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WEST. ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. Re2}rintcd from Mason^s Shorter Enijlinh Grarmnar. 11 WELLINGTON ST.) PRICE. LONDONo SECOND EDITION. TOEONTO: ADAM MILLEE & CO. SO cents..Ixlhx ^ €a'B (!Ebucafianal Merits. BY C. . . p. B. 1879... MASON. {Public School Edition.A„ FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE.

. in the year 1679. hy Adah Milleb & Co.. in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.Bntered according to Act of Parliament of Canada.

learner is The taken by easy stages from the simplest English work to the most difl&cult constructions in the language. Beginning with the simplest elements of a sentence.PREFACE. The The present to work is a reprint in a separate form of the Exercises appended Grammar. my recently published " Shorter Englisli Every effort has been made to render these exercises as serviceable as possible to those who wish to guide their pupils to a real understanding of the structure of English sentences. enable him to Nothing is more useless and even hurtful than of mechanical directions to to furnish the learner with tell any kind the Parts of Speech." work have been retained to prevent the cost of preparing new plates. If he cannot tell that a word is a verb. li the use of these exercises I strenuously urge tlie upon teachers patient and unflinching compliance with directions given for guiding the pupil to a thorough understanding of the fimctions o words and forms. of what possible iise can it be for him to give it a name by the application of some empirical rule relating to its position. and acquires by degrees the power of analysing and parsing the most complicated constructions. or something of the sort this fashion % When in he has managed to say that "now" is an adverb. and there are some good works of that kind which have either a scanty apparatus of exercises or none references to the paragraphs of that at all. or . he learns step by step the functions of the various Parts of Speech. and the exercises themselves are so arranged that they may be nsed with any good text-book of English Grammar. an adverb or a preposition by recognizing its meaning and function in the sentence. and of their forms and combinations.

through a certain number of pages of some text-b. ok. Avorse he is deluded fancied the idea that is knows and something. Dlikesell. No dull matter what the suliject may be. P.IV . Streatham Hill. profitless It is this that renders school "lessons" wearisome to the teacher. to master the proper if explanation readily. . and dreary and repulsive to the pupil. and careful teaching pays best even at The specimens of parsing and analysis that I see yearly in hundreds of instances. Xone but learners of abnormal hold out against this kind of treatment. If the pupil till too is young older . into Nay. C. Janucury. wait he he is too dull." that is to say. learners never find a lesson when they feel that they are really learning something. really "against" a preposition. and they had better devote such intellect as they have to simpler pursuits. he before. PREFACE. 1879. MASON. €hristchuech Koad. the matter he a mere sham. talvC him patiently over the ground again and again till the difficulties stupidity will have vanished. knows no more than he did than this. show how deplorably time and round of mechanical and (not patience. for He is simply using wonis without a perception of their is meaning. of far too I'he bane much of our ordinary school work is the ignorant impatience of teachers to get their pupils "over the ground. while his knowledge this delusion is itself a bar to his acquisition of the only kind of knowledge which could be of is any use to him. but) impatience have been wasted in going over and over again the same unintelligent repetition. A tolerably long and Avide experience justifies sloiv me in afihming most strongly that examinations.

Find out some uncouth cell Where brooding darkness spreads his jealous wings. nouns which are the Animals.' Lie down. Things that you see in the room. loathed Melancholy. 6. (or write) ten proper girls. called Pegasus. The horse that won the race was Eclipse. me of" (See 349. Say I. S. March is a cold month.). of Number. Some stuff or material. in the 'Petrel. Houses or parks. Say (or write) ten common of the following things 2.EXERCISES. Of Cerberus and blackest midnight bom. My uncle is the captain of the 'Bellerophon. better than June. He sailed round Cape Horn swallows are birds. 7. nouns which are names of 3. Dogs or horses. That cow has lost a horn. 4. 5. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns (§§ Proper Nouns. — Definition Modes of form- mg the plural (§§ 47. Write the Common Nouns in the following sentences one list.). The boys were : Bellerophon rode a winged horse reading about the battle of Agincourt. to wear. : Common Nouns and Exercise 1. Singular and Plural. &c. N ." "You may avoid that too with an He wants to know the why ifs?" § " Tellest thou 'if'" (Shaksp. 4. Trees and flowers. My brother has a horse called Dobbin. The Fido. or to play with. 5) II. and the Proper Nouns in another John likes school. names of each I. and the wherefore of everything. She brought me a bunch of may. Petrels and eclipse of the sun. I like May soldiers had a weary march. Boys or Towns. 177 EXERCISES. I. 2. Ships. in Exercise 2. 31-37). Rivers or mountains. Distinction between Preliminary Lesson.' We "O Solitude! where are thy charms?" " Hence. Things to eat. — Definition of a Noun. Preliminary Lesson. The traveller ascended Helvellyn. 3. saw an King Arthur's sword was called Excalibur. Countries.

have a good hope William the Conqueror. 374). tells . Bruises. The first chapter. Preliminary Lesson. middle distance. Thus ends the tale. B. Play' is a verb it tells us something ' . Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight. A. Stuff. Down came the rain. and the verb us something. Children. Valley. The barristers and : solicitors. The office of sheriff.shine. Lies.* fly. Subject. Copy out the following examples two or three times and then write them from dictation The mayors of provincial towns. Justice. Lice.178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. An object in the student of the Middle Temple. The princes and dukes. Pies. It is in the noininative case. Mr. Duty. The Duke of Bedford. The death of th^ emperqr. The Prince of Wales. John works. Trees. Buoy. Sky. Leaf. Exercise 4. Scarf. Point out thd subject and the verb in each of the following sentences. what they do Thus. Feet. Then cometh the end. Here comes papa. Thrush." 'Boys' is the subject. Trespasses. Sentences. A court of justice. The Recorder of Carlisle. Staves. Capital Letters. St. about boys. '' Boys play. John the Evangelist. Nooses. Cries. • Not about the subject. In came William. III. The house of mourning.. Our I The Book of Common Prayer. (§§ Agreement of the verb with its subject 179. The clemency of the conqueror. Ass. The Cape of Good Hope. The evangelist Matthew. Horses neigh. Speech. Beware of confusion about this. The Lords and Commons. where is thy common supplications. Death. Convoy. Sheriff Johnson. because the subject of a sentence is only a word. James The prescription of the doctor. Dray. . Victory. Stars Geese cackle. Predicate. Exercise Boot. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. The recorder of these events. The House of Commons. Write the plural of each of the followhig nouns Chimney. The Lord Mayor. the First. Birds . Write the singular of each of the following nouns Arches. Cargo. it stands for that about which we tell something by means of the verb. Negro. — Definition of Verb. Cats scratch. Oxen.Soldiers fight. that is. Exercise 5. Osprey. note). . Enemy. Johnson. but about that/or which the word stands. Waves. Up went the rocket. Pence. because in the sentence. Preliminary Lesson. Verbs. Noses. through grace. Use of the Nominative Case. not about a word. Halves Kine. : Sheaf. A We sting ? IV. : Echo. Grass. &c. Wife. — Use of capital letters (§ 6. 3. The Lord Chief speak of lords and commoners. The Solicitor-General.Snow falls. and explain their functions. Mice. Sentence. Loaf. Flies. Bees. The life of Dr. Calf.

Sink. lap. Boys. The sun. The kittens are in Mary's patience. Scratches. Chatter. Glitters. Lions. Grow. 183). Water. J^reiimi7iary Lesson. Run. are verbs of which you can make use : Fight. Howl. Squeak. Mary. Work. The bakers' shops were shut. Cry. The voices are loud. Run.EXERCISES. as " I found Henry's book and William's slate. Goats' milk is wholesome. Swim. Arrive. Sings Howl. Shine. Ships. The Object The Objective Case . Tom's horse's leg was broken John's day's work is nearly finished. Twinkle. 'J'he baker's bread was spoih. Plays. Exercise 6b. so as to make a sentence : candle. Dogs. Play.Intransitive Verbs. Rain. went to St. Break. Parsons. Dances. (§^ 67. Appear. John's hands are dirty. The boy taxed the masters' The men heard of their wives' danger. Hens' eggs are white. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Paul's this morning. Prelinmtary Lesson. The John. The keeper caught the vixen's cubs. . The farmers' barns are full of corn. Shriek. Graze. Blow. Fall. The wind. Draw one line under those nouns in the following sentences which are in the nominative case plural two lines under those which are in the possessive case singular and three lines under those which are in the possessive case plural and show in each instance to what other noun the noun in the possessive case is attached. The boy pulled the kitten's tail. Trees. cheese was made from the goat s milk. 6. Puss. — Formation and use of the Possessive Case . Soldiers. Flies. children's A We VI. Cows. Horses. The horses ate the oxen's food. 179 Exercise Grass. — Distinction between Transitive Verbs and of a Verb. The masters heard the boys' The boys tore the master's book. Put a subject of the proper number before each of the following verbs : Shine." II 22 Men's lives are short. Sinks. Stars. The bird's leg was broken. Squeal. Sing. Scratch. V. . Mice. The Owls. Day. The Possessive Case. Dawn. I bought this paper at the stationer's.). Works. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever. The leaves. The bird. Speaks. He lodges at the baker's. child. Roar. lessons. (§§ 182. Pray. Kick. The birds have built nests in the farmer s bam. Growl. Preach. Put some verb or other with each of the following nouns. This may be done by placing the same numeral over each. The following Sail. &C. Sing. Float.

The parson preaches. The boys waste time. The dog bit. as intransitive verbs . The sun warms. a transitive verb. The hunter started a hare. The sheep graze. I. The man sank his fortune in the undertaldng. the horse. The The boys play in the yard. —Verbs used {with a difference of meaning) . and a dozen containing a subject and an intransitive verb.I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Bakers make bread. Cats mew. as " I always wash [myself] with " The visitors withdrew [themselves] " cold water " Exercise line . Exercise 10. The man broke his leg. The pig squealed. In the following sentences point out which nouns are In each case explain subjects of verbs and which are objects of verbs. under the transitive verbs. Bii'ds twitter. and draw one 8. The man desires. Make a dozen sentences containing a subject. screamed. : The the French. as transitive verbs (§ 2. as reflective verbs 183). Cats eat mice. The dog howled. Clouds covered." : — ' groom kicked John touched Henry. and three under those that are used reflectively. The horse carries. intransitively. Sheep eat grass. The man spoke The man spoke well. The girls dance. The child Exercise 9. The ship sank. The butcher killed the pig. Write out the following sentences. The boy struck his brother. the use of the Subject. The horse neighs. In the following examples put in an object where it wanted to show what the action denoted by the verb is done to The boy hates. The dog barked. Mary died. A lion deThe horse kicked the groom. and an object. A verb should be treated as a transitive verb used reflectively whenever a reflective pronoun can be supplied as an object so as to make the sense more complete. and reflectively. Exercise line Write out the following sentences. 11. 3. Preliminary Lesson. and draw one under the verbs that are used transitively. The boys play in the garden. and two lines under the intransitive : verbs Men eat bread. Birds build. because it stands for that which is the object of the action denoted by the verb. . The lightning struck. two lines under those that are used intransitively. travellers started yesterday. The girl plays piano. The hound chased the hare. Mary wrote. VII. Exercise 7. The sun is ": shines. The voured a sheep. boys learn lessons. as in Exercise 5. Men pray. and explain the use of " the Object as follows John struck the ball' The word ball is the object of the verb. Rain fell. Verbs used transitively.

Pen. cut his finger. Get thee gone. Eye. He has not shaved this morning. IX. Fly. Cover. The irons are hot. I delight to hear him. The deputation withdrew. He We Exercise used : — i. 14. The laundress irons the shirts. Get out of my way. Prelimhiary Lesson. You had better give in. The town surrendered. Exercise Find twenty more words which may be used either as nouns or as verbs. Steam comes out of the kettle. Take yourself off. I withdrew my claim. He slipped a shilling into my hand. audience hooted the speaker. Form. 2. Words used both as Nouns and ' as Verbs. 218. Work. The Personal Pronotins. to illustrate their use. Get up. inflexions of verbs (§§ 131. The governor sunendered the town. delighted the audience. The maid fnilks the cow. He cut away pretty quickly. Task. out of the room. Name. — .. and make sentences Exercise and intransitively. Hook. Get your umbrella. Study the meaning and use of the word iron. She decks herself with ornaments. l8t hard. Owls hoot. T\\q furrows are not straight. He turned the snake twists and turns about.EXERCISES. We all rejoiced at his success. The cook steams the meat. Gneifurrcmis the brow. 15. Pocket. Forms and use of the Personal Pronouns. He has twisted his ankle. The earth turns round. Make sentences in which the following words are as nouns . VIII. His safe return rejoiced us all. He made off as fast as The The The man he could. and say in each case whether the word is a noun (because it is the name of something). 227). The thief tried the lock. The barber shaved me yesterday. He 12. ^^^lip. He gave up the game. PinCh. The boy tried The traveller returned yesterday. as verbs. and of the Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person.' Exercise 13. Take the words in italics in the following sentences. squared accounts. The children drink milk. in such sentences as Iron is heavy and The women iron ' * — the shirts. &c. Take this chair. The merchant returned the goods. He made a noise. or a verb (because it tells you what some person or thing does) : took a pinch of j«2{^ John snjiffs the candle. old man slipped on the ice. Shoe. A crowd filled the square. The passengers crowd the deck. He ornat>ients the table with plate. Personal Preliminary Lesson. The judge tried the prisoner. Beat. The singer transitively Find a dozen other verbs that may be used both and six that may be used reflectively without being followed by a reflective pronoun. Seat. Dig.

admire him because he is brave. her mother sent her to school. Thomas's brother arrived ? John's pony is lame. Will Thomas give John Thomas's stick. Exercise 19. He has torn her church. Draw one line under those nouns and pronouns in ' These exercises are very like some that have recently appeared elsewhere. John has had John's dinner. Thy friends are here. dog's master beat the dog with a stick When the boys have finished the boys' because the dog bit the master's leg. They left us yesterday. Pronouns as Subjects and Objects of Verbs. Point out which pronouns in the following sentences are subjects of verbs. I will arm me. substitute the proper pronouns for their names in the following sentences. We took them home. the Indirect Object of a verb (§§ 74 370. the garden. The boys have lost The horse ran away with his rider. Exercise 16.* Suppose John is speaking to Thomas.) Exercise 18. will learn to read. the boys will go out to play. Parents love their children. I We . — Difference between the Direct Object and . Con- cord of Verb and Subject 218. and which are objects. The their ball. Did I hurt you? You have spoilt my book. The master praised the boy because he was attentive. Mary has lost Mary's thimble. foes. 4). My sister will call upon your Your brother has sent for me. Direct Object and Indirect Object. Exercise 17.l82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. I will I will lay me down. I often see her at shall see you to-morrow. Preliminary Lesscni. Did I not tell thee so? mother. You have hurt me. — Inflexions of verbs (§§ to mark Person. lessons. bethink me. the girl When was old enough. Look at this book.' . Substitute pronouns for nouns wherever they are proper in the following sentences. The boy has hurt her. 227. Preliminary Lesson. I saw your father yesterday. X. and state what nouns the pronouns stand for : where John John's mother has sent John to school. Arm you against your other Bethink you of some expedient. John will lend Thomas John's knife. They will love you if you are good. it is John's I found it in Get thee gone. and which in thsir turn resemble what appeared previously in the author's ' First Notions of Grammar. and explain their use in the same way as that of the nouns in Exercises 5 and 7. 374. frock. You will meet us there. and the proper names for the pronouns : Has John's father has come home John saw Thomas in the garden. XI.

We shall be written. be struck. Strong Verbs. slain. : draw water. and two lines under those which are indirect objects : John gave Thomas a kick. You see the house. They ate some bread. Exercise 21. 183 the following sentences which are direct objects of verbs. took good care. Change the verbs in each of the other tenses successively of the Indicative Passive Voice naming the tenses as you do so : the following sentences into Mood in the A. Wt'ak Verbs. He dealt the cards. Parts of which the 257). He drinks some ale. A. Conjugation of Verbs. that lady the bread* Send me a letter. successively naming the tenses as you do so . dealt me a hard blow. It lay on the ground. spent their money. Prelhninary Lesson. She spills the water. Let every soldier hew him down a bough. Send me to him. He was A stone was thrown. him Hand that lady to her seat. Money has been taken . The cock crew. kind. The man knelt down. The dog was barking. Active Voice. into bed. The soldiers fight bravely. Change the verbs in the following sentences into each of the other tenses of the Indicative Mood. compound tenses are made up 204-209. We make us comforts of This will last you all the year. Mary fetched the beer. Indicative — Formation of the various tenses of the (§ Mood of the Passive Voice 187 . He seethes the flesh. He breaks his word. 257). tive —Formation of (§§ all the tenses in the Indica- Mood of the Active Voice. our losses. We crept They room. Exercise 20. throws a stone. Tense Forms of the Active Voice. He bleeds to death. The kind woman glass of beer. I read many books. We will disguise us. I hold the reins. He slew his foe. He gives me an apple. Pour your neighbour out a The policeman took the man to prison. Pass me the salt. . You sold your horse. The letter will The wine was drunk. She strikes her brother. Will you lend me a shilling? I gave him a book. Strong Verbs. He tells a lie. He him a wife. He We We We B. Freliininary Lesson. Tiie servant sweeps the met our friend at his house. Find a dozen verbs which may have objects of each and make sentences to illustrate their use. Hand He got took the poor man a loaf. I fetched a box on the ears. They met us in the street and gave us some apples. Exercise 22. Tense Forms of the Passive Voice. Shall we go and kill us venison ? We will buy you a watch. XII. I will get me a new coat. The sun shines.EXERCISES. We XIII. stood in the street.

The archers are shooting arrows. are spoken. The wine was spilt. . tive. Change all the following sentences so as to use active verbs instead of passive verbs in the same tense : The sparrow was caught by the boy. The sparrow will be built. Exercise 23. Mutual Relation of the Active and Passive Voices* When an action is described by means of Prelimina?y Lesson. Change all the following sentences so as to use passive verbs instead of active verbs. Thus for " The dog bit the for " I am writing a cat. Too much was expected by them. They had not counted the cost." put " The cat was bitten by the dog " letter " put " letter is being written by me " : A : will please you. The door was opened by nurse. to be a Transitive Verb. were gathering nuts in the wood. verb in the active voice. That surprises me. This have received a lette. All ordinary passive verbs are transiIt docs not cease. cat killed the rat. Goods have bee« stolen. A new house will be built by my brother. Make in the passive voice. The John broke the window. and draw one under those verbs which are in the active voice. the object of in the Active tlie verb Voice becomes the subject of the Verb in the Passive* (§ 186). 'l"he men The men will be carrying the hay will have finished the work before night. We were overtaken by a storm.184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and then alter them as in the last exercise. The The caught. XIV. 205) Exercise 27. The men We We the room. The boys have eaten the cake. He is • Beware of the mistake of saying that the subject of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the object of the verb in the Passive Voice. The children had been scolded by the The wine had been drunk by the butler. A vcr]) in the Passive Voice has no direct object. Exercise 25. line : Arrows are shot by the archers. Mice me.-. The B. The object qf an action need not be expressed by the grammatical object of a verb. sheep will be shorn. and two lines under those which are in the passive voice (§§ 187. Make a dozen sentences containing a transitive Exercise 24. Meat children are scolded by the nurse. report The house is spread. are drinking the beer. Exercise 28. Weak Verbs. Kind words is out of the till. had been sold by the butchers. The servant had swept to-morrow. and then a dozen sentences containing a transitive verb alter them as in the last exercise. are caught by cats. however. — the Passive Voice instead of the Active. The letter was written by us. Write out the following sentences.

tree. John. mother. Votsfry. baby. The money will have been spent in We are losing time. Exercise 29. : Exercise 28. cousin. lady. footman. Sister. Buck. Ten masculine proper nouns. author. 4. 2. We were travelbe blamed for this. bird. Hind.— 'Ssigm^ca. 6.EXERCISES. Nephew. cart. Give the feminine nounS that correspond to the masculine nouns. I shall be travelling all night. Examples of Parsing. Maria. Ten feminine proper nouns. sheep. . Cow. Ten feminine common nouns. Girl. fox. lord. part of speech. Thames. pig. Write down i. desk. slate. Jane. aunt. Caterer. sovereign. brother. Lass.'" Jolm's is a Proper Noun of the Masculine Gender [because it . man. sister. 3. non. dog. Duchess. horse. Daughter. Boar. Ten neuter proper nouns. running. The Victory. Earl. elephant. tiger. led across the river. form. 2. He is gone. XVI. it and to what subdivision of what the function of the word 3. Doe. boy. boar. Ten neuter common nouns. Drake. ling all day. Exercise 30. pen. — house. box. Preliminary Lesson. Author. gartiener has vain. that part of speech that is. William. Ten nouns of ambiguous or common gender. I shall The men are come. 185 the money. queen. XV. ruler. ox. Sir. rreliiuinary Lessoji. He is spending all The town was taken by assault. Gender (§§ of Nouns. " John's brother has found a shilling. Hart. Governess. WitcTi. lioness. lass. Aunt. ship. king. —To parse a word you must is. infant. and the masculine nouns that correspond to the feminine nouns in the following list : — Nun. Mirrderess. the kind of work 4. that does in the sentence the accidence of the word the construction of the word in the sentence. Giant. The AgamemThe jNJaria. goose. London. 7. gander. The men are drinking beer. cock. The wine was being drunk. maid. Robert. nursemaid. State the gender of each of the following nouns girl. hen. The troops were being The officer was leading the troops across the river. Actor. Bachelor. The been mowing the lawn. to what it belongs . servant. Mistress. judge. state i. Lady. speaker. France. Parsing. vixen. Bull.'don and formation of Genders 39^6). Ten masculine common nouns. uncle. nephew. Empress. Ram. Time is being wasted. Napoleon. 5.

pleased).' ' ' Me a Personal Pronoun of the First Person and of Comment Gender. because it stands for that to which the action denoted by the verb is is a Common Noun ' ' directed]. Future Indefinite Tense. and in the Possessive Case the attributive relation to) the noun brother [because it denotes that John possesses something. pleased. ' ' ' Shilling of the Neuter Gender [because it is the name of something which is not a living being. ' Has found (find. Number. or her]. of a in the Singular depending on (or in It is ' ' ' male person and is that person's own name*]. and is in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive verb has found [that is. Indicative (please. It is in the Singular Number. Indicative Mood. t .' • When pupils have gained some readiness in parsing. It is in the Singular Number. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject brother. such explanations as those in brackets may be omitted . found). ^He will please . and when parsing is written. and is in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb has found' [that is.] It is in the Active Voice. [It is a verb because it tells us something about John's brother. Present Perfect Tense. is a Transitive Verb of the Strong Conjugation found. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject he. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. and may be used for any other thing of the same class]. but in oral work.«<?.l86 is . namely brother ']. Mood. [It stands for the speaker without naming him. It is in the Singular Number. and may denote any other of the same class].' It has shilling for its object. ' ' ' Will please which is is a transitive verb [because it denotes an action directed to an object].'' He is a Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person and Masculine Gender [because it stands for a male person who is neither the speaker nor the person spoken to] in the Singular Number and in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb will please [that is. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. and it is transitive because it denotes an action which is done to some object. and for beginners they arc of the utmost importance. the name ' ' Brother it is a Common Noun of the Masculine Gender [because denotes a male person. '\i the context shows whether the speaker is a male or a female person.Substitute Masculine or Feminine. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. of the Weak Conjugation It is in the Active Voice. and in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive active verb is ' will please. .

The men saw Henry's cousin yesterday. nouns. We have heard the news. Parse all the verbs. Many new houses have been built.' ' ' ' . The hunters were chasing hares. news. i. " 187 I shall ' be seen. in the Active Voice. but ob\'ious blunder. and pronouns following sentences. and not its name. . They called her back. She had been bitten by the dog. Plural Numbert and Second Person. You will be overtaken by the sterni.' * In parsing this word state that it is in the objective case. 20. The hare The house was pulled down. even when it refers to o«? person. 19. except those in italics : in the The hunters caught a hare. The soon have finished the work. It is in the Singular Number. it is the Indirect Object of the verb Lend {See Seclion Exercise 31.' .e. ' ' because xi). of saying that 'adjectives denote the qualities 0/ nouns. Future Indefinite Tense. He was running away. The masons are building a hou. John's sister has told me+ the was being chased. and 22.se. Preliminary Lesson. in the Passive Voice. and verbs in Exercises XVII. ' — Nature and ' use|| of a Qualitative Adjec- * You is always a ^m»«w«rt//ca/ plural.' It is the a«w«a/ that is black. John." is a Personal Pronoun of the First Person of common* (or ambiguous) gender. because it is the indirect object of the verb (See Section xi Ex. * See last note. pronouns. wards. girl's We will 19. § Get thee behind me. if the singular Thou is expressed or understood. Tell me 1 the news. the bread.EXERCISES. Hand mej Henr}-'s father will give her j a new book. the verb is singular but the subject which i. Parse the nouns. Mary's frock was torn by the dog. Go thou and do likewise. Read the letter.. You have lost the sight." njend is a Transitive Verb [because it denotes an action which is done to something]. An adjective is not a ' noun-marking word. Imperative Mood. Exercise 32.s usually understood is the plural you. II ' ' ' . Hear ye. frock will be mended.' ' ' " Lend ' me a shilling. I lent the iiianj a pound. Indicative Alood. Israel.Vouns are names. to agree with its subject you understood. The cat has scratched her." but a thing marking word. and is hi the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb shall be seen [that is. stands for the person about whom something is said by means of the verb]. and in the Singular Number and First Person to agree with its subject I. ' ' ' • Me ' is in the Objective Case. Carefully guard beginners against the common.§ hand mej the bread. In 'a black dog' the adjective black does not mark any quality belonging to the name dog. She gave me+ a shilling. Of course. I ' ' ' ' Shall be seen is a Transitiv^e Verb [because it denotes an action that is directed to an object].) § Parse this word as a Vocative or Nominative of address. Adjectives of Quality.

joined attributively to the noun 'bonnets. Dogs are faithful Sinful The poor little bird is dead. brings much care. and draw one line under the Adjectives of Quality. Preliminary Lesson.' Pick out the Adjectives of Quality in the following sentences. Hold out success. Adjective of Quality. The bird's feathers Ripe fruit is wholesome. Write out the following sentences. Dogs are faithful. ' or Quantitative Adjectives {§§ 91-94). Much money men can resist waited several hours in the cold room. Examples. He is a vulgar little boy. It tells us (indefinitely) how much money we are speaking about. pleasures are often alluring. of Quantity. • Mind much of a or Adjectives of Relation. Have you any money ? Will you have some bread Few strong temptation. " / will ^ive you sofue jnoney. He wore a great. — Nature and use of Demonstrative Adjec- Different sorts of Demonstrative Adjectives (§ 95). Adjectives of Quantity.'" Here ' smart is an Adjective of ' ' Quality joined predicatively to the noun ' bonnets. He is a ready speaker. thing we are spe. . Great* riches bring much care. Thin ice is dangerous. The bird has white feathers. We Many men ? love vicious pleasures.1t * great' and 'small' are Adjectives of Quality. and sometimes an Adjective of Quantity. heavy. The girls are ready. The naughty children ate some apples. ' ' ' ' both hands. and treat each of the latter in the same way as twelve and some in the above sentences. He rode a girl has large black eyes. " The girls wore smart botmetsP It is It shows of what sort the ' bonnets are. animals. Many men possess great riches. tive (or Adjective of Quality) Attributive and predicative use of Adjectives (§§ 80-84 \ 90)' ' ' Smart is an Exercise 33. — Nature and use of Adjectives of Quantity. black horse. My little brother is ill. tives. XIX. We I have no money. They do not tell ns lunu th. but they describe its size. Demonstrative Adjectives Preliminary Lesson. " It tells * ' Exercise 34. brown. Rude boys are disagreeable.' " The girls' bonnets are smart. travelled all night. and is therefore sometimes an Adjective of Quality. ' : XVIII.l88 . bony. The The cat caught a great black rat. John bought twelve pears. woollen cloak. The naughty. The poor woman has I have little t hope of many troubles. Idle boys hate lessons. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and treat each of them in the same way as ' smart in the above examples He rides a black horse. .iking about." 'Twelve is an Adjective us how many pears we are speaking about." Some is an Adjective of Quantity. + 'Little' is used for both purposes. and two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. strong. greedy little boy ate twenty pears. Tom's horse is are white.

He has but little discretion. Here Here Mind this word word is a demonstrative pronominal adjective (or indefinite adjective pro- noun). He has a large head and little eyes. Those little boys are my cousins." His a Possessive Pronominal Adjective or Possessive Adjective Pronoun. by putting the same numeral over both the adjective and the noun. There was no other way left. the noun book. These sheep are last Look at the Bring me my new boots. It qualifies (or is joined is attributively to) the noun ' knife.) Look carefully at the definitions. It qualifies points out a certain book without describing it. bell. Ring the fat. We had some + beef for dinner. You will know better one day. without reference to quality or quantity. second line in this page. 169." I I 2 3 2 3 Give me that large book. Indicate what noun feach adjective belongs to. My apple is ripe.]! news have you heard? What X nonsense he talks have the A A ! XX. No other course is possible. Any* fool might see that. sometimes to another. Each child received a penny." 'That' It is a Demonstrative Adjective. Which J wine do you prefer? What. His first attempt was a failure. that Interrogative Pronominal Adjectives (or Interrogative Adjective Pronouns) J belong to the class of Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives) . I have but one brother. We arrived on the second day. boy will is idle. this relates to guatttity. She was my first lore. Some people like this loud music. thus : " We 4 4 heard of the poor old man's sudden death. and three lines under the Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives). It points out a certain knife. We walk every other day. I went to see him one day lately. little child might lead him. or qualifies. been tried. That last song was capital. • t of Adjectives. Second thoughts are best. She is my first cousin. He spent half a day with me. Neither version of the story is correct. Every device has Either alternative is disagreeable. or Adjective of Relation.EXERCISES. and draw one line under the Adjectives of (2ualit\'. John is his half brother. Any man could tell you that. This She word.' Exercise 35. Comparison Preliminary Lesson. Have you any + money? I have not the least appetite. Some * thief has stolen my watch. (See §§ 92. An enemy hath done this. " Give 189 me that book.' ' " He ' lent me ' his knife. little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. —Study §§ 1 05-1 16. bearing in mind that several adjectives belong (with a slight difference of meaning) sometimes to one class. two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. 166. Write out the following sentences.

this mistake must be carefully ' guarded against. beautiful. tidiest. Parsing of Adjectives. nastiest.' (Rich. splendid. rich. and to what noun 84). richer.] It is in the Positive Degree.' attached attributively to {or qualifies) the : An Adjective of Quantity. monstrous. XXI. crudest. It is [It describes the virtues spoken of. noun jnen understood (see § 96). state Examples. Write down Prettier.' it does not in the least alter the meaning of the noun. fierce. worst. happy.' adjective is often said to ' qualify a noun. steeper. [It denotes how much esteem is spoken of. joined predicatively to the noun men. finest. rich. wealthier.tgo ENGLISH GRAMMAR. merry. brightest. and is virtues. red. richest. &c. slenderest. cold. Lastly. mad. gentle. more. in the Comparative Degree.* [li points (or Pronominal) Adjective.' to limit the application of a noun. § 85. handsome. ' • phrase ' or As generally used. ' An (See it If the smacks strongly of the blunder of saying that an adjective term is used. it is attached either attributively or predicatively three degrees of comparison.) describes the quality of a noun. gay.] virtues. near. justest.] : —A — Demonstrative Adjective Richer ' : An Adjective of Quality [it describes certain men]. rudest. sad. out certain virtues. great.) ' — " These men are richer than those. . better. duller. virtues (§§ 89. mightiest. To parse an adjective state what Lessen. This expression is legitimate only if the to qualify a noun' means 'to denote some quality of that for which the noun standi.' [' These 'points to the men. joined attributively to the noun ' men. : rudest. " His numerous His A Demonstrative : won much esteem . full. lovely.] virtues. gentler. but does not describe or enumerate them. tenderer." These in the Plural Number. hearty. quarrelsome. of the following adjectives. bright. dull.' It is joined* attributively to {or qualifies) the noun ' : — Numerous Much. winsome. handsomest. attached attributively to the noun most. fresh.. slower. Preliminary adjective it is. healthy. tame. all three degrees of the following adjectives sweetest. — sort of in what degree of comparison its it is. clever. —An Adjective noun ' of Quality in the Positive Degree. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees : Exercise 38. blithe. sprightlier. idle. thereforo. holy. gentlest. wittier. last. big. or their substitutes Large. but does not describe or enumerate them.' (Much.) Those : —A qualifying the Demonstrative Adjective in the Plural Number. more. high. common.

girls' Exercise 38. and in the Nominative or Objective case (§ 145). understood. She is the prettiest of all my cousins. Supply the noun when necessary. The poor suffer more than the rich. The elder boys' behaviour was excellent. \_ltpomfs interrogatively /^ a certain hand. Some persons are too hasty. He is quite a ladies' man. the adjective itself must be regarded as a substantive (§ 98J. A dense cloud hid the sun. and see which nouns the adjectives qualify (§§ 96. Give me some more meat. T/ies(' are my children. of the Neuter Gender. Your elder brother lost some money yesterday. Which of these books is yours? Where are the others ?+ John is //4if cleverest % in the class.EXERCISES. The wisest men are sometimes mistaken. He cropped the black horse's tail. She wore a large man's hat on her head. they must be parsed as Demonstrative Pronouns (not as Demonstrative Adjectives). That little girl has no milk. Will that little boy have anymore fruit? Give me the other volume. His few remaining acres were sold. 97). Give me the other hand. When ihis and that are not attached to a noun expressed or understood. The schools are well managed. Every * one was quiet. He keeps a large boys' school. I have done a good day's work. which will you have? That is the ripest pear. When no noun can be conveniently supplied with the adjective. Ripe apples are nicer than sour * ones. The tall corporal's hat was knocked off. Here are two books. but does not describe it.' ' " or Interrogative Adjective Pronoun. Each boy shall have a great piece of cake. 7Vta( is the least atonement he can make. He has gained many more prizes than his elder brother. ' 191 Which hcmd will you have ? Which :— A Demonstrative Adjective noun hand. He fitted a Chubb's patent lock to his desk. He took a three days' journey. ' ' ' ' . You will know some day or oi/ier. The little girls' frocks were torn. B. I will not have atty. will you have some? No. Few men are his superiors. A. He teaches at the large boys' school. Others (in the plural) is a Substantive Pronoun. Will you have hot or cold milk? Which boy is the cleverest? Here is bread. or refer to its quantity. Attend carefully to those examples where there is a noun in the possessive case. He bought the handsomest lady's dress in the shop. The large linen-draper's shop at the comer is on fire. One ' is an Indefinite Substantive Pronoun.] It is joined attributively to the Exercise 37. Some careless person has upset the ink. which is here qualified by the demont strative adjective the X An article always belongs to some noun expressed or understood. * An adjective may be attached to a pronoun as well ' as to a noun. My younger sister is ill. I went to see him one day lately. Few and brief were the prayers we said. My youngest brother has gained the second prize in his class. Parse all the adjectives (including the articles) in Those in italics qualify a noun which is the following sentences. I have had a whole day's anxiety. Have you any other sisters ? Of these wines I prefer the red to the white. The girls' lessons are too long.

shall How be content with that. It is of no use trying to help him. I think it very strange that he It is very likely that he will come to-morrow. red. innocent. bad. long. sharp. man. a gerund. king. jovial. brilliant. but this I would not allow. splendid. State clearly what the words in sentences : italics stand for in the following not manage hoped to get here before noon. dare you tell me that ? I cannot undertake this. useful. brief. colonel. son. He does not frighten me by that. poor. It is impossible to tell It grieved him to lose so much money. if it be not He said that the matter was self-evident. blue. just. infirm. zz. dead. for the gerund ' It or infinitive that denotes such an act or fact in an abstract form. sad. white. Give the abstract nouns derived from the following nouns Friend. obstinate. slow. however difficult // may be. (§§ 32. distant. It would have been better for him if he had never known if it is convenient. regent. ' this. often stands for an infinitive mood. ' ' ' similar manner. priest. worthy. XXII. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. meek. I can never believe that. soft. pious. jealous. To comply with your request is difficult. it to me.' and ' it ' may or gerund with its adjuncts 3. give it. near. Abstract Nouns. and your father that will amuse him. believe it.192 . temperate. hold my tongue about the matter. magistrate. but I could obey the dictates of conscience. durable. mayor. I think it best to // vexes me that he should act in this way. silent. you will suffer for it. wicked. did not tell me. 329)- Exercise 40. but I woi/td not consent to that. : relation.' ' that. ' This and that are sometimes employed in a for a 2. for the act or fact stated in a sentence 4. for an infinitive mood . I. good. what the result will be. child. I This is the very coinage of your brain. wise. widow. simple. but I could absolutely impossible. Preliminary Lesson. I will call upon you to-morrow I will help you if it is possible. He thought of enlisting as a soldier. able. is I Our duty to my claim. stand. We all knew that the attempt was hopeless. . merry. . popular. Exercise 39. italics in the fullovving Parse the words in sentences : That was a great disappointment to us. sovereign. humble. large. quick. This quite altered our plans. sweet. to surrender . or a sentence that is going to be used. He asked me There is a pen. infant. able. broad. — Nature and formation of Abstract Nouns 314. wide. The demonstratives noun . B. prudent. sheriffj captain. sour. that man. monstrous. Give the abstract nouns which correspond to the following adjectives : Pure. Read these letters to His father threatened to disinherit him. leader. abundant. martyr. but he would not not see it. ihat brought him to his senses. If you do not give up these bad habits. father.

sing. suspend conceal steal . . width. mayoralty . dearth. greenness. youth. . in -ing) corresponding to the deride Offend . Can you tell me the age of that child ? This has been the case to our gaze. prosperity. and draw one under the nouns used in their adstraci sense. destroy . ductility. composition. addition. sleepiness. strength. measure. move. durability. patience . . E. He made a solitude and called it peace. justify. acidity . Intrusion . patience. depress . invent . heroism. . shrievalty venience piety . soon reached the summit in all ages. dependence. suppleness. deceive . ponderosity. grandeur. breadth. . multiply . line 41. stupidity. F. elevation. . valour. depth . . D. and explain the difference of meaning in each case Exercise : nobility. dissect . strength . crown . Give the adjectives or nouns from which the following abstract nouns are formed — : Fickleness impertinence dependence . . . fickleness. invert . steal. grandeur. mortality weakness durability. Sculpture is one of He has the gift of poetry. 193 Give the Adjectives from which the following Abstract Nouns : are derived Nobility. Nothing relieved of the height. death. growth tilth decision coercion defence derision. height. proceed . treat . suppleness elegance .EXERCISES. width. suction . sonority. conhumility . wisdom. Some poetry is hardly worth the fine arts. . health. wisdom. declension. debase . weigh. legibility. height . . deviate . Give the verbs from which the following Abstract derived : Nouns . infirmity. . pressure. infirmity. depart . degrade . amplitude. advance. acidity. elegance. complete . The steeple is of immense height. convene . rigidity. con^ tract . seize . thieve . . depth. The We poverty o . and two lines under those used in their concrete sense. condescend . laughter. hate. please . displace . absolve . I bought a the solitude of his existence. rascality . . He aspired to enter the ranks of the sculptures over the porch are very fine. girlhood. abstract. action. . senility. . Write out the following sentences. are estrangement seclusion injection thought flight reflection conception adaptation . arrange . brevity . interrogate . The vast field of nature is open reading. thrift . protect . C. . uprightness . boredom . That is the nature of the animal. insipidity. Painting was his chief pursuit. magnanimity. . . judgment. fix . candour. splendid painting yesterday. Form Abstract Nouns (not ending following verbs . These alms-houses are the refuge of old age and I admire nobility of character. exact . derange . erase.

modifying the adjective bad. They rode along together. He went straightway. modifying the verb rises. " Whither ' ? adjective. XXIII. modifying the verb ' lives. It ' "i answers the an Adverb of Place.' ' .'' ' " Thai is too bad. Examples. adverb to which they are attached (§§ 259-265). modifying the verb ' came.' ' ' is it is bad an ' ** He came yesterday Yesterday is the question ' When did he come ? '). Now attend to me.194 ENGLISH GRAMMAR." it is Seldom answers Therefore " the question How often do we see him?' an Adverb of Time modifying the verb see. Preliminary Lesson. He always contradicts me." (or is There shows the place where my uncle lives question Where does my uncle live ').' ^ * My uncle lives there. She is upstairs. I will go thither directly. When ? ' ' How long ' ? ' ' How ' ' often ? ' Adverbs of ' ' Whence ? Place answer the questions Where ? Adverbs are usually said to modify* the verb. denoted by the verb is performed.' *' a word that shows when he came (or answers an it is We seldom see him. Therefore Adverb of Time. adjective. Adverbs. The troops fought splendidly. or Adverbs of Time answer the is to be taken. John often writes to us. or The mountain rises abruptly from the plain.' Exercise 42. — Nature and use of Adverbs. He went away. Mary plays beautifully. They Boon returned. ' ' in or under which the action . We lay down to sleep." ' ' Too or is a word which shows to what degree that answers the question how bad ? Therefore Adverb of Degree. My friends live yonder. We went thither." is Abruptly a word that shows how the mountain rises (or answers the question How does the mountain rise ')• Therefore it is an Adverb of Manner. The children played indoors. • To modify a verb is to state some modt or condition. Deal as in the above examples with each of the Adverbs in the following sentences : I saw him yesterday. ' Manner * answer the question How ? ' Adverbs of Adverbs of Degree show to other adverb questions ' what degree or extent' the meaning of a verb.

The bird is quite dead. He was an extremely wicked man. John reads He My Exercise 45. He is a year older than I am. adjective or noun in the objective case with an Prelimmary some equivalent phrase. Do not tell so many stories. Exercise adverbs in italics in well. Make half a dozen sentences to illustrate the use each sort of adverb contained in the preceding examples. X95 Stand so. with its as being in the Adverbial Objective. giving the three degrees. He slept all night. or adverb it modities. He comes oftener than ever. We have got thus far on our journey. but Thomas reads better. He turned his head another Thee. That poor man is the worst hurt. XXIV. Day by day we magnify He comes bothering me day after day. I way. very much obliged to you. I am very He walked backwards. He Many a . I placed my hand thus. That happened a year ago. Parse the nouns in italics in the following sentences : time have I played with him. You speak too He is very learned. The project was monstrously foolish. 4-1. soonest. I am almost penniless. I get up earlier than you. adjective. travelled all night. and what verb. what its degree of comparison is (if it admits of comparison). The children were here I would rather not go. and point out what verb. or adverb it modifies (§§ 274-276). He is more composed. rapidly. 3 . Make and ten containing adverbs ten sentences containing adverbs in the comin the superlative degree. I am I am much obliged to you. NounB used Lesson. ! much surprised. He qjften comes here. Parse the Adverbs in Exercises 42 and 44. I would sooner die. brother came He is most attentive to his work. — A Adverbially. Exercise 47. adjective. it of adverbs Exercise 48. I have seen him many times. last. He works harder than ever. To parse an Adverb state to which class belongs.EXERCISES. He walked yflr/z^^r than I did. They get up very early. The noun should be parsed often does duty for an adverb. He is far too extravagant. He comes here four times a week. He is most careful in his conduct acted tnore prudently than his friend. Exercise 43. He was the least alarmed of all. This is many deg7-ees better than that. or when taken 267). He is less restless to-day. parative degree. They very soon returned. adjective) some verb or adjective (§§370. Vou write worse than your brother. or even standing by itself. Parsing of Adverbs. modifying (either singly. Oh I am so tired. of State the Degree of Comparison of each of the the following sentences. I shall see you next week.

are used as substantives. I He is_«o * wiser than before. ^// bloodless lay the untrodden snow.196 could not haste. When they are used as subjects or objects of verbs. and become identical in form with adjectives.^'' Here tnuck and 'more' are substantives. He slept (?// niylit. come a day day and night. 1 have enough. but inoj'c remains behind. cause for thankfulness. I have no ink. the subjects of the verbs that follow them. Here is some wine. He travelled arrived post- XXV.' and more' is an adjective qualifying ' ' * money understood. brother. it especially those of Quantity. I will follow you through He is my Ixst friend I did my best. Do not let us hear ?nore of that. his brother has more. He came sooner.). Much remains to be done. You know most about it. and the adverbs : — gave him ait I had." Here '«(?'is an adverb modifying the adverb ' ' better. The town forth bound is ten viilcs distant. ceedings. could hear no more. He is all powerful here. modifying (i) a verb. will you have a little ? He told me less than his brother. He has lost a//.S. Adjectives used Adverbially. '^ Here '•''He is no better. On the other hand. ' Exercise 48." Here much is an adjective qualifying money. I • 'No/ as an adverb. In general I approve of his proMuch depends upon his answer. may be taken as the simple adverb 'na' = never (A. '''/do not 'much'' ' is much admire him. they should be parsed as substantival adjectives. ' ' " Much has been revealed. Preliminary — Many them adjectives.' " He has not much money . The long and tlie short of it is. That is all nonsense. We hand and foot. We have much He is ?nuch worse to-day. many adverbs which once ended in -e have lost that inflexion. He knows more than he tells. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. or after prepositions. They once had the dative inflexion. Parse the words in italics in the following senences. man in the room. the substantival adjectives. He is the best dressed thich and thin. used with an adverbial force. or (more sitnply) as substantives. and Adverbs reduced to the form of Adjectives. carefully distinguishing the adjectives proper." He is not much happier!'' an adverb. that I had uiy ]iains for nothing. He has more ability than hi!. being impossible to supply These (like nouns) are often any particular noun with them. . It is better now to parse as simple adverbs. (2) an adjective. He is more con1 am much happier. Lesson. tented. .

{// over the yard. He is pretty sure of the prize.' The next example is different . Rela- which they indicate.' The sense is I will take in \ rtr/i/Z/^V). You are very much in fault. He was a very thunderbolt of war. He is a better writer than I am. I will accept nothing less.p little He shows but better. *• Here more does measure the whole quantity of ' sense. Will you lake some more wine. I did my best. ' in sufficient when it here an adverb modifying 'more. it is an adverb. Come near the fire. 5). \ •s ziery tall. When it denotes that one ac'ii'n resembles another. and I will take no less.' except Else is always an adverb ' IS best taken as an adverb. He is no tnore contented than he used to be.W We heard nothing inore of him. ' II Some ' ' ' is More does not measure the "i That is.) little reflection will . tions * is ' Prepositions. || have not meat enough. We are near neighbours. He cut right future times he will be famous. The I A\y best friend. t Enough a substantive. He is more to blame than I am. He was discoursing about the true and the just. ni.show that more could have no meaning as a quantitative adjective. have enough and to spare. You are very kind. I will take one more § glass. He is XXVI. He is less restless than he was yesterday. through the helmet. is not any more diligent than he was before. That is the very least you can do. He wears a round hat. I ne'er shall look upon his like again. More is here an . I We from him. I cannot write a7ty better. Do your best. The future is hidden from our gaze. modifying the verb will take. I will not take any more. ' ' ' more. cry did knock against love John best. Preliminary Lesson. is little That expect not a a tnost lovely prospect. There is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. Whoever is most diligent will meet with ?nost success.adverb. O Lord. 278).' never') is an adverb modifying ' ' ' ' ' never used as an adverb. You know best. else* He was is but I Nobody there. Hear the right. He was moi-e frightened than hurt. He sailed all round the world.S. more is equivalent to further.' An adjective used as a substantive may still J be modified by an adverb. He ran all round the park. my very heart. I am your equal. The construction of this sentence is our guide to that of the four "No" is ' ' ' : — ' A ' ' ' uext. That is a pretty picture.' and therefore is a quantitative adjective attached to the noun.' 'nothing inferior in amount. Enough has been done. You must take me for better or worse." (Compare the German «o<:/i and the French encore. I heard a// the speech. abundance.' denotes personal resemblance. let me hear some tnore. I ask {cixnpX more. The corn was scattered . Do not take more trouble. ' Words which they ' join (§§ 277. /// weeds thrive apace The The house is ill built. They have money enough. I cannot say more. meaning. and no (= A. In That decision was right. He bought two mo)'e loaves./ one glass. He has «<? wtTcf ** sense than a goose. We have a choice between good and ///. it is an adjective. whole qidintiiy of trouble taken. ' + When like ' ' ' ' . The more part knew The more the merrier {§ 265. I heard (Z /. He He is no wiser than I. Jt This word is an adjective qualifying the substantive 'nothing. earth turns i-ound. i9.EXERCISES. I have heard a little about that affair. Such a round of pleasures is wearisome. no trouble in addltum [to what you have taken]. He swore like a trooper. little gratitude. She not wherefore they were come together. — Nature and use of Prepositions. when joined to a singular noun like glass. Take no more H trouble. He is likeW my brother. We were just starting.

and ten in which it shows the relation of an attribute to a thing. blow on the head knocked him down. I saw Jane in the kitchen.—ThQ same word is often used both as an adverb and as a preposition. A. 284). I am anxious about liis safety. ' ' On is and joining B. He departed before my arrival. He cut " Three thousand a piece off\hc loaf The stick is loo long . Adverbs and Prepositions. Tliere is a garden behind the house. Do not sit on the table. He works at the factory. We saw the men in armour. ' ' C. Do not touch the all evil. Run routtd the The earth turns round." ' Over ' is a preposition governing the noun wall in the objective case. Make ten sentences in which a preposition shows the relation of a thing to a thing j ten in which it shows the relation ot an action to a thing . Parse the words in itahcs in the following sen- He got up behind. When it governs a noun or pro- noun. I rode inside the omnibus. it is a preposition. cut a piece off. The love of money is the root of Dick rode to York. relation of one i/n'/t_g' a preposition governing the it to the noun * mouse. We arrived the day before yesterday. Pie rode outside. books on the table. it. My father lives London." ' Of is a preposition governing the pro' noun 'me' in the objective It shows the relation of an Exercise 49. XXVII. The tub is full of water. and joining it to the adjective attribute (afraid) to ^. I have in my hand a letter from my father. same way as case. That comes after. in A Exercise 50. ran after me. He shrank from the danger. I will come by and by. People in trouble often go to him. table. " ' I see a mouse on ' noun floor It shows the ' thefloor. " He leaped over the wall. person (me). Examples. afraid. We shall start the day after to-morrow.^ in the objective case. Grief at the loss of his money turned him crazy. walked along the road. and joining it to the verb leaped. walked by the river. He spoke to me at the close of the meeting. He spoke of me. I told you all tliat before. When (§§ there is no noun or pronoun governed by Exercise tences : it is an adverb 279. He We We . Do not lag behind. The storm passed by. 51. "He Is afraid of me . I am weary of work. She stayed within the house. Come along.198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The box was painted within and without.' the in the Parse the prepositions in the following sentences in above examples : Pick up the books on the floor.' (mouse) to another (floor). I am fond of music.' It shows the relation of an act (leaping) to a thnig (wall). Preliminary Lcsson.

195). The Preliminary Lesson. and Number and the Third Person to agree with Active Voice.' ' ' Go ' is a Transitive Verb." A defective (notional) verb Will and Indicative Mood. Present Tense and in the Plural Number. . but is . will. Nattire Shall. never precedes the word which placed :it the end of the sentence. —A.' Mood. Find a dozen words which may be used either as Adverbs or as Prepositions. in the Active Voice. Indi' Mood. and the Second Person to agree with its subject you. and in the (simple) Infinitive Mood.EXERCISES. depending on (or and in the governed by) the verb " 'shall.^'' 'May' is a defective (notional) verb.' « He did his duty. dicative Mood.' in in ' Forget verb ' : — A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. I'll perfect him withal Exercise 52. . ber and First Person. in the Active Voice.' when used as a preposition."* so money come withal. may.'' is 'Steal' a Transitive Verb. Present Tense ' ' : — ' . and in the [or the object of) the (simple) Infinitive will. and do and use of the Simple Infinitive as notional and as atixare always notional verbs. in the Active Voice. governs. " / 10 ill never forget yoit." 'Did' is a Indicative notional Transitive Verb. in the Active Voice. depending on " TJiou shall not steal. the Singular its subject ' He. In. Present Tense and in the Singular Number and the Second Person. verbs (§ Mustf and can Examples. iliary Infinitive Mood. 184). Past Indefinite Tense. 199 " Nothing comes amiss. in the Mood. XXVIII. (§§ 194." "I must wait and watch withal. depending on (or governed by) the verb ''may. Infinitive (simple) Mood.' in it * ' Withal.'' You may go. to agree with its subject thou. the Singular Numsubject /. t The so-called Potential Mood is a perfectly unnecessary invention. to agree with ' its the Active Voice." ' Shalt cative ' is a defective (notional) verb . ducats we freely cope your courteous pains withal.^'' " Her cause and yours. and make sentences to illustrate their use.

You must go directly. He durst not go home.2©0 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and specify in the case of the finite verbs whether they are used as notional or as auxiliary verbs : — can dance. It does not assert that he is able or is pertnitted to vex me. I will do my best. " / shall soon departs Here ' shall ' is an auxiliary (not a notional) verb. I dare not go back. He could not reply.' But then any form is emphatic when it is emphasized. He says that he will not come. He said that he would not come. I shall I will go with you.''' " Did you hear the rain f " ' ' In these examples ' do ' and ' did ' are mere auxiliaries. The cry did J knock against my very heart. We will never yield When shall \ you see your brother? Wherewithal shall a young to threats. We • When ' do ' is separately.' The verb does not itself constitute an emphatic form. "You do * assist the storm. man cleanse his way ? 1 did not call yesterday lest I might seem intrusive. stay. depart may be parsed separately." Here 'may a mere auxiliary of the Subjunctive Mood. He will soon return. You need not stay. I cannot do what I will. They would keep on making a noise.' Sue the preceding examples. infinitive The simple ' ' in ' ' ' as The two verbs shall and the preceding examples. and is in the Subjunctive Mood itself The notion of power or permission has altogether vanished. Does your father know of this? May I come in? Thou shalt not steal.way as the simple tense for which it is a substitute. It may be treated like shall' the last example. and the compound in the same. Thus be treated as eiiuivalent to knocked. You do assist does not differ in the least in sense from you assist.' " He will come presently Here 'will' ^ is a mere auxiliary of the future tense. He would not come when I called him. is Exercise 53. He shall not know of it. + See \ 2IO. nr else taken with the dependent infinitive. The notion of volition is entirely lost sight of. You shall not have it. I could leap over that wall once. He said that he did not choose to come. or the compound phrase shall depart may be parsed as the future tense of the verb it ' ' 'depart' depends upon in the same manner depart. m " Yotc do assist the storm. ' ' " He does this that he ' may -vex me. Parse all the verbs in the following sentences. You would not have my help when you might. He did what he could. The compound form is emphatic only when an emphasis is laid upon the do. You might have gone an hour ago. You may go. You need not be alarmed. ' a mere auxiliary (whether emphatic or unemphatic) it may be parsed form may be parsed Did knock' may ' : . That boy shall be made to hold his tongue.

' and the infinitive to come ' is ' ' is the temporary object the real object. He hopes to hear from you soon. As it the subject or object of another verb it does the work of a substantive. She was overjoyed to hear* of her son's return. The master called the boy to say his lesson. Nature and use of the gerundial with to' (§§ 194. The water is not fit to d?-ink. " He ran to meet me. to indicate its construction. the ' ' — " He thinks it better not to co7ne" Here ' it of the verb thinks.* I am happy to They are come to stay with us. When it denotes the purpose or cause of an action or state.EXERCISES." Here to meet is a transitive verb in the Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. and ten in which it does the work of an adverb. in the Singular Number and Nominative Case. and Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. Parse the verbs in italics and the following sentences in the way indicated above : word ' it ' in the better than sacrifice. found it imfind* you so much better. 196). used wiih the force of an adverb modifying the verb 'ran. I am sorry to hear* that. Sometimes it expressea the came of the state deoeted by the adjective. The and neuter pronoun * it' is often used as a temporary or pro- visional subject or object. or infinitive — ' B. possible /<? go on.* He is too clever to make* such a mistake. Such a fellow is not fit to live. 201 infini- Preliminary Lesson. tive. • In these cases the gerundial infinitive does the work of an adverb. To work hard is the way to succeed. Exercise 55. I shall be sorry /<? leave. forming the real subject of the verb is. He did his best to ruin me. forming the temporary subject of the verb is. went up to the man to ask our way. I am glad to hear* it. and modifies the preceding adjective. He was rude enough to contradict * me. He came to pay me some money. Help me io carry this. does the work of an adverb. I was not prepared to hear that news. to show that an infinitive is coming. He dislikes to be kept waiting.' ' ' Exercise 54. I am delighted to see* you. He is anxious to do* his duty.* The boys had a long task to do. found it advisable to return. We We We Make ten sentences in which a gerundial infinitive the subject of a verb ten in which it is the object of a verb ." 'It' is a Neuter Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. It is // is easy to see that. To obey is useless to ask him.' and governing 'attempt' in the objective case. " // is tiselcss to make the atte/npt.' ' 'To make': in A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. is . . Active Voice.

202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. There is here a confusion between the Abstract Noun. something wicked this way comes. 5)." 'smile. Thinking ' had belter be taken in such con. 'Smiling' is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb qualifying the pronoun ' he. excessive reading of novels is injurious. 202.^'' Fanned is the Perfect (or Past) Participle ' qualifying the '' noun ' fire. arrived there first through His conduct is in keeping with his professions. riding on horseback. Lesson. This must be treated as a compound gerund. Exercise 56. No good can come of your doing On some opposition being made he that. and draw one line under the Abstract Nouns in -ing j two lines under the Gerunds three lines under the imperfect (Active) participles : . lying witness He hates lying. It is impossible to construct the abstract noun in -j»^ with a past participle. Write out the following sentences. He went to see the hunting of the snark. 282. ' fan. he pressed my hand. we advanced into duty he gained the approbation of all. the open plain. ought to be punished.' used as an Adjective of Quality. He was angry at my going away. XXIX. § ' ' ' . I lay a thinking. I like reading. were late in consequence of having lost+ at having succeeded -i* in his design. — Study §§ 197-202.and the Gerund.)i XXX. qualifying the noun master. Participles used as Qualitative Adjectives. taking a short cut.' • When the verbal noun in -ing does not govern an object it may be treated as a simple abstract noun. Gervmds and Prelimmary Lesson. in building. He is delighted fell in with a ship sailing to America. He died in consepricking of my thumbs. Participles. ' Fanned by the wind. withdrew his demand.' My honou7'ed master bade me Honoured' is tell you this. the fire blazedfiercely. Oblige me by all leaving the room. tions as the Abstract Noun in -ing. — Participles proper. He strode Seeing* man A We We We We My bowing right and left to his guests.struci Here a is a preposition {= at iir in). up the hall quence of pricking his hand with a poisoned dagger. J Forty and six years was this temple By sedulously doing his started before the rising of the sun. In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward. 370. I see a is believing.' to which it is of the verb joined attributively. our way. By the noble partner you greet with great prediction of noble having. The I like reading history. PreUminary ordinary (§§ '' Parsing of Participles. Participles used absolutely 201. "You do draw my spirits from me with new lamenting § ancient oversights " (Shaksp.' ' ' " Smiling faintly. There was a great deal of shouting and clapping of hands." the Perfect Participle of the verb 'honour. Quitting the forest.

They were slain by order of the captain. The prisoner was starved to death. He was stretched stretched upon his bed. the object of the transitive participle ' considering. He bought a deferred annuity. Being apprised of our approach. dressed in their fine clothes. we will be with you to-morrow.* the other containing those in which the participle is a mere qualitative adjective : upon the by contract. upon uneasy pallets stretching thee. in the second class wft get a statement of the results of the act." Smiling is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb ' smile. I am surprised that you do not see that. of a certain act. Parse the Participles in the following sentences : Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. The poor man was hurt. Interrogative and Negative Sentences.' Exercise 57. very well. * * ' ' j ' .. and hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber. The The ship was built rack. wounded spirit who can bear? liest thou in smoky cribs. and preceded by a pipe and tabor. splendid charger. the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister. he strode into the circle." ' 203 sider. I was surprised by his behaviour. A A Exercise 58. he has done very well. Considering your age.' are related to each other in the sentence which would be ' complete answer. t ' Did ' and hear may be parsed separately. The captives were already slain. The troops were surprised by the enemy. " Considering all thitigs. —The elements of an Interrogative sentence its ' same way as those of the declarative Compare Did you hear ? and 'I did hear t Who told you so ? and He told me so Whom did you meet ? and I met John. Smiling scornfully. than in the perfumed chambers of the great. The string is stretched too tight. you have done falcon.' &c. Sleep. towerinjj in her pride of place. ' ' ' case. or taken together as equivalent to ' heard. joined attributively to the ' ' noun ' Morn.' &c. mounted on a " Why rather. Accoutred as I was. Look at that smiling villain. ' ' ' ' ' ' * * In these we get a statement of the actual doing. Where do you live ? and I live there.' Considering is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb 'conThings is a noun in the objective used absolutely (§ 282).EXERCISES. Study § 214.' used as an ordinary Qualitative Adjective. The ship was built of iron. He was children are famished. The general rode in front. Generally speaking he dines at home. I plunged in.' ' ' . smilitig Morn. Use of the verb Do." Barring accidents. The poor man is badly hurt. XXXI.' " Hail. and separate the following sentences into two groups. one containing those in which the verb be and the perfect participle form a tense of the passive voice. I caught sight of the thief climbing in at the window. was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. Preliminary Lesson.

and after an interrogative adverb and the word that it modifies and (. and adverbs in the following Parse the verbs and the interrogative pronouns and sentences (§§ 152-154 270). X In cases like this. " Sentences.u t Mind that an interrogative adverb modifies either the verb of the sentence in which it ' ' occurs. to the preceding questions.] . Give the complete sentences which are answers to the following questions.204 .a) is placed after those interrogative pronouns (or pronominal adjectives) which qualify the nouns that they precede. full. 'where governed by the preposition to or from. Imperative Second Person Singular. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. . Take the answers them into the negative form. Exercise 59. should be taken as doing duty for an interrogative pronoun. 'thou. [In the first few sentences (s) is put after the subject and (o) after the object of the verb.' • an intransitive verb in the Active Voice.' u. Imperative Preliminary Lesson. and then parse all the words in each : Have you any money? Did your Did you say so? Does your sister sing well? Will your father return tomorrow? Shall you be afraid to go? (See | 210.) Will you meet me there to-morrow? Did the man go away? Have the boys hurt themselves? Are you happy? brother do that? turn Exercise 60. — Study § 191. when it is an interrogative pronoun. called me ? What (<?) did you say ? Which («) way is the shortest ? What did you eat for supper? On what (rt) day do you set out? Where (3) do (i) do you hope for (i) ? (2) are you writing to (2) ? you live (3) ? (4) far (4) did you walk ? {s) Who What (0) Whom How ? Which boy made that noise ? What author do you did you see ? On what day are you waiting for ? do you set out? Where did you find that book? Whither are you going? Whose * pen is this? What happened yesterday ? What comes ? next like best Whom Whom What ails you? In which house does your uncle live? What poet's writings please you most ? On what day do you set out ? When f will you t come ? t did you do that ? How t many persons were present ? often do you write home? t do you say that ? How t soon will you come ? Where J are you going to ? Where J do you come from ? How How Why Write answers to all the questions in this exercise in turn these answers into the negative form. and the same numeral is placed after an interrogative pronoun and the preposition that governs it. Exercise 61.' ' ' ' ' . or some adjective or adverb. in the possessive case depending on the noun 'pen. to agree with its subject Parse whose as an interrogative pronoun of common gender. Go thou and do • likewise^ Go ' is Mood. and then XXXII.

EXERCISES.
'

205
it

Do

'

is

subject
"

parsed in the same way, except that thou understood.
'
' '

agrees with a

Let

nie sec that''
'

'Let and
'

a transitive verb in the Active Voice, Imperative second person plural, to agree with its subject understood.*
is

Mood,
'

in the

you

'

See

is a transitive verb in the Active Voice, and in _the ' (simplej infinitive mood depending on (or governed by) the

verb

'

let.'

'Me
Let me go. Let him see
cautious in

'

is

in the objective case,
all

governed by

'

let.'

Exercise Q^. Parse Come hither,

the words in the following sentences

:

boys ?t Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. it. Let me be Let us be spared this annoyance. Let us pray. the business. Do be quiet, boys.

XXXIII. Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.
Preliminary Lesson.
"

— Study

§§

144

— 164.

He is iJian 'Who' is
a.

wJio

is

beloved by

everybody.''''

a Relative Pronoun, of the Masculine Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'man.' It is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb is beloved.' It joins the clause who is beloved by all to the noun man.'
'

'

'

'

" That

is

the lady luhose
is

husband you met yesterday."

'Whose'

a Relative Pronoun of the Feininine Gender in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'lady.' It is in the Possessive Case depending J on (or qualifying) the noun 'husband.' It joins the clause whose husband you mot yesterday to the noun lady.'
'
'

'

"//dvv

is

the matt
'

whom you
'

wished

to see."

Here
" }'ou
'

whom

is

in the objective case, the object of the

verb

'to see.'

have not brought mc the book that T asked you for." is a Relative Pronoun of the Neuter Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent book.' It is in the objective case, governed by the preposition for.' It joins the clause that I asked you for' to the noun book.'

That

'

'

'

'

'

You is always a fcraviiiintical plural. Parse 'boys as a Vocative, or Nominative of Address. If who.<;e be treated as the possessive case of a substantive pronoun, it must be parsed t like a noun in the possessive If whose be regarded as on a par Vkfith ttiy, our, his, &c., it must be dealt with as an adjective.
*
'
'

t

'

'

'

'

2o6

.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

The construction of a relative clause is word for word the same as that of the clause which results when a demonstrative pronoun, or the antecedent noun is substituted for the relative. Thus That I asked you for' is hke 'I asked you for it (or the book) ': 'Whose husband you met her husband yesterday.' y(?li met yesterday is lilce
' ' '

Exercise 63. Parse all the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, and test the construction by substituting demonstratives for the I'elatives as in the above examples
:

painted that picture here is the pen which I gave you ? I who am poorer than you are, am contented. Thou, who wast my friend and guide, hast forsaken me. You, who have done the damage, must repair it. We who are well ofl should pity and help the poor. He is a man whose appearance is j repossessing. The boys whose w oik is finished may go out to play. He that is down need fear no fall. I will show you the horse which I bought yesterday. The picture which pleased you so much was painted by my brother. You have not brought me the volume that He is the yery man that I was speaking oi. Their soriows' 1 asked for. shall be multiplied that hasten after another God. It is that that grie\es me. " Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, This that you tell me is incredible. which art my near'st and dearest enemy?" ''I am that very duke which was thrust from Milan." "Whosoever* hath, to him shall be given." " Eles.'-ed is he whosoever shal' not be offended in Me." He doth sin that doth belie the dead. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall I e showtd before the whole congregation. Thty are but faint-hearted whose courage fails in time of danger. He to-day that .sheds his blocd with me shall be my brother. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the dog if.ai worried the cat that killed the rat that ate lihe malt that lay in the house "that Jack built.'
is

The man whom you met
last year.
1'

my

died

never saw the

The artist who man whom you speak ol.
brother.

W

'

Exercise 64. The antecedent of the neuter relative which is often the fact stated in a previous sentence, or the (implied) gerund or infinitive which expresses that act or fact in an abstract manner, as, " The king's two sons are stolen away and fled, which (namely, the fact that the king's two sons are stolen away and fled) puts upon them suspicion of the deed." State clearly what ii'/z/V// stands lor in the following sentences
' ' ' '
:

promised to follow my advice, which was the best thing he could do. "And, studied hard all the morning, after which we went for a walk. which is more than all these boasts cnn be, I am beloved of Hcrmia." *' I see thee still, and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, which was not so " Thou didst smile, which raised in me an undergoing stomach (i.e. before." courage to otdurc).'"

He

We

Exercise 65.
omitted
in

Supply (and parse) the relative pronouns which are the following sentences (sec § 164).
that of the simple relatives.

• The parsing of these compound rel.itives does not differ from They should be described as compound, or indc/itiitc relatives.

EXERCISES.
Pay me the money you owe me.

207

You have not sent the goods I bought received the money I sent you ? That is the place I "I have a mind presages very man I was looking for. went to. me such thrift, that I should questionless be fortunate. " That is not the way Those are the very words he used. Is the task I set you finished yet ? I came. He is not the man I expected.
yesterday.

Have you You are the

Make
supplied.

a dozen sentences in

which a suppressed
'

relative

may be

Exercise 66. When which accompanies and qualifies a noun, it should be parsed as a Conjunctive Pronominal Adjective.' It then generally refers to the 'general sense of the last sentence, but has no Parse which in the special antecedent in place of which it stands. following sentences
' '
'

'

'

:

I may be detained longer than I expect, in which case do not wait for rne. hope you will stay till Tuesday, on which day I expect my brother. He made a humble confession, by which means he averted his lather's displeasure.
I

Exercise 67. Supply the antecedents which are understood in the following examples
:

Who
we
raise
I

steals

my

purse, steals trash.

"Who was

we

will

whom

dislike.

make fast. I may neither And whom he strikes, his

the thane, lives yet. clioose whom I would, nor refuse
cruel tushes slay.

Whom
said

Whoever

"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted." I That is not what 1 sent dread what * is coming. I hear what you are saying. you for. You are telling me what is incredible. I cannot consent to t what you ask. That is just what I cannot understand. You have not done what Have you found what you were looking for ? What astonished you promised. me most was his imprudence. What pleases you will please me.
that, told

a falsehood.

XXXIV.

Relative (or Conjunctive) Adverbs.

Prdiniinary Lesson.

— Study

§§

262

— 265.
that clause to the predicate

Conjunctive adverbs modify a verb, adjective, or adverb in the
clause which they introduce,

and Join

of the principal clause.
If a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition (§ 406) it joins its clause to the antecedent

noun.

Exercise
sentences
:

68.

Parse

the

conjunctive

adverbs

in

the

following

* Parse ' w/wi" as a neuter Relative Pronoun relating to a suppressed antecedent, whenever the sense of the sentence remains the same if that ivhich is substituted for 'tt'hut.' + Mind that this preposition does not govern what (which is the object of to ask '), but its suppressed antecedent that.'
'
'

'

'

'

'

2o8
I

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

was not at home when you called. I shall see you when I return. He This lay where he had fallen. I will follow you whithersoever you go. Co Tell me the reason why you left the room. is the house where I live. bought Show me the shop where you back to the place whence you came. him whenever 1 can. Wherever he lives, he will be happy. I go to see that.
still

Exercise 69.
Herein do

ceded by prepositions for the adverbial compounds.
thereof

In the following sentences substitute pronouns pre(See § 146.)

Thereon I pawn my credit. She dares not I exercise myself. 1 will hereupon confess I discovery. heart accords thereto. am in love. Present to her a handl.erchief, and bid her dry her weeping eyes therewith. Whereunto shall I liken this generation ? Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? You take from me the means whereby I live.

make

My

Exercise 70.
sentences
I
:

Make

the

reverse

change

in

the

following

long to

know

the truth of this at large.

Thy

food shall be withered roots

The earth is the Lord's and its and husks in which the acorn cradled. lulness. Take this chain, and bid my wife disburse the sum on the receipt
of it.

XXXV.
rrclivimary Lesson.

Conjunctions.
classification of

Conjunctions

(§§

285

— —

Study the definition and

295).

parse a conjunction state what Part of Speech it is, and of what class, and state what words or sentences it couples together. The pairs both— and,' either or,' and neither nor,' may be taken together and parsed as correlative and co-ordinative conjunctions, joining such Subordinative conjunctions usually and such words or sentences. join the clause which they introduce to the predicate of the principal The conjunction than joins its clause to the preceding clause. comparative adjective or adverb.
' '

To

'

'

'

Exercise

71.

Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences

:

He neither came nor sent an excuse. A. He is jioor, but he is contented. He went out quickly and slammed the door. He shot a hare and two rabbits. Both [ohn and Henry came to see me. I will both lay me down in peace and I can neither eat nor [can Either I am mistaken, or you are. [I will] sleep.
1] sleep.

He told me that he had no money. You I have heard that he said so. If I had seen him, I would have spoken to be inmished if you do that. He would not help me, though he knew that I was in need. Though hand join hand in hand, the wicked shall not be unjjunishcd. You will lose tlie Take heed lest you fall. He spoke loud that prize unless you work harder. My I might .hear him. I cannot give you' any money, for I have none. He is richer than his brother [is]. He comes brother is taller than you are. oftener than [lie] ever [came]. As that is the case, I will come.
B.
will

him.

He is man that I want. He is very rich nevertheless he is unhappy. AH except John were present. 2og Exercise 72.' Exercise 75. t When 'as' is used twice over correlatively. Parse the word tliaf wherever following sentences. (Look at §§ 144. He wasted his time in play . = XXXVI. since. else { some.) — Mood * 1. and the latter from the adverbs which have no syntactical connecting force. Do not go before I come. That book is mine. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. (§§ 192. the second conjunctive. &c. I hear that he has ' to know that that t/iat '* Exercise 74. I lent you that book the very that you might read You ought clause is lost that book that I lent hint. He is contented. when followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case. There is nobody but me at home. because I told you that before. consequently he lost the prize. Nature and use of the Subjunctive 423. Since you say so.00k at § 349. Play me the tune that I like so much. They stayed nntil the next day. Exercise 73. I believed. You may go. you may as well stay. that he may deceive me. are prepositions. therefore have I spoken. I have no money. They stayed in Paris until I will wait until you return. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. ye shall all likewise perish. Except ye repent. He left soon after came. He has not smiled since his son died. He says that we shall never succeed. 148. I must believe it. Subjunctive Mood.. bearing in mind that words like before^ after.EXERCISES. &c. I will go no^d<. but We We I will stay. He was sorry after he had said it. 430. 289. from the relative or conjunctive adverbs. He did not say that. Come 7uhen I call you. first 'as' is always de>itoitstraiivc. left after the concert was over. N'ow you are here. 5. and tkeirfore lie is He is as t stingy as he never unhappy. have not eaten since yesterday. Pie walked before me. There is not a man here that I can trust. That is otherwise) I would give you true and also new.) ^ it occurs in the Show me that picture. I . their money was spent. He does that that he may vex me. it. I am afraid that he says that. that you see at the beginning of the a conjunction. is rich. &c. the word ' Make five or six sentences to illustrate each use of that. but merely refer by their meaning to something that has gone before carefully distinguishing the conjunctions : — He came because I called him. They that will be rich fall into temptation. They will go away before night.. but are conjunctions when followed by a clause containing a finite verb with its subject : — John arrived after his brother. The Preliminary Lesson. 145. tlie P .

&c). • ' ' ' ' . I would have done it if I had If this 'Mere true he would not deny it. Take care that dinner Live temperately that you may live {\ 423) long. If he had heard the news.e. he had knozvn of it. He . when there is no reference to any other event. it is but it is quite true. and explain in each case why the subjunctive is used : Beware lest someready for me by two o'clock. I haa lived a blessed time. He would not tell me if 1 asked him. He came that he might beg money of me. he would seriously displease me. build the house. might be. if angry after Exercise 73. desei-ves to be punished. it could not do it when he trieil. \ That is.e. He may\ liave been in the house. It nmy be very strange {i. You should % ftot tell lies.. and yet it should is peculiar.'•/// have come U he had wished {i. He <:('///</ not be kinder if he were vay brother. You may keep the book. Last winter However bad the weather roses might be found blooming at Christmas.. I south-west blo7ii on ye. he would take a walk every day. it was a very did it. he kept it all to himself. merely to denote past time. If yovL had sent for m% 1 woiild If you lucre generous. If he did that he If he has betrayed his trust. I will never forgive him. This herb may be met with almost everywhere. Make ten sentences in which the if^ and ten in which the subjunctive is used." It is past in form. and blister you all o'er. I did not see him. ha I heai-d \.2IO • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. If I had any If he zvere to swear to it. referring to present time. It may have been my fault {i. not as auxiWary verbs See Seciion XXVIII. it is possible that he was in the house. ]mst. Oh that it were with me as in days that are money. The boys would not be quiet when I begged them to be so.e. If he If he were to make such a reply it -would be very foolish.' &c. could %\Vig psalms or anything. or expresses one of the subjunctive ideas. thing worse happen to you. it is very strange). carefully distinguishing the moods and noting whether the verb relates The to what is actual fact. He would not have kept it to himself. I would givi it to you. He says that thnt he may vex mt. You might have won the prize if you had been possible that it was my fault). Eiercise 78.//.\\e news. I luould not believe it. it is possible that zDould have been in his power. be ! A Exerciss 77. X This use of and the other preterite-present verbs.. he He could not do that if he tried.' 'would. but He would be angry if he kne^v of it. not open the door when I knocked. !>-en able. The old man might be seen daily sitting in the porch. It follows the analogy of ought is indicative. He would have open:d the door if you had knocked." He tvoidd open the door if you knocked. is one of the marks of the Subjunctive Mood : — Wju in IV* go. He would have been " Had I had just finished when you came in. If that was his reply. in the indicative mood must be parsed as notional. he would have confessed it. Except the Lord Peace be to his ashes. Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. more diligent. ' indicative is used • ' May. or of a past perfect. yon zuould help me. I luouldl were a weaver. If he If he had done it. He ivoid i I but died M\ hour before this chance. use of a past form in relation to present ii/ne. foolish one. have come.Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. they labour in vain that build it.

distinguish them carefully Exercise pronouns in : — • That is. It . In such a phrase as " My brother William's dog.EXERCISES. Preliminary Lesson. adjuncts are attached to the same noun. " Pie attempted to ascend the mountain without a guide. an act which nearly cost him his life. One noun in the possessive is never put in apposition to another. 362 -364.it Jaiu-. are responsible. that is. depending on ' ' 'dog. My brother Robert is expected. a denial for which I was not prepared. — Nature and classification of Attributive (§§ Phrases that do the work of Adjectives. a vieiv which was supported by the summing-up of the judge. He has alienated even you. Adjuncts. at the end of the compound name. came to England.' . often used to represent the fact stated in a previous senthen stands in a kind of apposition to the sentence. a — When in the noun is attached without a consaid to be junction to another noun or pronoun. description Apposition. and in each case state of what When two or more they consist. the following examples." is A noun tence. it is in apposition to and same number and words in case." my brother Willi. provided Dtle case is the nominative or objective. Explain and parse the nouns : in italics in the fallowing examples The general made a vigorous onset on the left of the Hne. Parse the itaUcs the following He has gone to see liis au. I trod upon his corns.im's must be parsed as a compound proper noun. person is or thing meant. an accident for which I apologized. He energetically declared that he knew nothing about the matter . but the t>vo nouns are treated as a single cotnpoitnd name.el for the defendant argued that there was no case to go before a jury . Fetch your luide Johii's spectacles.) Point out the attributive adjuncts of nouns and 81. 211 XXXVII. in the possessive case. Preliminary Lesson. his earliest friend. The coun-. You. the I'ope's Ui^inte. a viamxuvre which distracted the enemy's attention from the main attack. Attributive Adjuncts.* in Exercise sentences : 79. and to what they are attached. Exercise 80. summing up and repeating its import in a single noun which serves as the antecedent to a relative as. Pan- duir. the author of that report. and the possessive inflexion is only put after the second of the two nouns. to give a more complete of the it. XXXVIII.

by a hit) He \f.' t Select from Exercise st all the examples of the Gerundial Infinitive used adverbially. I saw a house to let further on. He is worthy of your love. He is not a bill better (i. friend in need is a friend indeed. The friends of the prisoner are very rich. You be glad to hear the ne7vs." &c. He came forth l)ound handX and/c?('/. you go away? B. ' long.) Exercise 82. fo-morro7V.Vv good temper. seedy. He is a little better to-day. a man walking * in the garden. I am fond of reading. Fearing to be caught in the rain.' ' clothed in a long white robe. What X [== for wkat purpose) ntud \vt any further witness? Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that He came (= • in which) I loved it first. Thus 'a. He obtained permission to go. Vou are to blame. State to what verb. by muck) richer than I am. IVhy did you Hcru) many persons were there ? find a truer friend ? Vou struck Tom mc with his fist. returned. The prisoner's guilt is manifest. . of tills itind may contain a noun which has adjuncts of its own att^ched to it. t were talking about your I shall brothtr. He is in an ««/«/w. Whose hat did you take ? I bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. across the park. He is worthy of admiration. Preliminary Lesson. I have a great deal to say to you. Where are i?x/ri?. That is This is the hour thatX (= at which) the reason tkat\ [=for which) I did it.' and ' white ' are adjuncts of the noun robe. constitutes an Adverbial Adjunct. lame. Go thctwayX (i. Give me now leave to leave thee. Thus in the above sentences the attributive adjuncts are ' complex attributive adjunct walking in the garden. and f'ltrascs that attributive adjunct consists of the adjective or participle tixel Iter with nil the words are attached to it. Adjuncts. His right to the property was disputed. are iti fault.e. cousin Henry died last week. He will be none (= by nothing) the wiser. You are to return I am to take you home. He spoke eloquently. X He left the very day that X{— on 7vhich) I came. Madam Sylvia entreated me to call.e. I am none the worse. adjective or adverb the adverbial adjuncts in italics in the following sentences are respectively attached A. borrowed William's big two-bladed knife. adjectives or other adverbs. Nature and classification of Adverbial Words and phrases which do the work of Adverbs. brother is My A rattling storm came on. (§§ — by modifying 370-— 372. Do not talk fad. Come started early. verbs. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. To save time let us walk I was given to tmdeistand that you had left town.muchX (i. without a preposition The A ' i before it. In these examples a noun (or substantive pronoun) in the objective. The book is worth a guinea. Adverbial Adjuncts. It is [by] many degrees j colder. A clothed * We A A XXXIX. He is [by] a great deal % worse.212 John's coat . Leave of absence was refused him. His right to adopt that course was challenged. to see We me. I see My Tom's pony is in a long white robe came up to me. will : We quickly. we This is no time for trifling.e. Collect all the sentences in Exercise 48 which contain adverbial adjuncts. />y that -way). man soon reached the top of the mountain.«£'/j' kind.

On reaching home we found that the rest had arrived before us. Housing and saddle bloody red. were all talking of tiie accident. t I shall be glad to to these ra. Do wt' the favour of hearing Yl<i \s \\\ie his father. their great leader slain. Thus in. loose rein dangling from his head. I was asked hrgixen his past offences. gave the Iwy a book on his birthday. quickly. He accompanied us most of the way. I They speedy deliverance. He approached me dagger in hand. We were told our faults. There is a church a mile distant from the town. first Exercise We . live in constant fear. E. I am not disposed to sell the horse. did you say that ? \N here were you on duty last night ? He comes here every day. He is a year older They arrived yesterday. return with welcome home from banishment. D. " were talking about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday. I will paint jjv« a picture. roiitid. He is not like his sister. He was paid Point out the adverbial adjuncts in the following Exercise 83. had nothing to do. I will pay you your account soon. My pony being lame.' 84:. and to what verb. He slept an untroubled sltep. the troops withdrew. We cannot live our lives over again. The battle oz'er." the words about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday constitute an adverbial adjunct to the verb 'were talking' while to your brother' and yesterday are adjuncts of the verb happened.* The rest must perish. He was promised a rocking-horse. I am fond of riding on horseback. Pass nie the salt. \>YOceeA. " Bloodshot The his eye. Do not talk so fast. this question. The cloth is worth a guinea a yard. I They walked He advanced cap in hand. sentences state of what they consist. The horses being exhausted we covXd no\. Wait a bit. will be here to-night. I have fought a good fght. ^^'c 213 d<jy.EXERCISES.iy examples all those in Exercise iq which contain an Indirect Object. I cannot ride to-day. To reign is worth ambition. and then show what words are modified by the subordinate adjuncts which the entire group contains. I am content to be silent. rained every The wall isjifty feet high. What is the matter with you ? He is too ready to take offence. his nostrils spread. than I am. The dead were refused burial. He was his bill. be modified by adverbs as well as any other forms of the verb. F. I shall went to the theatre last nig/tt. You are spending your time to no purpose. Six frozen 'cuinters spent. Lord Marmion's steed rushed by. It rained all see your brother next 'ucck." adjuncts. ' ' ' ' ' ' We * \ Come more Add Gerunds started very early. My object having been attained. This flower blooms all the year barefoot. adjective or adverb they are attached :— . are glad to see you. C. am much We We We We Why . He spoke unusually well. . what I have to say. In the case of the following complex adverbial point out to what the oitire group of words is attached. I am satisfied. He prayed for a displeased with your conduct. You are to come home directly. It day last week. He built a wall ten feet thick.

i. Every cvfuiug the day. We arrived an He was in too much haste to hour too late. What is called the Cognate Object is really one kind of adverbial objective. I am looking at the man standing with his t)ack to of going to the theatre.e. He did nothing towards helping me out of my difficulties. about the matter? I am delighted to see you in good health. (See §§ 370— 372. We shall spend next tveck in London.) Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. A man addicted to self-indulgence will not rise to He is fond of angling. mind what he was about. I will We We We . made up . the window. I am fond hear of your safe arrival. He shouted to the boys at the top of his voice. in adverbial phrases. and a dozen in which it forms an adverbial adjunct. The place abounds in good Do you see that man on horseback? He has given up riding water to drink. He is a man of great industry.e. the attempt. I see him most days. are adverbial adjuncts and show to what word each is attached. He accomplished the task tries are very great. of Adverbial Adjuncts. the half of every day in bed. He Exercise 86. What is my duty to my neighbour? He is useless. That is a good stream for angling. In the following examples show which of the phrases of a preposition and a noun do the work of an adjective (see § 362. carefully distinguishing the adverbial objective from the other uses of that case : pay you next ivtrk. He spends have lost half sat up half the night. which must (now) be parsed as being in the nominative absolute. Make a dozen sentences in which a^ preposition followed by a noun or pronoun forms an attributive adjunct. 4). He is not prone to We rely on your promise. must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective Case (i. We were The advantages of travelling in foreign counvexed by his rudeness to you. Papa goes to London every (fay. XL. the Objective Case used adverbially). Parsing Exercise 87. haviour. on horseback. Nouns occurring and not go- verned by prepositions. He spends every other day in London. Exercise 85. I cannot walk a step farther. are attributive adjuncts. and which do the work of an adverb (see § 370..2 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The master praised the boy at the top of the class. He gave hnii his best wine to drink. Most days are joyless to me. by unflagging industry. Do your duty to him. You have displeased me l)y your behaviour. fuss What is the use of all this shot a great quantity of game on the moor. He escaped by leaping over the ditch. You should do your best to repair your fault by working harder. except those in the absolute construction. arc engaged wc have a rubber. Every evening next week is engaged. I am greatness. I must express my displeasure at your befond of the pastime of angling. Reliance on his promises behaviour of this kind. 2\ that is. He is too feeble to make adhered to his determination to make the attempt.

There was but a minute to spare. All save one perished. The battle was fought on this || * Else + ' is always a mere adverb. and what did you do What need we any further witness ? What shall we next ? I am not 7vell.EXERCISES. We went over dry fooi. Be 'iVell assured of that. but I cannot. Nothing can or shall content It is an ez'en chance. I will both lay me down in peace and sleep heard it. 54). They have bread enough and to spare. Some men (i. It came to pass about an eight days after. sir. I am //'?// inclined to believe it. He even insulted me to my face. He is all powerful at court. He needs strict oversight. We have wasted half the day. ' It means it is X II ' • Enough may be a substantive. t We have not enough to eat. They sent for you. He I am mueh pleased with you. You are sent for.sus. 471). It is usually an adverb ' Some' had better be taken as an namely twenty. my soul till I am ezh-nd with him. only be quick about it.than that would have been enough. have only four shillings left. It is not that he loves me more. Come this way. a certain number of mei:' .' or 'otherwise. Exercise 89. I have somrwhat to say unto thee. tences Parse the words in italics in the following sen- :— He will have the expense besides all the trouble. What shall we do next? He sat next meat dinner. that I have told him that. All is lost. wavThe horses having been harnessed. else"^ he would not look so mysterious.vky and the loherefore of everything. I have not tnuch time. need in this business ? What ! Did you not get my letter ? He wants to know the 7. It was built some % ten years ago.e. You may break him. Either road is difficult. Others may believe it. He will have the expense and the trouble besides. Lead I cannot count the times I have told him that twenty times. You must spend less money. Intt you will never bend him. but that he fears me less. There is no one /'«/ pities him. I feel soniewhat indisposed. They gave us trouble enough. Parse the following sentences. ' either 'besides. ' Exercise 88. There were a dozen men there. Well. every evening next the ' 215 iveek.' never an adjective. He lived ten years there. He takes the medicine every three hours {\\ 173. Why! he is as rich as Croe. Who only son. 2). 2 . He lived a hundred years (§ 362. Parse "but 'in the last sentence. Less . I never drink either beer or wine.' adjective. for you are sent for. He sat up all night. their great leader slain. Give him more air. I have not told you one //rtZ/'of what was said. He bought three score sheep {\\ 362. His needs will be well supplied. The rest must perish. left iiixt ([ay. I do not believe cither's account of the matter. I would do it but that I am forbidden. paying special attention to the constructions that are not obviously consistent with the rules: The multitude were of one mind (§ 376). Some twenty persons were present. Both brothers were All those present present. I have nobody else to look to. He need not be afraid. He must needs pass through Samaria He told me much of what liad happened. these sayings. We have other things to attend to. He knows most about the matter. Do comes next ? He has lost his We _what you please. He would liave said fno7-e if I had not stopped him. He knows something about it. 55 . He spoke to all but me. Both John and I were present. You must go. we started. but Some here is not an adverb.

The i'oys came home child has hurt himself.i If the subject be the interrogative ' who.). When will return to town ? Stibj. king with the Lords and Commons form the legislature {\ 377)' Who ' XLI.' it had better come first . if the predicate be Thus. f all on board the ship. exercises may be taken for practice in parsing as well as S The examples in the following ' ' We ' ' ' m analysis. The horse. Does your uncle the doctor know of this? Went not my spirit with thee ? Wlience did the author of that book get his materials ? Who in the world told you that? Why did you send the poor man away ? How many shillings have you in your purse ? • There is no occasion to supply ' of. and must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective. 3. by the lightning.2l6 . My little brother has fallen ilown. tired with intends to sell it. + To jiarse quickly replace 'I'h.'"' may be put first. last night. subject. and see § 2S1. The construction wiirsometimes be clearer in the priinary division. Questions may be divided in a similar inanner. He passed six months aboard the ship.' P7-cd. Macb. divided. Divide the following sentences and the logical predicate : into the logical This naughty child has torn his clothes. The passengers are side* the river. and the grammatical — Subject and Predicate. and that quickly. ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES.ssuming the function Compare the following sentences. Your brother. ran away at full speed. appetite that J he sits this instant. Simple Sentences. I. Exercise § 90. The owner of that estate fJismayed at the prospect they beat a retreat. The I loved it first' (/(/. Full many a flower is born to blush miseen. of a preposition that by the whole of what it stands (or. A The play. terrified rich old uncle has left him a large estate in Yorkshire. Leave the room I must see him. II ' ' ' Divide the following sentences in a similar way . Preliminary Lesson. The John's parents have sent him to school. " When will your brother return to town.it. is I an adverbial adjunct. logical Subject and Predicate. .). Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that % down {S/iaksp. riseth from a feast with that keen. friends of that little boy have sent him to sea. between the Difference Nature of a siinple sentence. came indoors. The children.' being here the representative of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition.' have an adverbial phrase a. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

' So participles and participial phrases are (grammatically speaking) attributiz'c adjuncts . in grammatical subject is enlarged (see what the enlargement consists. without the other words. most unfau' manner been deprived of his rights. silent.' 'Afraid of being betrayed into an ambuscade.' Grammatically you can make nothing of afraid but an adjective. John's account of the affair alarmed me.o my desk) has been (Despairing t of success) ke picked.EXERCISES." Here silent means although it was silent. (This) law. barn (The) (impudent) fellow (not being satisfied with my alms) began to abuse me." 'Therefore' is not aeonjunction. We shall in due time know all about it. yet spake. 217 Exercise 91. the street) is on fire. the leader halted. (Good) water (for drinking) was scarce.' but grammatically it is nothing more than an adjective. entered the yard. wrapped in a huge cloak. (Disgusted t by so many acts of baseness) (the man's) friends (all) deserted hhn. So in Milton. You will by these very stop his proceedings. because he despaired of success. (My brother John's) pony (A) man (carrying a great sack of flour) came into the has broken his leg. dependent sentence beginning with a demonstrative often occurs where the sense implies grammatical connection. He is of all enchantingly beloved. In analysis and ^aisxu^ grammatical /'or}n is the The point in question has nothing to do with any servile imitation of Latin essential thing Grammar. and state in which the each case of ' In the first few sentences the words or groups of words forming separate adjuncts are enclosed in brackets. The brave soldiers of the garrison The old church has fallen into ruins rich old uncle left him his property horseman. The work will very proliahly be finished before night. The handle of the pump in the yard is broken. I have been all the morning trying to make out this problem. as here. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . The field is already being reaped. Take the following sentences logical subject in each into the in the way shown in § 490. meaning for that reason. though the same notion o{ because clings to the expression. Thus. ''His meek aspect. died at their posts. an int The grammaticalfonit of a sentence often lags behind its logical hiifort. (the (My (The) house (on the other side of disgrace of our statute book) was repealed. poor little brother's) (pet) bird was shot. but a demonstrative adverb. The component parts of a compound tense are often separated by the intrusion of adverbial adjuncts. simple means He has in the Exercise 92. (The) (Chubb's) (patent) lock \\. Make (or find) dozen sentences § 388). * and separate the grammatical subject and its adjuncts (My) (poor) (little) brother has hurt himself. gusted. as '' I believed.' or any confusion between participles and verbal nouns. Thus from " ha\e already heard the news. abandoned the undertaking. I had at last with infinite trouble surmounted the difficulty.' and because they were disAdjectives may be used in the same way. I shall most likely hear from you lo-morrow."' take " have heard. and yet they often involve an advcrhial force . Which boy knows his lessons? What poet's works please you most? What goods are most in A A demand ? What naughty little boy broke the window a ? Exercise 93. titere/otc have I spoken." We We We shall soon reach our destination. 'lake the following sentences and put with the subject in each the ivhole of tlie verb that belongs to it.

'of the proadjuncts of Object: ceedings. the other consisting of those in which there is not a grammatical object. and the several Thus John sent to us an amusing attributive adjuncts of the object. Have. 3. Who spoke last ? Whom did you hear at church this morning? Hoping to find an easier road. 2._. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. I saw the occurrence That lazy boy did not go out of doors all the through a gap in the wall. Remember that 'how' is an adverb. . will not help you out of the difficulty.^t this phrase does not show where the act of seeing touk place. t Contrast this Look at \ 370. Separate the following sentences into two groups. The man struck the poor little boy on The boys were rewarded for their diligence.' : — — ' told were greatly amused by his story. To do this jiroperly requires time. hill stinds a stone cross. and Exercise sentences Give the complete analysis of the following Every finite verb in a sentence John's account of the affair alarmed me. the several adverbial adjuncts of the predicate in each. The master I saw a soldier on horseback. we left our companions How did you find your way ? He used a stick to support at the brid. C II I.-iko care in the analysis not to separate attributive words from the adverbial adjuncts that may be attached to them. Considering his age he has done pretty his steps. were strenuously advised to turn back. 96. cousin arrived last night. 4. one consisting of those in which there is a grammatical object of the predicate verb. 'An'. Down came the rain. f I met some gipsies in my ramble. He sent his hat round to rapidl)' turned round in the direction of the report. The boys have been forbidden to enter the orchard. Thus ended a war * of ten years' My We Whom This ended that most unpleasant business. Exercise 94. He had the impudence to tell me to hold my tongue. A large dog's bark was ^^ || * Mind that the subject very ohe. has a subject.n follows the verb. § In questions the subject is often so placed as to break the predicate (when it is a compound form of the verb) into two parts. Veryll few men could have done that. much money will be enough for you? What foolish notion possesses you? A little girl's voice was heard in the garden. absence ? I desire nothing more ardently. give the complete ansiver to the question. horse fell down the head." i. collect contiibutions. duration. Howl! well at the examination. Crying Latin exercises during my To act thus will displease his father. 'amusing'. did you see at the concert ? The girl is admired by everybody. Account. On the top of the in the road. You say so to tease me. My . They shook the depths of the desert gloom with their hymns of holy chter.' Object : Attributive account of the proceedings.2lS ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He Have you read this author's last us a droll story about his brother. My brother Henry told me J that.you heard the news? Have those little boys finished their morning.^ work ? Everybody admires John's little sister. To see the construction properly. praised the boy at the top of the class. T Observe th.e. Then take the sentences in the first group and set down separately the object of the verb in each. We We Exercise 95. sentence with the next. write down : Take the sentences in the last three exercises.

strongest works. they move. Children went. . soinetimes rob their unsuspecting friends shamefully. He found his brother We have bought a pretty little calf a month old. ' !Ex:sr3ise 97. X Look. Man struck. said.' The dead were refused burial (§ 372). Take the following pairs of subjects and verbs and btild up sentences by putting in objects. " This He died a happy death.ike ? Hero man had better be taken as the direct object. Who ever experienced anything like kindness at his hands? Who but a fool would talk like that ? What have you done with the money? What arrant nonsense that foolish was torn. at § 371. His lying fast asleep. Give me* a cup of tea. dress My cousin's were sold by auction. predicates. 4. with as many adjuncts. the words in Exercises 94 and 96.' you may make Men of weak character. Horse threw. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. Teach me He was taught Greek (§ 372) by his uncle. led astray by temptation.}: man talks! Which [horse] of these horses is to be sold? He eats his food like § a hog.' 'Teach erring man|| to spurn the rage of gain. 498 — 500). that too I told you* all that an Jiour agot.EXERCISES. Here shall be done a deed of dreadful return interrupted our game note. Forth at your eyes.' The phrase objective) absolute. Men found. We had a purpose to be his purveyor. and objects. originally formed a nominative (or Look at \ 370. XLII. from Men rob. 'Ago' is a shortened form of 'agone. subjects Exercise 93. Boy lost. They advanced step by last nigh'. I. your spirits wildly peep. Thus. and enlarging the subjects. Prcliininary Lesson. as you can. We arrived. is here an adverb. " Take thee * stei^. I return you * my best thanks. and construction of Verbs of Moile of analysing sen- tences in which they occur * \ 493. What more do you wrath may find some wor^e way to our destruction.' ' ' Birds Sister build. Some ladies' dresses . Make a dozen other sentences and verbs of your own chooiing. Conceit. Brother left. thy statutes. The Downward poor wren will fight. his silver skin laced with his golden Vjlood. came. desire? Whom did you find walkiuij in the ijaiden? Whose umbrella did you take? Whose exercise has the fewest faults? The poor man's wife died He fell liead foremost into the ri\er. her young ones in her nest. heard in the distance 219 The tall lady's An empty bird's silk nest was found. — Nature (§§ Incomplete Predication 391 i§§ — 396).ittributive and adverbial. in weakest bodies. Loaf was bought. Theie by Duncan. of scusj as 'train' or 'instruct-' ' ' ' II ' ' teach'' having Lhc same kind . Parse all in a similar way with Exercise 99. against the owl. he sat. where they are wanted. a melancholy band. Ship carries.

He is named John. the continuance.' &c. or (as it is sometimes called) the verb of exist jncc. The air feels keen. He is not thought a fool. tive Exercise 100.— An adverb or adverbial phrase is not a complement. (See § 374. I pronounce the wine We We . The prisoner was pronounced guilty of homicide. He was called an enthusiast by his friends. They entered laughing.B. ready. He was called a fool for his pains.' ' . He was elected Emperor. the participle that follows is merely an adjective' of quality. In such cases the compound form denotes the performance. Where are you ? Where have you been all the morning ? is He in the parlour. He became my friend. He stood silent (see § 391). deem this step very This measure rendered the plot abortive. She looks very pretty. prisoner guilty. The poor man was starve 1 to death. You have made your hands dirty. The We are the man would die. That appears very plausible. When the state that is the result of the action is denoted. as He is going I was saying He is gone He was struck. I am trying to do it.Kamples : Such things have been. He is going away. § Exarcise 101. He cfjnsidcrs this course expedient. time has been. Analyse the following sentences containing ObjecComplements of verbs of incomplete predications {^ 391. They made Henry king. or (better) by saying that the complement is in the predicative relation to the subject.. imprudent. that when the brains were out. He became very rich in a short time. The dog ran away howling. to be is a verb of complete predication.' But when used to form a tense of another verb. He is an honest man. or the comple- when ' .' become. 395) : He painted the wall white. Parse the preceding sentences.) tion of ' Point out carefully the various uses of the verb in the following e. The boy was blamed for that. The boys rushed shouting into the playground. In accordance with 393 (which see) account for the case of the complement either by saying that the verbs be. I am sure of pleasing He is insane. I am in doubt about that.' ' an action. He called the man a liar. He is my cousin's friend. sweet. He felt tired.220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR.) ' ' Exercise 102. They We you in this. He is considered a pretty good player. tive Exercise 103. The verb to be is a verb of incomplete predication it is employed in making a compound tense of a verb in either the active or the passive voice. The children are half starved. take the same case after them as before them. The poor soldier is badly wounded.' {iV. The wine tastes got quite tired. He sat twiddling his thumbs. This delay is trying to our patience. The jury pronounced the consider him a fine player.' ' . He stood rubbing his eyes. He grew rich suddenly. We were delighted by the concert. When it is not accompanied by a complement of some sort. I think him clever. it is usually called an Auxiliary Verb. Analyse the following sentences containing SubjecComplements of verbs of Incomplete Predication — : are honest. I am deliglited to see you. He was wounded by an arrow. He made us all merrj'.

-hall not hear you. Exercise 104. He is believed to have perished. That He was ordered to sit down. will They may be answered. That looks pretty. The cry sounded clear and shrill. In sentences like '• How am I to do it ?" •' You are to be quiet. The people wept sore. Analyse the following sentences. Exercise 105. Indeed [ did not say so. He has travelled far and wide. and in the attributive relation to the noun which is the object of the verb. They urged us to come. He ought not to do this. I We must make must go home. See whether the word in question denotes. excellent. He instructed the man to wait. They invited us to come.^ (See § 396.EXERCISES. Exercise 107. They may take the money return shortly. Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests. this gerundial infinitive is scarcely distinguishable from an adverbial adjunct expressing purpose. I forbid you to touch that. . or to its complement. Show where the complementary infinitive has itself a complement. They besought us to come to their help. in which the subjeccomplement is a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 394). (See § 493. That may perhaps be true. * He made his horse canter. You ought to be more cautious. He bade the man wait. They He is thought to have poisoned the man. The stones have made my lect * In parsing an infinitive mood of this sort it must be described as the complement of the verb of incomplete predication. I will depart. step be very imprudent. I do so long to see him. t In many of these constructions. have a good scolding. That cannot be allowed. its complement. Analyse the following sentences. shall You can be rewarded. He ought to pay me. The bell sounded cracked. I canThey . This kind of life to was considered He is believed to be mad. They have not made the street wide enougii. Exercise 103.) Show carefully whether adverbial adjuncts are to be attached to the verb cf incomplete predication. He set Let us pray. He is not to be endured.) They can haste. or the manner in which an action is done. His voice sounded feebly. These secontive dary complements. are in the predicative Do not confound the object of a verb with relation to the subject. You might have found an easier way. Parse the preceding sentences. 221 He made the bear dance. complements are in reality in the Objective Relation to the verbs of incomplete J These predication. was bidden to stand aside. are supposed to have lost their way. Analyse the following sentences containing Infinitive Complements. He spoke loud. carefully distinguishing those cases in which a verb is followed by a complejiicnt from those in which it is followed by an adverbial adjimct. He told the man to wait He asked me to come. as well as the primary ones. His voice sounded feeljle. It grieved me sore. He ordered the man to wait. Nothing could be more unfortunate." the infinitive is certainly adverbial. write well. the audience laughing.the condition of that which is spoken about. I We sing. He directed the man to wait.

amc .' In that case the analysis of the sentence will of course be different. having the preceding noun or pronoun in the objective case as its subject.c.' and represented provisionally by 'it. or provisional subject. The water is frozen hard. The task go to Ireland.1 preposition. The bird sang The ship passed clear of the rock. being either pronouns or adverbs. + Notice that the meaning of this verb is quite complete in itself. but that interrogative words do. Her voice clear." that there is found the man dead. Preliminary Lesson. form. t Here llu Infinitive phrase is governed by . Exercise 109. He rubbed his face hard. and structure of substantive 401—405). &. feltt the air fan my cheek. face sore. clauses (§§ — Nature.* Preliminary Lesson. He rubbed his This delay will make us late. The whole of the following phrase is the object of it. late. They came XLIII. — Study : § 397. ' ' . In the following sentences a substantive clause (or noun-sentence. Analyse the following sentences containing ob- jective infinitive phrases — He heardt the wind roar through the I saw the thief try to pick a gentleman's pocket. remembering that the conjunction that does not enter into the structure of the clause which it introduces. Complex Sentences. See note on § 395. The water runs clear. [people] say that he is very rich. I expectedt the travellers to be here by this fault ? being in The duke will time. It is too late forj the was too difficult forij: him to hope to succeed.222 sore. Analyse the substantive clauses separately. Substantive Clauses. The wind sits fair forj news to travellers to arrive to-night. I liket a knave to meet with his deserts. We wishf you to come to-morrow. heard the man say so.<Sed as the (real) subject of chaunced. ' * These objective complements distinction infinitive phrases are often scarcely distinguishable from infinitive moods but it will be seen on consideration that there is the £. When 'it' is employed as a temporary. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Complex Objective Phrases. Analyse the bcntences in the mode indicated in § 515. Exercise 108. and place after it the substantive clause as the real subject. set it down as such. I have heard Have you ever known+ the man confess trees. between ' He made used as kind of the child cry ' ' between ' He made the rpan angry and ' He and He saw the child fall. XLIV. The whisper came soft sounds clear. The trees whispered soft and low. and low to our ears. ' In constructions of this sort the verb in the infinitive mood may be parsed as being the verb in an objective infinitive phrase. I believet the man to be innocent. I I never grant this forfeiture to hold. In the example given in § 547 it is quite possible that we ought to regard 'this proud Sarazin to meete me as an infinitive phrase of the same kind u. as it is often termed) is the subject.

He felt Try how far you can jump. and then the subject substitute that clause for the it. How I found the matter out is no concern of yours. The idea that I can comply with his request fact that * To those who are acquainted with my larger grammar I need hardly observe mode of marking sentences has not been borrowed from the later works of others. He told me he knew all about the matter. like a nominative iS 404). It does not matter what he It is uncertain how long I shall stay. It is uncertain what the result will be. I thought it J strange that he should leave without calling on me. Was on Tuesday that Exercise 110. it to be a disgrace that he had so utterly failed. that he knew We Exercise 111. ' ' . What we are to do next is the question. Deal with it as in the case of t that is. It is very probable ihat he will not arrive not true that he said so. Tell me what you think of all this. draw a Une * under the entire set of words which form the substantive clause. I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night. He made it a condition that I should become security for the payment. or noun-sentence. Advise if§ this be worth attempting. What his capacity is signifies nothing. ' ' . It is to-day. or of a phrase equivalent to a would come. The circumstance that he was present must not be disregarded. (See § 512. He is confident that are resolved that that shall not occur again. remembering that you have not got a complete substantive clause. Tell him I cannot see him to-day. I tliink I have Tell me who told you. unless it has a subject and a finite verb. Tell me how the honour of addressing Mr. That he said so is undeniable. Methought the ? It was only yester- Methinkst move. How completely you are What signifies what weather we have ? mistaken can easily be shown. it Anon methought he went away JNlethinks he hath no drowning mark upon billows spoke. Try if you can decipher that letter. I heard that he had arrived." § ' If has here the force of whether*. can have told you that. See § 403 and § 244. ' The that this It often does duty as a temporary or provisional object. with all the adjuncts that may be attached to either of these. 223 Before analysing the sentences in this and the succeeding Exercises. I shall succeed. t The introductory conjunction that' is often omitted.) That he did the deed is quite certain. I want to know when this old happened. or is used absolutely with a absolute : you say so is enough for me. it is Thence that I to your assistance do It is how rich he is ? a question how far make love. I am hopeful that he will soon get better. What does it signify he was justified in that proceeding. thinks. Analyse the following sentences in which a substantive clause is in apposition to a noun.EXERCISES. first analyse the sentence without the substantive clause. or comes after a preposition participle. Smith? you are. puzzles me. day that I saw him. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. note. Who How long I shall stay here is uncertain. stantive clause transitive verb I is : Analyse the following sentences in which a sub" the object of a verb. the wood began to him. I know that handwriting.

ivlnce me. In case I am not there. lie did this to the end that lie ni^^h. but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money gratis. nothing me a something dear to thee. There is no fear that he will fail. 'on the condition that it please my lord to quit the fine. in which the SubClause forms an Adverbial Adjunct to a verb or adjective (like the Latin accusative of limitatioti. not brought your brother. For that I love your daughter. He is desirous that I should return.' ' Analyse the following sentences I : is abating. Who ! The word so is only a substantive demonstrative pronoun t used adverbially. I Ui.' + ' ' ' * ' I drank a pint or so his is brother. I will undertake the business. and so strengthened form 'as' (also.' The ' ." § That is I am sorry on this account. Analyse the following sentences ' ' : (= on the condition) that you are back by " For nothing hold me so it please thee hold {i.e. Transitive verbs govern an object. There was a rumour that the army had been defeated. Provided that he consents. in which an inaccompanied by an interrogative word supplies the place of a substantive clause beginning with an interrogative finitive : Note the omission of ' that. ' I convinced him 7vtt/t respect to tliis point. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.. but because they denote a tt'ansitive action. In case* you should see him. That depends upon how you did it. I am persuaded that that is the wiser course.' It is often used without any adverbial force. which may be described as an objective adjunct to the noun. we shall know what to do." "So please my lord {i. Nouns that do this may have a substantive clause after them.. Being essentially a substantive. We welcomed these indications that spring was near. or as regards this. as in I told you so. That is a proof that he knows nothing about the matter. Analyse the following sentences. go on without me.i2 4 is alisurJ. it may have a substantive clause in apposition to it. can want the thought how monstrous it was for Malcolm and for Donalbain to kill their gracious father ? He sent me word that he would come anon. co. \ We are glad that you have come at last. see no sign that the fever stantive Analyse the following sentences.' Is he a captain? He is sfl 'He is a fool. t 'I'hat is. or closer definition). not because they are predicative words. We are disappointed that you have Exercise 113. regard) that dinner time.' of wine. Oh yet I do repent me of my fury that I did kill them. Provided this report be confirmed. ? 165) often has a pronominal force. He has obtained my consent that he should go to college. He could not get rid of the idea that I was his enemy. I am certain that he never said so.dertook the business in the expectation that he would help me. % I <im sorry that you are not well. Exercise 114. I came on the chance that I might find you at home. I am content.t'. I hate him for he is a Christian. I would not believe the story but that you avouch it. bring him with you." You may go where you like so ' ) Exercise 112. I must advance the colours of my love. I convinced him that he was mistaken.

What sad talk was that wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. 413).' and the quasi-relative ' as ' is . repose ') is labour which is not used for you. Deal in a similar way with the sentences in Exer- Exercise 117. to do next. As' must be treated as equivalent to a relative pronoun. The difficulty is how to get there.Supply the relatives which are omitted in the sen- tences in Exercise 62. He had many heavy burdens to bear. — Nature. I taught him how to do it. ' ' ' ' as it is is in the attributive relation to § The clause the complentent of the predicate in its own clause. I am considering what I know not where to get food. Analyse the following sentences in which the Adjective Clauses have a Relative Adverb in place of a Relative Pronoun governed by a Preposition (§ 406).]. 411. X See § 165. The ' Exercise cise 61. now wears his crown. — Adjective Preliminary Lesson tive Clauses. parsed as a compound adverb. the pressure of which nearly crushed him. Unto l)ad causes swear such creatures as+ men doubt. Exercise 118. and then analyse the sentences. Whereon (=: on which) forms an adverbial adjunct to ride. The rest {i. then analyse the entire sentence. and lastly analyse the adjective clause separately* : serpent that did sting thy father's life.. His behaviour is not such [Ijehaviour] as I like. such as§ it is. ' ' ' help. XLV. I have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love asj I was wont to have. Underline the adjective clauses in each of the following sentences. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul. Thy food shall be husks wherein the acorn cradled. after sunset fadeth in the west.EXERCISES. Make (or find) a dozen sentences containing adjective clauses in which the relative is expressed. form. You are welcome to my help. Where to get puzzles nie. and construction of Adjec- Clauses (§§ 406 Exercise 115. and then analyse them. In me thou seest the twilight of such day. Do you know I saw the captain in whose ship you will sail. as. . the gentleman to whom this park belongs ? Infected be the air whereon t they ride. • Remember that the Adjective Clause must contain a subject and a finite verb of its own. This cloth is not such [cloth] as I asked for. Ihrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.' It must be t See § 162.e. 116. He never knows when to go. 225 do it is the difficulty. I know not how to thank you to How the money sufficiently. will soon find such peace wliich it is not in the power of the world to give. Thou speak'st to such a man that is no Vou fleering tell-tale. and a dozen in which it is omitted.

eitlier Exercise 121. have the same twofold use the adverbs. ' ' Analyse the following sentences. the handle towards my hand ? That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold. was the owl. ' ' clause. I'his is what he did. ' Exercise 123. The pronouns 'who' and 'which. was John who said so. Is this I see before me. " It (the person) " It (the — ' 'The handle towards my . carefully distinguishing the subtantive clauses from the adjective clauses.so." clause 'which hand' is attached to this. Exercise 120. You may supply the suppressed antecedents. * t That That ' t Tlie adjective hand is who said . The reason why you cannot succeed is evident. was John. Exercise 122. .' and the pronominal adverbs 'when.* ? Who that thus cried It is a dagger which j Analyse the sentences in Exercise 65. Return to the place whence you came.' 'where.' and analyse them. and find out what is the already. You matter. He soon repented of what he had done. Exercise 119. Pray tell me what ails you. is.' a nominative absolute belonging to the adjective clause. Go.236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. You have only told me what I know I know what you said about me. That is precisely what he ought to have done." creature) that shrieked. clause. having a relative force. and tJiis. is. He knows well enough what he ought to do. when used as the equivalents of relative pronouns governed by prepositions. f was it the eye of cliildhood that fears a painted devil. in which the Adjective Clauses are attached to (and explain) the neuter demonstrative It pronouns it.' &c. I will show you the shop where I bought these apples. The word what sometimes introduces an adjective and sometimes an indirect question. I can remember the time when there were no houses here. which is a substantive What is interrogative when it cannot be replaced by that which (§ 409). Do what you can in this business.. I cannot make out what you I do not understand what you are saying. must not dictate to me what I am to do. that. and then parse the sentences : Repeat what you have just said. It was the owl that shrieked. Was that your brother who knocked at the door? Is that a scar that you have on your hand? It was a gun-shot that killed him. Analyse the following sentences. Do you know the source whence he obtained this information? The fortress whither the defeated troops had fled was soon captured. are saying. Make (or find) a dozen sentences illustrating each use of what. or treat the clauses as Adjective Clauses used substantively (§ 408).

416). ivhere.* after execution. Adverbial Clauses relating to Time (§ 1.' § Remember that the conjimction or pronominal adverbs when. you live. judgment hath repented o'er his doom. after the Adverbial Clauses. That is why* I am angry. but as independent sentences as though and with a. which lasted till the evening. modifying the verb 'see. That is howt he always treats me. Next day they renewed the fight. &c. Exercise 128. whom he visited frequently. tjonoiirable ladies sought my love. That is why* I did it. and structure of Adverbial 414—435). Tell me where he is. Whom we raise we will make fast.' By this tune we had traversed half the distance. when I see you. May truly say. which madness would gambol from. When you durst do it. have no such force. While he is here we * In the analysis supply an antecedent no'in. which I denying. forming an adverbial adjunct io/eli. way with the sentences in Exercises XLVI. Analyse the following sentences. never has an antecedent expressed. While has nothing to do with the relative pronoim. Clauses (§§ Adverbial Sentences.' ai)d joining the clause whei) I see you to the predicate ' wilj ' We ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' tejh' .' as a relative.. in a similar Exercise 125. I knew when* seven justices could not take I have seen when. while. what few vain marbles can. We travelled together as far as Paris. I do they will arrive. That is where* I live. ' : — matter will re-word. Being shown into a grand apartment. See where* he looks out of the window. and then analyse these \ clauses separately I will tell secret'l were a man. Tell me where Tell me why you are so angry.Prdbninary Lesson. In parsing a sentence of this kind. have an adverbial construction in their own clavises. but that the Conjunctions after. The omission of that gave to while a conjunctive force. In London he made the acquaintance of my brother. before. demonstrative pronoun were substituted for the relative (§ 413) ' . How. j they fell I the sick and died. when a loud clap of thunder warned us to quicken oiir steps. — Nattire. where we parted company. first underlining you the Analyse (and parse) the following sentences.' to which a substantive clause beginning with 'that' was in apposition. till. I could not make out whom he was alluding to. X Which is the object of denying. Sic. I delivered my letter. up a Exercise 124. It is an old noun meaning 'time. Analyse the following sentences : 227 Find out who did that. ' Here lies an honest man. form. 'when' should be described as a connective adverb.EXERCISES. . not know when quarrel. then you know that till you told me. I did not shall have no peace. ivhithcr. which he read. This modest stone. S have here a nominative absolute. treating the clauses containing a relative not as adjective clauses. Deal 63 and 65.

so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. The second (See § 420. the second demon§ Here the main clause is the second one. the prospect. Analyse and parse the following sentences Where thou dwellest. so glides he in the night from Venus' eye.2 28 • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. She is star shooteth from the sk)-. Ho\v|| far the substance of my praise doth wrong this a bright shadow. Because Thou hast been my help. the less I like him. He is aware that I did not come. Exercise 127. I cannot tell you his age.' Each modifies the adjective in its demonstrative. the second modifies 'wider. Analyse and parse the following sentences As the tree falls.' . He retired to his about that matter. 3. for I do not know it. and Consequence (§ 421—423). as good as she is beautiful.' How ' is a relative or connective adverb modifying far. Wherever lay where he fell.' the clause explaining the indefinite meaning of the. Do as I tell you [to do].* where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. ' The first the' is relative. I will dwell. is care that soil all be ready. Exercise 128. sot it will lie. The more he has. you go. Ex3rcise 129. Analyse and parse the following sentences : because I sent for him. me. the second relative.' the ' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of wider. When I am determined I always listen to The fool is happy that he knows no reason. left the room as I 1 shall be gone before you are up. He such a liar that nobody believes him. into temptation. He so It weak is stand. He came He toils hard that he may get rich. He still Adverbial Clauses relating to Place (§ 417). the more he wants. Whithersoever I went. He is asj : avaricious as his brother is generous. when thieves cannot be true to one another. I must believe it. The§ higher you climb.' and joining the adverbial clause (which is co-ordinate with so ') to the second far. the wider will be The longer I know him. As he lias begged my pardon.' as the tree falls are co-ordinate . the village preacher's modest mansion rose.' 11 The demonstrative 'so' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' 'tired. strative.So' and the clause nrst ' The as ' is disclose' are co-ofdinate adverbial adjuncts of 'rose. because then it can do no harm. therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice. Purpose. You may come whenever you 2. that he cannot so dark tl>at we cannot see. he followed Seat yourselves wherever there is room. How We 4. Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner and Degree (§ 418). more. I'll charm there's not a soul to give you an answer? arrived after the air to give a sound while you peiform your antic round. ' ' ' — _ clause. He do not always write as we pronounce. : I will follow you. Since you say so. please. Take I I called own room lest on him that I might tell him that he might study quietly. • 'There' and /he clause 'where ' + t . Take heed ye fall am tired that I is am ready to drop. There. we had left plague [be] upon signifies asking. I will forgive him. Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause.adverbial adjuncts of will lie. A when He He entered. always does as he promises [to do]. What it.) The first modifies 'higher'.

J will do Whatever he may say. wliat he will [say] he will ne\ er convince me.' (\ 362. Be he ne'er so vile.' but an attributive adjunct t Mind that ' ' ' ' ' of the verbal noun han:^in. Though unless you invite me.' which is in reality a substantive pronoun used adverbially. if I had known If you call you will see him. \ Co!d is in reality the complement of the preJicite. XLVII. . The lady's fortune must not go out one may find comfort in the money. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. Do [he] what he can [do]. Had I kno\vn|| this I should have acted differently. Ex3rcis3 131.^ »_„^ Tell i) _ it. You will not succeed unless you try harder. he never pleases tiie man. 1 shall go out. Analyse the sentences. this day shall gentle his condition. and afterwards analysing it separately. Say [he] \\hat 1 have said. he cannot succeed without industry. first treating the substantive clause as a whole. — Exercise 130. him.s. 1 would have finished the work had it been .' ' II If ' is omitted J 434. j I shall not believe him. Hypothetical and Concessive Clauses (§§ 424 434. Underline the clauses in the way shown in § 514 and in the first few sentences : He said i) he would return 2) the book when he had read ^ (i). he is rich he is not contented. But ^' i) that my foot slipped 2) as I tui-ned the corner "^(^7""" ' * This construction consists of a substantive clause '[that] I lose not honour. However great his abihties may be. Analyse the following sentences : — I would have called on you.EXERCISES. {St'e Exercise iii. In the following sentences a substantive clause contains a subordinate clause within it.. whatever one does [find] of the family Cold§ as it is. Whatever may be the consequence.. An (=^ if ) I have not ballads made on you all. and sung to filthy tunes. Complex Subordinate Clauses. Ihe construction is the same as if we had 'however cold I ' ' it is. possible.' in apposition 'o the adverb 'so. I wish i) > (2) the l)oy (I) would finish the task 2) I set him." he construciinn in this and the following sentences is very peculiar. 4. Were you my brother I could not do it for you. Big as he is. if I escape hanging for killingt that rogue.s construction with that of such a sentence as ' I believe whatever he J Aiialyse th.) So has no adverbial relation to any word in the clause vhich it introduces. let a So* 1 lose not honour in seeking to augment it. shall be counselled I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this.). Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition. me how (I)- old you were 2) J. says. _' when your (2) father died. I will not come your address. I am not afraid of in the wife.. 229 5. for killing is not an adverbial aJjiuict of escape. I cu|i of sack be my poison. Whenccsoever the money comes it is welcome. You will see him though 1 shall not [see him]. Do not confound tn.

who bears a glass which shows me many more. the subject of must.s (2) 2) that does not mind when he is spoken to. The construction is the same broken by I say. observed the air is delicate first.230 I ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Nor failed they to express how much they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. if it pleases you. The man i) who does the best 2) that he can [do] deserves praise. would never have known. . The eighth too late.„ ^ 1 he construction will be best the nominative case.' t 'What' is in :— 'they know [that] that nuist folJovv. should have Where (I). is mistaken.t I I lived when I was in town has been pulled down. you that I built the house which you see? He fears that his But that I told him who did it. ' . must be punished.. your friend found out where I live.' seen by substimting the jenjonstrative ' ' . .' t Observe that the substantive clause is as in: 'I say [th.' . he father will ask him where he has been.=- observed* l) the air is . I have . Analyse the following sentences which contain complex adverbial clauses I wrote l) to him 1 will not leave i) till I know 2) that he is out of danger. (2) I I should report that l) which — (I) (2) say 2) I saw. : (I) ( 2) ' In analysis put I have • This clause breaks up the continuity of the substantive clause. Fleance killed.atl I saw it. The house where Iiave only Exercise 133. tences. done what I told you I would do. which I did should be answered. won the race. (2) •• is gone with her. ^ they most breed and haunt.(2) 2) delicate. A child i) : ^'^ . Analyse on similar principles the following senExercise 132.) i) who care 2) not what they say. I think he will soon retrieve his Who told I should like to know how misfortunes if he sets to work with good-will. The right valiant Banquo walked the brains were out the man would die. The time has been that when able to answer those of which I make no secret. appears. whom you may say. They fear what J yet they know must I have secret reasons which I forbear to mention because you are not follow. (2) " My foolish rival i)" that her father likes (I) ii) 2) only for his possessions are so huge. There are men <" (. make him swear to keep for ever. which contain complex adjective clauses The person i) who told 2) you that I said so. Now methinksyou teach me how a beggar I'll see if I can get my husband's ring.

be much obliged (2) i) if you will repeat the story 2) (2) which you have just heard. Our purer essence then will overcome the noxious vapour of these raging fires. It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who al. Sentences. (0 He soon left the house when he heard that I was coming. separately. Men who see heard I clearly how you have. I have not decided whether I will go • Two or three are filled up by way of example. He yields neither t to force nor t to persuasion. or [our purer essence. 551 fill — 556. each of which contains a subordinate clause containing a second. Exercise 134. are invaluable helpers. These present no new features. Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous when great things of small [things we can create. §§ 439. Contracted FriUmijmry Lessofi. He seldom drinks wine because he finds that it disagrees with him. when we know we have so many real ones to encounter.] inured.EXERCISES. Analyse the following sentences. You will be punished if you do not come when you are called. immediatelv because (i) 231 I shall I knew .) XLIX. My day or night myself I make. when] prosperous [things] of adverse [things] we can create.use their gifts and powers. Don't let us make imaginary evils. which in its turn contains a third : I was grieved when I bore among if his neighbours. It was so hot in the valley that we could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when we were higher up among the mists. [will] not feel [the noxious vapour of these raging fires]. * Exercise 135. XLVIII. 2) how anxious he was. when] useful [things] of hurtful [things we can create. . portion of Hcither-^nar t Suppress the cciijutictive by substituting not—twt. whene'er I sleep or play. he had not they ought to act when they meet with obstacles. with the (§ omission of the conjunction that 436. — Study carefully § : 440. Compound Sentences. The two or more co-ordinate sentences which make up the compound sentence simply have to be analysed joins them. how he had obtained the character which he know that he would never have spread such a believed what your brother told him. Test the accuracy of the following contracted sentences in the manner shown in analyse them separately 440 : then them up and You must either be quiet or [you must] leave the room. I will give you no more money till I see how you use what report.

"Why should I play the contrive who need. first supplied the words that are understood. He is not so clever as his brother [is clever].." " Freely they stood who stood.. " Wiles let them I may forgive. scandals increased and multiplied. I have as good a right to the money As [matters stand] for me." wine or beer? " Nor steel nor poison. consisting t 'J'he whole phrase. [Let the pupil study and practise these. " Bad men boast their specious deeds on earth. He is a man in that degree\)X'XV^ in which degree brave a man ever lived. in the way indicated in the first few examples. weapons laugh " What's Hecuba to to scorn. you pursue this course you will not injure me." Roman fool. but I can never forget his ingratitude to me. That discovery relieves. and die on mine own s^word ?" " Swords I smile at. but + I will raise the down-trod ' • Which object of the verb ' taste ' to be repeated as the object of the verb ' know.iuse.. t The logical intention of an attributive adjunct is often greater than its mere grammatical " (Although he is soj old as he is [old]." " Who wickedly is wise or madly brave. It is better to die than [it is good] to live in such misery. what pleasure I. I'll shed my ' ' . shuddering fear. Analyse the following sentences." " See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow. not now. He was so kind as [a man would be kuul] to give me this book. 01 t ^'vs he is [old] he is hale and hearty. but could not overtake the retreating enemy.' Feels' and 'thmks' are intransitive." you return come and tell me the news. till he can fill up the ellipses when the elliptical sentences are dictated. in default of my raising .232 or not. He stood aside so as [a man would stand aside] to let me pass. He is as brave a man as [a brave man] ever lived. . The sense is — Leaving out the case that I will raise king (that is. foreign levy. He looks as stupid as an owl [looks stupid]. king'). have nothing to do with it. but I will— King is an adverbial adjunct of 'will shed'. He grows worse and worse. or he to Hecuba?" L. but you will ruin yourself. I will as you [have a good right to th-^ money]. nothing can When touch him further. the more a knave. but scarcely removes my suspicions. 557 — 564. having grace. As she sat in the old arm-chair she pondered with bitter grief over the past. or close ambition varnished "What praise could they receive. He allowed no day to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud. and reason to restrain. Is but the more a fool. wealth [is good] as [lie would tell me] if I did not know that before. I had rather die than [I would soon] endure such a disHe is better to-day than [he was well] yesterday. or when they need. — Study §§ 443. which * who but feels can taste. (That is." him. self-love to such obedience paid? " " Nor this a good. Unless you alter your conduct you will offend your friends and bring disgrace upon yourself." urge. brandished by man that's of a woman born. and thought of the future with As the years went on. Pirlimbtary Lesson. I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon than He told me that wisdom is better than [I would soon be] such a Roman. and fell who fell.] Exercise 136. I'll shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust. Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses. If ENGLISH GRAMMAR.) The boy played truant as [it is] usual. Would you rather drink but thinks can know. nor that a bad we call. He pursued." The full meaning here is force. He looked as [he would look] if he could kill me. which glory excites." " Two principles in human nature reign. malice domestic. of a preposition ('but') followed by a substantive cl. from o'er with zeal. ' : — ' ' : ' ' dtar lilooJ ' iS:c.

See § 165.EXERCISES. he is a little worse than a man and when he is worst. I would dance at maypoles " {Ben ycnsott^ Cynth. it passes belief. Art thou not sensible to feeling as to sight. I speak not as in absolute fear of you. How could you make such a blunder as to suppose I did it ? None could be found so bold as to oppose him. He is as tall a man as ever I saw. up the ellipses : Analyse the following sentences. More is due than more than all can pay. 3'ou tell me. He died as one that had been studied in his death to throw away the dearest thing he owed (= owned). he cared not to can be worse than to dwell here ? Present fears are le^s than horrible imaginings. but nf>t so strong. I could find it* in my heart to bestow it all on your worship. Exsrcise 137. 233- An "Mortimer as high in the air as this unthankful king [is h'gh in the air]. Herein fortune shows herself more kind than is her custom For myself alone I would not be so ambitious as to wish myself much better. /. This is better than if we had lost everything.' &c. The people of Paris are much fonder of strangers that have money than of those that have wit. He accompanied me as far as to the end of the street. I should earn mere as a crossing-sweeper. If I were as tedious as a king [is tedious]. The boy is more He is no happier than before. What [will happen] if I don't tell you? His wages as + [he is] a labourer amount to twenty shillings a week. his brother. He is better to-day than yesterday. IV. He procured a room as near the prison as could conveniently be found. looked as if he could kill me. as 'twere a careless trifle. You are no Will you be so good as to lend me that knife ? worse off than your brother. I never attend to such requests as that. He spoke to me as if I were a He tliief. l)e at all. As to what fool as to do that. It is not so bad to suffer misfortune as to deserve it. He recommended me as a person very fit for a travelling tutor.). + ' ' ' : * Provis^ional object. say at what age a poet grows divine. he is little better than a beast. I am not such a As to your proposal. . About him all the sanctities of Heaven stcod thick as stars. They dreaded not more the adventure than his voice forjjidding. If time improve our wit as well as wine. When he is best. This construction is the counterpart (with a connective instead of a demonstrative adverb) i of the use of so' followed by a substantive clause to denote a condition or hypothesis (See Exercise 130). I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. How could you make such a blunder as t [you made] to suppose (/. I should be piped and sung to. For none made sweeter melody than did the ]70or blind boy. Wisdom is ofttimes nearer when we stoop than when we soar. He is fonder of play than of work. having first filled Rather than be less. Rev. I cannot assent to it. What . He told me that wisdom was better than weahh as if I did not know that before. He is as a great a rascal as ever lived My feet are as cold as a stone. showing the construction of the real object ' to bestow. but not so fond of play as of idleness. . He has no redeeming qualities whatever [redeeming qualities there are].. in supposing) I did it.('. eis a dairy-wench. He was wiser than to risk his money in that undertaking. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sang of chaos and eternal night. The full phrase is such as the following "As I were a shepherdess. He is more agile than troublesome than ever. Take 'as as doing duty for a relative pronoun (= which blunder '). My pupil understood the art of guiding in money matters much better than I. 'twere not as good a deed as [to] drink [is a good deed] to turn frue man and leave these rogues.

12. 8. that yew-tree's shade. j I. which the subject here. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the And all the air a solemn stillness holds.' and take 'as as a ' ' relative pronoun (§ 164). new dark cottage. 11. freighted clouds at anchor lie. . 13. sight. light through chinks that time has made. solitary reign. Right sharp and quick the bells Rang out from Bristol town. 4. Kicking his heels on the dewy sod.* Save t where the beetle wheels his droning And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. The last two lines form an adverbial t Supply ' persons. night 3. by the side of the pool sat on a three-legged stool. sable mantle of the silent night Shut from the world the ever-joysome light. 14. Or waked to extasy the living lyre. battered and decayed. wand'ring near her secret bower. • I-ook carefully to see is t Supply 'those regions' (or something of that kind). 7. flight. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING.§ The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. Beneath those rugged elms. Here We The in cool grot and mossy cell rural fays and fairies dwell. % Take ' each — laid as a nominative absolute. Molest her ancient. adjunct modifying 'air. Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. From yonder ivy-mantled tower The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such X as. A man 5. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid .Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed. he skirted still of that mighty hill.234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. all 2. heap. His daily teachers had been woods and Love had he found Waiting till in huts where poor men lie. . The 9. rills. The gallant The margin All alone tall king. the west wind blows. Lightly and brightly breaks away The morning from her mantle gray. And putting in order his reel and his rod. The soul's Lets in 6. 10.

That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high. In climes 16. Although thy breath be rude. He He that that down need fear no low no pride. May live to fight another day. flaming. 21. taken at the flood. When § I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself. Night. Blow.). 'for retiring. § See § 406. it is now too late to from the contest is is {i. &c. from her ebon throne In rayless majesty now stretches forth Her leaden sceptre o'er a prostrate world. His Hstless length at noontide would he stretch. Thou art not so unkind As man's ingratitude.. Because thou art not seen. But that II To tell 25. sable goddess. 17. If : 18. Where shaggy forms o'er ice-built mountains roam.e. thou winter wind. Our sport shall be to take what + they mistake. 23. There is a tide in the affairs of men Which.' See 5 524. leads on to fortune Omitted. The Muse has broke the twilight gloom To cheer the shiv'ring native's dull abode. I am forbid the secrets of my prison house.' Then 'which omitted' is a nominative absolute. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul. 1 Sec § 5C0. hour is almost come.EXERCISES. And pore upon the brook that babbles by. ' ' ' • Supply 'which' before 'omitted. bottomless perdition. My 24. blow. t See § 529. He that fights and runs away. we were base enough retire to desire it. 19. 20. at the foot of yonder nodding beech. 235 There. 22. from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To 27.* all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries. 15.t Thy tooth is not so keen.' and the whols lentence '[which] omitttd— m'series is a second adjective clause qualifying tide.' fall. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong. modifying the verb is bound. We are not weak if we make a proper use of those means 26. beyond the solar road. which the God of nature hath placed in our power. |' .

See § 370. is my own. must I have the half of anything that impart this same paper brings you.t Their perfume take these again. I in these veins. The great man down. am content so thou wilt have so. Thus do we of wisdom and of reach With windlasses and with assays of bias By 37. When They I they do choose have the wisdom by their wit to freely lose.'' || 41. Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed. . See § 520. Would'st thou not stir in this. I 30. and passion. 43. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. quotation t I! _ Sec Sec § 434. 5. Breathes there the man with soul so dead. my native land'. Ran 34. Miss that which one unworthicr may • § ** See § 367.236 28. lets go by The important acting of your dread command.''** attain. A is not a dependent clause. merely a complex substantive. evil that The men do h\es after them.t 36. 46. ^ { . indirections find directions out. .§ who knows. but my madness speaks. J you mark his favourite flies The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. 32. . 38. o'er. trespass. When I did first my love to you. Now. it ii II See § 521. How his audit stands. 40. That. So may I. that this 44. 33. Sec § 403. would [that] you had won the fleece that he hath 35. But in battalions. lost. is The night long that never finds the day. we should do when we would (§ 459). Who 'This 47. 39. See § 563.* That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf. lapsed in time. § 595. they come not single spies. night descending. blind Fortune leading me. Lay not That^ not your 42. it 29. the proud scene was 31. I freely told you [that] all the wealth [which] had lost. 6. 45. That we would do. that flattering unction to your soul. save Heaven? Do you not come your tardy son to chide. man goes loose (see § 516). How dangerous is it When sorrows come. never to himself hath said.

. Blithe Flora from her couch upstarts. Wild 62. While from the purpling east departs The star that led the dawn. Herein Fortune shows herself more kind than is her cus- tom 57. 237 Benighted wanderers the forest o'er Curse the saved candle and unopening door While the gaunt mastiff. (§ 563). These honours peace to happy Britain brings. For May is on the lawn. ' How—it' is co-ordinate with X § Nominative absolute. will surely injure the reputation he designs to assist (§ 459)- 50.' ' in the analysis. clause without if. 55. fonning an adverbial adjimct to make. in underprizing my praise doth wrong the so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance.' Omit and entire clause ' that follows so. shadow 53. she 58. growling at the gate. How* If far the substance of it. 61. It truth. On The savage stocks inserted. 52. it must appear that malice bears down 54. 60. Affrisfhts the beggar whom he longs to eat. (^= whether). Whilst light and colours rise and fly Lives Newton's deathless memory (§ 551). 51. 49 He that claims either for himself or for another the honours of perfection.' . for that. if Your wnfe would give you little thanks were by to hear you make + the offer. 48. You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. As fruits. learn to bear. ungrateful to the planter's care. . is * ' ' ' How' and is here relative or conjunctive. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. surest virtues thus from passions shoot. Their savage eyes§ turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music. 59. which I did make him swear to keep for ever. this will not suffice. And he repents not that he pays your debt. to the ' ' The ' so t an adverbial adjunct far' A hypothetical See § 397. nature's vigour working at the root.EXERCISES. I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. doth appear you are a worthy judge. 56. Repent t but you that you shall lose your friend.

Separate it into (i) 'Whom Nature Whom Nature . Who And • scorn [that] a lad should teach his father having once been wrong will be so still. birth conspired To form not to admire but be admired.' why ' as an interjection.relative that before I saw. to fortune. Oh how welcome breathes the strain Wakening thoughts that long have slept.' TJ Talte •• Hypothetical clau&e without if. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Did ** not some grave examples yet remain. Fortune cannot change her mind. You'd think [that] no fools disgraced the former reign.thee ' modifies 'seems. In my former days of bliss Her divine skill taught me this.' this. mankind a shame. lovely rose Tell her that wastes her time . Weds the rich dulness of some son of earth ? If this advice appear the worst. How sweet and fair [He] Who thinks that To Think how And buy a resemble her to thee she seems to be. blind to wit and worth. used to love ! Kindling former smiles again In fading eyes that long have wept 64. That now she knows Vi^'hen X I 66. and me. ! 69 first . Shall one whom|| Nature. learning. ' skill. Hypothetical clause without if modifying the verb ' ' breathes. Prepares a dreadful jest for all mankind. After ' do ' supply impart better precepts.' A contracted compound Adjective Clause.' t § In apposition to 'thou. through all life When Losing unblest life that made / Should* some notes we In days of boyhood meet our ear. rope.' Supply the.§ posterity will treat thy name . dear. while his Chloe. I'll follow them with all my heart. friends. to 67. raise pleasure to her height Through the meanest object's sight. that future times may tell Thou 68. hast at least bestowed one penny well.' Substantive clause in apposition to Before 'raise' repeat that I could. better precepts if you can impart. Why^ 70.' the suppressed subject of the imperative 'think.' The adverbial clause when . do.' 238 63. Sigh. Go. ! we rove.' Supply ' ' ' which ' before 'we used. Adieu E'en take the counsel which I gave you Or.conspired to form to be conspired not to form to admire. Thatt from everything I saw I could some invention draw .' (2) admired. And 65.' t ' ' ' II ' ' ' ' .

' little use. . Yet let me show a poet's of some weight. Yet praise Thee with impassioned voice. lifting a bright eye towards the crescent moon. Of little And. ancient times conspired to disallow 71. In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. though no 73. Who says in verse what others say in prose. that may forget Thee in the crowd. 79. a fate attends on all I write. useful to the State. ThatjJ when I aim at praise. when to defend single verse we quarrel with a friend. While heard a thousand blended notes. 239 Had now ? use the man. You have 80 Wisdom Than Verily. Checking the finer spirits. But most of all the zeal of fools in rhyme.' clause in apposition to fate. they say I bite. The zeal of fools offends at any time.EXERCISES. Then A I too we hurt ourselves. with grateful heart Called on the lovely wanderer who bestowed That timely light. soldier. But know we not that he who intermits task and duties of the day. I will My lips. "What then was new. to share his joyous sport. 76.f Besides. In sooth. 75. where Thou hast built For Thy own glory in the wilderness.* you may suppose. 74. Up 'J']. Cannot forget Thee here. when purposes are lightly changed? The appointed 78. in a grove I sate reclined. with love's familiar privilege decried the wealth that is your own. is we stoop • In full t — 'You may suppose that the man ' ' That is \ A substantive is of the zeal of foals expressed in rhyme. methinks. oft-times nearer when when we soar. Among these rocks and stones methinks I see More than the heedless impress that belongs To lonely nature's casual work. what had been ancient 72. that refuse To flow.' &c. Untunes full oft the pleasures of the day. The nightly hunter.

constitute our respon- sibility (§ 374). a better writer than (J me (J 487). walk (§^ 191. I do not like those kind of things. (^ 175). . is What sort of a man he ? all 31. 16. 21. (§ 376). 19. 20. 3. Are either of those pens yours? Johnson's ' 175). great profit (§ 374). Having finished the chapter the volume was shut {^^ 351. 24. Where was you all last night? ($ 374). he older than her? 487). He was one of the wisest men that has ever lived (J§ 447. 374). (§ Six months' interest are due 374).240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Tiiere are 23. In modern English two negatives destroy one another. 25. 8. 14. 13. 26. : You and me Let you and will take a I take a walk (§ 287). What signifies promises without performance ? (^ 374). and not other men's opinions. Nor want nor cold his course delay many ways of dressing a 386). ! 15. at 6. 7. Everybody has their faults (^ 175). The The effluvia was disgusting intention of these persons are uncertain (§ 374). 17. (J Let each esteem other better than themselves Lives of the Poets' are reprinting (§ 175). 395). 2. 11. calves' head. Is 12. "How No pale each worshipful and reverend guest Rise from a clergy or a city feast " (§ 175). He is (§ not one of those 24). FAULTY SENTENCES FOR CORRECTION. You did not ought to do that (§§ 184. 30. Neither of them are better than they ought to be Our own John is conscience. 4. 27. giving reasons for each correction 1. 362). Correct the following sentences. 5. 18. 9. 231). This is the greatest error of the rest (§ 109). who fancied what feared" (§ 464). (J 57). 22. Neither John nor Henry were Either he or I are in fault ($ church (§ 386). 28. it 32. 386). Every man and boy showed sound but order their their joy by clapping (§ their hands ($ I7S). 10. Good own voices were heard and not mean savings produce (^ 374). "'Twas Love's mistake. who interferes in matters that do not concern him 29.

45. whom nor avarice nor pleasure are in fault (§ move Not you but John 374). 40. (§ Can you I can see neither 454). I heard that from 67. 34. (§ 287). has turned against m» a (§ 448. he whom I treated like 450. A hot and cold spring were found near each other love of drink is (§ 454). The peasantry wears 376). 51. I had treated like a brother. 59. Nothing but grave and serious studies delight him 374). 52. 43. 60. Between you and he a great fool (§ 277). This injury has been done brother (§ me by my ($ friend.2. Call at Smith's the bookseller's My friend. 56. come with him is 287). (§ Parliament have been prorogued 376). The of all other follies the most pernicious (§ 72). ij. 50. 386). Somebody whom four. 241 (§ Homer There as well as Virgil were studied on the oanks of the Rhine (J 386J. man whom I think deserves encouragement ({ man as him would never say that (§ 487). 39. 109). 3). are put in the plural because they are father's many. (§ 41. 55. 62. 46. I forget who (§ 487). greater than any dramatist. He told John and I to I. somebody or between you other. He He is the most admired of the other dramatists {$ 109). 35. is sometimes more than one auxiliary to a verb (J 374). 47. 38. I. 48. 386). 63. (§ wore a large and a very shabby hat see a red and white flag ? 454). 66. These kind of people are my abhorrence. \Vhom do you a Such a think called on me yesterday ? (§ 379). There is nothing to show who that belongs to (§ 277). Nor {§ (J 44. I forget (§ 484 ). 36. 379). 53. (§ He was angry is me asking him the question ? 484). Who Men His can this letter be from? 61. Divide that cake 68.EXERCISES. {§ 487). him whom 2). A versifier and poet are two different things (§ 454). and at his brother's lives were spared. 57. (§ A numerous party Shakspere is were assembled 376). 69. 37. all 49. What the use of you talking like that told me. Who He is do you think I met this morning ? (§ 366). 64. The I fleet are under orders to blouses sail (§ 376). 58. (§ 54. (^ have read the second and third chapter eye nor listening ear an object find 454). . 33. 65.

83. 88. I 104. New World 454). as well as read them in a book (§§ 464. 1824. He was hoped as rich or even richer than his father (J 440). {ii. 82. 210).). ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 102. coldly this morning 393). A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture. 92. loi. 85. A nation has no right to violate the treaties they have made (§ 464). 81. 94. He not only ought but shall do 440). happen to me Each It is strives to cheat the other in their own way (§§ 175. is ? 73. my uncle. 78. It is I that he fears (^ 461). They seemed to be nearly dressed alike. 77. to immediately succeed. 71. These flowers smell very sweetly 393). 76. sings bettter than me it (§ 487). (§ He The raved like one out of their mind Atlantic separates the Old and lies 464). Nobody gives so is much trouble as he does. 90.242 70. I expected to have been at 105. home when you it (§ called. I think I will be gone by the time you come 100. Here John Brown. When will we get there? He has not yet began his (§§ 209. and even more so. 75. 87. 98. 80. 2io). but for his wisdom (§ 440). born Jan. 96. 386). 72. and my father's leave (^ 449). 5. You have weakened instead of strengthened your case ({ 278). having said so enough me {§ 484). 91. (§ 89. 464). I would like to see him (J§ 209. 93. 84. Nobody She I in their senses would have done that (J 464). Whom Who I feel do men say that he (§ 379). exercise i. as knowledge (440). have my aunt. for 86. He The did no more than fact of you was his duty to is have done. 79. do not know who send {§ 366). This is the greatest misfortune that ever has or could (§ 44°)95. (J She looked cold on her lover 393). I cannot tell I I you how much to pains have been spent on him. 1874 (§ 378). I little thought was him 394). (§ (§ 226). me that say so (§461). wish to cultivate a further acquaintance with you. 103. ? do men declare him it to (§ (§ be (J 394). 99. died Sept. . 74. 97. He is not only famous for his riches. Sincerity as valuable.

voice inspire. that length of days impose {§ 456). 136. 111. The centres of each compartment are ornamented with a star (§ 175). lips with fire (§ 456). 117. hallowed cell. 121. 135. 113. can tell did not hear. i). He wrote a moderately sized volume. M. and had bettter be you this much. was going to have written him a letter. believe me yours truly. Doth he not leave the ninety and nine. He made I 134. no use talking so. and goeth into the wilderness and seeketh that which is gone astray ? (§ 440). healths and abilities. (§ 456). i). no. 106. to increase the confidence so many years bestowed on Mr. 126. whom nobody in the world loves O Thou my Who touched Isaiah's For ever in this I. More than one emperor prided himself upon his skill as a swordsman (§ 456). 125. He is a boy of nine years old {\ 287). 107. 128. J. He has only done that much of his task. is 394). dwell (§§ 287. 120. He drew a line of about six inches long I (§ 278). When I get home I another as 119. The Thames is derived from the Latin Thamesis. {$ 440).EXERCISES. The service was impressive. but it lacked either grandeur or beauty. another joke which she suppressed (§ 439). His younger days were spent get to France (§ England. 129. We trust that by supplying a genuine and most superior class of article. doom 123. (§ 362. other. may serve for almost any book is. fair Let thee and Severe the my 122. This dedication among each that has. B. 131. (§ Let the same be she that thou has appointed Of all men else I have avoided thee. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 133. humble one. parsimony are to avoided. 130. 243 While walking in my garden. in 1 14. 366). Let us not increase our hardships by dissensions 108. 115. . These plantations are lain out by rule and line (§ 226). 132. from you soon. Regard is to be had to every one's circumstances. waiting for an opportunity to 362. I see the being than love her (§ 487). have since his death arose (§ 226). In reading you should sit as uprightly as possible. or shall be published 109. Hoping to hear 116. eager natures that longs for a confidante 112. Profusion as well as 124. It 127. No civil broils 118. Valerie's was one of those impulsive.

appointing the undersigned a Committee to consider the respective merits of different English Grammars. In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Definitions of tbe Parts of Speech are novir made identical witb General Treatment The Classlflcatlon of Pronouns. F. and Mason's Text Miller's Edition is prepared as an introductory Text Book for Mason's Grammar. Thomas High School. the authorized book for advanced classes for Public Schools. Thomas. BUTLEK. The MILLEe'S neu^ Authorized SWIITON'S Grammar. It " St. is adopted by the Schools of Montreal. is the recent examination Papers MIIiliGR'S STFINTOrV'S LANGUAGE LESSONS County of Elgin Teachers authorized by the Education Department of Ontario. Cloth Extra. J. is authorized by the Council of Public Instruction.. Co. we beg leave to report. a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. McMillan. of Elgin Model School. SSc. UNGOIIGE Qrammar. so that what is learned by a pupil in an elementary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book is used. McLEAN. b.CAMPBELL.M. Verbi^t are the same as in Book. that. 1878. BY J. Town Inspector.A. that the report be received and E*riee. MILLER. St. The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to Mason''8 mason's Grammar. Bet for admission to Miller's Edition contains all High Schools. M. and its introduction into our Public Schools. ASK FOB MILLER'S SAINTON'S LANGUAGE LESSONS. 30th. Manitoba. Head Master STEELE. ADAM MILLEIl & CO. . Co. Moods. — Carried unanimously.. B. LESSONS.TO AVOID CONFUBtON. was moved and seconded adopted. with a view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools. a. after fully comparing the various editions that have been recommended. A. N. '• A. Aylmer High School. A.A. Nov. Inspector. J. we believe that " Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupUs and would urge its authorization on the Government. To the President and Association Members of the In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of the Association.

Among them are used excluand Model Ottawa.. Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons is sively in nearly all the Principal Public Schools of Ontario. That the Teachers at this Convention are of opinion that Miller's Swinton Language Lessons. Perth. classification and general treatment are extremely simple and satis' factory. The arrangement of the subjects is logical and progressive. PortHop«. All pupils who intend to enter a High School or to become students for Teachers' Certificates..)anee. and St. Quebec. Bracebridge. . Clinton.The New Inthorized Elementarj ((rammnr. Manitoba." In my opinion the best introductory Text-book to Mason's Grammar. Neiv Foiuidland. would save time by using it. H. MILLER'S SWINTOH'S LANGUAGE LESSOHS. CAESON. Cobourg. A Provincial H. May 17. held at Brussels. Uamiltou. Bclle¥llle. Bxbridge. Model School. Mitchell. Eesolution passed unanimously by the Teachers' As sociation. J. London. M. (North Huron). and the book admirably helps the judicious teacher in making correct thinkers and ready readers and writers. P. Lindsay. and leave little to be unlearned in after years. clear and exact. is the best introductory work on Grammar for Public School use. Windtor. W. Heaford. WOOD. Thomas. Trenton Falls. since the definitions. Be careful ta ask for MILIER'S !»>TI>TeN. as other editions are in the market. 1st W.. 1878 " Resolved. Catharines. Beaforth. Straihroy. St. Listowelt Adopted by the Protestant Schools of Blontreal and Levi College. Na. B. Brockville. The definition's in " Miller's Swinton Language Lessons" are brief.S. John's. Brantford. St. Schools of Winuiprg.' by McMillan. Whitby.

I consider Mason's the MORRISON. Houston... Newmarket.A. Cobourg Col. With Examina4iion Papers by W.. The chapter on the Analysis of diflBcult sentences is of itself sufficient to place the work far beyond any English grammar hitherto before the Canadian pubUc. a. C. Principal. J. M.C. F. High School... M.. its method being to teach the subject by explanation. M. I consider it by far best English grammar for high school purjioses that has yet "Mu«oa" and "Fleming" nothing more seeoia appeared. have ordered it to be used in tlie . Institute. H. Omemee.. J. UA. — JOHN SHAW. the grammars that I have seen. Of best.D. Loncok. B. H. Ab a philosophical treatise its discussion of doubtful points anA Its excellent methods and definitions cannot fail to give it a high the school tiie estimation of the best judges of such works teachers of the country. Head Master.. S. With to De dMlrod.. H.ENGLISH GKAMMAE BY C. OakviUe of three years ago I asked a grammar school nspectoi the old country to send me the best grammar publi bed there. SIM.. It will be well received by teachers and advanced pupils. 8.. rank in M.A. Dufferin School Toronto. PRICE Upwards 76 CENTS.. H. I. S.A.. D.M. M. H.. H.South Hastings.M. H. H.P. Caledonia. liXJ). I this school. Incomparably the best text book for the senior classes of our high schools that has yet been ofCered to the Canadian public. P. KING. • • • Mason'sGrammaris just such abook as many teachers have been hoping to see introduced into om: schools. MASON. It Is an excellent and reliable work. P. in A.. M. BICHABD LEWIS.. M. AliEX. P..A. all BelleviUe and.MacHENBT. S. B.A. Fellow of Unitbbsiit Colleob. He immediately sent me Masoin. JOHN JOHNSTON. KNIGHT. definition and abundant illustrations without stereotyped rules thereby making the study even attractive. It has reached a twenty-first edition in and 1 have no doubt it -will meet with the same high apEngland preciation in this Province. Mason's grammar will be found a most valuable class-book gs pecially for the instruction of advanced classes in English. Kingston CoUegiate Institute. M.

is worth BB a clerk or accountant 50 per cent more than the prodigy who can boast of having " gone " through his written arithmetic half a dozen times. unless what we call Mental Arithmetic is thoroughly and yatematicaUy pursued. J. PART ll. ANALYSIS. A. -FUNDAMENTAL RULES. arrangement. 46C. Nova Scotia. M. Dr. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic supplies a want that we shoiild have had supplied in W. A. and it supplies a long-felt \rant. H. it is the best book of its kind that I have examined. Head Master Model and Its Public types of practical questions and sugggestive in methods. series bids fair to take a good place in seho- work. Principal Ingersoll Model School. PRICE. LL. M.. as given this little text-book. PRICE.. McLellan's Mental Arithmetic contains a great number of useful problems well adapted to aevelop by regular gradations the thinking powers of the pupil. A. m DEACON. its its Simple In Schools. B. varied in Prom THE WE8LEYAN. Model School.-PERCENTAGE. Dr. is a credit to Canadians. Same progress cannot be made in Mathematical work. It is just what is wanted for "waking up mind" in the school room. DIMOCK. CLABKE. After two woeka use of class I am convinced that it is the book with much superior to any of the American texts that have been used here both as to the grading of questiont and the style of the problems. Picton. S.. . Nova Scotia.Mentel Arithmetic.D . RATIO. Ont. H. J. PART 1. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic. GOGGIN.A. and to suggest similar examplea for the use of the t«aoher. of M.. Port Hope. PROPORTION. 80c. McLELLAN. Fart I. Dr.. FRACTIONS. D. A boy who is conversEint with the principles of Mental Arithmetic.M. H. The laatio Halifax. By J. Provincial our Schools long ago. &C. D. Inspectoi High Schools. A. my J.B.

Toronto. Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction. NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. By Thomas Kirkland. Toronto. Frio* 25 Cents. M. Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec. Prince Edward Island. B. Head Master Model School.A.. Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamhlin Smith's Arithmetic. ADAM MILLER & Co. Adopted in a number of the Schools of Newfoundland. Science Master Normal School. 176 Faees.One of the most popular Text Books erer published. Authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. Manitoba. Within one year the iOth thousand haa been issued. Highly recommended by the leading Teachers of Ontario. and William Scott.A. ... Cloth Szfcra.

B. a good arrangement and conciseness in definition and A. Master.NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. Head Master Model School. in addition to our present text-book. The arrangement is natural and comprehensive. a copious and well selected assortment of exercises. Master Ottawa it is in- consider cended. LL. JAMES DUNCAN. The Elementary Arithmetic by Kirkland and Scott I can heartily recommend to our teachers. By Thomas Kirkland.. A. is led almost unconsciously to the great field of the unknown. DIMOCK.. explanation. to Hajnblin Smith's Cloth Extra. I have examined your Elementary Arithmetic on the unitary system by Kii'kland and Scott. As a preparatory Arithrnetic 1 have not seen its equal. It is. Normal School. The young pupil. 2nd and 3rd of our schools. W. It is admirably adapted to the requirements of grades Ist. As a discipline of the mind in tea-hing the pupil to think and reason. my .A. attractive language.. Model and Public Schools.B.. I have no hesitation in saying that it is better adapted to the schools of this country than any similar book that has come within the range of my twenty-seven years experience. B. as it offers.A. terse.B. by a Btep.. MoKAY. Schools. East Middleiex. have examined it speak of ooiuion. 176 Pages. Principal of Pictou Academy and Public Schools. D. Cobourg. that makes his earlier arithmetical studies a pleasure and a profit. W. M. I B. ty the arrangement of the principles presented and the exercises laid down. Arithmetic is pre-eminent if taught by logical methods and this work places it in the power of the younger classes to be benefitted by such methods. Public I School Inspector. H. Head — — . B. SPKAGUE. A very praiseworthy feature of the book is the large number of examples and problems pecuUar to so small a work. and have no hesitation in saying that I consider it the best Elementary Arithmetic which I have yet seen. Principal Essex Model and Windsor Central SchooL After a thorough perusal of the Elementary Arithmetic by jKirkland & Scott. Toronto. Math. well adapted for the purpose for which JOHN DBAENESS. Price 25 Cents.A. RIDDELL. W. Since failures in Arithmetic are mainly due to a want of power in independent analysis to a lack of knowledge of the unitary method and of skill in its application this volume which discusses the ijroblems'on independent methods will be cordially welcomed by teachers. Head Master Provincial Model Nova Scotia. Science Master Normal School. hitended as an Introdtictory Text-Book Arithmetic. The questions are in clear. this book with increasing pleasure and can in almost unqualified recomnaendation. in the best eiamentary Arithmalao I have examined. and William Scott. it (fcc.

. BL " Eaxnblin Smith's arithmetic seems very suitable to the neoe»« our public schools. SOOTT. Manitoba. Inspector of Schools. A. B. 76 Cents.. FROM NOVA Bities of SCOTIA. Nora Sootla. 0. A. DANAGH. Bsrrington. The appendix and examlation papers are important and valuable features. —"It has a value oandidatM preparing for public examination.* . Toronto. M. Ontario- 4tli Edition. have much pleasure in certifying to the nperiority of the Canadian edition of Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic over any text book on that subject that has yet come under my notice. N. Price. The exercises are admirable. ADAPTED TO CAMAOIAM CVKKSaCT BT THOMAS glRTTLAND. DOAl^TE. I Bball b« pleased to recommend its early introduction.." W. Inspector of Sohoola. They will also prove of great service to pupils desiroua of passing the grade tests. complete and comprehensive. for Hamblin Smith's Abithmbtio. M. as the examples have been mostly culled nrom Examination papers. Inspector for Qaeen'a Co. Head Master Model • Sohool. AuthoriMed by th» Minitter of Edueatien. The author appears not to rely so much on set rules as upon explanations and the clearing of seeming obscurities. 0. so that pupils may readily comprehend the questions and proceed to the solutions.THREE EDITIONS SOLD —OF— IN SIX MONTHS HAMBLIN SMITH'S ARITHMETIC. Education. Authorieed hy Ihe Council of Public Inatruction. It if Eractical. Authorited by the Chief Supt. QiMftMi Beeommended by the Senate of the Univ.A.. indeed I may say that I have not seen any other work on tnis branch that is so specially ealculated to assist the student in passing with credit offlctal t*$ta.A. N. of Balifax. and Nonnal WM. Ontario. I therefore think that Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic should to placed on the authorixed U»t of books for pabllo schooU. I cordially recommend its nse to all those desirous of obtaining an acquaintance with this branch of Dsefol knowledge. and ths examination papers are invaluable as aids to teachers in thorough training. "I ANDBEWS. F. B. Science Master School.A. Gmnberland. M.

and a clear comprehension of the logic of History. and without any attempt at rhetorical flourishes. and P. paper." u R. S.A. B. M. and tending in no small degree to nrn'note a better system of pursuing this important study.. "I have been for many years. Wilkinsoh. I am particularly pleased with their simplicity of style and fair method of stating occurrences. "I am quite conscientious in saying that it is one of the best digests of History that I have seen.A. I shall introduce them in the schools here and encourage their use in those of the vicinity. Mackintosh. N. and will he perused with pleasure and profit by many who are neither teachers nor pupils. which united in so singularly excellent a manner. "The series is admirably adapted for the use of teachers. Barrie. It forms a valuable addition to the valuable collection of school books you have issued. P.A. DouGAN." Am ROBT. M. PL ATT. Inspector. H. Principal High School. •• ± am glad to see these brief serials authorized by the Minister of Education." s Wm. Picton. M. I can. brevity. accuracy. Johnson. S. D. B. •' — J. including my University course. " I have read them through carefully and consider them the best works on the subject for the use of schools that I have ever seen..A." .A." G." ' Wm. "The 'Epochs of English History' will be valuable aids in the preparation of pupils for the 2nd class and intermediate examinations. Orb. S. They have the advantage of confining the attention of the learner to definite periods. MOEOAN. in binding. Brighton. " led to express my admiration of the very concise and systematic method of arrangement adopted in them.CREIGHTON'S EPOCHSOF ENGLISH HISTOHY tional Q. I shall be happy to gee them in the bands of all my pupils. I should think their introduction into schools is much to be desired. Lindsay. and typoby graphical execution is all that could be desired. Ont. S. Hamilton. K. but a study of the grand sequence of cause and effect by which the facts in tha world's life have been created. W... They are written in the most entertaining style. Haldimand." '• Ci/ARKE Moses. rendering them particularly suitable for students. <3rand help these to the study of English History in its only raway hy epochs in the life of the English Nation and her in" Epochs of History'' mark an epoch in the study of iV* Btitutiona. Schools. High School pupils. They are clear and succinct in statement and convey a large amount of information. and have certainly never met with any sketch of the periods embraced by the two volumes of Epochs' you sent me. Head Master Erantford Central School. It is remarkably clear and concise. Tou have done good service to Canadian students and teachers issuing a Canadian edition which. Inspector. an earnest student of History. I. cordially recommend them to every teacher who wishes to make hlstoiy not an effort of memory alone.. M. P. B. and shall. C. Co. M.. and deserves especial commendation for giving just what the pupil ought to know without any extraneous matter. Hastings. H.. Madoc. and thus enabling him to master diificult historical subjects without attempt ing to digest and memorize too much at once. Caledonia. P. so much out of place a textbook on this subject. and the more advanced classes of our Public Schools. H.

3rd Ed. It commends itself to teachers as a text book and to all others desirous of acquiring a knowledge of this important branch. yet comprehensive and practical.. FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND MANITOBA. H. Ontario.. AutJiorized by the Chief Supt. & IM CLARE'S lOOK-KEEPI m. Book.M. while it is su£Bciently comprehensive for all practical purposes. and cannot but ai^mire the simplicity of the outline. Shelburne Co. Schools. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping is an admirable work. Manitoba. S. for ve» k Treatise on Simolb and Double Entry Book-Keepino.BEATTY By S. Nova Scotia.. of Schools. SMITH.. Schools. D. Supt." J. Schools. forms. Beoommended by tlie Covmcil of Public Instruction. N.. Torontb. Inspector for Queen's Co. Beattt. " I have looked into Beatty_& Clare's Bookkeeping. looking over this book have submitted it to the inspection of practical bookkeepers who agree with me in the propriety of recommending it as a school book. will recommend this work to any teacher or pupil preparing for examination. A. N. M. are plain and simple. Nova Scotia. " Several months ago we introduced Mason's English Grammar inte Manitoba College.." myself. Education. with which the principles of bookkeeping are explained and illustrated. "I have carefully looked over Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping. S. Authorized by the Minister of Education.A. Schools. Insp. Annapolis Co. vid have much pleasure in saying that the work is just what is wanted for boys who desire to acquire in a short time such knowledge as will fit them for business*" KEV. Digby. Nova Scotia. Inspector for Cnmberland. T. Insp. It is well adapted for use in the public schools. Insp. McGILLIVRAY. and now wc are introducing Beatty & Clare's Houkfind tbwn jmt what w« need in their respective sut^eeta. thoroughbess of Beatty THOS. - 70 CENTS. C. The definitions. and transactions therein contained. L. and its examples ample.A. A. the perspicuity of the instructions. HART. the practical bearing of the transactions. M. ANDREWS. A. M. DANAGH. Co.. its simplicity alone is sufScient to secure for the book a place in our schools throughout (he Dominion. Principal Ontario Commercial College. PRICE." W. Quebeo. Insp. Hants. DOANE. MORSE. " I have examined Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping and find it to be an excellent work.. — " Besides D. " I am very much pleased with the aimplicity and & Clare's Bookkeeping. I Beaty & Clare's Bookkeeping. S. and the varied commercial character of the whole work. We .A. and Sauubl Clare.. HioH AND Public Schools.Keeping and Writing Master.' kceping. G. JOHN AMBROSE. Belleville. Nova Scotia. P. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping has had a careful perusal. Nova Scotia. Normal School. Colchester County. Winnipeg. S. C. Its directions are minute and to the point.

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