milleb & Co. in the year 1679.

of what possible iise can it be for him to give it a name by the application of some empirical rule relating to its position. learner is The taken by easy stages from the simplest English work to the most difl&cult constructions in the language. and there are some good works of that kind which have either a scanty apparatus of exercises or none references to the paragraphs of that at all. my recently published " Shorter Englisli Every effort has been made to render these exercises as serviceable as possible to those who wish to guide their pupils to a real understanding of the structure of English sentences. or something of the sort this fashion % When in he has managed to say that "now" is an adverb." work have been retained to prevent the cost of preparing new plates.PREFACE. and acquires by degrees the power of analysing and parsing the most complicated constructions. Beginning with the simplest elements of a sentence. enable him to Nothing is more useless and even hurtful than of mechanical directions to to furnish the learner with tell any kind the Parts of Speech. and of their forms and combinations. or . The The present to work is a reprint in a separate form of the Exercises appended Grammar. an adverb or a preposition by recognizing its meaning and function in the sentence. he learns step by step the functions of the various Parts of Speech. and the exercises themselves are so arranged that they may be nsed with any good text-book of English Grammar. If he cannot tell that a word is a verb. li the use of these exercises I strenuously urge tlie upon teachers patient and unflinching compliance with directions given for guiding the pupil to a thorough understanding of the fimctions o words and forms.

Janucury. the matter he a mere sham. while his knowledge this delusion is itself a bar to his acquisition of the only kind of knowledge which could be of is any use to him. PREFACE. If the pupil till too is young older . A tolerably long and Avide experience justifies sloiv me in afihming most strongly that examinations. C. ok. through a certain number of pages of some text-b. 1879. and careful teaching pays best even at The specimens of parsing and analysis that I see yearly in hundreds of instances. for He is simply using wonis without a perception of their is meaning. and they had better devote such intellect as they have to simpler pursuits. Xone but learners of abnormal hold out against this kind of treatment. of far too I'he bane much of our ordinary school work is the ignorant impatience of teachers to get their pupils "over the ground. he before. learners never find a lesson when they feel that they are really learning something." that is to say. wait he he is too dull. really "against" a preposition. talvC him patiently over the ground again and again till the difficulties stupidity will have vanished. Avorse he is deluded fancied the idea that is knows and something. . to master the proper if explanation readily.IV . show how deplorably time and round of mechanical and (not patience. No dull matter what the suliject may be. Streatham Hill. MASON. P. Dlikesell. knows no more than he did than this. into Nay. and dreary and repulsive to the pupil. profitless It is this that renders school "lessons" wearisome to the teacher. but) impatience have been wasted in going over and over again the same unintelligent repetition. €hristchuech Koad.

I.' We "O Solitude! where are thy charms?" " Hence. to wear.). Houses or parks. names of each I. of Number. Trees and flowers. Find out some uncouth cell Where brooding darkness spreads his jealous wings. — Definition Modes of form- mg the plural (§§ 47. That cow has lost a horn. 177 EXERCISES. or to play with. 5) II. better than June. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns (§§ Proper Nouns. 4. Things to eat.). Countries. The boys were : Bellerophon rode a winged horse reading about the battle of Agincourt. The Fido. — Definition of a Noun. Singular and Plural. nouns which are names of 3. 7. Things that you see in the room. saw an King Arthur's sword was called Excalibur. I like May soldiers had a weary march. Rivers or mountains. &c. Say I. 2. me of" (See 349. Write the Common Nouns in the following sentences one list. Dogs or horses. : Common Nouns and Exercise 1. loathed Melancholy. March is a cold month. and the wherefore of everything. She brought me a bunch of may. 3. He sailed round Cape Horn swallows are birds. N . in the 'Petrel. Preliminary Lesson. called Pegasus. Of Cerberus and blackest midnight bom. Ships. 6. Boys or Towns. (or write) ten proper girls. Petrels and eclipse of the sun.EXERCISES. My uncle is the captain of the 'Bellerophon. Distinction between Preliminary Lesson. Say (or write) ten common of the following things 2. My brother has a horse called Dobbin. 5. Some stuff or material. nouns which are the Animals." "You may avoid that too with an He wants to know the why ifs?" § " Tellest thou 'if'" (Shaksp. The traveller ascended Helvellyn. and the Proper Nouns in another John likes school.' Lie down. S. 4. 31-37). The horse that won the race was Eclipse. in Exercise 2.

Loaf. 3. &c. The Lord Mayor. • Not about the subject. John works. not about a word. Write the singular of each of the following nouns Arches. Preliminary Lesson.. Bees. Convoy. Thus ends the tale. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. Horses neigh.Snow falls. The Prince of Wales. Point out thd subject and the verb in each of the following sentences. The princes and dukes. Flies. middle distance. Sky. The death of th^ emperqr. Predicate. Preliminary Lesson. Verbs. Oxen.shine. The Lord Chief speak of lords and commoners. A. Valley. Scarf. Enemy. Calf. have a good hope William the Conqueror. John the Evangelist. B. The Recorder of Carlisle. Birds . Up went the rocket. Exercise Boot. Mr. III. Dray. Exercise 4. Here comes papa. The life of Dr. Lice. The Lords and Commons. tells . the First. In came William. Sentences. Write the plural of each of the followhig nouns Chimney. Cats scratch. Leaf. It is in the noininative case. . Nooses. Beware of confusion about this. Stars Geese cackle. and the verb us something. Bruises. Sheriff Johnson. Feet. The barristers and : solicitors. Our I The Book of Common Prayer. it stands for that about which we tell something by means of the verb. Down came the rain. Lies. Thrush. but about that/or which the word stands. Noses. Stuff. The House of Commons. Johnson.Soldiers fight. Grass. Capital Letters. The Duke of Bedford. because in the sentence. and explain their functions. Wife. The first chapter. that is. Cries. (§§ Agreement of the verb with its subject 179. The recorder of these events. Staves. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight. The house of mourning. Ass. . The clemency of the conqueror. : Sheaf. Subject. Copy out the following examples two or three times and then write them from dictation The mayors of provincial towns. what they do Thus. Victory. Trespasses. The office of sheriff. — Use of capital letters (§ 6. Use of the Nominative Case. Speech. Sentence. note). Children. Halves Kine. through grace.* fly. because the subject of a sentence is only a word. The evangelist Matthew. 374).178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Buoy. Waves. : Echo. Cargo. James The prescription of the doctor. Negro. — Definition of Verb. Pies. '' Boys play. St." 'Boys' is the subject. Trees. The Solicitor-General. Duty. Play' is a verb it tells us something ' . Mice. where is thy common supplications. An object in the student of the Middle Temple. about boys. A We sting ? IV. The Cape of Good Hope. Then cometh the end. Exercise 5. Justice. Death. Pence. A court of justice. Osprey.

Mice. The sun. Plays. Shriek. as " I found Henry's book and William's slate. 179 Exercise Grass." II 22 Men's lives are short. . Glitters. 6. lessons. Arrive. The following Sail. 183). are verbs of which you can make use : Fight. The keeper caught the vixen's cubs. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever. Break. Sink. Preach. Flies. Scratch. Chatter. This may be done by placing the same numeral over each. Boys. Cows. The kittens are in Mary's patience. Horses. cheese was made from the goat s milk. went to St. Prelinmtary Lesson. Paul's this morning.EXERCISES. child. Float. The bird. The birds have built nests in the farmer s bam. Exercise 6b. Sinks. The bird's leg was broken. V. Draw one line under those nouns in the following sentences which are in the nominative case plural two lines under those which are in the possessive case singular and three lines under those which are in the possessive case plural and show in each instance to what other noun the noun in the possessive case is attached. Graze. Sing. lap.Intransitive Verbs. The masters heard the boys' The boys tore the master's book. Swim. Soldiers. Squeak. Work. — Formation and use of the Possessive Case . Tom's horse's leg was broken John's day's work is nearly finished. The voices are loud. 'J'he baker's bread was spoih. Water. Rain. I bought this paper at the stationer's. Hens' eggs are white. Parsons. children's A We VI. Day. Roar. The farmers' barns are full of corn. The Object The Objective Case . Ships. Squeal. Grow. Scratches. He lodges at the baker's. The bakers' shops were shut. Shine. Goats' milk is wholesome. Puss. Appear. — Distinction between Transitive Verbs and of a Verb. The boy taxed the masters' The men heard of their wives' danger. Play. Pray. Howl. Lions. The boy pulled the kitten's tail. Fall. The John. The Owls. (§^ 67. The wind. John's hands are dirty.). &C. Trees. Put some verb or other with each of the following nouns. Speaks. Cry. The Possessive Case. Run. Kick. so as to make a sentence : candle. Growl. Works. Sings Howl. Dawn. Sing. Blow. Put a subject of the proper number before each of the following verbs : Shine. Mary. Stars. (§§ 182. J^reiimi7iary Lesson. Dances. The leaves. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Run. Dogs. . Twinkle. The horses ate the oxen's food.

A lion deThe horse kicked the groom. as intransitive verbs . Exercise 10. as reflective verbs 183). and an object. as " I always wash [myself] with " The visitors withdrew [themselves] " cold water " Exercise line . The boys play in the garden. and draw one 8. 11. Birds build. —Verbs used {with a difference of meaning) . Mary died. and reflectively. as transitive verbs (§ 2. Cats eat mice.I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The hunter started a hare. Write out the following sentences. The The boys play in the yard. In the following sentences point out which nouns are In each case explain subjects of verbs and which are objects of verbs. The parson preaches. The man broke his leg. boys learn lessons. I. The child Exercise 9. travellers started yesterday. The man desires. A verb should be treated as a transitive verb used reflectively whenever a reflective pronoun can be supplied as an object so as to make the sense more complete. Cats mew. and draw one under the verbs that are used transitively. The boy struck his brother. The horse neighs. . In the following examples put in an object where it wanted to show what the action denoted by the verb is done to The boy hates. The man spoke The man spoke well. Men pray. and two lines under the intransitive : verbs Men eat bread. The man sank his fortune in the undertaldng. The lightning struck. and explain the use of " the Object as follows John struck the ball' The word ball is the object of the verb. a transitive verb. under the transitive verbs. The boys waste time. The girls dance. and three under those that are used reflectively. : The the French. intransitively. The sun warms. The sun is ": shines. The voured a sheep. The dog barked. The hound chased the hare. VII. the horse. Mary wrote. Exercise 7. The pig squealed. Verbs used transitively. Clouds covered. 3. Make a dozen sentences containing a subject. The girl plays piano. Rain fell." : — ' groom kicked John touched Henry. The horse carries. Bakers make bread. and a dozen containing a subject and an intransitive verb. the use of the Subject. The sheep graze. screamed. because it stands for that which is the object of the action denoted by the verb. The butcher killed the pig. two lines under those that are used intransitively. Exercise line Write out the following sentences. The dog bit. Bii'ds twitter. as in Exercise 5. The ship sank. Preliminary Lesson. Sheep eat grass. The dog howled.

Words used both as Nouns and ' as Verbs. The governor sunendered the town. Forms and use of the Personal Pronouns. ^^^lip. The thief tried the lock. l8t hard.. He cut away pretty quickly. — . A crowd filled the square. Pocket. The Personal Pronotins. out of the room. Steam comes out of the kettle. Form. He turned the snake twists and turns about. Get up. The children drink milk. IX. in such sentences as Iron is heavy and The women iron ' * — the shirts. old man slipped on the ice. He has twisted his ankle. 14. Cover. Get your umbrella. squared accounts. Take this chair. The judge tried the prisoner. to illustrate their use. Eye. He ornat>ients the table with plate. 15. Study the meaning and use of the word iron. Get thee gone. Seat. Pen. The passengers crowd the deck. or a verb (because it tells you what some person or thing does) : took a pinch of j«2{^ John snjiffs the candle. delighted the audience. and make sentences Exercise and intransitively. and of the Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. VIII. and say in each case whether the word is a noun (because it is the name of something). The barber shaved me yesterday. Dig. Take yourself off. The cook steams the meat. The town surrendered.' Exercise 13. inflexions of verbs (§§ 131.EXERCISES. The maid fnilks the cow. cut his finger. Shoe. Beat. The singer transitively Find a dozen other verbs that may be used both and six that may be used reflectively without being followed by a reflective pronoun. PinCh. 218. Exercise Find twenty more words which may be used either as nouns or as verbs. Fly. The boy tried The traveller returned yesterday. as verbs. T\\q furrows are not straight. audience hooted the speaker. He made off as fast as The The The man he could. Personal Preliminary Lesson. You had better give in. I withdrew my claim. Work. Gneifurrcmis the brow. He slipped a shilling into my hand. Get out of my way. &c. He has not shaved this morning. Name. The laundress irons the shirts. 2. Task. He 12. Owls hoot. 227). Hook. Take the words in italics in the following sentences. The irons are hot. We all rejoiced at his success. Make sentences in which the following words are as nouns . The merchant returned the goods. I delight to hear him. He made a noise. His safe return rejoiced us all. Prelimhiary Lesson. She decks herself with ornaments. The deputation withdrew. He gave up the game. The earth turns round. He We Exercise used : — i.

) Exercise 18. Preliminary Lesscni. X. the Indirect Object of a verb (§§ 74 370. and explain their use in the same way as that of the nouns in Exercises 5 and 7. foes. the garden. John will lend Thomas John's knife. I often see her at shall see you to-morrow. The master praised the boy because he was attentive. Exercise 17. Pronouns as Subjects and Objects of Verbs. I will I will lay me down. dog's master beat the dog with a stick When the boys have finished the boys' because the dog bit the master's leg. Parents love their children. Look at this book. The boy has hurt her. — Difference between the Direct Object and . Direct Object and Indirect Object. Point out which pronouns in the following sentences are subjects of verbs. and state what nouns the pronouns stand for : where John John's mother has sent John to school. XI. Con- cord of Verb and Subject 218. Arm you against your other Bethink you of some expedient. They left us yesterday. The their ball. and which are objects. substitute the proper pronouns for their names in the following sentences. Thy friends are here. 374. Thomas's brother arrived ? John's pony is lame. her mother sent her to school. the boys will go out to play. Exercise 19. Substitute pronouns for nouns wherever they are proper in the following sentences.* Suppose John is speaking to Thomas. frock. Draw one line under those nouns and pronouns in ' These exercises are very like some that have recently appeared elsewhere. I saw your father yesterday. and the proper names for the pronouns : Has John's father has come home John saw Thomas in the garden. I will arm me. it is John's I found it in Get thee gone. You will meet us there.' . We took them home. Preliminary Lesson. Exercise 16. The boys have lost The horse ran away with his rider. 227. admire him because he is brave. I We . 4). Did I hurt you? You have spoilt my book. bethink me. will learn to read. He has torn her church. My sister will call upon your Your brother has sent for me. and which in thsir turn resemble what appeared previously in the author's ' First Notions of Grammar. Mary has lost Mary's thimble. They will love you if you are good. Will Thomas give John Thomas's stick. — Inflexions of verbs (§§ to mark Person. lessons. the girl When was old enough. John has had John's dinner.l82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. You have hurt me. Did I not tell thee so? mother.

Let every soldier hew him down a bough. You see the house. Change the verbs in the following sentences into each of the other tenses of the Indicative Mood. We make us comforts of This will last you all the year. Hand He got took the poor man a loaf. The letter will The wine was drunk. Strong Verbs. Wt'ak Verbs. Mary fetched the beer. He dealt the cards. Active Voice. The man knelt down. They ate some bread. He slew his foe. Pass me the salt. I will get me a new coat. stood in the street. He tells a lie. We will disguise us. Parts of which the 257). Indicative — Formation of the various tenses of the (§ Mood of the Passive Voice 187 . A. be struck. Freliininary Lesson. took good care. into bed. He bleeds to death. that lady the bread* Send me a letter. XII. We shall be written. He breaks his word. He was A stone was thrown. Find a dozen verbs which may have objects of each and make sentences to illustrate their use. Money has been taken . Pour your neighbour out a The policeman took the man to prison. He drinks some ale. The sun shines. The cock crew. I read many books. Send me to him.EXERCISES. Exercise 21. : draw water. Tiie servant sweeps the met our friend at his house. Tense Forms of the Passive Voice. We XIII. Exercise 20. He We We We B. Prelhninary Lesson. The kind woman glass of beer. He gives me an apple. He him a wife. spent their money. . I fetched a box on the ears. Will you lend me a shilling? I gave him a book. Tense Forms of the Active Voice. I hold the reins. They met us in the street and gave us some apples. She spills the water. He seethes the flesh. Shall we go and kill us venison ? We will buy you a watch. We crept They room. him Hand that lady to her seat. She strikes her brother. Strong Verbs. our losses. dealt me a hard blow. The soldiers fight bravely. and two lines under those which are indirect objects : John gave Thomas a kick. Exercise 22. You sold your horse. successively naming the tenses as you do so . throws a stone. kind. The dog was barking. slain. Conjugation of Verbs. compound tenses are made up 204-209. 257). Change the verbs in each of the other tenses successively of the Indicative Passive Voice naming the tenses as you do so : the following sentences into Mood in the A. tive —Formation of (§§ all the tenses in the Indica- Mood of the Active Voice. 183 the following sentences which are direct objects of verbs. It lay on the ground.

Weak Verbs. The door was opened by nurse. and two lines under those which are in the passive voice (§§ 187. Exercise 25. were gathering nuts in the wood. 205) Exercise 27. That surprises me.-. and then alter them as in the last exercise. to be a Transitive Verb. He is • Beware of the mistake of saying that the subject of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the object of the verb in the Passive Voice. The The caught. Change all the following sentences so as to use passive verbs instead of active verbs. Meat children are scolded by the nurse. The B. A new house will be built by my brother. Mutual Relation of the Active and Passive Voices* When an action is described by means of Prelimina?y Lesson. sheep will be shorn. are spoken. Thus for " The dog bit the for " I am writing a cat. They had not counted the cost. We were overtaken by a storm. Make in the passive voice. Too much was expected by them. Goods have bee« stolen. however. Make a dozen sentences containing a transitive Exercise 24. line : Arrows are shot by the archers. Exercise 28. verb in the active voice. XIV. are drinking the beer. The letter was written by us. The children had been scolded by the The wine had been drunk by the butler. The archers are shooting arrows. Kind words is out of the till.184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. A vcr]) in the Passive Voice has no direct object. are caught by cats. Mice me. The servant had swept to-morrow. had been sold by the butchers. and then a dozen sentences containing a transitive verb alter them as in the last exercise. Exercise 23. the object of in the Active tlie verb Voice becomes the subject of the Verb in the Passive* (§ 186). — the Passive Voice instead of the Active. cat killed the rat. The men We We the room. tive. and draw one under those verbs which are in the active voice." put " The cat was bitten by the dog " letter " put " letter is being written by me " : A : will please you. The John broke the window. The boys have eaten the cake. Change all the following sentences so as to use active verbs instead of passive verbs in the same tense : The sparrow was caught by the boy. 'l"he men The men will be carrying the hay will have finished the work before night. The wine was spilt. Write out the following sentences. The sparrow will be built. report The house is spread. . The object qf an action need not be expressed by the grammatical object of a verb. This have received a lette. All ordinary passive verbs are transiIt docs not cease.

vixen. " John's brother has found a shilling. slate. Write down i. ling all day. box. Ten feminine common nouns. non. Boar. Giant. lord. Duchess. footman. The been mowing the lawn. fox. Mirrderess. WitcTi. mother. 185 the money. John. sovereign. rreliiuinary Lessoji. led across the river. infant. Sir. Exercise 29. it and to what subdivision of what the function of the word 3. uncle. maid. Ten feminine proper nouns. He is gone. running. sheep. France. dog. to what it belongs . Sister. form. nursemaid. sister. that part of speech that is. cock. Parsing. Doe. part of speech. Girl.EXERCISES. author. The wine was being drunk. The AgamemThe jNJaria. Hart. elephant. XVI. Give the feminine nounS that correspond to the masculine nouns. Aunt. gander. lass. Exercise 30. king. 7. and the masculine nouns that correspond to the feminine nouns in the following list : — Nun. ox. Ten masculine proper nouns. Time is being wasted. the kind of work 4. desk. Ram. 4. pig. Ten nouns of ambiguous or common gender. lady. State the gender of each of the following nouns girl. baby. Preliminary Lesson. Votsfry. brother. Author. Gender (§§ of Nouns. William. ship. goose. 2. queen. Lass. speaker. Drake. London. gartiener has vain.'don and formation of Genders 39^6). Actor. horse. Robert. Ten masculine common nouns. aunt. The men are drinking beer. Governess. We were travelbe blamed for this. The troops were being The officer was leading the troops across the river. I shall be travelling all night. Hind. servant. Examples of Parsing. man. Cow. boar. nephew. pen. cart. hen. judge. Bachelor. —To parse a word you must is. tiger. ruler.— 'Ssigm^ca. The money will have been spent in We are losing time. Earl. Empress. Nephew. Caterer. cousin. Mistress. 6. — house. I shall The men are come. 3. 2. lioness. Ten neuter proper nouns. The Victory. Buck. that does in the sentence the accidence of the word the construction of the word in the sentence. : Exercise 28. Lady. 5. Napoleon. Bull. state i. XV. tree. Daughter. Thames.'" Jolm's is a Proper Noun of the Masculine Gender [because it . Maria. . He is spending all The town was taken by assault. Jane. boy. Ten neuter common nouns. bird.

Present Perfect Tense. found). of the Weak Conjugation It is in the Active Voice. Future Indefinite Tense. It is in the Singular Number. Indicative Mood.] It is in the Active Voice. Indicative (please. ' ' ' Shilling of the Neuter Gender [because it is the name of something which is not a living being. the name ' ' Brother it is a Common Noun of the Masculine Gender [because denotes a male person. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.«<?. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject he. It is in the Singular Number. [It stands for the speaker without naming him.l86 is . and in the Possessive Case the attributive relation to) the noun brother [because it denotes that John possesses something.' • When pupils have gained some readiness in parsing.' ' ' Me a Personal Pronoun of the First Person and of Comment Gender. and for beginners they arc of the utmost importance. because it stands for that to which the action denoted by the verb is is a Common Noun ' ' directed]. ' Has found (find.' It has shilling for its object. It is in the Singular Number. [It is a verb because it tells us something about John's brother. and when parsing is written. Mood. namely brother ']. and in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive active verb is ' will please. is a Transitive Verb of the Strong Conjugation found. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject brother. ' ' ' Will please which is is a transitive verb [because it denotes an action directed to an object]. pleased). but in oral work. and is in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb has found' [that is. ^He will please . Number. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. and is in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive verb has found [that is. . '\i the context shows whether the speaker is a male or a female person.'' He is a Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person and Masculine Gender [because it stands for a male person who is neither the speaker nor the person spoken to] in the Singular Number and in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb will please [that is. and it is transitive because it denotes an action which is done to some object. or her]. such explanations as those in brackets may be omitted . and may denote any other of the same class]. and may be used for any other thing of the same class]. pleased.Substitute Masculine or Feminine. t . because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. of a in the Singular depending on (or in It is ' ' ' male person and is that person's own name*].

Of course. You have lost the sight. I ' ' ' ' Shall be seen is a Transitiv^e Verb [because it denotes an action that is directed to an object]. but ob\'ious blunder. Hear ye. the bread.' * In parsing this word state that it is in the objective case. wards. The hunters were chasing hares." is a Personal Pronoun of the First Person of common* (or ambiguous) gender. 19.) § Parse this word as a Vocative or Nominative of address. and 22. Hand mej Henr}-'s father will give her j a new book. of saying that 'adjectives denote the qualities 0/ nouns. the verb is singular but the subject which i.§ hand mej the bread. She gave me+ a shilling. pronouns. stands for the person about whom something is said by means of the verb]. Adjectives of Quality. news. The masons are building a hou. " 187 I shall ' be seen. girl's We will 19. Exercise 32.EXERCISES. and is hi the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb shall be seen [that is. Plural Numbert and Second Person.' ' ' ' . to agree with its subject you understood. She had been bitten by the dog. Preliminary Lesson. II ' ' ' .e. I lent the iiianj a pound. * See last note. i. and in the Singular Number and First Person to agree with its subject I. Tell me 1 the news. John. frock will be mended. Future Indefinite Tense. and pronouns following sentences. The men saw Henry's cousin yesterday. except those in italics : in the The hunters caught a hare. Read the letter. because it is the indirect object of the verb (See Section xi Ex. John's sister has told me+ the was being chased. nouns. Israel.s usually understood is the plural you. if the singular Thou is expressed or understood.. Indicative Alood. § Get thee behind me. and not its name. ' ' because xi)." njend is a Transitive Verb [because it denotes an action which is done to something]. in the Passive Voice. ' — Nature and ' use|| of a Qualitative Adjec- * You is always a ^m»«w«rt//ca/ plural. The cat has scratched her. He was running away. Many new houses have been built. it is the Indirect Object of the verb Lend {See Seclion Exercise 31. even when it refers to o«? person.se. Parse the nouns.' ' ' " Lend ' me a shilling. Mary's frock was torn by the dog. and verbs in Exercises XVII. in the Active Voice. Parse all the verbs.' It is the a«w«a/ that is black. The hare The house was pulled down. Go thou and do likewise. In 'a black dog' the adjective black does not mark any quality belonging to the name dog." but a thing marking word. You will be overtaken by the sterni. Carefully guard beginners against the common. . It is in the Singular Number. ' ' ' • Me ' is in the Objective Case. An adjective is not a ' noun-marking word.' . They called her back. The soon have finished the work. 20. Imperative Mood.Vouns are names. We have heard the news.

but they describe its size. Demonstrative Adjectives Preliminary Lesson.'" Here ' smart is an Adjective of ' ' Quality joined predicatively to the noun ' bonnets. Have you any money ? Will you have some bread Few strong temptation. travelled all night. The bird has white feathers. thing we are spe. Write out the following sentences. Preliminary Lesson. Hold out success. and treat each of them in the same way as ' smart in the above examples He rides a black horse. XIX. The girls are ready. They do not tell ns lunu th. brings much care. ' ' ' ' both hands. He rode a girl has large black eyes. My little brother is ill. greedy little boy ate twenty pears. Adjective of Quality. joined attributively to the noun 'bonnets. . tive (or Adjective of Quality) Attributive and predicative use of Adjectives (§§ 80-84 \ 90)' ' ' Smart is an Exercise 33. " The girls wore smart botmetsP It is It shows of what sort the ' bonnets are. and sometimes an Adjective of Quantity. He wore a great. bony. and treat each of the latter in the same way as twelve and some in the above sentences.' Pick out the Adjectives of Quality in the following sentences." Some is an Adjective of Quantity.' " The girls' bonnets are smart. Many men possess great riches. We I have no money. pleasures are often alluring. The poor woman has I have little t hope of many troubles. and two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. It tells us (indefinitely) how much money we are speaking about. tives. Adjectives of Quantity.iking about. black horse. of Quantity." 'Twelve is an Adjective us how many pears we are speaking about. He is a ready speaker. ' or Quantitative Adjectives {§§ 91-94). Examples. strong. and draw one line under the Adjectives of Quality. " / will ^ive you sofue jnoney. animals. — Nature and use of Demonstrative Adjec- Different sorts of Demonstrative Adjectives (§ 95). Rude boys are disagreeable. The bird's feathers Ripe fruit is wholesome. The naughty. heavy. + 'Little' is used for both purposes. Tom's horse is are white. The The cat caught a great black rat. ' : XVIII.l88 . John bought twelve pears. Dogs are faithful Sinful The poor little bird is dead. The naughty children ate some apples. Idle boys hate lessons. We Many men ? love vicious pleasures. Great* riches bring much care. and is therefore sometimes an Adjective of Quality. " It tells * ' Exercise 34.1t * great' and 'small' are Adjectives of Quality. He is a vulgar little boy. woollen cloak. • Mind much of a or Adjectives of Relation. Much money men can resist waited several hours in the cold room. Thin ice is dangerous. brown. Dogs are faithful. — Nature and use of Adjectives of Quantity. .

without reference to quality or quantity. or Adjective of Relation. That last song was capital." I I 2 3 2 3 Give me that large book. Which J wine do you prefer? What. He has a large head and little eyes. My apple is ripe. Indicate what noun feach adjective belongs to. and draw one line under the Adjectives of (2ualit\'. two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. sometimes to another. bell. Some people like this loud music. We had some + beef for dinner. or qualifies. and three lines under the Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives). Those little boys are my cousins. been tried. I went to see him one day lately. No other course is possible. He has but little discretion. She is my first cousin.) Look carefully at the definitions. We walk every other day. —Study §§ 1 05-1 16. You will know better one day. • t of Adjectives. Second thoughts are best. These sheep are last Look at the Bring me my new boots. Ring the fat. little child might lead him. Comparison Preliminary Lesson." His a Possessive Pronominal Adjective or Possessive Adjective Pronoun. Some * thief has stolen my watch. Write out the following sentences. Any* fool might see that. " Give 189 me that book. (See §§ 92. He spent half a day with me. John is his half brother. by putting the same numeral over both the adjective and the noun. This She word. the noun book. Each child received a penny. 169. She was my first lore.]! news have you heard? What X nonsense he talks have the A A ! XX. It points out a certain knife. little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. Any man could tell you that. boy will is idle. It qualifies (or is joined is attributively to) the noun ' knife. thus : " We 4 4 heard of the poor old man's sudden death. Have you any + money? I have not the least appetite.EXERCISES. that Interrogative Pronominal Adjectives (or Interrogative Adjective Pronouns) J belong to the class of Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives) .' Exercise 35. His first attempt was a failure. There was no other way left. It qualifies points out a certain book without describing it. bearing in mind that several adjectives belong (with a slight difference of meaning) sometimes to one class. Here Here Mind this word word is a demonstrative pronominal adjective (or indefinite adjective pro- noun). Every device has Either alternative is disagreeable. We arrived on the second day.' ' " He ' lent me ' his knife. Neither version of the story is correct. second line in this page. 166. An enemy hath done this. I have but one brother." 'That' It is a Demonstrative Adjective. this relates to guatttity.

fierce. noun jnen understood (see § 96). To parse an adjective state what Lessen. handsome. steeper.] It is in the Positive Degree. " His numerous His A Demonstrative : won much esteem . wealthier. red.* [li points (or Pronominal) Adjective. dull. all three degrees of the following adjectives sweetest. &c. richest. gentlest. fresh. or their substitutes Large. [It denotes how much esteem is spoken of. Write down Prettier. out certain virtues. tenderer.. but does not describe or enumerate them. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees : Exercise 38. XXI. handsomest.) describes the quality of a noun. state Examples. holy.) Those : —A qualifying the Demonstrative Adjective in the Plural Number. near. : rudest. hearty. cold. bright.' adjective is often said to ' qualify a noun. duller. clever. ' An (See it If the smacks strongly of the blunder of saying that an adjective term is used. —An Adjective noun ' of Quality in the Positive Degree. but does not describe or enumerate them. monstrous. gentle. § 85. of the following adjectives.] virtues. rudest. winsome. in the Comparative Degree. — sort of in what degree of comparison its it is.tgo ENGLISH GRAMMAR. nastiest.) ' — " These men are richer than those. great. lovely. ' • phrase ' or As generally used. finest. tidiest. blithe. merry. slenderest. . joined attributively to the noun ' men. brightest.' it does not in the least alter the meaning of the noun. crudest.' attached attributively to {or qualifies) the : An Adjective of Quantity. healthy. idle.' It is joined* attributively to {or qualifies) the noun ' : — Numerous Much. Preliminary adjective it is. high. last. this mistake must be carefully ' guarded against. slower. more. full. wittier.] virtues. rich. and to what noun 84). splendid. Lastly. tame. virtues (§§ 89. happy. better. richer. rich. quarrelsome.] : —A — Demonstrative Adjective Richer ' : An Adjective of Quality [it describes certain men]. worst.' to limit the application of a noun.' (Much. Parsing of Adjectives. mad. sad. justest. gentler. This expression is legitimate only if the to qualify a noun' means 'to denote some quality of that for which the noun standi.' [' These 'points to the men. gay. attached attributively to the noun most. common. sprightlier. It is [It describes the virtues spoken of. mightiest." These in the Plural Number.' (Rich. and is virtues. big. it is attached either attributively or predicatively three degrees of comparison. joined predicatively to the noun men. thereforo. beautiful. more.

\_ltpomfs interrogatively /^ a certain hand. I will not have atty. they must be parsed as Demonstrative Pronouns (not as Demonstrative Adjectives). The schools are well managed. He took a three days' journey. Have you any other sisters ? Of these wines I prefer the red to the white. I have had a whole day's anxiety. Supply the noun when necessary. which will you have? That is the ripest pear. The elder boys' behaviour was excellent. When ihis and that are not attached to a noun expressed or understood. * An adjective may be attached to a pronoun as well ' as to a noun. The little girls' frocks were torn. That little girl has no milk. When no noun can be conveniently supplied with the adjective. ' ' ' ' . will you have some? No. ' 191 Which hcmd will you have ? Which :— A Demonstrative Adjective noun hand. Parse all the adjectives (including the articles) in Those in italics qualify a noun which is the following sentences. My youngest brother has gained the second prize in his class. I went to see him one day lately. He keeps a large boys' school. T/ies(' are my children. Few and brief were the prayers we said. 7Vta( is the least atonement he can make. but does not describe it. He fitted a Chubb's patent lock to his desk. Attend carefully to those examples where there is a noun in the possessive case. Few men are his superiors. Some careless person has upset the ink. or refer to its quantity. She wore a large man's hat on her head. He bought the handsomest lady's dress in the shop. Here are two books. My younger sister is ill. His few remaining acres were sold. Will that little boy have anymore fruit? Give me the other volume. Your elder brother lost some money yesterday. Give me some more meat. girls' Exercise 38.] It is joined attributively to the Exercise 37. B. Will you have hot or cold milk? Which boy is the cleverest? Here is bread. He has gained many more prizes than his elder brother. Which of these books is yours? Where are the others ?+ John is //4if cleverest % in the class. and in the Nominative or Objective case (§ 145). Others (in the plural) is a Substantive Pronoun. He cropped the black horse's tail. He teaches at the large boys' school. A. I have done a good day's work. Give me the other hand. 97). The large linen-draper's shop at the comer is on fire. He is quite a ladies' man.EXERCISES. Ripe apples are nicer than sour * ones. A dense cloud hid the sun. Each boy shall have a great piece of cake. You will know some day or oi/ier. and see which nouns the adjectives qualify (§§ 96.' ' " or Interrogative Adjective Pronoun. She is the prettiest of all my cousins. the adjective itself must be regarded as a substantive (§ 98J. Every * one was quiet. The girls' lessons are too long. The tall corporal's hat was knocked off. which is here qualified by the demont strative adjective the X An article always belongs to some noun expressed or understood. The poor suffer more than the rich. Some persons are too hasty. understood. The wisest men are sometimes mistaken. of the Neuter Gender. One ' is an Indefinite Substantive Pronoun.

shall How be content with that. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. sheriffj captain. silent. It is impossible to tell It grieved him to lose so much money. monstrous. for the act or fact stated in a sentence 4. child. but I could obey the dictates of conscience. sharp. it to me. It is of no use trying to help him.192 . soft. you will suffer for it. white. hold my tongue about the matter. stand. To comply with your request is difficult. ' ' ' similar manner. man. distant. prudent. Preliminary Lesson. B. obstinate. what the result will be. widow. father. but I woi/td not consent to that. Abstract Nouns. abundant. that man. colonel. worthy. leader. priest. Give the abstract nouns which correspond to the following adjectives : Pure. — Nature and formation of Abstract Nouns 314. bad. : relation. sad. pious. able. magistrate. simple. wide. He thought of enlisting as a soldier.' and ' it ' may or gerund with its adjuncts 3. State clearly what the words in sentences : italics stand for in the following not manage hoped to get here before noon. red. Exercise 39. often stands for an infinitive mood. if it be not He said that the matter was self-evident. for an infinitive mood . If you do not give up these bad habits. just. a gerund. The demonstratives noun . sovereign. however difficult // may be. Give the abstract nouns derived from the following nouns Friend. wicked.' ' that. durable. infant. temperate. innocent. This quite altered our plans. is I Our duty to my claim. I will call upon you to-morrow I will help you if it is possible. dare you tell me that ? I cannot undertake this. infirm. I think it very strange that he It is very likely that he will come to-morrow. Read these letters to His father threatened to disinherit him. I. I think it best to // vexes me that he should act in this way. popular. large. jealous. believe it. jovial. ihat brought him to his senses. did not tell me. zz. martyr. but he would not not see it. quick. He does not frighten me by that. 329)- Exercise 40. son. merry. slow. regent. I This is the very coinage of your brain. (§§ 32. italics in the fullovving Parse the words in sentences : That was a great disappointment to us. king. . We all knew that the attempt was hopeless. but this I would not allow. broad. wise. splendid. brilliant. It would have been better for him if he had never known if it is convenient. meek. good. for the gerund ' It or infinitive that denotes such an act or fact in an abstract form. ' This and that are sometimes employed in a for a 2. and your father that will amuse him. sour. humble. useful. I can never believe that. blue. but I could absolutely impossible. give it. to surrender . brief. sweet. long. mayor. poor. near. or a sentence that is going to be used. dead. ' this. He asked me There is a pen. . able. XXII.

Write out the following sentences. Painting was his chief pursuit. width. wisdom. rigidity. action. weigh. I bought a the solitude of his existence. shrievalty venience piety . destroy . E. grandeur. in -ing) corresponding to the deride Offend . sleepiness. depart . dissect . suspend conceal steal . measure. suppleness elegance . grandeur. . These alms-houses are the refuge of old age and I admire nobility of character. elegance. line 41. mayoralty . height. brevity . and two lines under those used in their concrete sense. treat . thieve . legibility. complete . addition. . seize . justify. condescend . advance. pressure. abstract. . Give the verbs from which the following Abstract derived : Nouns . depth . fickleness. greenness. . youth. debase . absolve . dependence. fix . Form Abstract Nouns (not ending following verbs . patience . . . width. boredom . acidity. death. declension. durability. multiply . displace . and draw one under the nouns used in their adstraci sense. ponderosity. laughter. arrange . judgment. depress . sonority. con^ tract . depth. He aspired to enter the ranks of the sculptures over the porch are very fine. convene . insipidity. strength. Can you tell me the age of that child ? This has been the case to our gaze. infirmity. are estrangement seclusion injection thought flight reflection conception adaptation . degrade . conhumility . and explain the difference of meaning in each case Exercise : nobility. suppleness. girlhood. thrift . protect . composition. stupidity. . soon reached the summit in all ages. please . invert . sing. . suction . breadth. Sculpture is one of He has the gift of poetry. 193 Give the Adjectives from which the following Abstract Nouns : are derived Nobility. The vast field of nature is open reading. uprightness . crown . magnanimity. invent . . . elevation. Some poetry is hardly worth the fine arts. health. ductility. move. . rascality . deviate . heroism. . exact . . . The We poverty o . C. That is the nature of the animal. hate. dearth. . infirmity. height . .EXERCISES. amplitude. . valour. acidity . senility. derange . growth tilth decision coercion defence derision. strength . interrogate . wisdom. Give the adjectives or nouns from which the following abstract nouns are formed — : Fickleness impertinence dependence . prosperity. The steeple is of immense height. splendid painting yesterday. erase. . He made a solitude and called it peace. D. candour. Intrusion . steal. . mortality weakness durability. F. Nothing relieved of the height. deceive . patience. proceed .

When ? ' ' How long ' ? ' ' How ' ' often ? ' Adverbs of ' ' Whence ? Place answer the questions Where ? Adverbs are usually said to modify* the verb. " Whither ' ? adjective. • To modify a verb is to state some modt or condition. ' Manner * answer the question How ? ' Adverbs of Adverbs of Degree show to other adverb questions ' what degree or extent' the meaning of a verb. We lay down to sleep.' ^ * My uncle lives there. XXIII." it is Seldom answers Therefore " the question How often do we see him?' an Adverb of Time modifying the verb see.194 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Examples.' ' . adverb to which they are attached (§§ 259-265). Deal as in the above examples with each of the Adverbs in the following sentences : I saw him yesterday. Now attend to me. The children played indoors. She is upstairs.' *' a word that shows when he came (or answers an it is We seldom see him.' ' ' is it is bad an ' ** He came yesterday Yesterday is the question ' When did he come ? '). John often writes to us. Preliminary Lesson. He always contradicts me. I will go thither directly. They Boon returned. denoted by the verb is performed." (or is There shows the place where my uncle lives question Where does my uncle live '). ' ' in or under which the action . modifying the verb ' came. They rode along together. My friends live yonder.' Exercise 42. He went away. adjective. modifying the verb rises. We went thither. Adverbs. He went straightway. — Nature and use of Adverbs. The troops fought splendidly. or The mountain rises abruptly from the plain. Mary plays beautifully.'' ' " Thai is too bad. or Adverbs of Time answer the is to be taken. It ' "i answers the an Adverb of Place." ' ' Too or is a word which shows to what degree that answers the question how bad ? Therefore Adverb of Degree." is Abruptly a word that shows how the mountain rises (or answers the question How does the mountain rise ')• Therefore it is an Adverb of Manner. Therefore Adverb of Time. modifying the verb ' lives. modifying the adjective bad.

XXIV. 3 . He is most careful in his conduct acted tnore prudently than his friend. I am very He walked backwards. I shall see you next week. He comes here four times a week. John reads He My Exercise 45. Exercise 47. Parsing of Adverbs. I am almost penniless. To parse an Adverb state to which class belongs. He works harder than ever. I get up earlier than you. He comes oftener than ever. or when taken 267). I way. Exercise adverbs in italics in well. The noun should be parsed often does duty for an adverb. and point out what verb. adjective or noun in the objective case with an Prelimmary some equivalent phrase. He qjften comes here. it of adverbs Exercise 48. He walked yflr/z^^r than I did. or even standing by itself. Parse the Adverbs in Exercises 42 and 44. NounB used Lesson. parative degree. That happened a year ago. The project was monstrously foolish. last. and what verb. Parse the nouns in italics in the following sentences : time have I played with him. He is more composed. 4-1. He was an extremely wicked man. Vou write worse than your brother. He is far too extravagant. He is a year older than I am. They get up very early. — A Adverbially. I am I am much obliged to you. The bird is quite dead. The children were here I would rather not go. He is less restless to-day. adjective. what its degree of comparison is (if it admits of comparison). This is many deg7-ees better than that. He turned his head another Thee. brother came He is most attentive to his work. very much obliged to you. I have seen him many times. He was the least alarmed of all. X95 Stand so. adjective. of State the Degree of Comparison of each of the the following sentences. rapidly. with its as being in the Adverbial Objective. You speak too He is very learned. I placed my hand thus. Exercise 43. Oh I am so tired. but Thomas reads better. or adverb it modities. ! much surprised. giving the three degrees. adjective) some verb or adjective (§§370. He slept all night. Make half a dozen sentences to illustrate the use each sort of adverb contained in the preceding examples. soonest. or adverb it modifies (§§ 274-276). He Many a . Day by day we magnify He comes bothering me day after day. Do not tell so many stories.EXERCISES. I would sooner die. Make and ten containing adverbs ten sentences containing adverbs in the comin the superlative degree. They very soon returned. That poor man is the worst hurt. modifying (either singly. travelled all night. We have got thus far on our journey.

He is the best dressed thich and thin. will you have a little ? He told me less than his brother. used with an adverbial force. I He is_«o * wiser than before. ' Exercise 48. may be taken as the simple adverb 'na' = never (A.). '''/do not 'much'' ' is much admire him. ceedings. ' ' " Much has been revealed. carefully distinguishing the adjectives proper.196 could not haste. Adjectives used Adverbially. are used as substantives. He has lost a//. Lesson. being impossible to supply These (like nouns) are often any particular noun with them. He travelled arrived post- XXV. the subjects of the verbs that follow them. It is better now to parse as simple adverbs. ^// bloodless lay the untrodden snow. We have much He is ?nuch worse to-day. or after prepositions. cause for thankfulness. they should be parsed as substantival adjectives. The town forth bound is ten viilcs distant. (2) an adjective. Parse the words in italics in the following senences. Do not let us hear ?nore of that. He slept (?// niylit. That is all nonsense. . . Here is some wine. or (more sitnply) as substantives." He is not much happier!'' an adverb. his brother has more. that I had uiy ]iains for nothing. 1 have enough.S. You know most about it. The long and tlie short of it is. but inoj'c remains behind. He knows more than he tells. and Adverbs reduced to the form of Adjectives. come a day day and night. He is all powerful here.^'' Here tnuck and 'more' are substantives. the substantival adjectives. He is more con1 am much happier. many adverbs which once ended in -e have lost that inflexion. In general I approve of his proMuch depends upon his answer. I have no ink. On the other hand. modifying (i) a verb. Preliminary — Many them adjectives." Here much is an adjective qualifying money. They once had the dative inflexion. I • 'No/ as an adverb. tented. could hear no more. When they are used as subjects or objects of verbs. Much remains to be done. and the adverbs : — gave him ait I had. man in the room. He came sooner. brother.' and more' is an adjective qualifying ' ' * money understood. '^ Here '•''He is no better. We hand and foot." Here '«(?'is an adverb modifying the adverb ' ' better.' " He has not much money . and become identical in form with adjectives. it especially those of Quantity. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. I will follow you through He is my Ixst friend I did my best. He has more ability than hi!.

We are near neighbours. i9. There is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. is little That expect not a a tnost lovely prospect. He swore like a trooper. We were just starting. You are very much in fault. He cut right future times he will be famous. Such a round of pleasures is wearisome. He is pretty sure of the prize. I will not take any more.EXERCISES.' An adjective used as a substantive may still J be modified by an adverb. That is a pretty picture. through the helmet. || have not meat enough.' 'nothing inferior in amount. I ne'er shall look upon his like again. You know best. and no (= A. abundance. — Nature and use of Prepositions.' The sense is I will take in \ rtr/i/Z/^V). He is less restless than he was yesterday. They have money enough. Do not take more trouble. no trouble in addltum [to what you have taken]. else* He was is but I Nobody there. I ask {cixnpX more. Preliminary Lesson. We have a choice between good and ///. She not wherefore they were come together. He He is no wiser than I. *• Here more does measure the whole quantity of ' sense. little gratitude. ' in sufficient when it here an adverb modifying 'more. Hear the right. He is no tnore contented than he used to be. when joined to a singular noun like glass.' and therefore is a quantitative adjective attached to the noun.' The next example is different . Jt This word is an adjective qualifying the substantive 'nothing. \ •s ziery tall. You are very kind. I will accept nothing less. The future is hidden from our gaze. my very heart. I am your equal. cry did knock against love John best. The corn was scattered . Enough has been done. earth turns i-ound. He bought two mo)'e loaves. That is the very least you can do. Will you lake some more wine. He ran all round the park. The I A\y best friend. He has «<? wtTcf ** sense than a goose. it is an adverb. modifying the verb will take. t Enough a substantive. 278). I have heard a little about that affair. The more part knew The more the merrier {§ 265. The construction of this sentence is our guide to that of the four "No" is ' ' ' : — ' A ' ' ' uext. I heard a// the speech. /// weeds thrive apace The The house is ill built. have enough and to spare. ni. meaning. Do your best. More is here an . 5). ' II Some ' ' ' is More does not measure the "i That is.W We heard nothing inore of him.) little reflection will . Come near the fire. tions * is ' Prepositions.adverb. He was moi-e frightened than hurt.show that more could have no meaning as a quantitative adjective. O Lord. and I will take no less. Take no more H trouble." (Compare the German «o<:/i and the French encore. He sailed all round the world. He is a better writer than I am. He is more to blame than I am. I will take one more § glass. whole qidintiiy of trouble taken. ' ' ' more.' except Else is always an adverb ' IS best taken as an adverb. I did my best. is not any more diligent than he was before. In That decision was right. You must take me for better or worse. I heard (Z /. let me hear some tnore. Whoever is most diligent will meet with ?nost success. more is equivalent to further. I cannot write a7ty better. When it denotes that one ac'ii'n resembles another.p little He shows but better. He wears a round hat.{// over the yard. ' Words which they ' join (§§ 277. I We from him./ one glass.' never') is an adverb modifying ' ' ' ' ' never used as an adverb. ' + When like ' ' ' ' . it is an adjective.' denotes personal resemblance. He was a very thunderbolt of war. He is likeW my brother.S. I cannot say more. Rela- which they indicate. He is XXVI. He was discoursing about the true and the just.

Preliminary Lcsson. Parse the words in itahcs in the following sen- He got up behind. relation of one i/n'/t_g' a preposition governing the it to the noun * mouse. Examples. Do not sit on the table. ran after me. Come along. afraid. I am fond of music. cut a piece off. That comes after. We shall start the day after to-morrow. ' ' On is and joining B. He works at the factory. "He Is afraid of me . He departed before my arrival. I am anxious about liis safety. XXVII. The love of money is the root of Dick rode to York. A. I told you all tliat before. She stayed within the house. 51.—ThQ same word is often used both as an adverb and as a preposition. Run routtd the The earth turns round. I will come by and by. He spoke to me at the close of the meeting. He shrank from the danger. I am weary of work. blow on the head knocked him down. Pie rode outside. table. He We We . Do not touch the all evil. Tliere is a garden behind the house. I saw Jane in the kitchen. The tub is full of water. I have in my hand a letter from my father. When it governs a noun or pro- noun. it. same way as case. He cut " Three thousand a piece off\hc loaf The stick is loo long . People in trouble often go to him. When (§§ there is no noun or pronoun governed by Exercise tences : it is an adverb 279. The box was painted within and without. in A Exercise 50. He spoke of me.' (mouse) to another (floor). The storm passed by." ' Over ' is a preposition governing the noun wall in the objective case. walked along the road. Adverbs and Prepositions. Make ten sentences in which a preposition shows the relation of a thing to a thing j ten in which it shows the relation ot an action to a thing . and joining it to the verb leaped. it is a preposition. and joining it to the adjective attribute (afraid) to ^. I rode inside the omnibus. " He leaped over the wall. walked by the river. books on the table. 284).' It shows the relation of an act (leaping) to a thnig (wall).^ in the objective case.' the in the Parse the prepositions in the following sentences in above examples : Pick up the books on the floor. We arrived the day before yesterday. and ten in which it shows the relation of an attribute to a thing. Grief at the loss of his money turned him crazy. Do not lag behind. " ' I see a mouse on ' noun floor It shows the ' thefloor. We saw the men in armour. ' ' C.198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. My father lives London." ' Of is a preposition governing the pro' noun 'me' in the objective It shows the relation of an Exercise 49. person (me).

Present Tense ' ' : — ' . verbs (§ Mustf and can Examples.'' You may go." A defective (notional) verb Will and Indicative Mood. Infinitive (simple) Mood. and in the (simple) Infinitive Mood. governs. never precedes the word which placed :it the end of the sentence. In. 199 " Nothing comes amiss.EXERCISES. The Preliminary Lesson. . —A.' in in ' Forget verb ' : — A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice.'' is 'Steal' a Transitive Verb. Indi' Mood. depending on (or governed by) the verb ''may. and in the [or the object of) the (simple) Infinitive will.' Mood." ' Shalt cative ' is a defective (notional) verb . dicative Mood. and do and use of the Simple Infinitive as notional and as atixare always notional verbs. Present Tense and in the Plural Number. but is . in the Active Voice. ber and First Person."* so money come withal. Present Tense and in the Singular Number and the Second Person. and Number and the Third Person to agree with Active Voice. to agree with its subject thou. depending on " TJiou shall not steal. may. Find a dozen words which may be used either as Adverbs or as Prepositions.' « He did his duty. to agree with ' its the Active Voice. will. and make sentences to illustrate their use. the Singular its subject ' He.' when used as a preposition. ." 'Did' is a Indicative notional Transitive Verb. " / 10 ill never forget yoit. depending on (or and in the governed by) the verb " 'shall. in the Mood. XXVIII. Nattire Shall. 195). in the Active Voice.^'' 'May' is a defective (notional) verb. iliary Infinitive Mood. ducats we freely cope your courteous pains withal. I'll perfect him withal Exercise 52. 184). t The so-called Potential Mood is a perfectly unnecessary invention. in the Active Voice.' in it * ' Withal.' ' ' Go ' is a Transitive Verb. and the Second Person to agree with its subject you. Past Indefinite Tense.^'' " Her cause and yours. in the Active Voice. (§§ 194." "I must wait and watch withal. the Singular Numsubject /.

I shall I will go with you. You need not stay. He did what he could. ' ' " He does this that he ' may -vex me.' " He will come presently Here 'will' ^ is a mere auxiliary of the future tense. + See \ 2IO. He durst not go home. You may go. " / shall soon departs Here ' shall ' is an auxiliary (not a notional) verb.' Sue the preceding examples. depart may be parsed separately. He said that he would not come. They would keep on making a noise. He shall not know of it. "You do * assist the storm.' But then any form is emphatic when it is emphasized. You do assist does not differ in the least in sense from you assist. He said that he did not choose to come. The compound form is emphatic only when an emphasis is laid upon the do. He will soon return.way as the simple tense for which it is a substitute.2©0 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. ' a mere auxiliary (whether emphatic or unemphatic) it may be parsed form may be parsed Did knock' may ' : . You need not be alarmed. You would not have my help when you might. and specify in the case of the finite verbs whether they are used as notional or as auxiliary verbs : — can dance. and the compound in the same. It does not assert that he is able or is pertnitted to vex me.' The verb does not itself constitute an emphatic form. nr else taken with the dependent infinitive. and is in the Subjunctive Mood itself The notion of power or permission has altogether vanished. man cleanse his way ? 1 did not call yesterday lest I might seem intrusive. stay. I dare not go back. You must go directly. is Exercise 53. Parse all the verbs in the following sentences. Thus be treated as eiiuivalent to knocked. He says that he will not come. or the compound phrase shall depart may be parsed as the future tense of the verb it ' ' 'depart' depends upon in the same manner depart. I could leap over that wall once. That boy shall be made to hold his tongue. I will do my best. Does your father know of this? May I come in? Thou shalt not steal. The cry did J knock against my very heart. You shall not have it. He would not come when I called him. m " Yotc do assist the storm.''' " Did you hear the rain f " ' ' In these examples ' do ' and ' did ' are mere auxiliaries. He could not reply. We • When ' do ' is separately. You might have gone an hour ago. infinitive The simple ' ' in ' ' ' as The two verbs shall and the preceding examples. The notion of volition is entirely lost sight of. It may be treated like shall' the last example. We will never yield When shall \ you see your brother? Wherewithal shall a young to threats. I cannot do what I will." Here 'may a mere auxiliary of the Subjunctive Mood.

To obey is useless to ask him. does the work of an adverb. It is // is easy to see that. We We We Make ten sentences in which a gerundial infinitive the subject of a verb ten in which it is the object of a verb . As it the subject or object of another verb it does the work of a substantive. the ' ' — " He thinks it better not to co7ne" Here ' it of the verb thinks." Here to meet is a transitive verb in the Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. Parse the verbs in italics and the following sentences in the way indicated above : word ' it ' in the better than sacrifice. I am sorry to hear* that. I am delighted to see* you. He is anxious to do* his duty. He dislikes to be kept waiting. . found it advisable to return.EXERCISES. 201 infini- Preliminary Lesson. found it imfind* you so much better. • In these cases the gerundial infinitive does the work of an adverb. in the Singular Number and Nominative Case. I am glad to hear* it.' and governing 'attempt' in the objective case. and ten in which it does the work of an adverb. and modifies the preceding adjective. The and neuter pronoun * it' is often used as a temporary or pro- visional subject or object. The master called the boy to say his lesson. to show that an infinitive is coming. Active Voice. and Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood.* He is too clever to make* such a mistake. She was overjoyed to hear* of her son's return. or infinitive — ' B. He was rude enough to contradict * me. To work hard is the way to succeed. He came to pay me some money.' and the infinitive to come ' is ' ' is the temporary object the real object. Exercise 55. He hopes to hear from you soon. Sometimes it expressea the came of the state deoeted by the adjective.' ' 'To make': in A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. to indicate its construction. " He ran to meet me. " // is tiselcss to make the atte/npt.* The boys had a long task to do. forming the temporary subject of the verb is. I was not prepared to hear that news. I shall be sorry /<? leave. went up to the man to ask our way. He did his best to ruin me. The water is not fit to d?-ink. tive. used wiih the force of an adverb modifying the verb 'ran. 196). possible /<? go on. Such a fellow is not fit to live. forming the real subject of the verb is. is .' ' ' Exercise 54. Nature and use of the gerundial with to' (§§ 194.* I am happy to They are come to stay with us." 'It' is a Neuter Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. When it denotes the purpose or cause of an action or state. Help me io carry this.

I lay a thinking.' • When the verbal noun in -ing does not govern an object it may be treated as a simple abstract noun. — Participles proper. the open plain. riding on horseback. XXIX. 202. the fire blazedfiercely. Write out the following sentences. The I like reading history. No good can come of your doing On some opposition being made he that. This must be treated as a compound gerund.)i XXX. something wicked this way comes. Lesson. In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward. Thinking ' had belter be taken in such con. we advanced into duty he gained the approbation of all. 282. By the noble partner you greet with great prediction of noble having.' ' ' " Smiling faintly. Participles used as Qualitative Adjectives.202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. qualifying the noun master. — Study §§ 197-202. It is impossible to construct the abstract noun in -j»^ with a past participle. There is here a confusion between the Abstract Noun. PreUminary ordinary (§§ '' Parsing of Participles. Exercise 56. arrived there first through His conduct is in keeping with his professions. He is delighted fell in with a ship sailing to America.^'' Fanned is the Perfect (or Past) Participle ' qualifying the '' noun ' fire. I see a is believing. lying witness He hates lying. our way. were late in consequence of having lost+ at having succeeded -i* in his design.' used as an Adjective of Quality. "You do draw my spirits from me with new lamenting § ancient oversights " (Shaksp. Gervmds and Prelimmary Lesson. Quitting the forest. I like reading. and draw one line under the Abstract Nouns in -ing j two lines under the Gerunds three lines under the imperfect (Active) participles : . He was angry at my going away. J Forty and six years was this temple By sedulously doing his started before the rising of the sun. ' fan. There was a great deal of shouting and clapping of hands." the Perfect Participle of the verb 'honour. in building." 'smile. excessive reading of novels is injurious.struci Here a is a preposition {= at iir in). taking a short cut. Participles.and the Gerund.' My honou7'ed master bade me Honoured' is tell you this. He strode Seeing* man A We We We We My bowing right and left to his guests. withdrew his demand. Participles used absolutely 201. tions as the Abstract Noun in -ing. § ' ' ' . Oblige me by all leaving the room.' to which it is of the verb joined attributively. 370. he pressed my hand. 'Smiling' is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb qualifying the pronoun ' he. 5). He went to see the hunting of the snark. He died in consepricking of my thumbs. ought to be punished. ' Fanned by the wind. up the hall quence of pricking his hand with a poisoned dagger.

smilitig Morn. and preceded by a pipe and tabor. ' ' ' case. was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. we will be with you to-morrow. The poor man is badly hurt.' ' ' . and separate the following sentences into two groups. wounded spirit who can bear? liest thou in smoky cribs. Preliminary Lesson. of a certain act. or taken together as equivalent to ' heard. one containing those in which the verb be and the perfect participle form a tense of the passive voice.' Considering is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb 'conThings is a noun in the objective used absolutely (§ 282).' " Hail. He was children are famished.' &c. I am surprised that you do not see that.. Generally speaking he dines at home. Look at that smiling villain. —The elements of an Interrogative sentence its ' same way as those of the declarative Compare Did you hear ? and 'I did hear t Who told you so ? and He told me so Whom did you meet ? and I met John. The prisoner was starved to death. Accoutred as I was.' &c. dressed in their fine clothes.' are related to each other in the sentence which would be ' complete answer.EXERCISES. I plunged in. The ship was built of iron. Study § 214. he strode into the circle. The captives were already slain. Where do you live ? and I live there.' Exercise 57. towerinjj in her pride of place. Sleep. He was stretched stretched upon his bed. He bought a deferred annuity. They were slain by order of the captain. XXXI. Being apprised of our approach. Smiling scornfully. The general rode in front. mounted on a " Why rather. the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister." Smiling is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb ' smile." Barring accidents. splendid charger. Parse the Participles in the following sentences : Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. ' ' ' ' ' ' * * In these we get a statement of the actual doing. than in the perfumed chambers of the great.* the other containing those in which the participle is a mere qualitative adjective : upon the by contract. I caught sight of the thief climbing in at the window. he has done very well. you have done falcon. " Considering all thitigs. A A Exercise 58." ' 203 sider. Use of the verb Do.' used as an ordinary Qualitative Adjective. I was surprised by his behaviour. The troops were surprised by the enemy. Interrogative and Negative Sentences. The poor man was hurt. The The ship was built rack. t ' Did ' and hear may be parsed separately. Considering your age. very well. upon uneasy pallets stretching thee. in the second class wft get a statement of the results of the act. joined attributively to the ' ' noun ' Morn. The string is stretched too tight. the object of the transitive participle ' considering. and hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber. * * ' ' j ' .

Imperative Second Person Singular.] .204 .' ' ' ' ' . and the same numeral is placed after an interrogative pronoun and the preposition that governs it.' u. Exercise 59.) Will you meet me there to-morrow? Did the man go away? Have the boys hurt themselves? Are you happy? brother do that? turn Exercise 60. " Sentences. full. — Study § 191. and adverbs in the following Parse the verbs and the interrogative pronouns and sentences (§§ 152-154 270). Go thou and do • likewise^ Go ' is Mood. and then parse all the words in each : Have you any money? Did your Did you say so? Does your sister sing well? Will your father return tomorrow? Shall you be afraid to go? (See | 210. and then XXXII. Imperative Preliminary Lesson.' • an intransitive verb in the Active Voice. in the possessive case depending on the noun 'pen. 'thou. [In the first few sentences (s) is put after the subject and (o) after the object of the verb. Exercise 61. Give the complete sentences which are answers to the following questions. . when it is an interrogative pronoun.a) is placed after those interrogative pronouns (or pronominal adjectives) which qualify the nouns that they precede. to agree with its subject Parse whose as an interrogative pronoun of common gender. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. called me ? What (<?) did you say ? Which («) way is the shortest ? What did you eat for supper? On what (rt) day do you set out? Where (3) do (i) do you hope for (i) ? (2) are you writing to (2) ? you live (3) ? (4) far (4) did you walk ? {s) Who What (0) Whom How ? Which boy made that noise ? What author do you did you see ? On what day are you waiting for ? do you set out? Where did you find that book? Whither are you going? Whose * pen is this? What happened yesterday ? What comes ? next like best Whom Whom What ails you? In which house does your uncle live? What poet's writings please you most ? On what day do you set out ? When f will you t come ? t did you do that ? How t many persons were present ? often do you write home? t do you say that ? How t soon will you come ? Where J are you going to ? Where J do you come from ? How How Why Write answers to all the questions in this exercise in turn these answers into the negative form. or some adjective or adverb. to the preceding questions. X In cases like this. and after an interrogative adverb and the word that it modifies and (. should be taken as doing duty for an interrogative pronoun. 'where governed by the preposition to or from. Take the answers them into the negative form.u t Mind that an interrogative adverb modifies either the verb of the sentence in which it ' ' occurs.

EXERCISES.
'

205
it

Do

'

is

subject
"

parsed in the same way, except that thou understood.
'
' '

agrees with a

Let

nie sec that''
'

'Let and
'

a transitive verb in the Active Voice, Imperative second person plural, to agree with its subject understood.*
is

Mood,
'

in the

you

'

See

is a transitive verb in the Active Voice, and in _the ' (simplej infinitive mood depending on (or governed by) the

verb

'

let.'

'Me
Let me go. Let him see
cautious in

'

is

in the objective case,
all

governed by

'

let.'

Exercise Q^. Parse Come hither,

the words in the following sentences

:

boys ?t Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. it. Let me be Let us be spared this annoyance. Let us pray. the business. Do be quiet, boys.

XXXIII. Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.
Preliminary Lesson.
"

— Study

§§

144

— 164.

He is iJian 'Who' is
a.

wJio

is

beloved by

everybody.''''

a Relative Pronoun, of the Masculine Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'man.' It is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb is beloved.' It joins the clause who is beloved by all to the noun man.'
'

'

'

'

" That

is

the lady luhose
is

husband you met yesterday."

'Whose'

a Relative Pronoun of the Feininine Gender in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'lady.' It is in the Possessive Case depending J on (or qualifying) the noun 'husband.' It joins the clause whose husband you mot yesterday to the noun lady.'
'
'

'

"//dvv

is

the matt
'

whom you
'

wished

to see."

Here
" }'ou
'

whom

is

in the objective case, the object of the

verb

'to see.'

have not brought mc the book that T asked you for." is a Relative Pronoun of the Neuter Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent book.' It is in the objective case, governed by the preposition for.' It joins the clause that I asked you for' to the noun book.'

That

'

'

'

'

'

You is always a fcraviiiintical plural. Parse 'boys as a Vocative, or Nominative of Address. If who.<;e be treated as the possessive case of a substantive pronoun, it must be parsed t like a noun in the possessive If whose be regarded as on a par Vkfith ttiy, our, his, &c., it must be dealt with as an adjective.
*
'
'

t

'

'

'

'

2o6

.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

The construction of a relative clause is word for word the same as that of the clause which results when a demonstrative pronoun, or the antecedent noun is substituted for the relative. Thus That I asked you for' is hke 'I asked you for it (or the book) ': 'Whose husband you met her husband yesterday.' y(?li met yesterday is lilce
' ' '

Exercise 63. Parse all the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, and test the construction by substituting demonstratives for the I'elatives as in the above examples
:

painted that picture here is the pen which I gave you ? I who am poorer than you are, am contented. Thou, who wast my friend and guide, hast forsaken me. You, who have done the damage, must repair it. We who are well ofl should pity and help the poor. He is a man whose appearance is j repossessing. The boys whose w oik is finished may go out to play. He that is down need fear no fall. I will show you the horse which I bought yesterday. The picture which pleased you so much was painted by my brother. You have not brought me the volume that He is the yery man that I was speaking oi. Their soriows' 1 asked for. shall be multiplied that hasten after another God. It is that that grie\es me. " Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, This that you tell me is incredible. which art my near'st and dearest enemy?" ''I am that very duke which was thrust from Milan." "Whosoever* hath, to him shall be given." " Eles.'-ed is he whosoever shal' not be offended in Me." He doth sin that doth belie the dead. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall I e showtd before the whole congregation. Thty are but faint-hearted whose courage fails in time of danger. He to-day that .sheds his blocd with me shall be my brother. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the dog if.ai worried the cat that killed the rat that ate lihe malt that lay in the house "that Jack built.'
is

The man whom you met
last year.
1'

my

died

never saw the

The artist who man whom you speak ol.
brother.

W

'

Exercise 64. The antecedent of the neuter relative which is often the fact stated in a previous sentence, or the (implied) gerund or infinitive which expresses that act or fact in an abstract manner, as, " The king's two sons are stolen away and fled, which (namely, the fact that the king's two sons are stolen away and fled) puts upon them suspicion of the deed." State clearly what ii'/z/V// stands lor in the following sentences
' ' ' '
:

promised to follow my advice, which was the best thing he could do. "And, studied hard all the morning, after which we went for a walk. which is more than all these boasts cnn be, I am beloved of Hcrmia." *' I see thee still, and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, which was not so " Thou didst smile, which raised in me an undergoing stomach (i.e. before." courage to otdurc).'"

He

We

Exercise 65.
omitted
in

Supply (and parse) the relative pronouns which are the following sentences (sec § 164).
that of the simple relatives.

• The parsing of these compound rel.itives does not differ from They should be described as compound, or indc/itiitc relatives.

EXERCISES.
Pay me the money you owe me.

207

You have not sent the goods I bought received the money I sent you ? That is the place I "I have a mind presages very man I was looking for. went to. me such thrift, that I should questionless be fortunate. " That is not the way Those are the very words he used. Is the task I set you finished yet ? I came. He is not the man I expected.
yesterday.

Have you You are the

Make
supplied.

a dozen sentences in

which a suppressed
'

relative

may be

Exercise 66. When which accompanies and qualifies a noun, it should be parsed as a Conjunctive Pronominal Adjective.' It then generally refers to the 'general sense of the last sentence, but has no Parse which in the special antecedent in place of which it stands. following sentences
' '
'

'

'

:

I may be detained longer than I expect, in which case do not wait for rne. hope you will stay till Tuesday, on which day I expect my brother. He made a humble confession, by which means he averted his lather's displeasure.
I

Exercise 67. Supply the antecedents which are understood in the following examples
:

Who
we
raise
I

steals

my

purse, steals trash.

"Who was

we

will

whom

dislike.

make fast. I may neither And whom he strikes, his

the thane, lives yet. clioose whom I would, nor refuse
cruel tushes slay.

Whom
said

Whoever

"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted." I That is not what 1 sent dread what * is coming. I hear what you are saying. you for. You are telling me what is incredible. I cannot consent to t what you ask. That is just what I cannot understand. You have not done what Have you found what you were looking for ? What astonished you promised. me most was his imprudence. What pleases you will please me.
that, told

a falsehood.

XXXIV.

Relative (or Conjunctive) Adverbs.

Prdiniinary Lesson.

— Study

§§

262

— 265.
that clause to the predicate

Conjunctive adverbs modify a verb, adjective, or adverb in the
clause which they introduce,

and Join

of the principal clause.
If a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition (§ 406) it joins its clause to the antecedent

noun.

Exercise
sentences
:

68.

Parse

the

conjunctive

adverbs

in

the

following

* Parse ' w/wi" as a neuter Relative Pronoun relating to a suppressed antecedent, whenever the sense of the sentence remains the same if that ivhich is substituted for 'tt'hut.' + Mind that this preposition does not govern what (which is the object of to ask '), but its suppressed antecedent that.'
'
'

'

'

'

'

2o8
I

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

was not at home when you called. I shall see you when I return. He This lay where he had fallen. I will follow you whithersoever you go. Co Tell me the reason why you left the room. is the house where I live. bought Show me the shop where you back to the place whence you came. him whenever 1 can. Wherever he lives, he will be happy. I go to see that.
still

Exercise 69.
Herein do

ceded by prepositions for the adverbial compounds.
thereof

In the following sentences substitute pronouns pre(See § 146.)

Thereon I pawn my credit. She dares not I exercise myself. 1 will hereupon confess I discovery. heart accords thereto. am in love. Present to her a handl.erchief, and bid her dry her weeping eyes therewith. Whereunto shall I liken this generation ? Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? You take from me the means whereby I live.

make

My

Exercise 70.
sentences
I
:

Make

the

reverse

change

in

the

following

long to

know

the truth of this at large.

Thy

food shall be withered roots

The earth is the Lord's and its and husks in which the acorn cradled. lulness. Take this chain, and bid my wife disburse the sum on the receipt
of it.

XXXV.
rrclivimary Lesson.

Conjunctions.
classification of

Conjunctions

(§§

285

— —

Study the definition and

295).

parse a conjunction state what Part of Speech it is, and of what class, and state what words or sentences it couples together. The pairs both— and,' either or,' and neither nor,' may be taken together and parsed as correlative and co-ordinative conjunctions, joining such Subordinative conjunctions usually and such words or sentences. join the clause which they introduce to the predicate of the principal The conjunction than joins its clause to the preceding clause. comparative adjective or adverb.
' '

To

'

'

'

Exercise

71.

Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences

:

He neither came nor sent an excuse. A. He is jioor, but he is contented. He went out quickly and slammed the door. He shot a hare and two rabbits. Both [ohn and Henry came to see me. I will both lay me down in peace and I can neither eat nor [can Either I am mistaken, or you are. [I will] sleep.
1] sleep.

He told me that he had no money. You I have heard that he said so. If I had seen him, I would have spoken to be inmished if you do that. He would not help me, though he knew that I was in need. Though hand join hand in hand, the wicked shall not be unjjunishcd. You will lose tlie Take heed lest you fall. He spoke loud that prize unless you work harder. My I might .hear him. I cannot give you' any money, for I have none. He is richer than his brother [is]. He comes brother is taller than you are. oftener than [lie] ever [came]. As that is the case, I will come.
B.
will

him.

the second conjunctive.00k at § 349.. but are conjunctions when followed by a clause containing a finite verb with its subject : — John arrived after his brother. but merely refer by their meaning to something that has gone before carefully distinguishing the conjunctions : — He came because I called him. That book is mine. else { some. Come 7uhen I call you.. from the relative or conjunctive adverbs. Pie walked before me. tlie P . N'ow you are here. &c.) — Mood * 1.' Exercise 75. consequently he lost the prize. He is contented. &c.) ^ it occurs in the Show me that picture. 289. you may as well stay. There is nobody but me at home. it. = XXXVI. He did not say that. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. since. when followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case. but We We I will stay. have not eaten since yesterday. I have no money. He does that that he may vex me. I am afraid that he says that. &c. 145. The Preliminary Lesson. Do not go before I come. They that will be rich fall into temptation. You may go. I believed. Nature and use of the Subjunctive 423. I will go no^d<. I . ye shall all likewise perish. There is not a man here that I can trust. and the latter from the adverbs which have no syntactical connecting force. They stayed nntil the next day. 5. are prepositions. He is man that I want. Exercise 73. That is otherwise) I would give you true and also new. He was sorry after he had said it. Since you say so. their money was spent. He wasted his time in play . that you see at the beginning of the a conjunction. He is very rich nevertheless he is unhappy. is rich. Except ye repent. They will go away before night. 2og Exercise 72. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. Parse the word tliaf wherever following sentences. 430. and tkeirfore lie is He is as t stingy as he never unhappy. He left soon after came. I lent you that book the very that you might read You ought clause is lost that book that I lent hint. therefore have I spoken. (Look at §§ 144. left after the concert was over. (§§ 192. I must believe it. bearing in mind that words like before^ after. 148. t When 'as' is used twice over correlatively. I hear that he has ' to know that that t/iat '* Exercise 74. that he may deceive me. the word ' Make five or six sentences to illustrate each use of that. because I told you that before. He has not smiled since his son died. He says that we shall never succeed. Subjunctive Mood. first 'as' is always de>itoitstraiivc.EXERCISES. AH except John were present. Play me the tune that I like so much. They stayed in Paris until I will wait until you return.

He . You may keep the book. I luould not believe it. • ' ' ' ' . The boys would not be quiet when I begged them to be so. desei-ves to be punished. ' indicative is used • ' May. Eiercise 78. it could not do it when he trieil. I would have done it if I had If this 'Mere true he would not deny it. it was a very did it. If I had any If he zvere to swear to it. You might have won the prize if you had been possible that it was my fault). he had knozvn of it. if angry after Exercise 73. Last winter However bad the weather roses might be found blooming at Christmas. foolish one. If he If he had done it. carefully distinguishing the moods and noting whether the verb relates The to what is actual fact. not open the door when I knocked. He would not have kept it to himself. have come. He came that he might beg money of me. build the house. It may have been my fault {i. it is but it is quite true. I did not see him." It is past in form.' &c. I luouldl were a weaver. He would not tell me if 1 asked him. I would givi it to you. He ivoid i I but died M\ hour before this chance.e. they labour in vain that build it." He tvoidd open the door if you knocked.//. This herb may be met with almost everywhere. and blister you all o'er. Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. If he had heard the news. He would have been " Had I had just finished when you came in.. If he If he were to make such a reply it -would be very foolish. The old man might be seen daily sitting in the porch.. and yet it should is peculiar. he would have confessed it. thing worse happen to you. Except the Lord Peace be to his ashes.\\e news. but He would be angry if he kne^v of it. It nmy be very strange {i. If that was his reply. ]mst.' 'would. or expresses one of the subjunctive ideas. Take care that dinner Live temperately that you may live {\ 423) long. I south-west blo7ii on ye. might be. He may\ liave been in the house. not as auxiWary verbs See Seciion XXVIII. when there is no reference to any other event. He <:('///</ not be kinder if he were vay brother. &c). it is possible that he was in the house. referring to present time. it is very strange). be ! A Exerciss 77. Make ten sentences in which the if^ and ten in which the subjunctive is used. and explain in each case why the subjunctive is used : Beware lest someready for me by two o'clock. he kept it all to himself. in the indicative mood must be parsed as notional. could %\Vig psalms or anything. He says that thnt he may vex mt.'•/// have come U he had wished {i. use of a past form in relation to present ii/ne. You should % ftot tell lies. If yovL had sent for m% 1 woiild If you lucre generous. merely to denote past time. Oh that it were with me as in days that are money. or of a past perfect.. He would have open:d the door if you had knocked.Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. is one of the marks of the Subjunctive Mood : — Wju in IV* go. it is possible that zDould have been in his power. he would take a walk every day. he would seriously displease me. It follows the analogy of ought is indicative.e. yon zuould help me. ha I heai-d \. I will never forgive him. more diligent. he He could not do that if he tried. X This use of and the other preterite-present verbs. !>-en able. If he did that he If he has betrayed his trust. I haa lived a blessed time.2IO • ENGLISH GRAMMAR.e. \ That is.

at the end of the compound name. 211 XXXVII. Preliminary Lesson. " Pie attempted to ascend the mountain without a guide. Preliminary Lesson. and the possessive inflexion is only put after the second of the two nouns. the following examples. and in each case state of what When two or more they consist. One noun in the possessive is never put in apposition to another. distinguish them carefully Exercise pronouns in : — • That is. but the t>vo nouns are treated as a single cotnpoitnd name. that is. a denial for which I was not prepared. adjuncts are attached to the same noun. a — When in the noun is attached without a consaid to be junction to another noun or pronoun. an act which nearly cost him his life. Adjuncts.) Point out the attributive adjuncts of nouns and 81.* in Exercise sentences : 79. Explain and parse the nouns : in italics in the fallowing examples The general made a vigorous onset on the left of the Hne. his earliest friend." is A noun tence. summing up and repeating its import in a single noun which serves as the antecedent to a relative as. came to England. Parse the itaUcs the following He has gone to see liis au. He energetically declared that he knew nothing about the matter .im's must be parsed as a compound proper noun. depending on ' ' 'dog. the author of that report. My brother Robert is expected. description Apposition. the I'ope's Ui^inte. are responsible.EXERCISES. provided Dtle case is the nominative or objective. often used to represent the fact stated in a previous senthen stands in a kind of apposition to the sentence. to give a more complete of the it. Fetch your luide Johii's spectacles. a vieiv which was supported by the summing-up of the judge. It . He has alienated even you. You.it Jaiu-. 362 -364. an accident for which I apologized." my brother Willi. Attributive Adjuncts. person is or thing meant.' . I trod upon his corns. The coun-. it is in apposition to and same number and words in case. in the possessive case. Pan- duir. XXXVIII. In such a phrase as " My brother William's dog.el for the defendant argued that there was no case to go before a jury . Exercise 80. — Nature and classification of Attributive (§§ Phrases that do the work of Adjectives. and to what they are attached. a viamxuvre which distracted the enemy's attention from the main attack.

friend in need is a friend indeed. verbs. fo-morro7V. He came forth l)ound handX and/c?('/. .e.Vv good temper. Adverbial Adjuncts. Fearing to be caught in the rain. without a preposition The A ' i before it. He obtained permission to go. returned. Where are i?x/ri?. I see My Tom's pony is in a long white robe came up to me. I saw a house to let further on. Madam Sylvia entreated me to call. Nature and classification of Adverbial Words and phrases which do the work of Adverbs.e.«£'/j' kind. You be glad to hear the ne7vs. Do not talk fad. lame. The friends of the prisoner are very rich. constitutes an Adverbial Adjunct. He spoke eloquently." &c. A clothed * We A A XXXIX. I am none the worse. cousin Henry died last week. In these examples a noun (or substantive pronoun) in the objective. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. ' long. His right to adopt that course was challenged. The prisoner's guilt is manifest. Come started early. brother is My A rattling storm came on. He is worthy of admiration. X He left the very day that X{— on 7vhich) I came. IVhy did you Hcru) many persons were there ? find a truer friend ? Vou struck Tom mc with his fist. You are to return I am to take you home. Adjuncts. State to what verb. and f'ltrascs that attributive adjunct consists of the adjective or participle tixel Iter with nil the words are attached to it. What X [== for wkat purpose) ntud \vt any further witness? Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that He came (= • in which) I loved it first. man soon reached the top of the mountain. we This is no time for trifling. adjectives or other adverbs. The book is worth a guinea. His right to the property was disputed. Thus in the above sentences the attributive adjuncts are ' complex attributive adjunct walking in the garden. Whose hat did you take ? I bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. across the park. (§§ — by modifying 370-— 372. to see We me. Vou are to blame.' t Select from Exercise st all the examples of the Gerundial Infinitive used adverbially. I am fond of reading. of tills itind may contain a noun which has adjuncts of its own att^ched to it. borrowed William's big two-bladed knife.212 John's coat .) Exercise 82. Give me now leave to leave thee. He will be none (= by nothing) the wiser. Preliminary Lesson. adjective or adverb the adverbial adjuncts in italics in the following sentences are respectively attached A. That is This is the hour thatX (= at which) the reason tkat\ [=for which) I did it. are iti fault. He is worthy of your love. />y that -way). Go thctwayX (i.' ' clothed in a long white robe.' and ' white ' are adjuncts of the noun robe. He is not a bill better (i. by a hit) He \f. I have a great deal to say to you. Leave of absence was refused him.muchX (i. He is a little better to-day. He is in an ««/«/w.e. by muck) richer than I am. Thus 'a. will : We quickly. To save time let us walk I was given to tmdeistand that you had left town. Collect all the sentences in Exercise 48 which contain adverbial adjuncts. a man walking * in the garden. He is [by] a great deal % worse. you go away? B. t were talking about your I shall brothtr. seedy. It is [by] many degrees j colder.

E. He spoke unusually well. I will pay you your account soon. live in constant fear. this question. his nostrils spread. In the case of the following complex adverbial point out to what the oitire group of words is attached. The horses being exhausted we covXd no\. than I am. roiitid.EXERCISES. D. Wait a bit. It rained all see your brother next 'ucck. The battle oz'er. will be here to-night. He is not like his sister. He slept an untroubled sltep.* The rest must perish. Housing and saddle bloody red. adjective or adverb they are attached :— . what I have to say. I am not disposed to sell the horse. F. I am content to be silent. quickly. I cannot ride to-day. Six frozen 'cuinters spent. I shall went to the theatre last nig/tt. first Exercise We . loose rein dangling from his head. You are spending your time to no purpose. On reaching home we found that the rest had arrived before us. ' ' ' ' ' ' We * \ Come more Add Gerunds started very early. He built a wall ten feet thick." the words about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday constitute an adverbial adjunct to the verb 'were talking' while to your brother' and yesterday are adjuncts of the verb happened. . The cloth is worth a guinea a yard. We cannot live our lives over again. the troops withdrew. am much We We We We Why . their great leader slain. return with welcome home from banishment. are glad to see you. To reign is worth ambition. I am fond of riding on horseback. Thus in. There is a church a mile distant from the town. " Bloodshot The his eye. " were talking about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday. My pony being lame. He is a year older They arrived yesterday. and to what verb. Do not talk so fast. had nothing to do. ^^'c 213 d<jy.iy examples all those in Exercise iq which contain an Indirect Object. I They walked He advanced cap in hand. I will paint jjv« a picture. I have fought a good fght. He prayed for a displeased with your conduct. be modified by adverbs as well as any other forms of the verb. I They speedy deliverance. I was asked hrgixen his past offences. The dead were refused burial. Lord Marmion's steed rushed by. were all talking of tiie accident. rained every The wall isjifty feet high. sentences state of what they consist. He was promised a rocking-horse. This flower blooms all the year barefoot. You are to come home directly. My object having been attained. He accompanied us most of the way. and then show what words are modified by the subordinate adjuncts which the entire group contains. Pass nie the salt. C. It day last week. We were told our faults. Do wt' the favour of hearing Yl<i \s \\\ie his father. t I shall be glad to to these ra. He approached me dagger in hand. He was paid Point out the adverbial adjuncts in the following Exercise 83. gave the Iwy a book on his birthday. \>YOceeA.' 84:. did you say that ? \N here were you on duty last night ? He comes here every day. He was his bill. I am satisfied. What is the matter with you ? He is too ready to take offence." adjuncts.

made up . In the following examples show which of the phrases of a preposition and a noun do the work of an adjective (see § 362. He is not prone to We rely on your promise. arc engaged wc have a rubber. XL. A man addicted to self-indulgence will not rise to He is fond of angling.) Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. the half of every day in bed. He Exercise 86. He spends have lost half sat up half the night. Nouns occurring and not go- verned by prepositions. He is a man of great industry. The place abounds in good Do you see that man on horseback? He has given up riding water to drink. We arrived an He was in too much haste to hour too late. What is my duty to my neighbour? He is useless. are adverbial adjuncts and show to what word each is attached. carefully distinguishing the adverbial objective from the other uses of that case : pay you next ivtrk. Most days are joyless to me. What is called the Cognate Object is really one kind of adverbial objective. I cannot walk a step farther. He shouted to the boys at the top of his voice. The master praised the boy at the top of the class. He is too feeble to make adhered to his determination to make the attempt. He gave hnii his best wine to drink. Reliance on his promises behaviour of this kind.e. except those in the absolute construction. I am fond hear of your safe arrival. the window. He spends every other day in London. He escaped by leaping over the ditch. about the matter? I am delighted to see you in good health. Every evening next week is engaged.2 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Exercise 85.. and a dozen in which it forms an adverbial adjunct. 4). I am greatness. We shall spend next tveck in London. We were The advantages of travelling in foreign counvexed by his rudeness to you. 2\ that is. He accomplished the task tries are very great. I see him most days. on horseback. (See §§ 370— 372. I am looking at the man standing with his t)ack to of going to the theatre. Do your duty to him. must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective Case (i. and which do the work of an adverb (see § 370. are attributive adjuncts. Parsing Exercise 87. He did nothing towards helping me out of my difficulties. That is a good stream for angling. You should do your best to repair your fault by working harder. of Adverbial Adjuncts. the Objective Case used adverbially). haviour. Papa goes to London every (fay. by unflagging industry. I must express my displeasure at your befond of the pastime of angling. Make a dozen sentences in which a^ preposition followed by a noun or pronoun forms an attributive adjunct. Every cvfuiug the day.e. the attempt. fuss What is the use of all this shot a great quantity of game on the moor. which must (now) be parsed as being in the nominative absolute. I will We We We . in adverbial phrases. mind what he was about. i. You have displeased me l)y your behaviour.

There is no one /'«/ pities him. Parse the following sentences. t We have not enough to eat. He must needs pass through Samaria He told me much of what liad happened. It came to pass about an eight days after.e. I have not told you one //rtZ/'of what was said. but that he fears me less. They have bread enough and to spare. Give him more air. 2). that I have told him that. need in this business ? What ! Did you not get my letter ? He wants to know the 7. ' Exercise 88. They gave us trouble enough. It is not that he loves me more. He will have the expense and the trouble besides. Either road is difficult.EXERCISES. I have not tnuch time.' adjective. He bought three score sheep {\\ 362. Intt you will never bend him. He even insulted me to my face. have only four shillings left. We have other things to attend to. but Some here is not an adverb. Lead I cannot count the times I have told him that twenty times. He I am mueh pleased with you. Some twenty persons were present. Why! he is as rich as Croe. He lived a hundred years (§ 362. He need not be afraid. Both brothers were All those present present. Both John and I were present. but I cannot. He knows most about the matter. There were a dozen men there. my soul till I am ezh-nd with him. We have wasted half the day. Well. Do comes next ? He has lost his We _what you please. He sat up all night. ' It means it is X II ' • Enough may be a substantive. and what did you do What need we any further witness ? What shall we next ? I am not 7vell. Some men (i. We went over dry fooi. I feel soniewhat indisposed. All save one perished.vky and the loherefore of everything. He lived ten years there. I am //'?// inclined to believe it. He spoke to all but me. 54). ' either 'besides. He needs strict oversight. He knows something about it. sir. I will both lay me down in peace and sleep heard it. What shall we do next? He sat next meat dinner. It is usually an adverb ' Some' had better be taken as an namely twenty. these sayings. 2 . Be 'iVell assured of that. You are sent for. He takes the medicine every three hours {\\ 173. There was but a minute to spare. every evening next the ' 215 iveek. else"^ he would not look so mysterious. wavThe horses having been harnessed. The rest must perish. we started. I would do it but that I am forbidden. Others may believe it. Nothing can or shall content It is an ez'en chance. He would liave said fno7-e if I had not stopped him. He is all powerful at court. Less . You must go. left iiixt ([ay. I do not believe cither's account of the matter.' never an adjective. Come this way. I have nobody else to look to. Exercise 89. 55 . Who only son.' or 'otherwise.sus. They sent for you.than that would have been enough. His needs will be well supplied. I have somrwhat to say unto thee. You may break him. their great leader slain. The battle was fought on this || * Else + ' is always a mere adverb. a certain number of mei:' . I never drink either beer or wine. All is lost. paying special attention to the constructions that are not obviously consistent with the rules: The multitude were of one mind (§ 376). tences Parse the words in italics in the following sen- :— He will have the expense besides all the trouble. 471). for you are sent for. only be quick about it. You must spend less money. Parse "but 'in the last sentence. It was built some % ten years ago.

The passengers are side* the river. Does your uncle the doctor know of this? Went not my spirit with thee ? Wlience did the author of that book get his materials ? Who in the world told you that? Why did you send the poor man away ? How many shillings have you in your purse ? • There is no occasion to supply ' of. ran away at full speed. came indoors.' have an adverbial phrase a. When will return to town ? Stibj. " When will your brother return to town. terrified rich old uncle has left him a large estate in Yorkshire. logical Subject and Predicate. II ' ' ' Divide the following sentences in a similar way . My little brother has fallen ilown. Full many a flower is born to blush miseen. between the Difference Nature of a siinple sentence. appetite that J he sits this instant. . tired with intends to sell it. divided. exercises may be taken for practice in parsing as well as S The examples in the following ' ' We ' ' ' m analysis. Preliminary Lesson. Macb.'"' may be put first. The children. The construction wiirsometimes be clearer in the priinary division. f all on board the ship. and must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective. Exercise § 90. I.i If the subject be the interrogative ' who.2l6 . Your brother. 3. ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES. Divide the following sentences and the logical predicate : into the logical This naughty child has torn his clothes. and see § 2S1. Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that % down {S/iaksp.).' being here the representative of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition.ssuming the function Compare the following sentences. friends of that little boy have sent him to sea. The I loved it first' (/(/.it. and the grammatical — Subject and Predicate. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. king with the Lords and Commons form the legislature {\ 377)' Who ' XLI. riseth from a feast with that keen. The owner of that estate fJismayed at the prospect they beat a retreat. Leave the room I must see him. A The play. is I an adverbial adjunct. of a preposition that by the whole of what it stands (or.' it had better come first . subject.). The John's parents have sent him to school. and that quickly. last night. + To jiarse quickly replace 'I'h. The horse. The i'oys came home child has hurt himself. Questions may be divided in a similar inanner. by the lightning.' P7-cd. He passed six months aboard the ship. if the predicate be Thus. Simple Sentences.

You will by these very stop his proceedings. He is of all enchantingly beloved. titere/otc have I spoken. Make (or find) dozen sentences § 388). The field is already being reaped. most unfau' manner been deprived of his rights. 217 Exercise 91. and yet they often involve an advcrhial force . (The) (Chubb's) (patent) lock \\. So in Milton. 'lake the following sentences and put with the subject in each the ivhole of tlie verb that belongs to it. because he despaired of success. died at their posts. wrapped in a huge cloak. We shall in due time know all about it." 'Therefore' is not aeonjunction. * and separate the grammatical subject and its adjuncts (My) (poor) (little) brother has hurt himself. but a demonstrative adverb. yet spake.' but grammatically it is nothing more than an adjective. John's account of the affair alarmed me.' or any confusion between participles and verbal nouns."' take " have heard. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . (My brother John's) pony (A) man (carrying a great sack of flour) came into the has broken his leg. (the (My (The) house (on the other side of disgrace of our statute book) was repealed.' Grammatically you can make nothing of afraid but an adjective. barn (The) (impudent) fellow (not being satisfied with my alms) began to abuse me. Take the following sentences logical subject in each into the in the way shown in § 490.' and because they were disAdjectives may be used in the same way. (This) law. The component parts of a compound tense are often separated by the intrusion of adverbial adjuncts. (Disgusted t by so many acts of baseness) (the man's) friends (all) deserted hhn. as '' I believed. The work will very proliahly be finished before night. Which boy knows his lessons? What poet's works please you most? What goods are most in A A demand ? What naughty little boy broke the window a ? Exercise 93. meaning for that reason. I had at last with infinite trouble surmounted the difficulty.o my desk) has been (Despairing t of success) ke picked. the leader halted. Thus. The handle of the pump in the yard is broken." We We We shall soon reach our destination. silent. ''His meek aspect." Here silent means although it was silent. though the same notion o{ because clings to the expression. as here. in grammatical subject is enlarged (see what the enlargement consists. and state in which the each case of ' In the first few sentences the words or groups of words forming separate adjuncts are enclosed in brackets.EXERCISES. The brave soldiers of the garrison The old church has fallen into ruins rich old uncle left him his property horseman. without the other words. the street) is on fire. dependent sentence beginning with a demonstrative often occurs where the sense implies grammatical connection. poor little brother's) (pet) bird was shot. abandoned the undertaking.' 'Afraid of being betrayed into an ambuscade. (Good) water (for drinking) was scarce. gusted. Thus from " ha\e already heard the news. an int The grammaticalfonit of a sentence often lags behind its logical hiifort. entered the yard. simple means He has in the Exercise 92. I have been all the morning trying to make out this problem. I shall most likely hear from you lo-morrow. In analysis and ^aisxu^ grammatical /'or}n is the The point in question has nothing to do with any servile imitation of Latin essential thing Grammar.' So participles and participial phrases are (grammatically speaking) attributiz'c adjuncts .

has a subject. one consisting of those in which there is a grammatical object of the predicate verb. write down : Take the sentences in the last three exercises. collect contiibutions.^ work ? Everybody admires John's little sister. We We Exercise 95. and Exercise sentences Give the complete analysis of the following Every finite verb in a sentence John's account of the affair alarmed me. To do this jiroperly requires time." i.you heard the news? Have those little boys finished their morning. You say so to tease me. and the several Thus John sent to us an amusing attributive adjuncts of the object. They shook the depths of the desert gloom with their hymns of holy chter. T Observe th. He had the impudence to tell me to hold my tongue.^t this phrase does not show where the act of seeing touk place. On the top of the in the road. we left our companions How did you find your way ? He used a stick to support at the brid. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. 'amusing'. t Contrast this Look at \ 370. He Have you read this author's last us a droll story about his brother.n follows the verb. Thus ended a war * of ten years' My We Whom This ended that most unpleasant business. 3. 96. C II I. I saw the occurrence That lazy boy did not go out of doors all the through a gap in the wall. A large dog's bark was ^^ || * Mind that the subject very ohe. Considering his age he has done pretty his steps. 'of the proadjuncts of Object: ceedings. Down came the rain. To see the construction properly. The master I saw a soldier on horseback.2lS ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Veryll few men could have done that. Separate the following sentences into two groups. . Who spoke last ? Whom did you hear at church this morning? Hoping to find an easier road. Crying Latin exercises during my To act thus will displease his father. f I met some gipsies in my ramble. Account. were strenuously advised to turn back. The man struck the poor little boy on The boys were rewarded for their diligence. My . the several adverbial adjuncts of the predicate in each. Remember that 'how' is an adverb. Howl! well at the examination. 2. sentence with the next. duration._.' : — — ' told were greatly amused by his story. much money will be enough for you? What foolish notion possesses you? A little girl's voice was heard in the garden. hill stinds a stone cross. 'An'. 4.' Object : Attributive account of the proceedings.e. cousin arrived last night. the other consisting of those in which there is not a grammatical object. § In questions the subject is often so placed as to break the predicate (when it is a compound form of the verb) into two parts. My brother Henry told me J that. absence ? I desire nothing more ardently.-iko care in the analysis not to separate attributive words from the adverbial adjuncts that may be attached to them. Exercise 94. will not help you out of the difficulty. He sent his hat round to rapidl)' turned round in the direction of the report. did you see at the concert ? The girl is admired by everybody. horse fell down the head. The boys have been forbidden to enter the orchard. praised the boy at the top of the class. give the complete ansiver to the question. Then take the sentences in the first group and set down separately the object of the verb in each. Have.

' you may make Men of weak character. 'Ago' is a shortened form of 'agone. Loaf was bought. " Take thee * stei^. Man struck. Here shall be done a deed of dreadful return interrupted our game note.' ' ' Birds Sister build. Give me* a cup of tea. heard in the distance 219 The tall lady's An empty bird's silk nest was found. Children went. They advanced step by last nigh'. desire? Whom did you find walkiuij in the ijaiden? Whose umbrella did you take? Whose exercise has the fewest faults? The poor man's wife died He fell liead foremost into the ri\er.EXERCISES. her young ones in her nest. in weakest bodies.' The phrase objective) absolute. The Downward poor wren will fight. ' !Ex:sr3ise 97. Thus. with as many adjuncts. He found his brother We have bought a pretty little calf a month old. came. 4. Take the following pairs of subjects and verbs and btild up sentences by putting in objects. Conceit. Teach me He was taught Greek (§ 372) by his uncle. a melancholy band. predicates.}: man talks! Which [horse] of these horses is to be sold? He eats his food like § a hog. Boy lost. Make a dozen other sentences and verbs of your own chooiing. Prcliininary Lesson. at § 371. thy statutes. and objects. dress My cousin's were sold by auction. your spirits wildly peep. that too I told you* all that an Jiour agot. — Nature (§§ Incomplete Predication 391 i§§ — 396).ike ? Hero man had better be taken as the direct object. strongest works. " This He died a happy death. 498 — 500). and enlarging the subjects. XLII. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. against the owl. His lying fast asleep.' The dead were refused burial (§ 372). Brother left. his silver skin laced with his golden Vjlood. the words in Exercises 94 and 96. subjects Exercise 93. of scusj as 'train' or 'instruct-' ' ' ' II ' ' teach'' having Lhc same kind . he sat. as you can. from Men rob. led astray by temptation. I. X Look. and construction of Verbs of Moile of analysing sen- tences in which they occur * \ 493.ittributive and adverbial. Some ladies' dresses . We had a purpose to be his purveyor. We arrived. originally formed a nominative (or Look at \ 370. where they are wanted. they move. Horse threw. What more do you wrath may find some wor^e way to our destruction. Theie by Duncan.' 'Teach erring man|| to spurn the rage of gain. Forth at your eyes. Who ever experienced anything like kindness at his hands? Who but a fool would talk like that ? What have you done with the money? What arrant nonsense that foolish was torn. soinetimes rob their unsuspecting friends shamefully. I return you * my best thanks. . is here an adverb. Ship carries. Parse all in a similar way with Exercise 99. said. Men found.

He is named John. He was called an enthusiast by his friends. He was called a fool for his pains. The We are the man would die. sweet. The poor man was starve 1 to death. He is my cousin's friend. When the state that is the result of the action is denoted. or (better) by saying that the complement is in the predicative relation to the subject. ready. The boy was blamed for that. You have made your hands dirty. He felt tired. He stood rubbing his eyes. tive Exercise 103. He made us all merrj'. or the comple- when ' .' But when used to form a tense of another verb. deem this step very This measure rendered the plot abortive. He is not thought a fool. They entered laughing.) tion of ' Point out carefully the various uses of the verb in the following e. We were delighted by the concert. This delay is trying to our patience.' {iV. When it is not accompanied by a complement of some sort. I pronounce the wine We We . (See § 374. That appears very plausible. The wine tastes got quite tired. that when the brains were out. Where are you ? Where have you been all the morning ? is He in the parlour. He is going away. She looks very pretty. The verb to be is a verb of incomplete predication it is employed in making a compound tense of a verb in either the active or the passive voice.' become. I am in doubt about that. the continuance. In such cases the compound form denotes the performance.— An adverb or adverbial phrase is not a complement. as He is going I was saying He is gone He was struck.220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He was wounded by an arrow. tive Exercise 100. He is considered a pretty good player.' &c. § Exarcise 101. The poor soldier is badly wounded.. He sat twiddling his thumbs. The prisoner was pronounced guilty of homicide. The dog ran away howling. the participle that follows is merely an adjective' of quality. I am sure of pleasing He is insane.) ' ' Exercise 102. He stood silent (see § 391). The boys rushed shouting into the playground. imprudent. time has been. it is usually called an Auxiliary Verb.' ' an action. to be is a verb of complete predication. I am trying to do it. In accordance with 393 (which see) account for the case of the complement either by saying that the verbs be. prisoner guilty. or (as it is sometimes called) the verb of exist jncc. He is an honest man. He became my friend. They We you in this. The jury pronounced the consider him a fine player.' ' . He grew rich suddenly.' ' . 395) : He painted the wall white. The air feels keen.Kamples : Such things have been. take the same case after them as before them.B. He was elected Emperor. The children are half starved. He became very rich in a short time. Analyse the following sentences containing SubjecComplements of verbs of Incomplete Predication — : are honest. Analyse the following sentences containing ObjecComplements of verbs of incomplete predications {^ 391. I think him clever. I am deliglited to see you. He called the man a liar. He cfjnsidcrs this course expedient. They made Henry king. Parse the preceding sentences.

" the infinitive is certainly adverbial. Exercise 107. I do so long to see him. His voice sounded feebly. See whether the word in question denotes. They have not made the street wide enougii. They invited us to come. The people wept sore. The bell sounded cracked. That He was ordered to sit down. . They besought us to come to their help. as well as the primary ones.the condition of that which is spoken about. was bidden to stand aside. complements are in reality in the Objective Relation to the verbs of incomplete J These predication. I We must make must go home. He is believed to have perished. It grieved me sore. The cry sounded clear and shrill. The stones have made my lect * In parsing an infinitive mood of this sort it must be described as the complement of the verb of incomplete predication. These secontive dary complements. Show where the complementary infinitive has itself a complement. will They may be answered. the audience laughing. Nothing could be more unfortunate.) Show carefully whether adverbial adjuncts are to be attached to the verb cf incomplete predication. and in the attributive relation to the noun which is the object of the verb. I forbid you to touch that. shall You can be rewarded. Exercise 105.) They can haste. His voice sounded feeljle. carefully distinguishing those cases in which a verb is followed by a complejiicnt from those in which it is followed by an adverbial adjimct. He spoke loud. t In many of these constructions. this gerundial infinitive is scarcely distinguishable from an adverbial adjunct expressing purpose. * He made his horse canter. He directed the man to wait. step be very imprudent. excellent. (See § 493. You ought to be more cautious. Parse the preceding sentences. This kind of life to was considered He is believed to be mad.-hall not hear you. They He is thought to have poisoned the man. 221 He made the bear dance. in which the subjeccomplement is a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 394). Analyse the following sentences containing Infinitive Complements. write well. He told the man to wait He asked me to come.^ (See § 396. They urged us to come. or to its complement. In sentences like '• How am I to do it ?" •' You are to be quiet. I will depart. I canThey . Analyse the following sentences. have a good scolding. He is not to be endured. its complement. Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests. He ought not to do this. Exercise 104. He instructed the man to wait. He bade the man wait. You might have found an easier way. He ordered the man to wait. That may perhaps be true. Exercise 103. He set Let us pray. That looks pretty. are in the predicative Do not confound the object of a verb with relation to the subject. I We sing.EXERCISES. Indeed [ did not say so. That cannot be allowed. are supposed to have lost their way. Analyse the following sentences. He ought to pay me. or the manner in which an action is done. They may take the money return shortly. He has travelled far and wide.

— Study : § 397. set it down as such. clauses (§§ — Nature. I I never grant this forfeiture to hold. as it is often termed) is the subject.1 preposition." that there is found the man dead. The whole of the following phrase is the object of it. ' ' . The water runs clear. Analyse the following sentences containing ob- jective infinitive phrases — He heardt the wind roar through the I saw the thief try to pick a gentleman's pocket. [people] say that he is very rich. Analyse the bcntences in the mode indicated in § 515. We wishf you to come to-morrow. &. Analyse the substantive clauses separately. See note on § 395. Her voice clear.c. XLIV. In the example given in § 547 it is quite possible that we ought to regard 'this proud Sarazin to meete me as an infinitive phrase of the same kind u. or provisional subject. Complex Sentences. Complex Objective Phrases. ' In constructions of this sort the verb in the infinitive mood may be parsed as being the verb in an objective infinitive phrase. face sore.amc . When 'it' is employed as a temporary. I liket a knave to meet with his deserts. Substantive Clauses.<Sed as the (real) subject of chaunced. feltt the air fan my cheek.' and represented provisionally by 'it. and structure of substantive 401—405). + Notice that the meaning of this verb is quite complete in itself. The whisper came soft sounds clear. It is too late forj the was too difficult forij: him to hope to succeed. I have heard Have you ever known+ the man confess trees. being either pronouns or adverbs. In the following sentences a substantive clause (or noun-sentence. They came XLIII. The task go to Ireland. heard the man say so. having the preceding noun or pronoun in the objective case as its subject. remembering that the conjunction that does not enter into the structure of the clause which it introduces. Exercise 108. The bird sang The ship passed clear of the rock. The trees whispered soft and low.222 sore.* Preliminary Lesson. but that interrogative words do. The wind sits fair forj news to travellers to arrive to-night. I believet the man to be innocent. late. and place after it the substantive clause as the real subject. form. I expectedt the travellers to be here by this fault ? being in The duke will time. t Here llu Infinitive phrase is governed by . He rubbed his face hard. The water is frozen hard. between ' He made used as kind of the child cry ' ' between ' He made the rpan angry and ' He and He saw the child fall. and low to our ears. ' * These objective complements distinction infinitive phrases are often scarcely distinguishable from infinitive moods but it will be seen on consideration that there is the £. Exercise 109. He rubbed his This delay will make us late.' In that case the analysis of the sentence will of course be different. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Preliminary Lesson.

like a nominative iS 404). What we are to do next is the question. It is to-day. I shall succeed. the wood began to him. Deal with it as in the case of t that is. I know that handwriting. or of a phrase equivalent to a would come. note. t The introductory conjunction that' is often omitted. or is used absolutely with a absolute : you say so is enough for me. 223 Before analysing the sentences in this and the succeeding Exercises. it Anon methought he went away JNlethinks he hath no drowning mark upon billows spoke. ' ' . unless it has a subject and a finite verb. Tell me what you think of all this. He made it a condition that I should become security for the payment. draw a Une * under the entire set of words which form the substantive clause. I tliink I have Tell me who told you. with all the adjuncts that may be attached to either of these. I am hopeful that he will soon get better. See § 403 and § 244. or noun-sentence. it is Thence that I to your assistance do It is how rich he is ? a question how far make love. It is uncertain what the result will be. How completely you are What signifies what weather we have ? mistaken can easily be shown. it to be a disgrace that he had so utterly failed. Who How long I shall stay here is uncertain. stantive clause transitive verb I is : Analyse the following sentences in which a sub" the object of a verb. puzzles me. thinks. Tell him I cannot see him to-day. It does not matter what he It is uncertain how long I shall stay. The idea that I can comply with his request fact that * To those who are acquainted with my larger grammar I need hardly observe mode of marking sentences has not been borrowed from the later works of others. Methought the ? It was only yester- Methinkst move. Analyse the following sentences in which a substantive clause is in apposition to a noun. day that I saw him. Was on Tuesday that Exercise 110. How I found the matter out is no concern of yours.) That he did the deed is quite certain. and then the subject substitute that clause for the it. The circumstance that he was present must not be disregarded. I want to know when this old happened. I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night. It is very probable ihat he will not arrive not true that he said so." § ' If has here the force of whether*. Try if you can decipher that letter. That he said so is undeniable. can have told you that. He felt Try how far you can jump. He told me he knew all about the matter. (See § 512. ' The that this It often does duty as a temporary or provisional object. I heard that he had arrived. first analyse the sentence without the substantive clause. He is confident that are resolved that that shall not occur again. Advise if§ this be worth attempting. Tell me how the honour of addressing Mr.EXERCISES. I thought it J strange that he should leave without calling on me. that he knew We Exercise 111. or comes after a preposition participle. What his capacity is signifies nothing. remembering that you have not got a complete substantive clause. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. Smith? you are. What does it signify he was justified in that proceeding. ' ' .

' ' Analyse the following sentences I : is abating. He has obtained my consent that he should go to college. That is a proof that he knows nothing about the matter.' It is often used without any adverbial force.t'. He could not get rid of the idea that I was his enemy. Analyse the following sentences. Being essentially a substantive.' + ' ' ' * ' I drank a pint or so his is brother. Transitive verbs govern an object.' of wine. but because they denote a tt'ansitive action." "So please my lord {i. regard) that dinner time. we shall know what to do.i2 4 is alisurJ. \ We are glad that you have come at last. I must advance the colours of my love. Provided that he consents. Provided this report be confirmed. lie did this to the end that lie ni^^h.. I hate him for he is a Christian. I will undertake the business. He is desirous that I should return. and so strengthened form 'as' (also. I would not believe the story but that you avouch it. I convinced him that he was mistaken. which may be described as an objective adjunct to the noun. That depends upon how you did it. ' I convinced him 7vtt/t respect to tliis point. not brought your brother.ivlnce me. go on without me. In case I am not there. I came on the chance that I might find you at home. but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money gratis. For that I love your daughter. There was a rumour that the army had been defeated. We welcomed these indications that spring was near. Oh yet I do repent me of my fury that I did kill them." § That is I am sorry on this account.dertook the business in the expectation that he would help me. not because they are predicative words. I Ui.e. or as regards this." You may go where you like so ' ) Exercise 112. it may have a substantive clause in apposition to it. in which the SubClause forms an Adverbial Adjunct to a verb or adjective (like the Latin accusative of limitatioti. I am content. 'on the condition that it please my lord to quit the fine. We are disappointed that you have Exercise 113.' The ' . see no sign that the fever stantive Analyse the following sentences. Analyse the following sentences ' ' : (= on the condition) that you are back by " For nothing hold me so it please thee hold {i.. ? 165) often has a pronominal force. There is no fear that he will fail. % I <im sorry that you are not well. nothing me a something dear to thee. I am persuaded that that is the wiser course. co. or closer definition). as in I told you so. bring him with you. in which an inaccompanied by an interrogative word supplies the place of a substantive clause beginning with an interrogative finitive : Note the omission of ' that. Nouns that do this may have a substantive clause after them. I am certain that he never said so. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Exercise 114. In case* you should see him. t 'I'hat is. Who ! The word so is only a substantive demonstrative pronoun t used adverbially. can want the thought how monstrous it was for Malcolm and for Donalbain to kill their gracious father ? He sent me word that he would come anon.' Is he a captain? He is sfl 'He is a fool.

Underline the adjective clauses in each of the following sentences. Thou speak'st to such a man that is no Vou fleering tell-tale. ' ' ' ' as it is is in the attributive relation to § The clause the complentent of the predicate in its own clause. I know not how to thank you to How the money sufficiently. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul. I have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love asj I was wont to have. X See § 165. The rest {i. to do next. Do you know I saw the captain in whose ship you will sail. Ihrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just. The difficulty is how to get there. form.EXERCISES. and lastly analyse the adjective clause separately* : serpent that did sting thy father's life. I taught him how to do it. such as§ it is. 413). ' ' ' help. Thy food shall be husks wherein the acorn cradled. . 411. — Adjective Preliminary Lesson tive Clauses..e. This cloth is not such [cloth] as I asked for. XLV. He had many heavy burdens to bear. and then analyse them. and then analyse the sentences. Unto l)ad causes swear such creatures as+ men doubt. Analyse the following sentences in which the Adjective Clauses have a Relative Adverb in place of a Relative Pronoun governed by a Preposition (§ 406).Supply the relatives which are omitted in the sen- tences in Exercise 62. I am considering what I know not where to get food. He never knows when to go. What sad talk was that wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. Deal in a similar way with the sentences in Exer- Exercise 117. repose ') is labour which is not used for you. as. the gentleman to whom this park belongs ? Infected be the air whereon t they ride. after sunset fadeth in the west. then analyse the entire sentence. His behaviour is not such [Ijehaviour] as I like. parsed as a compound adverb. Exercise 118. • Remember that the Adjective Clause must contain a subject and a finite verb of its own. 225 do it is the difficulty. now wears his crown. 116.' It must be t See § 162. Whereon (=: on which) forms an adverbial adjunct to ride. Where to get puzzles nie. and a dozen in which it is omitted.]. Make (or find) a dozen sentences containing adjective clauses in which the relative is expressed. the pressure of which nearly crushed him. — Nature. In me thou seest the twilight of such day. and construction of Adjec- Clauses (§§ 406 Exercise 115. will soon find such peace wliich it is not in the power of the world to give.' and the quasi-relative ' as ' is . You are welcome to my help. As' must be treated as equivalent to a relative pronoun. The ' Exercise cise 61.

eitlier Exercise 121. . That is precisely what he ought to have done. Exercise 122. are saying. " It (the person) " It (the — ' 'The handle towards my . I cannot make out what you I do not understand what you are saying. You have only told me what I know I know what you said about me. The word what sometimes introduces an adjective and sometimes an indirect question. It was the owl that shrieked. the handle towards my hand ? That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold. You may supply the suppressed antecedents. Do you know the source whence he obtained this information? The fortress whither the defeated troops had fled was soon captured. clause. was John." clause 'which hand' is attached to this. The reason why you cannot succeed is evident.236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and find out what is the already. Exercise 120. carefully distinguishing the subtantive clauses from the adjective clauses. must not dictate to me what I am to do. is. was John who said so. that. Return to the place whence you came. Is this I see before me. f was it the eye of cliildhood that fears a painted devil. I can remember the time when there were no houses here. Exercise 119. Do what you can in this business. have the same twofold use the adverbs. I'his is what he did.* ? Who that thus cried It is a dagger which j Analyse the sentences in Exercise 65. Pray tell me what ails you. and tJiis.' and analyse them. He knows well enough what he ought to do. having a relative force. was the owl. I will show you the shop where I bought these apples. and then parse the sentences : Repeat what you have just said.' a nominative absolute belonging to the adjective clause. when used as the equivalents of relative pronouns governed by prepositions. ' ' clause. Make (or find) a dozen sentences illustrating each use of what.so. ' ' Analyse the following sentences. or treat the clauses as Adjective Clauses used substantively (§ 408). Was that your brother who knocked at the door? Is that a scar that you have on your hand? It was a gun-shot that killed him.' &c. which is a substantive What is interrogative when it cannot be replaced by that which (§ 409). is. in which the Adjective Clauses are attached to (and explain) the neuter demonstrative It pronouns it.' 'where. ' Exercise 123. The pronouns 'who' and 'which. Go. Analyse the following sentences. He soon repented of what he had done. * t That That ' t Tlie adjective hand is who said . You matter..' and the pronominal adverbs 'when." creature) that shrieked.

which I denying. Tell me where Tell me why you are so angry. then you know that till you told me. Tell me where he is.' § Remember that the conjimction or pronominal adverbs when. treating the clauses containing a relative not as adjective clauses. have an adverbial construction in their own clavises. In parsing a sentence of this kind. modifying the verb 'see. in a similar Exercise 125. which he read. demonstrative pronoun were substituted for the relative (§ 413) ' . ' Here lies an honest man. tjonoiirable ladies sought my love. This modest stone. not know when quarrel.* after execution. I could not make out whom he was alluding to. That is howt he always treats me. I delivered my letter. first underlining you the Analyse (and parse) the following sentences. Deal 63 and 65. before. That is why* I did it. when a loud clap of thunder warned us to quicken oiir steps.' to which a substantive clause beginning with 'that' was in apposition. That is where* I live. . j they fell I the sick and died. never has an antecedent expressed. That is why* I am angry. We travelled together as far as Paris. While he is here we * In the analysis supply an antecedent no'in.' By this tune we had traversed half the distance. In London he made the acquaintance of my brother. way with the sentences in Exercises XLVI. but as independent sentences as though and with a. Clauses (§§ Adverbial Sentences. Whom we raise we will make fast. How. &c. what few vain marbles can. Being shown into a grand apartment. and structure of Adverbial 414—435). Sic. May truly say. have no such force. while. judgment hath repented o'er his doom.EXERCISES. form. but that the Conjunctions after. See where* he looks out of the window. you live. While has nothing to do with the relative pronoim. where we parted company. whom he visited frequently. and then analyse these \ clauses separately I will tell secret'l were a man. after the Adverbial Clauses. when I see you. When you durst do it. ' : — matter will re-word. 416).' as a relative. S have here a nominative absolute. which lasted till the evening. forming an adverbial adjunct io/eli. Next day they renewed the fight. ivhere. The omission of that gave to while a conjunctive force. which madness would gambol from. — Nattire. X Which is the object of denying. I knew when* seven justices could not take I have seen when. Analyse the following sentences. 'when' should be described as a connective adverb. up a Exercise 124. till. Adverbial Clauses relating to Time (§ 1.. I did not shall have no peace. ivhithcr. It is an old noun meaning 'time. I do they will arrive. Analyse the following sentences : 227 Find out who did that.' ai)d joining the clause whei) I see you to the predicate ' wilj ' We ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' tejh' .Prdbninary Lesson. Exercise 128.

Exercise 128. She is star shooteth from the sk)-. Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause. I will dwell. Analyse and parse the following sentences Where thou dwellest. therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice. Wherever lay where he fell. How We 4. for I do not know it. the wider will be The longer I know him. is care that soil all be ready. the prospect. Analyse and parse the following sentences : because I sent for him. He so It weak is stand. me. He came He toils hard that he may get rich. you go.' How ' is a relative or connective adverb modifying far. more. Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner and Degree (§ 418). He still Adverbial Clauses relating to Place (§ 417). As he lias begged my pardon. please. the more he wants.' 11 The demonstrative 'so' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' 'tired. • 'There' and /he clause 'where ' + t . The more he has. so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. He is aware that I did not come. ' The first the' is relative. we had left plague [be] upon signifies asking. because then it can do no harm. left the room as I 1 shall be gone before you are up. strative. the second relative. He such a liar that nobody believes him. Do as I tell you [to do]. A when He He entered.* where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. The second (See § 420.' the ' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of wider.' Each modifies the adjective in its demonstrative. the second demon§ Here the main clause is the second one.) The first modifies 'higher'.' . I must believe it. : I will follow you. Ho\v|| far the substance of my praise doth wrong this a bright shadow. I'll charm there's not a soul to give you an answer? arrived after the air to give a sound while you peiform your antic round. the second modifies 'wider. Exercise 127.' the clause explaining the indefinite meaning of the. and Consequence (§ 421—423). I will forgive him. into temptation. so glides he in the night from Venus' eye. ' ' ' — _ clause. He is asj : avaricious as his brother is generous.adverbial adjuncts of will lie. He do not always write as we pronounce. the less I like him. There. The§ higher you climb. Since you say so. when thieves cannot be true to one another. Analyse and parse the following sentences As the tree falls.So' and the clause nrst ' The as ' is disclose' are co-ofdinate adverbial adjuncts of 'rose. What it. always does as he promises [to do]. the village preacher's modest mansion rose. as good as she is beautiful. You may come whenever you 2. that he cannot so dark tl>at we cannot see. Whithersoever I went. he followed Seat yourselves wherever there is room. Take I I called own room lest on him that I might tell him that he might study quietly. He retired to his about that matter. Ex3rcise 129. When I am determined I always listen to The fool is happy that he knows no reason. I cannot tell you his age.' as the tree falls are co-ordinate . Because Thou hast been my help. sot it will lie. Take heed ye fall am tired that I is am ready to drop.2 28 • ENGLISH GRAMMAR.' and joining the adverbial clause (which is co-ordinate with so ') to the second far. Purpose. 3.

this day shall gentle his condition. The lady's fortune must not go out one may find comfort in the money. I will not come your address. An (=^ if ) I have not ballads made on you all. whatever one does [find] of the family Cold§ as it is. 1 shall go out.' in apposition 'o the adverb 'so. Were you my brother I could not do it for you. But ^' i) that my foot slipped 2) as I tui-ned the corner "^(^7""" ' * This construction consists of a substantive clause '[that] I lose not honour. Whenccsoever the money comes it is welcome. I cu|i of sack be my poison. J will do Whatever he may say. first treating the substantive clause as a whole. In the following sentences a substantive clause contains a subordinate clause within it. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. . Though unless you invite me. 4.. I wish i) > (2) the l)oy (I) would finish the task 2) I set him.' but an attributive adjunct t Mind that ' ' ' ' ' of the verbal noun han:^in. if I had known If you call you will see him. 1 would have finished the work had it been .s construction with that of such a sentence as ' I believe whatever he J Aiialyse th. Ex3rcis3 131. Complex Subordinate Clauses. Do not confound tn. I am not afraid of in the wife. 229 5. Analyse the sentences. You will not succeed unless you try harder.) So has no adverbial relation to any word in the clause vhich it introduces. — Exercise 130. Big as he is. Say [he] \\hat 1 have said. Had I kno\vn|| this I should have acted differently. me how (I)- old you were 2) J. j I shall not believe him. You will see him though 1 shall not [see him]. shall be counselled I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this. Hypothetical and Concessive Clauses (§§ 424 434. \ Co!d is in reality the complement of the preJicite. However great his abihties may be. if I escape hanging for killingt that rogue. possible.' ' II If ' is omitted J 434. let a So* 1 lose not honour in seeking to augment it. wliat he will [say] he will ne\ er convince me...). says.' (\ 362. Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition. and sung to filthy tunes. Ihe construction is the same as if we had 'however cold I ' ' it is. he never pleases tiie man.EXERCISES. Underline the clauses in the way shown in § 514 and in the first few sentences : He said i) he would return 2) the book when he had read ^ (i).s. Analyse the following sentences : — I would have called on you. _' when your (2) father died. XLVII. him." he construciinn in this and the following sentences is very peculiar. Whatever may be the consequence. he cannot succeed without industry. for killing is not an adverbial aJjiuict of escape.' which is in reality a substantive pronoun used adverbially. and afterwards analysing it separately. Be he ne'er so vile. he is rich he is not contented. {St'e Exercise iii.^ »_„^ Tell i) _ it. Do [he] what he can [do].

the subject of must. I think he will soon retrieve his Who told I should like to know how misfortunes if he sets to work with good-will. would never have known. The time has been that when able to answer those of which I make no secret. which I did should be answered. should have Where (I). whom you may say.. Nor failed they to express how much they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. (2) I I should report that l) which — (I) (2) say 2) I saw. ^ they most breed and haunt. The man i) who does the best 2) that he can [do] deserves praise.=- observed* l) the air is .„ ^ 1 he construction will be best the nominative case. The house where Iiave only Exercise 133. must be punished. if it pleases you. who bears a glass which shows me many more. Analyse the following sentences which contain complex adverbial clauses I wrote l) to him 1 will not leave i) till I know 2) that he is out of danger. I have . you that I built the house which you see? He fears that his But that I told him who did it. is mistaken. appears. A child i) : ^'^ .) i) who care 2) not what they say. There are men <" (. The right valiant Banquo walked the brains were out the man would die. make him swear to keep for ever. Analyse on similar principles the following senExercise 132. . ' . your friend found out where I live.' t Observe that the substantive clause is as in: 'I say [th.230 I ENGLISH GRAMMAR. tences. done what I told you I would do. .(2) 2) delicate. won the race.s (2) 2) that does not mind when he is spoken to.atl I saw it.t I I lived when I was in town has been pulled down. Fleance killed.' seen by substimting the jenjonstrative ' ' . : (I) ( 2) ' In analysis put I have • This clause breaks up the continuity of the substantive clause.' . They fear what J yet they know must I have secret reasons which I forbear to mention because you are not follow. The eighth too late. (2) •• is gone with her. Now methinksyou teach me how a beggar I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. which contain complex adjective clauses The person i) who told 2) you that I said so. he father will ask him where he has been. observed the air is delicate first.' t 'What' is in :— 'they know [that] that nuist folJovv. (2) " My foolish rival i)" that her father likes (I) ii) 2) only for his possessions are so huge. The construction is the same broken by I say.

I will give you no more money till I see how you use what report. The two or more co-ordinate sentences which make up the compound sentence simply have to be analysed joins them. * Exercise 135. . which in its turn contains a third : I was grieved when I bore among if his neighbours. when we know we have so many real ones to encounter.EXERCISES. It was so hot in the valley that we could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when we were higher up among the mists. be much obliged (2) i) if you will repeat the story 2) (2) which you have just heard. 2) how anxious he was. Analyse the following sentences. — Study carefully § : 440. §§ 439. Sentences. [will] not feel [the noxious vapour of these raging fires]. Test the accuracy of the following contracted sentences in the manner shown in analyse them separately 440 : then them up and You must either be quiet or [you must] leave the room.use their gifts and powers. or [our purer essence. 551 fill — 556. whene'er I sleep or play. Exercise 134. when] prosperous [things] of adverse [things] we can create. when] useful [things] of hurtful [things we can create. Compound Sentences. portion of Hcither-^nar t Suppress the cciijutictive by substituting not—twt. These present no new features. Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous when great things of small [things we can create. XLVIII. he had not they ought to act when they meet with obstacles. (0 He soon left the house when he heard that I was coming. separately. Contracted FriUmijmry Lessofi. My day or night myself I make. You will be punished if you do not come when you are called.] inured. are invaluable helpers. each of which contains a subordinate clause containing a second. how he had obtained the character which he know that he would never have spread such a believed what your brother told him. immediatelv because (i) 231 I shall I knew . He yields neither t to force nor t to persuasion. He seldom drinks wine because he finds that it disagrees with him. It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who al.) XLIX. with the (§ omission of the conjunction that 436. I have not decided whether I will go • Two or three are filled up by way of example. Men who see heard I clearly how you have. Our purer essence then will overcome the noxious vapour of these raging fires. Don't let us make imaginary evils.

in default of my raising . and die on mine own s^word ?" " Swords I smile at. king'). I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon than He told me that wisdom is better than [I would soon be] such a Roman.. which glory excites. He pursued. t The logical intention of an attributive adjunct is often greater than its mere grammatical " (Although he is soj old as he is [old]. or close ambition varnished "What praise could they receive." wine or beer? " Nor steel nor poison. in the way indicated in the first few examples. which * who but feels can taste. nor that a bad we call. but I can never forget his ingratitude to me." " Two principles in human nature reign." Roman fool. If ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and fell who fell. I'll shed my ' ' .iuse." you return come and tell me the news.' Feels' and 'thmks' are intransitive. 01 t ^'vs he is [old] he is hale and hearty. Analyse the following sentences. It is better to die than [it is good] to live in such misery. brandished by man that's of a woman born. He looked as [he would look] if he could kill me. ' : — ' ' : ' ' dtar lilooJ ' iS:c. you pursue this course you will not injure me. [Let the pupil study and practise these." The full meaning here is force. the more a knave.232 or not. I will as you [have a good right to th-^ money]. scandals increased and multiplied. He stood aside so as [a man would stand aside] to let me pass." " Who wickedly is wise or madly brave. Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses. or he to Hecuba?" L.. He is not so clever as his brother [is clever]. Unless you alter your conduct you will offend your friends and bring disgrace upon yourself. Pirlimbtary Lesson." " See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow. 557 — 564. having grace. and thought of the future with As the years went on. That discovery relieves. As she sat in the old arm-chair she pondered with bitter grief over the past. but I will— King is an adverbial adjunct of 'will shed'. He allowed no day to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud. but you will ruin yourself. — Study §§ 443.) The boy played truant as [it is] usual. shuddering fear. Is but the more a fool. foreign levy. "Why should I play the contrive who need. nothing can When touch him further. till he can fill up the ellipses when the elliptical sentences are dictated. from o'er with zeal. have nothing to do with it. but + I will raise the down-trod ' • Which object of the verb ' taste ' to be repeated as the object of the verb ' know. " Bad men boast their specious deeds on earth. He is as brave a man as [a brave man] ever lived. Would you rather drink but thinks can know. but could not overtake the retreating enemy. not now. of a preposition ('but') followed by a substantive cl. He was so kind as [a man would be kuul] to give me this book.] Exercise 136.. but scarcely removes my suspicions." urge. self-love to such obedience paid? " " Nor this a good. or when they need. I'll shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust. " Wiles let them I may forgive. The sense is — Leaving out the case that I will raise king (that is. I had rather die than [I would soon] endure such a disHe is better to-day than [he was well] yesterday. weapons laugh " What's Hecuba to to scorn. wealth [is good] as [lie would tell me] if I did not know that before. and reason to restrain. He grows worse and worse. first supplied the words that are understood. what pleasure I. (That is." him. consisting t 'J'he whole phrase. malice domestic. . He looks as stupid as an owl [looks stupid]. He is a man in that degree\)X'XV^ in which degree brave a man ever lived. I have as good a right to the money As [matters stand] for me." " Freely they stood who stood.

but not so fond of play as of idleness. I speak not as in absolute fear of you. If I were as tedious as a king [is tedious]. + ' ' ' : * Provis^ional object. I would dance at maypoles " {Ben ycnsott^ Cynth. /. He is as tall a man as ever I saw. How could you make such a blunder as to suppose I did it ? None could be found so bold as to oppose him.('. 233- An "Mortimer as high in the air as this unthankful king [is h'gh in the air]. About him all the sanctities of Heaven stcod thick as stars. He died as one that had been studied in his death to throw away the dearest thing he owed (= owned). IV. The people of Paris are much fonder of strangers that have money than of those that have wit. it passes belief. Herein fortune shows herself more kind than is her custom For myself alone I would not be so ambitious as to wish myself much better. He recommended me as a person very fit for a travelling tutor. Art thou not sensible to feeling as to sight. They dreaded not more the adventure than his voice forjjidding. Wisdom is ofttimes nearer when we stoop than when we soar. I am not such a As to your proposal. Rev. he is little better than a beast. He accompanied me as far as to the end of the street. I should earn mere as a crossing-sweeper. say at what age a poet grows divine. He is fonder of play than of work. in supposing) I did it. his brother. He is as a great a rascal as ever lived My feet are as cold as a stone. as 'twere a careless trifle. You are no Will you be so good as to lend me that knife ? worse off than your brother. I never attend to such requests as that. l)e at all. The boy is more He is no happier than before.EXERCISES. More is due than more than all can pay.). having first filled Rather than be less. My pupil understood the art of guiding in money matters much better than I. showing the construction of the real object ' to bestow. This construction is the counterpart (with a connective instead of a demonstrative adverb) i of the use of so' followed by a substantive clause to denote a condition or hypothesis (See Exercise 130). Exsrcise 137. How could you make such a blunder as t [you made] to suppose (/. For none made sweeter melody than did the ]70or blind boy. He was wiser than to risk his money in that undertaking. He spoke to me as if I were a He tliief.' &c. he is a little worse than a man and when he is worst. I should be piped and sung to. He is more agile than troublesome than ever. but nf>t so strong. He procured a room as near the prison as could conveniently be found. eis a dairy-wench. He is better to-day than yesterday. As to what fool as to do that. He has no redeeming qualities whatever [redeeming qualities there are]. I could find it* in my heart to bestow it all on your worship. he cared not to can be worse than to dwell here ? Present fears are le^s than horrible imaginings. This is better than if we had lost everything. . What . See § 165. The full phrase is such as the following "As I were a shepherdess. If time improve our wit as well as wine. He told me that wisdom was better than weahh as if I did not know that before. I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. looked as if he could kill me.. It is not so bad to suffer misfortune as to deserve it. up the ellipses : Analyse the following sentences. I cannot assent to it. What [will happen] if I don't tell you? His wages as + [he is] a labourer amount to twenty shillings a week. When he is best. 'twere not as good a deed as [to] drink [is a good deed] to turn frue man and leave these rogues. 3'ou tell me. Take 'as as doing duty for a relative pronoun (= which blunder '). With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sang of chaos and eternal night. .

7. by the side of the pool sat on a three-legged stool. .' and take 'as as a ' ' relative pronoun (§ 164). 4. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the And all the air a solemn stillness holds. j I. flight. adjunct modifying 'air. 8. solitary reign. And putting in order his reel and his rod. sight. The 9. The gallant The margin All alone tall king.§ The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. battered and decayed. 11. 13. all 2. His daily teachers had been woods and Love had he found Waiting till in huts where poor men lie.Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed. Lightly and brightly breaks away The morning from her mantle gray. Kicking his heels on the dewy sod. Here We The in cool grot and mossy cell rural fays and fairies dwell.* Save t where the beetle wheels his droning And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. A man 5.234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. • I-ook carefully to see is t Supply 'those regions' (or something of that kind). From yonder ivy-mantled tower The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such X as. Or waked to extasy the living lyre. The soul's Lets in 6. wand'ring near her secret bower. % Take ' each — laid as a nominative absolute. Beneath those rugged elms. new dark cottage. light through chinks that time has made. freighted clouds at anchor lie. Molest her ancient. heap. which the subject here. 12. sable mantle of the silent night Shut from the world the ever-joysome light. that yew-tree's shade. Right sharp and quick the bells Rang out from Bristol town. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid . MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 10. . 14. rills. night 3. The last two lines form an adverbial t Supply ' persons. Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. the west wind blows. he skirted still of that mighty hill.

' See 5 524. beyond the solar road.* all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries. |' . Night. I am forbid the secrets of my prison house. leads on to fortune Omitted. 15.' Then 'which omitted' is a nominative absolute. from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To 27. we were base enough retire to desire it. ' ' ' • Supply 'which' before 'omitted. 22.). He that fights and runs away. He He that that down need fear no low no pride. And pore upon the brook that babbles by. Where shaggy forms o'er ice-built mountains roam. Our sport shall be to take what + they mistake. That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high. &c. 23. Thou art not so unkind As man's ingratitude. modifying the verb is bound. In climes 16. bottomless perdition. blow. Although thy breath be rude. t See § 529. taken at the flood. My 24. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul.' and the whols lentence '[which] omitttd— m'series is a second adjective clause qualifying tide. 'for retiring. We are not weak if we make a proper use of those means 26. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong. 235 There. 17. § See § 406. flaming. Because thou art not seen.. The Muse has broke the twilight gloom To cheer the shiv'ring native's dull abode. 1 Sec § 5C0.e.EXERCISES. But that II To tell 25. it is now too late to from the contest is is {i. sable goddess. Blow. 19. at the foot of yonder nodding beech. from her ebon throne In rayless majesty now stretches forth Her leaden sceptre o'er a prostrate world.t Thy tooth is not so keen. May live to fight another day. His Hstless length at noontide would he stretch. thou winter wind. When § I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself. If : 18. There is a tide in the affairs of men Which. which the God of nature hath placed in our power.' fall. 20. hour is almost come. 21.

is my own. lost. o'er. 6. ^ { . 38. But in battalions. 40.236 28. man goes loose (see § 516). save Heaven? Do you not come your tardy son to chide. Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed. it 29.* That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf. but my madness speaks. indirections find directions out. night descending.See § 370.'' || 41. Sec § 403. . How his audit stands. we should do when we would (§ 459). my native land'. they come not single spies. Breathes there the man with soul so dead. J you mark his favourite flies The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. that this 44. . merely a complex substantive.t Their perfume take these again. evil that The men do h\es after them. 32. 45. the proud scene was 31. must I have the half of anything that impart this same paper brings you. never to himself hath said. 39. Who 'This 47. lapsed in time. quotation t I! _ Sec Sec § 434.''** attain. 5. Would'st thou not stir in this. When They I they do choose have the wisdom by their wit to freely lose. . I in these veins. 33.t 36. blind Fortune leading me. I 30. lets go by The important acting of your dread command. See § 563. 46. The great man down. That we would do. Thus do we of wisdom and of reach With windlasses and with assays of bias By 37. Now. is The night long that never finds the day.§ who knows. it ii II See § 521. 43. How dangerous is it When sorrows come. That. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. When I did first my love to you. So may I. Miss that which one unworthicr may • § ** See § 367. I freely told you [that] all the wealth [which] had lost. § 595. trespass. Ran 34. am content so thou wilt have so. would [that] you had won the fleece that he hath 35. Lay not That^ not your 42. and passion. that flattering unction to your soul. See § 520. A is not a dependent clause.

. clause without if. While from the purpling east departs The star that led the dawn. 59. it must appear that malice bears down 54. 55. These honours peace to happy Britain brings. Affrisfhts the beggar whom he longs to eat. this will not suffice. she 58.' ' in the analysis. And he repents not that he pays your debt. learn to bear. 56. which I did make him swear to keep for ever. (§ 563).' Omit and entire clause ' that follows so. nature's vigour working at the root. (^= whether). On The savage stocks inserted. . How* If far the substance of it.' . Whilst light and colours rise and fly Lives Newton's deathless memory (§ 551). ungrateful to the planter's care. doth appear you are a worthy judge. Herein Fortune shows herself more kind than is her cus- tom 57. 51. if Your wnfe would give you little thanks were by to hear you make + the offer. 237 Benighted wanderers the forest o'er Curse the saved candle and unopening door While the gaunt mastiff. Their savage eyes§ turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music. 52. shadow 53. fonning an adverbial adjimct to make. 48. Repent t but you that you shall lose your friend. 61. will surely injure the reputation he designs to assist (§ 459)- 50. surest virtues thus from passions shoot. growling at the gate. Wild 62. For May is on the lawn. 49 He that claims either for himself or for another the honours of perfection. to the ' ' The ' so t an adverbial adjunct far' A hypothetical See § 397.EXERCISES. is * ' ' ' How' and is here relative or conjunctive. Blithe Flora from her couch upstarts. As fruits. I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. ' How—it' is co-ordinate with X § Nominative absolute. You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. for that. 60. It truth. in underprizing my praise doth wrong the so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance.

Adieu E'en take the counsel which I gave you Or. ! 69 first . Separate it into (i) 'Whom Nature Whom Nature . Shall one whom|| Nature. Hypothetical clause without if modifying the verb ' ' breathes. Fortune cannot change her mind. and me. blind to wit and worth. friends. ! we rove. Go. used to love ! Kindling former smiles again In fading eyes that long have wept 64. lovely rose Tell her that wastes her time . In my former days of bliss Her divine skill taught me this.' TJ Talte •• Hypothetical clau&e without if. Why^ 70. do. that future times may tell Thou 68.' Substantive clause in apposition to Before 'raise' repeat that I could.conspired to form to be conspired not to form to admire. dear. After ' do ' supply impart better precepts. Weds the rich dulness of some son of earth ? If this advice appear the worst.' this. through all life When Losing unblest life that made / Should* some notes we In days of boyhood meet our ear. That now she knows Vi^'hen X I 66. I'll follow them with all my heart. Thatt from everything I saw I could some invention draw . rope. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. You'd think [that] no fools disgraced the former reign.' t § In apposition to 'thou. Oh how welcome breathes the strain Wakening thoughts that long have slept. learning.' t ' ' ' II ' ' ' ' . to fortune.' 238 63. Who And • scorn [that] a lad should teach his father having once been wrong will be so still. hast at least bestowed one penny well. birth conspired To form not to admire but be admired. And 65. better precepts if you can impart.' (2) admired. Sigh.' Supply ' ' ' which ' before 'we used. to 67. Prepares a dreadful jest for all mankind. How sweet and fair [He] Who thinks that To Think how And buy a resemble her to thee she seems to be.' Supply the. mankind a shame.thee ' modifies 'seems.relative that before I saw.' why ' as an interjection.' The adverbial clause when . Did ** not some grave examples yet remain.' A contracted compound Adjective Clause.§ posterity will treat thy name . while his Chloe. raise pleasure to her height Through the meanest object's sight.' the suppressed subject of the imperative 'think. ' skill.

74. with love's familiar privilege decried the wealth that is your own.' &c. useful to the State. Untunes full oft the pleasures of the day. 75. with grateful heart Called on the lovely wanderer who bestowed That timely light. Yet let me show a poet's of some weight. Cannot forget Thee here. to share his joyous sport.EXERCISES. ancient times conspired to disallow 71. soldier. that may forget Thee in the crowd. Among these rocks and stones methinks I see More than the heedless impress that belongs To lonely nature's casual work. when purposes are lightly changed? The appointed 78. Of little And. While heard a thousand blended notes. Then A I too we hurt ourselves. I will My lips. lifting a bright eye towards the crescent moon. what had been ancient 72. a fate attends on all I write. But most of all the zeal of fools in rhyme. ThatjJ when I aim at praise. 239 Had now ? use the man. The nightly hunter. 79. Yet praise Thee with impassioned voice. Checking the finer spirits. though no 73. . when to defend single verse we quarrel with a friend. they say I bite. In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. methinks. In sooth. You have 80 Wisdom Than Verily. that refuse To flow.* you may suppose. Who says in verse what others say in prose. 76. The zeal of fools offends at any time.' little use. oft-times nearer when when we soar. in a grove I sate reclined. where Thou hast built For Thy own glory in the wilderness. Up 'J']. "What then was new. But know we not that he who intermits task and duties of the day.f Besides.' clause in apposition to fate. is we stoop • In full t — 'You may suppose that the man ' ' That is \ A substantive is of the zeal of foals expressed in rhyme.

7. Having finished the chapter the volume was shut {^^ 351. 3. ! 15. . 21. In modern English two negatives destroy one another. is What sort of a man he ? all 31. 13. The The effluvia was disgusting intention of these persons are uncertain (§ 374). 16. Where was you all last night? ($ 374). giving reasons for each correction 1. Every man and boy showed sound but order their their joy by clapping (§ their hands ($ I7S). 17. 386). (^ 175). at 6. I do not like those kind of things. and not other men's opinions. walk (§^ 191. He is (§ not one of those 24). 374). 5. : You and me Let you and will take a I take a walk (§ 287). (J Let each esteem other better than themselves Lives of the Poets' are reprinting (§ 175). Is 12. 11. Tiiere are 23. (§ Six months' interest are due 374).240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Neither of them are better than they ought to be Our own John is conscience. Good own voices were heard and not mean savings produce (^ 374). who fancied what feared" (§ 464). Are either of those pens yours? Johnson's ' 175). 27. FAULTY SENTENCES FOR CORRECTION. (§ 376). it 32. 20. 28. 18. What signifies promises without performance ? (^ 374). Neither John nor Henry were Either he or I are in fault ($ church (§ 386). You did not ought to do that (§§ 184. he older than her? 487). Everybody has their faults (^ 175). Nor want nor cold his course delay many ways of dressing a 386). 14. 24. 19. 4. 8. (J 57). a better writer than (J me (J 487). He was one of the wisest men that has ever lived (J§ 447. 26. Correct the following sentences. who interferes in matters that do not concern him 29. This is the greatest error of the rest (§ 109). 22. 231). great profit (§ 374). 362). "How No pale each worshipful and reverend guest Rise from a clergy or a city feast " (§ 175). 10. 9. constitute our respon- sibility (§ 374). 395). 25. calves' head. "'Twas Love's mistake. 2. 30.

59. These kind of people are my abhorrence. greater than any dramatist. 379). 64. (^ have read the second and third chapter eye nor listening ear an object find 454). 62. 69. 51. The I fleet are under orders to blouses sail (§ 376). 43. 58. This injury has been done brother (§ me by my ($ friend. 37. He told John and I to I. (§ He was angry is me asking him the question ? 484). 3). Somebody whom four. Nor {§ (J 44. 45. 48. 386). I. Call at Smith's the bookseller's My friend. 34. man whom I think deserves encouragement ({ man as him would never say that (§ 487). 40. (§ Parliament have been prorogued 376). 39. 33. 65.2. I forget who (§ 487). (§ 287). 386). come with him is 287). The of all other follies the most pernicious (§ 72). 46. 63. I had treated like a brother. A hot and cold spring were found near each other love of drink is (§ 454). ij. and at his brother's lives were spared. 66. Who Men His can this letter be from? 61. Between you and he a great fool (§ 277). 35. 50.EXERCISES. (§ A numerous party Shakspere is were assembled 376). {§ 487). is sometimes more than one auxiliary to a verb (J 374). 38. There is nothing to show who that belongs to (§ 277). A versifier and poet are two different things (§ 454). him whom 2). has turned against m» a (§ 448. Who He is do you think I met this morning ? (§ 366). (§ Can you I can see neither 454). Divide that cake 68. (§ 41. 36. 241 (§ Homer There as well as Virgil were studied on the oanks of the Rhine (J 386J. all 49. are put in the plural because they are father's many. he whom I treated like 450. I heard that from 67. (§ 54. 109). 57. 60. 56. The peasantry wears 376). \Vhom do you a Such a think called on me yesterday ? (§ 379). . 47. somebody or between you other. 52. (§ wore a large and a very shabby hat see a red and white flag ? 454). What the use of you talking like that told me. I forget (§ 484 ). whom nor avarice nor pleasure are in fault (§ move Not you but John 374). 53. Nothing but grave and serious studies delight him 374). 55. He He is the most admired of the other dramatists {$ 109).

having said so enough me {§ 484). died Sept. New World 454). This is the greatest misfortune that ever has or could (§ 44°)95. happen to me Each It is strives to cheat the other in their own way (§§ 175. and my father's leave (^ 449). I would like to see him (J§ 209. 80. When will we get there? He has not yet began his (§§ 209. 210). 82. 1824. (J She looked cold on her lover 393). 76. 74. 84. 85. coldly this morning 393). 72. I little thought was him 394). ? do men declare him it to (§ (§ be (J 394). born Jan.242 70. (§ He The raved like one out of their mind Atlantic separates the Old and lies 464). Nobody gives so is much trouble as he does. 99. 71. I expected to have been at 105. 75. 91. but for his wisdom (§ 440). He is not only famous for his riches. (§ 89. These flowers smell very sweetly 393). as well as read them in a book (§§ 464. 103. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 5. 1874 (§ 378). me that say so (§461). Nobody She I in their senses would have done that (J 464). (§ (§ 226). . 464). to immediately succeed. have my aunt. my uncle. as knowledge (440). A nation has no right to violate the treaties they have made (§ 464). Sincerity as valuable. A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture. loi. You have weakened instead of strengthened your case ({ 278). 98. {ii. 94. 77. 79. It is I that he fears (^ 461). and even more so. 87. He not only ought but shall do 440). I cannot tell I I you how much to pains have been spent on him. 81. 102. exercise i. 96. 83. sings bettter than me it (§ 487). 90. do not know who send {§ 366). Whom Who I feel do men say that he (§ 379). Here John Brown. 92. 78. They seemed to be nearly dressed alike. He was hoped as rich or even richer than his father (J 440). 97. I 104. is ? 73. home when you it (§ called. 386). 93. I think I will be gone by the time you come 100. 88.). for 86. wish to cultivate a further acquaintance with you. He The did no more than fact of you was his duty to is have done. 2io).

Hoping to hear 116. humble one. This dedication among each that has. (§ Let the same be she that thou has appointed Of all men else I have avoided thee. 366). and had bettter be you this much. M. The service was impressive. 135. is 394).EXERCISES. He wrote a moderately sized volume. He is a boy of nine years old {\ 287). 117. Valerie's was one of those impulsive. . 132. 125. 126. He has only done that much of his task. J. More than one emperor prided himself upon his skill as a swordsman (§ 456). but it lacked either grandeur or beauty. 120. voice inspire. in 1 14. 113. Doth he not leave the ninety and nine. i). I see the being than love her (§ 487). No civil broils 118. lips with fire (§ 456). When I get home I another as 119. 111. 129. Let us not increase our hardships by dissensions 108. another joke which she suppressed (§ 439). 115. 121. believe me yours truly. no use talking so. that length of days impose {§ 456). The centres of each compartment are ornamented with a star (§ 175). eager natures that longs for a confidante 112. 136. other. or shall be published 109. B. 243 While walking in my garden. 107. whom nobody in the world loves O Thou my Who touched Isaiah's For ever in this I. healths and abilities. (§ 362. 128. i). These plantations are lain out by rule and line (§ 226). The Thames is derived from the Latin Thamesis. 106. from you soon. no. His younger days were spent get to France (§ England. doom 123. may serve for almost any book is. and goeth into the wilderness and seeketh that which is gone astray ? (§ 440). 130. waiting for an opportunity to 362. to increase the confidence so many years bestowed on Mr. In reading you should sit as uprightly as possible. 133. parsimony are to avoided. He made I 134. have since his death arose (§ 226). 131. dwell (§§ 287. fair Let thee and Severe the my 122. Regard is to be had to every one's circumstances. {$ 440). We trust that by supplying a genuine and most superior class of article. was going to have written him a letter. It 127. hallowed cell. can tell did not hear. Profusion as well as 124. He drew a line of about six inches long I (§ 278). an idea suddenly occurred to me. (§ 456).

— Carried unanimously. A. is authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. ADAM MILLEIl & CO. To the President and Association Members of the In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of the Association. F. MILLER. Co. LESSONS. and Mason's Text Miller's Edition is prepared as an introductory Text Book for Mason's Grammar. ASK FOB MILLER'S SAINTON'S LANGUAGE LESSONS. The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to Mason''8 mason's Grammar. a. Nov. A. the authorized book for advanced classes for Public Schools. Thomas.TO AVOID CONFUBtON. we believe that " Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupUs and would urge its authorization on the Government. b. St. is the recent examination Papers MIIiliGR'S STFINTOrV'S LANGUAGE LESSONS County of Elgin Teachers authorized by the Education Department of Ontario. Thomas High School. that the report be received and E*riee. Verbi^t are the same as in Book. M. N. Moods. UNGOIIGE Qrammar. 30th. Bet for admission to Miller's Edition contains all High Schools. Inspector. McMillan. In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Definitions of tbe Parts of Speech are novir made identical witb General Treatment The Classlflcatlon of Pronouns. Town Inspector.A. . appointing the undersigned a Committee to consider the respective merits of different English Grammars. that. J. so that what is learned by a pupil in an elementary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book is used. Cloth Extra.M. SSc. J.. BY J. 1878. It " St. B. '• A. is adopted by the Schools of Montreal. we beg leave to report. and its introduction into our Public Schools.CAMPBELL. a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. Aylmer High School. Co. McLEAN. after fully comparing the various editions that have been recommended. was moved and seconded adopted.. of Elgin Model School. Head Master STEELE. Manitoba. BUTLEK.A. with a view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools. The MILLEe'S neu^ Authorized SWIITON'S Grammar.

Heaford. MILLER'S SWINTOH'S LANGUAGE LESSOHS. Whitby. since the definitions. Lindsay. and leave little to be unlearned in after years. Eesolution passed unanimously by the Teachers' As sociation. P. and the book admirably helps the judicious teacher in making correct thinkers and ready readers and writers. London.S. Be careful ta ask for MILIER'S !»>TI>TeN. Trenton Falls.' by McMillan. Quebec. Brockville. B. Manitoba. Bxbridge. Cobourg. Na. Clinton. 1878 " Resolved. Windtor. Neiv Foiuidland. St. Bclle¥llle. Brantford. A Provincial H.. PortHop«. Schools of Winuiprg. CAESON. Uamiltou." In my opinion the best introductory Text-book to Mason's Grammar. All pupils who intend to enter a High School or to become students for Teachers' Certificates. The arrangement of the subjects is logical and progressive. Model School. Mitchell. would save time by using it. . May 17. Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons is sively in nearly all the Principal Public Schools of Ontario. Bracebridge. John's. 1st W. and St.)anee. Listowelt Adopted by the Protestant Schools of Blontreal and Levi College. The definition's in " Miller's Swinton Language Lessons" are brief. WOOD. J. Straihroy. is the best introductory work on Grammar for Public School use. Beaforth. That the Teachers at this Convention are of opinion that Miller's Swinton Language Lessons.. as other editions are in the market. M. held at Brussels. Among them are used excluand Model Ottawa. St. Perth. (North Huron). H.The New Inthorized Elementarj ((rammnr. Catharines. classification and general treatment are extremely simple and satis' factory.. Thomas. clear and exact. W.

M. Loncok. BICHABD LEWIS.A.. H. H.A. J. B. P.. MASON..C. D.. KING.D. Ab a philosophical treatise its discussion of doubtful points anA Its excellent methods and definitions cannot fail to give it a high the school tiie estimation of the best judges of such works teachers of the country. Houston. Mason's grammar will be found a most valuable class-book gs pecially for the instruction of advanced classes in English. M. SIM. It has reached a twenty-first edition in and 1 have no doubt it -will meet with the same high apEngland preciation in this Province.P. H. M. the grammars that I have seen. Cobourg Col. KNIGHT. JOHN JOHNSTON. PRICE Upwards 76 CENTS. With Examina4iion Papers by W. Incomparably the best text book for the senior classes of our high schools that has yet been ofCered to the Canadian public. J. a. M. Principal... OakviUe of three years ago I asked a grammar school nspectoi the old country to send me the best grammar publi bed there. Kingston CoUegiate Institute.MacHENBT.A.. UA. • • • Mason'sGrammaris just such abook as many teachers have been hoping to see introduced into om: schools. M. High School.ENGLISH GKAMMAE BY C.. The chapter on the Analysis of diflBcult sentences is of itself sufficient to place the work far beyond any English grammar hitherto before the Canadian pubUc. H. Omemee... C. S. 8. He immediately sent me Masoin. With to De dMlrod.A. F. M. P. I this school. AliEX.. H. It Is an excellent and reliable work. Newmarket. It will be well received by teachers and advanced pupils. rank in M. in A. definition and abundant illustrations without stereotyped rules thereby making the study even attractive. P. Institute. H. B. S.. Caledonia.. have ordered it to be used in tlie . Of best.. all BelleviUe and.M. S. M.South Hastings. I consider it by far best English grammar for high school purjioses that has yet "Mu«oa" and "Fleming" nothing more seeoia appeared.. H.. liXJ).A. Dufferin School Toronto. Fellow of Unitbbsiit Colleob. its method being to teach the subject by explanation.M. H. I. Head Master. I consider Mason's the MORRISON.. — JOHN SHAW.

its its Simple In Schools. S. Nova Scotia. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic supplies a want that we shoiild have had supplied in W. RATIO.B.A. J. A. it is the best book of its kind that I have examined. unless what we call Mental Arithmetic is thoroughly and yatematicaUy pursued. Provincial our Schools long ago. Principal Ingersoll Model School. of M. H. -FUNDAMENTAL RULES. Dr. PART 1. 46C. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic.-PERCENTAGE. A. The laatio Halifax. It is just what is wanted for "waking up mind" in the school room. M.D . CLABKE.. D. M. A. Inspectoi High Schools. LL. H. Ont. McLELLAN. as given this little text-book. Nova Scotia. Model School. series bids fair to take a good place in seho- work. &C. and it supplies a long-felt \rant. Fart I.. D.. A. By J. H. is a credit to Canadians. Dr. DIMOCK. FRACTIONS. is worth BB a clerk or accountant 50 per cent more than the prodigy who can boast of having " gone " through his written arithmetic half a dozen times. McLellan's Mental Arithmetic contains a great number of useful problems well adapted to aevelop by regular gradations the thinking powers of the pupil. varied in Prom THE WE8LEYAN. A boy who is conversEint with the principles of Mental Arithmetic. PRICE. and to suggest similar examplea for the use of the t«aoher.M. PART ll. 80c. Picton. Same progress cannot be made in Mathematical work. PROPORTION. m DEACON..Mentel Arithmetic. my J. PRICE. J. Port Hope. . Head Master Model and Its Public types of practical questions and sugggestive in methods. GOGGIN. ANALYSIS. After two woeka use of class I am convinced that it is the book with much superior to any of the American texts that have been used here both as to the grading of questiont and the style of the problems. B. arrangement.. Dr.

NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec.One of the most popular Text Books erer published. Within one year the iOth thousand haa been issued. B.. Cloth Szfcra. Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction.. Head Master Model School. Frio* 25 Cents. . ADAM MILLER & Co. Toronto. M. 176 Faees. Toronto. Authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamhlin Smith's Arithmetic. Adopted in a number of the Schools of Newfoundland. and William Scott.. By Thomas Kirkland.A. Prince Edward Island. Highly recommended by the leading Teachers of Ontario. Science Master Normal School. Manitoba.A.

have examined it speak of ooiuion. As a preparatory Arithrnetic 1 have not seen its equal. A very praiseworthy feature of the book is the large number of examples and problems pecuUar to so small a work.. ty the arrangement of the principles presented and the exercises laid down. explanation. W. Model and Public Schools. Toronto. Normal School. well adapted for the purpose for which JOHN DBAENESS. East Middleiex. It is. 2nd and 3rd of our schools. DIMOCK. The questions are in clear. B. SPKAGUE. terse. Head Master Model School. Master. Since failures in Arithmetic are mainly due to a want of power in independent analysis to a lack of knowledge of the unitary method and of skill in its application this volume which discusses the ijroblems'on independent methods will be cordially welcomed by teachers. Schools. in addition to our present text-book. The young pupil. it (fcc. and William Scott. Head Master Provincial Model Nova Scotia.. B. By Thomas Kirkland. a good arrangement and conciseness in definition and A. this book with increasing pleasure and can in almost unqualified recomnaendation.. As a discipline of the mind in tea-hing the pupil to think and reason. 176 Pages. W. by a Btep.NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. my . Master Ottawa it is in- consider cended. Arithmetic is pre-eminent if taught by logical methods and this work places it in the power of the younger classes to be benefitted by such methods. I B.B. M. a copious and well selected assortment of exercises. MoKAY. Head — — . that makes his earlier arithmetical studies a pleasure and a profit. hitended as an Introdtictory Text-Book Arithmetic..A. LL. Cobourg. The arrangement is natural and comprehensive.. Principal Essex Model and Windsor Central SchooL After a thorough perusal of the Elementary Arithmetic by jKirkland & Scott.A. as it offers.B. The Elementary Arithmetic by Kirkland and Scott I can heartily recommend to our teachers. JAMES DUNCAN. Science Master Normal School. I have no hesitation in saying that it is better adapted to the schools of this country than any similar book that has come within the range of my twenty-seven years experience. is led almost unconsciously to the great field of the unknown. Public I School Inspector. RIDDELL. and have no hesitation in saying that I consider it the best Elementary Arithmetic which I have yet seen. I have examined your Elementary Arithmetic on the unitary system by Kii'kland and Scott.A. H. W. attractive language. in the best eiamentary Arithmalao I have examined. D. Price 25 Cents. Principal of Pictou Academy and Public Schools. Math. It is admirably adapted to the requirements of grades Ist. A. to Hajnblin Smith's Cloth Extra. B.

Price. Authorieed hy Ihe Council of Public Inatruction. —"It has a value oandidatM preparing for public examination. I Bball b« pleased to recommend its early introduction. A. Head Master Model • Sohool. and ths examination papers are invaluable as aids to teachers in thorough training. M. for Hamblin Smith's Abithmbtio. AuthoriMed by th» Minitter of Edueatien..THREE EDITIONS SOLD —OF— IN SIX MONTHS HAMBLIN SMITH'S ARITHMETIC. B. complete and comprehensive. QiMftMi Beeommended by the Senate of the Univ. N. B. The appendix and examlation papers are important and valuable features. so that pupils may readily comprehend the questions and proceed to the solutions. SOOTT. DANAGH.. Science Master School. ADAPTED TO CAMAOIAM CVKKSaCT BT THOMAS glRTTLAND.. Inspector of Schools. A. of Balifax. M. and Nonnal WM. Nora Sootla. M.* .A. The exercises are admirable. Manitoba. Ontario. I cordially recommend its nse to all those desirous of obtaining an acquaintance with this branch of Dsefol knowledge. FROM NOVA Bities of SCOTIA. N. as the examples have been mostly culled nrom Examination papers. Toronto. have much pleasure in certifying to the nperiority of the Canadian edition of Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic over any text book on that subject that has yet come under my notice. The author appears not to rely so much on set rules as upon explanations and the clearing of seeming obscurities." W. 76 Cents. DOAl^TE. 0. Inspector of Sohoola. Gmnberland. It if Eractical. BL " Eaxnblin Smith's arithmetic seems very suitable to the neoe»« our public schools. F. "I ANDBEWS. indeed I may say that I have not seen any other work on tnis branch that is so specially ealculated to assist the student in passing with credit offlctal t*$ta. Bsrrington. Ontario- 4tli Edition. Education. 0. I therefore think that Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic should to placed on the authorixed U»t of books for pabllo schooU. They will also prove of great service to pupils desiroua of passing the grade tests..A. Authorited by the Chief Supt.A. Inspector for Qaeen'a Co.

" ' Wm." G." Am ROBT. so much out of place a textbook on this subject. Brighton. PL ATT. They have the advantage of confining the attention of the learner to definite periods. Co. accuracy. They are clear and succinct in statement and convey a large amount of information." s Wm. S. They are written in the most entertaining style. I shall be happy to gee them in the bands of all my pupils. Wilkinsoh. Ont. N. an earnest student of History. Inspector. and have certainly never met with any sketch of the periods embraced by the two volumes of Epochs' you sent me. H. "I am quite conscientious in saying that it is one of the best digests of History that I have seen. Caledonia. It forms a valuable addition to the valuable collection of school books you have issued. and P. I can. D. rendering them particularly suitable for students. M.A.. Haldimand. B. " I have read them through carefully and consider them the best works on the subject for the use of schools that I have ever seen. P. which united in so singularly excellent a manner. and without any attempt at rhetorical flourishes. MOEOAN. Madoc. and tending in no small degree to nrn'note a better system of pursuing this important study. including my University course. High School pupils.A. H. Principal High School. Johnson. S. B.A. and a clear comprehension of the logic of History." '• Ci/ARKE Moses. " led to express my admiration of the very concise and systematic method of arrangement adopted in them.. Barrie. H." . M. W. paper. Hastings. "The series is admirably adapted for the use of teachers. It is remarkably clear and concise. K. I should think their introduction into schools is much to be desired.CREIGHTON'S EPOCHSOF ENGLISH HISTOHY tional Q. in binding. brevity. S. and thus enabling him to master diificult historical subjects without attempt ing to digest and memorize too much at once.A. I shall introduce them in the schools here and encourage their use in those of the vicinity. B.. and typoby graphical execution is all that could be desired.. but a study of the grand sequence of cause and effect by which the facts in tha world's life have been created. cordially recommend them to every teacher who wishes to make hlstoiy not an effort of memory alone. M. P." u R.A. Head Master Erantford Central School. S. Tou have done good service to Canadian students and teachers issuing a Canadian edition which. <3rand help these to the study of English History in its only raway hy epochs in the life of the English Nation and her in" Epochs of History'' mark an epoch in the study of iV* Btitutiona.. "I have been for many years. Mackintosh. and deserves especial commendation for giving just what the pupil ought to know without any extraneous matter. Hamilton. M.. I am particularly pleased with their simplicity of style and fair method of stating occurrences. Lindsay. M. •• ± am glad to see these brief serials authorized by the Minister of Education. Schools. and shall. "The 'Epochs of English History' will be valuable aids in the preparation of pupils for the 2nd class and intermediate examinations. I. and will he perused with pleasure and profit by many who are neither teachers nor pupils. C. DouGAN. and the more advanced classes of our Public Schools. Picton.. Inspector. P. •' — J. Orb.

for ve» k Treatise on Simolb and Double Entry Book-Keepino. Insp. Authorized by the Minister of Education. and cannot but ai^mire the simplicity of the outline. forms. - 70 CENTS. Nova Scotia. M. " I have examined Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping and find it to be an excellent work. while it is su£Bciently comprehensive for all practical purposes. Inspector for Cnmberland. Hants. G. Quebeo. yet comprehensive and practical. S. Nova Scotia. N. C. Winnipeg. M. Insp." W. DOANE.. its simplicity alone is sufScient to secure for the book a place in our schools throughout (he Dominion. Schools. — " Besides D. DANAGH... Education. Book. Beoommended by tlie Covmcil of Public Instruction. M. Insp. " I have looked into Beatty_& Clare's Bookkeeping. It commends itself to teachers as a text book and to all others desirous of acquiring a knowledge of this important branch. P. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping has had a careful perusal. L. and Sauubl Clare. " Several months ago we introduced Mason's English Grammar inte Manitoba College. FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND MANITOBA. Schools. and the varied commercial character of the whole work. will recommend this work to any teacher or pupil preparing for examination. H. T. thoroughbess of Beatty THOS. looking over this book have submitted it to the inspection of practical bookkeepers who agree with me in the propriety of recommending it as a school book..A. HART. Ontario. A. vid have much pleasure in saying that the work is just what is wanted for boys who desire to acquire in a short time such knowledge as will fit them for business*" KEV. 3rd Ed. Insp.A. N. C. "I have carefully looked over Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping.. MORSE. Manitoba. D. the perspicuity of the instructions. Nova Scotia. AutJiorized by the Chief Supt.. and its examples ample.M.. and transactions therein contained. of Schools.BEATTY By S. Annapolis Co. It is well adapted for use in the public schools. Principal Ontario Commercial College. " I am very much pleased with the aimplicity and & Clare's Bookkeeping. A. Nova Scotia. ANDREWS. Beattt. We ." myself. Belleville.' kceping." J.. S.. Shelburne Co. Its directions are minute and to the point. Inspector for Queen's Co. with which the principles of bookkeeping are explained and illustrated.A. Nova Scotia. JOHN AMBROSE. & IM CLARE'S lOOK-KEEPI m. S. Colchester County. I Beaty & Clare's Bookkeeping. Supt. the practical bearing of the transactions. Schools. The definitions. Torontb. PRICE. Digby. Co. are plain and simple. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping is an admirable work. S. and now wc are introducing Beatty & Clare's Houkfind tbwn jmt what w« need in their respective sut^eeta.Keeping and Writing Master. Schools. SMITH. HioH AND Public Schools. Normal School. McGILLIVRAY. A.

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