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English Grammah Exercises



LONDONo SECOND EDITION.. 11 WELLINGTON ST. TOEONTO: ADAM MILLEE & CO. MASON. SO cents. . p.) PRICE.A„ FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. . B. WEST. Re2}rintcd from Mason^s Shorter Enijlinh Grarmnar.. {Public School Edition. BY C. ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES.Ixlhx ^ €a'B (!Ebucafianal Merits. 1879..

in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. hy Adah Milleb & Co. .Bntered according to Act of Parliament of Canada.. in the year 1679.

and the exercises themselves are so arranged that they may be nsed with any good text-book of English Grammar. li the use of these exercises I strenuously urge tlie upon teachers patient and unflinching compliance with directions given for guiding the pupil to a thorough understanding of the fimctions o words and forms. he learns step by step the functions of the various Parts of Speech. and there are some good works of that kind which have either a scanty apparatus of exercises or none references to the paragraphs of that at all. enable him to Nothing is more useless and even hurtful than of mechanical directions to to furnish the learner with tell any kind the Parts of Speech.PREFACE. learner is The taken by easy stages from the simplest English work to the most difl&cult constructions in the language. an adverb or a preposition by recognizing its meaning and function in the sentence. The The present to work is a reprint in a separate form of the Exercises appended Grammar. of what possible iise can it be for him to give it a name by the application of some empirical rule relating to its position. Beginning with the simplest elements of a sentence. and acquires by degrees the power of analysing and parsing the most complicated constructions. and of their forms and combinations. If he cannot tell that a word is a verb." work have been retained to prevent the cost of preparing new plates. my recently published " Shorter Englisli Every effort has been made to render these exercises as serviceable as possible to those who wish to guide their pupils to a real understanding of the structure of English sentences. or something of the sort this fashion % When in he has managed to say that "now" is an adverb. or .

show how deplorably time and round of mechanical and (not patience. 1879. the matter he a mere sham. Xone but learners of abnormal hold out against this kind of treatment. ok. knows no more than he did than this. of far too I'he bane much of our ordinary school work is the ignorant impatience of teachers to get their pupils "over the ground. . C.IV . A tolerably long and Avide experience justifies sloiv me in afihming most strongly that examinations. talvC him patiently over the ground again and again till the difficulties stupidity will have vanished. and they had better devote such intellect as they have to simpler pursuits. and careful teaching pays best even at The specimens of parsing and analysis that I see yearly in hundreds of instances. he before. PREFACE. profitless It is this that renders school "lessons" wearisome to the teacher. for He is simply using wonis without a perception of their is meaning. and dreary and repulsive to the pupil. learners never find a lesson when they feel that they are really learning something. to master the proper if explanation readily. but) impatience have been wasted in going over and over again the same unintelligent repetition. MASON. wait he he is too dull. Janucury. If the pupil till too is young older ." that is to say. Avorse he is deluded fancied the idea that is knows and something. Dlikesell. Streatham Hill. through a certain number of pages of some text-b. while his knowledge this delusion is itself a bar to his acquisition of the only kind of knowledge which could be of is any use to him. No dull matter what the suliject may be. €hristchuech Koad. P. into Nay. really "against" a preposition.

The Fido. 5. loathed Melancholy. in the 'Petrel. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns (§§ Proper Nouns. The traveller ascended Helvellyn. &c." "You may avoid that too with an He wants to know the why ifs?" § " Tellest thou 'if'" (Shaksp. 6. better than June. The horse that won the race was Eclipse. Trees and flowers. 2. to wear. : Common Nouns and Exercise 1. 177 EXERCISES. 5) II. My uncle is the captain of the 'Bellerophon. S. Countries. My brother has a horse called Dobbin.' We "O Solitude! where are thy charms?" " Hence. called Pegasus. Some stuff or material. — Definition Modes of form- mg the plural (§§ 47. 4. Say (or write) ten common of the following things 2. 3. Distinction between Preliminary Lesson. Of Cerberus and blackest midnight bom. 4. Houses or parks.).' Lie down. Rivers or mountains. and the Proper Nouns in another John likes school. I. Boys or Towns. Things to eat.). N . nouns which are names of 3. She brought me a bunch of may. That cow has lost a horn. and the wherefore of everything. names of each I. — Definition of a Noun. I like May soldiers had a weary march. Find out some uncouth cell Where brooding darkness spreads his jealous wings. He sailed round Cape Horn swallows are birds. me of" (See 349. in Exercise 2. The boys were : Bellerophon rode a winged horse reading about the battle of Agincourt. of Number. Singular and Plural. nouns which are the Animals. March is a cold month. Ships. 7. Write the Common Nouns in the following sentences one list. Preliminary Lesson. Things that you see in the room. or to play with.EXERCISES. Say I. Petrels and eclipse of the sun. saw an King Arthur's sword was called Excalibur. 31-37). (or write) ten proper girls. Dogs or horses.

Negro. . Cats scratch.Snow falls. Flies. B. Speech. The Solicitor-General. The life of Dr. The house of mourning. Here comes papa. Staves. Capital Letters. through grace. Subject. (§§ Agreement of the verb with its subject 179. Sentences.Soldiers fight. note). The Cape of Good Hope. 374). Birds . Victory. Oxen. Buoy. Preliminary Lesson. Then cometh the end. The death of th^ emperqr. Convoy. Children. Halves Kine. where is thy common supplications.178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. III. Preliminary Lesson. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight. The recorder of these events. because the subject of a sentence is only a word. Lice. Loaf. Play' is a verb it tells us something ' . The Lords and Commons. A court of justice. about boys. Stars Geese cackle. Leaf. — Definition of Verb. and the verb us something. Nooses. The Duke of Bedford. Exercise Boot. Scarf. Predicate." 'Boys' is the subject. The barristers and : solicitors. An object in the student of the Middle Temple. Waves.* fly. In came William. A We sting ? IV. It is in the noininative case. The Lord Mayor. Write the plural of each of the followhig nouns Chimney. A. The House of Commons. not about a word. what they do Thus. have a good hope William the Conqueror. Pies. Mice. Exercise 4. Exercise 5. The clemency of the conqueror. Lies. . Grass. Osprey. and explain their functions. The Lord Chief speak of lords and commoners. : Sheaf. Cargo. Our I The Book of Common Prayer. Death. The first chapter. Horses neigh. Use of the Nominative Case. middle distance. Trees. Wife.. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. Johnson. — Use of capital letters (§ 6. Beware of confusion about this. but about that/or which the word stands. Copy out the following examples two or three times and then write them from dictation The mayors of provincial towns.shine. Feet. Noses. Sentence. Cries. '' Boys play. Trespasses. John the Evangelist. Justice. : Echo. Sky. because in the sentence. Dray. Thrush. Bruises. Pence. Stuff. The princes and dukes. Calf. • Not about the subject. Sheriff Johnson. 3. Bees. Duty. Ass. John works. Write the singular of each of the following nouns Arches. St. that is. James The prescription of the doctor. The Prince of Wales. Enemy. Point out thd subject and the verb in each of the following sentences. Verbs. Thus ends the tale. &c. tells . The Recorder of Carlisle. Mr. Down came the rain. Valley. it stands for that about which we tell something by means of the verb. The evangelist Matthew. the First. Up went the rocket. The office of sheriff.

Tom's horse's leg was broken John's day's work is nearly finished. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. so as to make a sentence : candle. Goats' milk is wholesome. Scratches. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever. Trees. Chatter. (§§ 182. Graze. The bird. Break. The following Sail. Rain. Sings Howl. Prelinmtary Lesson. 'J'he baker's bread was spoih. Arrive. Twinkle. Stars.Intransitive Verbs.). The birds have built nests in the farmer s bam. Scratch. Mary. John's hands are dirty. Shriek. children's A We VI. Kick. Plays. Squeak. Play. Puss. Float. Sink. Howl. Swim. The bakers' shops were shut. Soldiers. Run. The wind. Hens' eggs are white. went to St. Lions. V. Works. are verbs of which you can make use : Fight. The bird's leg was broken. Growl. Horses. &C. as " I found Henry's book and William's slate. Cows. Sing. Put some verb or other with each of the following nouns. He lodges at the baker's. — Distinction between Transitive Verbs and of a Verb. Boys. Dogs. 6. child. Ships. lap. The keeper caught the vixen's cubs. Blow. The boy taxed the masters' The men heard of their wives' danger. The sun. . This may be done by placing the same numeral over each. Preach. Cry. Water. 183). 179 Exercise Grass. Grow. Exercise 6b. Sing. . Dawn. Work. The horses ate the oxen's food. Parsons. Sinks. The voices are loud. I bought this paper at the stationer's. The Object The Objective Case . The kittens are in Mary's patience. Speaks. cheese was made from the goat s milk. Shine. Fall. lessons. Mice. Run. Glitters. The boy pulled the kitten's tail. — Formation and use of the Possessive Case . Appear. Put a subject of the proper number before each of the following verbs : Shine. The leaves. Flies. The farmers' barns are full of corn. Paul's this morning. The masters heard the boys' The boys tore the master's book. (§^ 67. Roar. The John. J^reiimi7iary Lesson. Pray. Draw one line under those nouns in the following sentences which are in the nominative case plural two lines under those which are in the possessive case singular and three lines under those which are in the possessive case plural and show in each instance to what other noun the noun in the possessive case is attached." II 22 Men's lives are short. Dances.EXERCISES. Squeal. Day. The Owls. The Possessive Case.

Mary died. Cats eat mice. A lion deThe horse kicked the groom. Rain fell. and a dozen containing a subject and an intransitive verb.I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR. I. Men pray. The hound chased the hare. the horse. Verbs used transitively. The child Exercise 9. The man sank his fortune in the undertaldng. and draw one 8. The butcher killed the pig. The The boys play in the yard. The girl plays piano. Bii'ds twitter. 3. The dog barked. and three under those that are used reflectively. VII. The horse neighs. The boys play in the garden. Cats mew. In the following examples put in an object where it wanted to show what the action denoted by the verb is done to The boy hates. The boys waste time. The hunter started a hare. The girls dance. Exercise line Write out the following sentences. as intransitive verbs . Birds build. Sheep eat grass. Make a dozen sentences containing a subject. The voured a sheep. The dog bit. and reflectively. intransitively. under the transitive verbs. —Verbs used {with a difference of meaning) . The pig squealed. 11. and explain the use of " the Object as follows John struck the ball' The word ball is the object of the verb. as " I always wash [myself] with " The visitors withdrew [themselves] " cold water " Exercise line . : The the French. The ship sank. The lightning struck. the use of the Subject. The sun warms. as transitive verbs (§ 2. Clouds covered. and draw one under the verbs that are used transitively. screamed. because it stands for that which is the object of the action denoted by the verb. The parson preaches. and two lines under the intransitive : verbs Men eat bread. boys learn lessons. Mary wrote. . Write out the following sentences. The boy struck his brother. The man spoke The man spoke well. The man desires. The sun is ": shines." : — ' groom kicked John touched Henry. The sheep graze. Exercise 10. Bakers make bread. In the following sentences point out which nouns are In each case explain subjects of verbs and which are objects of verbs. Exercise 7. and an object. The dog howled. The man broke his leg. Preliminary Lesson. as reflective verbs 183). The horse carries. travellers started yesterday. a transitive verb. two lines under those that are used intransitively. as in Exercise 5. A verb should be treated as a transitive verb used reflectively whenever a reflective pronoun can be supplied as an object so as to make the sense more complete.

He has not shaved this morning. Take this chair. Name. Words used both as Nouns and ' as Verbs. Take yourself off. Fly. The earth turns round. delighted the audience. Cover. The children drink milk. Make sentences in which the following words are as nouns . Get thee gone. Form. 218. The Personal Pronotins. We all rejoiced at his success. You had better give in. The deputation withdrew. Hook. He We Exercise used : — i. Work. &c. Personal Preliminary Lesson. ^^^lip. Task. to illustrate their use. I delight to hear him. The thief tried the lock. Shoe. Get your umbrella. 227). Owls hoot. PinCh. He made a noise. Study the meaning and use of the word iron. The singer transitively Find a dozen other verbs that may be used both and six that may be used reflectively without being followed by a reflective pronoun. — . 15.. Pocket. Forms and use of the Personal Pronouns. The town surrendered. The irons are hot. His safe return rejoiced us all.' Exercise 13. Eye. Get up. The governor sunendered the town. Steam comes out of the kettle. in such sentences as Iron is heavy and The women iron ' * — the shirts. VIII. He gave up the game. old man slipped on the ice. IX. 2. The passengers crowd the deck. The judge tried the prisoner. He turned the snake twists and turns about. Gneifurrcmis the brow. Take the words in italics in the following sentences. He made off as fast as The The The man he could. The barber shaved me yesterday. audience hooted the speaker. Seat. She decks herself with ornaments. The maid fnilks the cow. squared accounts. A crowd filled the square.EXERCISES. and make sentences Exercise and intransitively. and say in each case whether the word is a noun (because it is the name of something). as verbs. 14. or a verb (because it tells you what some person or thing does) : took a pinch of j«2{^ John snjiffs the candle. and of the Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. The laundress irons the shirts. Prelimhiary Lesson. cut his finger. He cut away pretty quickly. Dig. out of the room. The merchant returned the goods. The cook steams the meat. Exercise Find twenty more words which may be used either as nouns or as verbs. l8t hard. Pen. I withdrew my claim. T\\q furrows are not straight. He has twisted his ankle. Get out of my way. inflexions of verbs (§§ 131. He ornat>ients the table with plate. Beat. He 12. He slipped a shilling into my hand. The boy tried The traveller returned yesterday.

Thy friends are here. I will arm me. XI. Parents love their children. Pronouns as Subjects and Objects of Verbs. the boys will go out to play. Mary has lost Mary's thimble. and state what nouns the pronouns stand for : where John John's mother has sent John to school. X. — Inflexions of verbs (§§ to mark Person. He has torn her church. Direct Object and Indirect Object. I saw your father yesterday. John has had John's dinner. will learn to read. Preliminary Lesscni. dog's master beat the dog with a stick When the boys have finished the boys' because the dog bit the master's leg. Arm you against your other Bethink you of some expedient. foes. 374. You will meet us there. Did I hurt you? You have spoilt my book. and which are objects. 227. the garden. and the proper names for the pronouns : Has John's father has come home John saw Thomas in the garden. admire him because he is brave. John will lend Thomas John's knife. Point out which pronouns in the following sentences are subjects of verbs. the girl When was old enough. frock. We took them home. Preliminary Lesson. Draw one line under those nouns and pronouns in ' These exercises are very like some that have recently appeared elsewhere.) Exercise 18. 4). lessons.' . bethink me. The boy has hurt her. her mother sent her to school. and explain their use in the same way as that of the nouns in Exercises 5 and 7. The boys have lost The horse ran away with his rider. it is John's I found it in Get thee gone. Thomas's brother arrived ? John's pony is lame. They left us yesterday. You have hurt me. substitute the proper pronouns for their names in the following sentences. — Difference between the Direct Object and . Exercise 19. Exercise 17. Did I not tell thee so? mother. I will I will lay me down. Look at this book. The master praised the boy because he was attentive. I We .l82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. I often see her at shall see you to-morrow. and which in thsir turn resemble what appeared previously in the author's ' First Notions of Grammar. Con- cord of Verb and Subject 218. Will Thomas give John Thomas's stick. the Indirect Object of a verb (§§ 74 370. Exercise 16.* Suppose John is speaking to Thomas. Substitute pronouns for nouns wherever they are proper in the following sentences. They will love you if you are good. My sister will call upon your Your brother has sent for me. The their ball.

Let every soldier hew him down a bough. She strikes her brother. He breaks his word. into bed. Strong Verbs. You sold your horse. I will get me a new coat. 183 the following sentences which are direct objects of verbs. The letter will The wine was drunk. Pour your neighbour out a The policeman took the man to prison. Active Voice. spent their money. took good care. Conjugation of Verbs. He slew his foe. Money has been taken . She spills the water. He dealt the cards. Hand He got took the poor man a loaf. be struck. Strong Verbs. Exercise 20. dealt me a hard blow. Exercise 22. him Hand that lady to her seat. Indicative — Formation of the various tenses of the (§ Mood of the Passive Voice 187 . Tiie servant sweeps the met our friend at his house. throws a stone. They ate some bread. Prelhninary Lesson. successively naming the tenses as you do so . kind. compound tenses are made up 204-209. The sun shines. He We We We B. He him a wife. We make us comforts of This will last you all the year. We shall be written. We XIII. Tense Forms of the Active Voice. You see the house. I fetched a box on the ears. He was A stone was thrown. Change the verbs in the following sentences into each of the other tenses of the Indicative Mood. It lay on the ground. that lady the bread* Send me a letter. I read many books. stood in the street.EXERCISES. They met us in the street and gave us some apples. : draw water. our losses. Tense Forms of the Passive Voice. We will disguise us. tive —Formation of (§§ all the tenses in the Indica- Mood of the Active Voice. The soldiers fight bravely. Send me to him. The kind woman glass of beer. A. . The dog was barking. slain. He seethes the flesh. and two lines under those which are indirect objects : John gave Thomas a kick. We crept They room. XII. The cock crew. Freliininary Lesson. The man knelt down. He tells a lie. 257). He drinks some ale. He gives me an apple. Pass me the salt. Shall we go and kill us venison ? We will buy you a watch. Will you lend me a shilling? I gave him a book. Change the verbs in each of the other tenses successively of the Indicative Passive Voice naming the tenses as you do so : the following sentences into Mood in the A. Mary fetched the beer. I hold the reins. Find a dozen verbs which may have objects of each and make sentences to illustrate their use. Parts of which the 257). Exercise 21. He bleeds to death. Wt'ak Verbs.

were gathering nuts in the wood. This have received a lette. are caught by cats. Mice me. Exercise 23. sheep will be shorn. A vcr]) in the Passive Voice has no direct object." put " The cat was bitten by the dog " letter " put " letter is being written by me " : A : will please you. Exercise 25. the object of in the Active tlie verb Voice becomes the subject of the Verb in the Passive* (§ 186). The The caught. He is • Beware of the mistake of saying that the subject of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the object of the verb in the Passive Voice. The object qf an action need not be expressed by the grammatical object of a verb. — the Passive Voice instead of the Active. Weak Verbs. had been sold by the butchers. The letter was written by us. Too much was expected by them. The John broke the window. verb in the active voice. Make in the passive voice. The servant had swept to-morrow.184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The children had been scolded by the The wine had been drunk by the butler. and two lines under those which are in the passive voice (§§ 187. Meat children are scolded by the nurse. and draw one under those verbs which are in the active voice. cat killed the rat. and then a dozen sentences containing a transitive verb alter them as in the last exercise. Change all the following sentences so as to use active verbs instead of passive verbs in the same tense : The sparrow was caught by the boy. The archers are shooting arrows. Goods have bee« stolen. Change all the following sentences so as to use passive verbs instead of active verbs. The B. 205) Exercise 27. tive. A new house will be built by my brother. That surprises me. The men We We the room. report The house is spread. Write out the following sentences. Mutual Relation of the Active and Passive Voices* When an action is described by means of Prelimina?y Lesson. Make a dozen sentences containing a transitive Exercise 24. to be a Transitive Verb. are drinking the beer. however. and then alter them as in the last exercise. The door was opened by nurse. Exercise 28. are spoken. The wine was spilt. We were overtaken by a storm. line : Arrows are shot by the archers. XIV. They had not counted the cost. 'l"he men The men will be carrying the hay will have finished the work before night.-. Thus for " The dog bit the for " I am writing a cat. All ordinary passive verbs are transiIt docs not cease. . The boys have eaten the cake. Kind words is out of the till. The sparrow will be built.

Bull. The wine was being drunk. I shall The men are come. sovereign. Ten feminine proper nouns. Maria. Exercise 30. to what it belongs . infant.— 'Ssigm^ca. ruler. Exercise 29. The men are drinking beer. and the masculine nouns that correspond to the feminine nouns in the following list : — Nun. Ten feminine common nouns. servant. lass. ship. fox. Nephew. Ten nouns of ambiguous or common gender. tree. Sir. aunt. Caterer. Ram. it and to what subdivision of what the function of the word 3. 3. judge. box. hen. 2. Ten neuter common nouns. gartiener has vain. Drake. elephant. 2. The Victory. Preliminary Lesson. lioness. : Exercise 28. Buck. He is spending all The town was taken by assault. goose. the kind of work 4. WitcTi. Give the feminine nounS that correspond to the masculine nouns. brother. He is gone. nephew. dog. bird. William. Ten masculine proper nouns. Author.'don and formation of Genders 39^6). Lass. baby. 5. lady. I shall be travelling all night. ox. maid. We were travelbe blamed for this. Write down i. Robert. XV. king. tiger. Ten neuter proper nouns. —To parse a word you must is. — house. 4. part of speech. Boar.'" Jolm's is a Proper Noun of the Masculine Gender [because it . John. that does in the sentence the accidence of the word the construction of the word in the sentence. queen. nursemaid. Gender (§§ of Nouns. Time is being wasted. speaker.EXERCISES. 185 the money. sheep. Jane. Votsfry. gander. Lady. led across the river. vixen. Girl. Hind. pig. boy. boar. Napoleon. The troops were being The officer was leading the troops across the river. Duchess. author. Sister. cock. 6. ling all day. Mirrderess. footman. Governess. running. horse. Aunt. Bachelor. Actor. Cow. lord. form. slate. man. The money will have been spent in We are losing time. London. Hart. The AgamemThe jNJaria. Ten masculine common nouns. 7. desk. Empress. pen. mother. " John's brother has found a shilling. that part of speech that is. sister. Doe. cart. Daughter. Thames. France. Examples of Parsing. rreliiuinary Lessoji. XVI. Giant. Earl. cousin. state i. . non. Parsing. uncle. The been mowing the lawn. Mistress. State the gender of each of the following nouns girl.

' Has found (find.' It has shilling for its object. It is in the Singular Number. and in the Possessive Case the attributive relation to) the noun brother [because it denotes that John possesses something.' • When pupils have gained some readiness in parsing. found). Indicative Mood. [It is a verb because it tells us something about John's brother. Mood. pleased. t . [It stands for the speaker without naming him. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. and may be used for any other thing of the same class]. such explanations as those in brackets may be omitted . and is in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive verb has found [that is. and in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive active verb is ' will please. ' ' ' Shilling of the Neuter Gender [because it is the name of something which is not a living being. ^He will please . '\i the context shows whether the speaker is a male or a female person. Number. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.'' He is a Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person and Masculine Gender [because it stands for a male person who is neither the speaker nor the person spoken to] in the Singular Number and in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb will please [that is. pleased). It is in the Singular Number.l86 is . of a in the Singular depending on (or in It is ' ' ' male person and is that person's own name*]. Present Perfect Tense. and it is transitive because it denotes an action which is done to some object. and is in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb has found' [that is. and for beginners they arc of the utmost importance. but in oral work.' ' ' Me a Personal Pronoun of the First Person and of Comment Gender.Substitute Masculine or Feminine. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject brother. ' ' ' Will please which is is a transitive verb [because it denotes an action directed to an object]. Indicative (please. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject he.«<?. or her]. and may denote any other of the same class]. Future Indefinite Tense. the name ' ' Brother it is a Common Noun of the Masculine Gender [because denotes a male person. is a Transitive Verb of the Strong Conjugation found. because it stands for that to which the action denoted by the verb is is a Common Noun ' ' directed].] It is in the Active Voice. It is in the Singular Number. and when parsing is written. namely brother ']. . because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. of the Weak Conjugation It is in the Active Voice.

stands for the person about whom something is said by means of the verb]. Mary's frock was torn by the dog. I lent the iiianj a pound. .se.' ' ' ' ." but a thing marking word. and verbs in Exercises XVII. in the Passive Voice. in the Active Voice. and not its name.s usually understood is the plural you. The soon have finished the work. Preliminary Lesson. Tell me 1 the news.. " 187 I shall ' be seen. Imperative Mood. Israel.' It is the a«w«a/ that is black. wards. ' — Nature and ' use|| of a Qualitative Adjec- * You is always a ^m»«w«rt//ca/ plural. The men saw Henry's cousin yesterday. i. and is hi the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb shall be seen [that is.' * In parsing this word state that it is in the objective case.§ hand mej the bread. In 'a black dog' the adjective black does not mark any quality belonging to the name dog. but ob\'ious blunder. except those in italics : in the The hunters caught a hare. The cat has scratched her. John. and 22. Exercise 32. Hear ye. Many new houses have been built.' . Hand mej Henr}-'s father will give her j a new book. ' ' ' • Me ' is in the Objective Case. Adjectives of Quality.e. I ' ' ' ' Shall be seen is a Transitiv^e Verb [because it denotes an action that is directed to an object]. Read the letter. We have heard the news. II ' ' ' ." is a Personal Pronoun of the First Person of common* (or ambiguous) gender. if the singular Thou is expressed or understood. 20. girl's We will 19.EXERCISES. Parse all the verbs. Go thou and do likewise. She had been bitten by the dog. 19. Future Indefinite Tense.) § Parse this word as a Vocative or Nominative of address. Indicative Alood." njend is a Transitive Verb [because it denotes an action which is done to something]. The hunters were chasing hares. nouns. ' ' because xi). it is the Indirect Object of the verb Lend {See Seclion Exercise 31. * See last note. even when it refers to o«? person. pronouns. The masons are building a hou. of saying that 'adjectives denote the qualities 0/ nouns. Of course. § Get thee behind me. frock will be mended. and pronouns following sentences.Vouns are names. to agree with its subject you understood. the verb is singular but the subject which i. He was running away.' ' ' " Lend ' me a shilling. You have lost the sight. Parse the nouns. An adjective is not a ' noun-marking word. John's sister has told me+ the was being chased. You will be overtaken by the sterni. because it is the indirect object of the verb (See Section xi Ex. It is in the Singular Number. the bread. Carefully guard beginners against the common. She gave me+ a shilling. Plural Numbert and Second Person. news. The hare The house was pulled down. They called her back. and in the Singular Number and First Person to agree with its subject I.

' or Quantitative Adjectives {§§ 91-94)." 'Twelve is an Adjective us how many pears we are speaking about. and two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. strong. and draw one line under the Adjectives of Quality.l88 . and is therefore sometimes an Adjective of Quality. Examples. " The girls wore smart botmetsP It is It shows of what sort the ' bonnets are. — Nature and use of Demonstrative Adjec- Different sorts of Demonstrative Adjectives (§ 95). He is a ready speaker. • Mind much of a or Adjectives of Relation. The The cat caught a great black rat.' Pick out the Adjectives of Quality in the following sentences. Thin ice is dangerous. — Nature and use of Adjectives of Quantity.1t * great' and 'small' are Adjectives of Quality. of Quantity. tives. Dogs are faithful. thing we are spe. We I have no money. The girls are ready. greedy little boy ate twenty pears. and treat each of them in the same way as ' smart in the above examples He rides a black horse. Adjectives of Quantity.'" Here ' smart is an Adjective of ' ' Quality joined predicatively to the noun ' bonnets. brown. He rode a girl has large black eyes. . black horse. travelled all night. pleasures are often alluring. Write out the following sentences. bony. Have you any money ? Will you have some bread Few strong temptation. He is a vulgar little boy. animals." Some is an Adjective of Quantity. Demonstrative Adjectives Preliminary Lesson. and sometimes an Adjective of Quantity. tive (or Adjective of Quality) Attributive and predicative use of Adjectives (§§ 80-84 \ 90)' ' ' Smart is an Exercise 33. ' : XVIII. My little brother is ill. The naughty children ate some apples. The naughty. They do not tell ns lunu th. " It tells * ' Exercise 34. The bird has white feathers. It tells us (indefinitely) how much money we are speaking about. Idle boys hate lessons. John bought twelve pears. XIX. but they describe its size. . The bird's feathers Ripe fruit is wholesome. joined attributively to the noun 'bonnets.iking about. woollen cloak. + 'Little' is used for both purposes. Tom's horse is are white. Rude boys are disagreeable. Adjective of Quality. heavy. The poor woman has I have little t hope of many troubles. Many men possess great riches. Much money men can resist waited several hours in the cold room. brings much care. Great* riches bring much care. Hold out success. ' ' ' ' both hands. Dogs are faithful Sinful The poor little bird is dead. We Many men ? love vicious pleasures. " / will ^ive you sofue jnoney. Preliminary Lesson. and treat each of the latter in the same way as twelve and some in the above sentences. He wore a great.' " The girls' bonnets are smart. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

I went to see him one day lately. and draw one line under the Adjectives of (2ualit\'. (See §§ 92. boy will is idle. Indicate what noun feach adjective belongs to. She was my first lore. Some * thief has stolen my watch. That last song was capital. He has a large head and little eyes. little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. the noun book. No other course is possible. I have but one brother. Each child received a penny. Comparison Preliminary Lesson. two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. This She word. Write out the following sentences. and three lines under the Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives). thus : " We 4 4 heard of the poor old man's sudden death. Those little boys are my cousins. this relates to guatttity. 169. by putting the same numeral over both the adjective and the noun. Any* fool might see that. Every device has Either alternative is disagreeable." His a Possessive Pronominal Adjective or Possessive Adjective Pronoun." I I 2 3 2 3 Give me that large book. or Adjective of Relation. You will know better one day. Some people like this loud music. He has but little discretion. We had some + beef for dinner. or qualifies. John is his half brother.) Look carefully at the definitions. that Interrogative Pronominal Adjectives (or Interrogative Adjective Pronouns) J belong to the class of Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives) . bell.EXERCISES.]! news have you heard? What X nonsense he talks have the A A ! XX. Have you any + money? I have not the least appetite. These sheep are last Look at the Bring me my new boots." 'That' It is a Demonstrative Adjective. Neither version of the story is correct. My apple is ripe.' Exercise 35. She is my first cousin. It qualifies (or is joined is attributively to) the noun ' knife. It points out a certain knife. There was no other way left. His first attempt was a failure. little child might lead him. It qualifies points out a certain book without describing it. 166. bearing in mind that several adjectives belong (with a slight difference of meaning) sometimes to one class. Any man could tell you that. • t of Adjectives. Second thoughts are best. Ring the fat. Here Here Mind this word word is a demonstrative pronominal adjective (or indefinite adjective pro- noun). We walk every other day.' ' " He ' lent me ' his knife. without reference to quality or quantity. sometimes to another. second line in this page. Which J wine do you prefer? What. been tried. —Study §§ 1 05-1 16. An enemy hath done this. We arrived on the second day. " Give 189 me that book. He spent half a day with me.

) describes the quality of a noun. rudest. red." These in the Plural Number.tgo ENGLISH GRAMMAR.' attached attributively to {or qualifies) the : An Adjective of Quantity. slower. full. blithe. virtues (§§ 89. fresh.' to limit the application of a noun. hearty.] It is in the Positive Degree. or their substitutes Large. This expression is legitimate only if the to qualify a noun' means 'to denote some quality of that for which the noun standi. splendid. beautiful. and to what noun 84). To parse an adjective state what Lessen. tidiest.' (Much. monstrous.' [' These 'points to the men. ' • phrase ' or As generally used. ' An (See it If the smacks strongly of the blunder of saying that an adjective term is used. § 85.] virtues. brightest. big. lovely. worst. Lastly. Parsing of Adjectives.. of the following adjectives. slenderest. [It denotes how much esteem is spoken of. joined predicatively to the noun men. duller. XXI. attached attributively to the noun most. rich. Write down Prettier. quarrelsome. — sort of in what degree of comparison its it is. steeper. gentlest. healthy. thereforo. but does not describe or enumerate them. finest. merry. It is [It describes the virtues spoken of. winsome. noun jnen understood (see § 96). sprightlier. Preliminary adjective it is. in the Comparative Degree. out certain virtues. gentler. crudest.] virtues. all three degrees of the following adjectives sweetest. " His numerous His A Demonstrative : won much esteem . mad. idle. great. near. more.* [li points (or Pronominal) Adjective. it is attached either attributively or predicatively three degrees of comparison. fierce.) Those : —A qualifying the Demonstrative Adjective in the Plural Number. bright. clever. last. joined attributively to the noun ' men. gay. better. holy. mightiest. high. : rudest. —An Adjective noun ' of Quality in the Positive Degree. more. richer.] : —A — Demonstrative Adjective Richer ' : An Adjective of Quality [it describes certain men]. wittier. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees : Exercise 38.' adjective is often said to ' qualify a noun. state Examples. richest. and is virtues. justest.' It is joined* attributively to {or qualifies) the noun ' : — Numerous Much.' (Rich. nastiest.' it does not in the least alter the meaning of the noun. this mistake must be carefully ' guarded against. wealthier. tame. happy. common. sad.) ' — " These men are richer than those. dull. handsomest. tenderer. &c. rich. but does not describe or enumerate them. gentle. . cold. handsome.

When no noun can be conveniently supplied with the adjective. 97). Which of these books is yours? Where are the others ?+ John is //4if cleverest % in the class. The wisest men are sometimes mistaken. Some persons are too hasty. of the Neuter Gender. but does not describe it. 7Vta( is the least atonement he can make. and in the Nominative or Objective case (§ 145). He has gained many more prizes than his elder brother. Each boy shall have a great piece of cake. T/ies(' are my children. I have done a good day's work. Will that little boy have anymore fruit? Give me the other volume. The large linen-draper's shop at the comer is on fire. ' ' ' ' . which will you have? That is the ripest pear. He is quite a ladies' man. The elder boys' behaviour was excellent. The tall corporal's hat was knocked off. My youngest brother has gained the second prize in his class. That little girl has no milk. The girls' lessons are too long. Give me some more meat.EXERCISES. The schools are well managed. A. He took a three days' journey. * An adjective may be attached to a pronoun as well ' as to a noun. She wore a large man's hat on her head. Give me the other hand. Parse all the adjectives (including the articles) in Those in italics qualify a noun which is the following sentences. Some careless person has upset the ink. I went to see him one day lately. understood. Here are two books. You will know some day or oi/ier. She is the prettiest of all my cousins. He cropped the black horse's tail. or refer to its quantity. When ihis and that are not attached to a noun expressed or understood. He fitted a Chubb's patent lock to his desk. Few and brief were the prayers we said. He keeps a large boys' school. girls' Exercise 38. Others (in the plural) is a Substantive Pronoun. the adjective itself must be regarded as a substantive (§ 98J. Few men are his superiors. Have you any other sisters ? Of these wines I prefer the red to the white. Supply the noun when necessary. The little girls' frocks were torn.' ' " or Interrogative Adjective Pronoun. His few remaining acres were sold. A dense cloud hid the sun. I have had a whole day's anxiety.] It is joined attributively to the Exercise 37. will you have some? No. and see which nouns the adjectives qualify (§§ 96. He bought the handsomest lady's dress in the shop. Attend carefully to those examples where there is a noun in the possessive case. The poor suffer more than the rich. B. which is here qualified by the demont strative adjective the X An article always belongs to some noun expressed or understood. My younger sister is ill. ' 191 Which hcmd will you have ? Which :— A Demonstrative Adjective noun hand. Will you have hot or cold milk? Which boy is the cleverest? Here is bread. He teaches at the large boys' school. Ripe apples are nicer than sour * ones. Every * one was quiet. I will not have atty. One ' is an Indefinite Substantive Pronoun. Your elder brother lost some money yesterday. \_ltpomfs interrogatively /^ a certain hand. they must be parsed as Demonstrative Pronouns (not as Demonstrative Adjectives).

prudent. believe it. but I woi/td not consent to that. son. widow. that man. bad. blue. sovereign. XXII. father. splendid. for the act or fact stated in a sentence 4. I will call upon you to-morrow I will help you if it is possible. popular. white. jovial. Abstract Nouns. however difficult // may be. it to me. red. dead. good. . We all knew that the attempt was hopeless. I can never believe that. for an infinitive mood . often stands for an infinitive mood. but I could obey the dictates of conscience. is I Our duty to my claim. leader. to surrender . distant. silent. near. If you do not give up these bad habits. temperate. Preliminary Lesson. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. martyr. (§§ 32. just. zz. for the gerund ' It or infinitive that denotes such an act or fact in an abstract form. He asked me There is a pen. worthy. brief. He thought of enlisting as a soldier. I think it best to // vexes me that he should act in this way. meek. 329)- Exercise 40. ' this. durable. you will suffer for it. infirm. wise. brilliant.192 . jealous. poor. pious. ' This and that are sometimes employed in a for a 2. man. ' ' ' similar manner. : relation. sweet. if it be not He said that the matter was self-evident. State clearly what the words in sentences : italics stand for in the following not manage hoped to get here before noon. simple. colonel. sharp. but he would not not see it. regent. abundant. It would have been better for him if he had never known if it is convenient. magistrate. slow. quick. I think it very strange that he It is very likely that he will come to-morrow. humble. It is impossible to tell It grieved him to lose so much money. italics in the fullovving Parse the words in sentences : That was a great disappointment to us. infant.' and ' it ' may or gerund with its adjuncts 3.' ' that. or a sentence that is going to be used. sad. ihat brought him to his senses. large. The demonstratives noun . monstrous. sheriffj captain. innocent. king. sour. give it. child. but I could absolutely impossible. soft. mayor. Give the abstract nouns which correspond to the following adjectives : Pure. shall How be content with that. did not tell me. It is of no use trying to help him. Exercise 39. B. and your father that will amuse him. dare you tell me that ? I cannot undertake this. obstinate. able. Read these letters to His father threatened to disinherit him. priest. To comply with your request is difficult. a gerund. what the result will be. hold my tongue about the matter. I. useful. I This is the very coinage of your brain. wide. merry. This quite altered our plans. Give the abstract nouns derived from the following nouns Friend. but this I would not allow. . wicked. — Nature and formation of Abstract Nouns 314. He does not frighten me by that. long. broad. stand. able.

composition. D. stupidity. That is the nature of the animal. . proceed . Form Abstract Nouns (not ending following verbs . suction . . crown . youth. prosperity. condescend . fix . insipidity. displace . conhumility . invert . . ponderosity. deceive . steal. . grandeur. derange . judgment. advance. rascality . . width. . splendid painting yesterday. multiply . dependence. line 41. acidity . depth . degrade . mayoralty . E. magnanimity. shrievalty venience piety . suppleness elegance . . He aspired to enter the ranks of the sculptures over the porch are very fine. seize . Some poetry is hardly worth the fine arts. Give the adjectives or nouns from which the following abstract nouns are formed — : Fickleness impertinence dependence . depress . . breadth. F. patience. brevity . . heroism. in -ing) corresponding to the deride Offend . senility. Intrusion . boredom . pressure. hate.EXERCISES. arrange . Give the verbs from which the following Abstract derived : Nouns . dissect . height . grandeur. laughter. suspend conceal steal . are estrangement seclusion injection thought flight reflection conception adaptation . Sculpture is one of He has the gift of poetry. destroy . . sing. infirmity. complete . Nothing relieved of the height. strength. absolve . C. . I bought a the solitude of his existence. acidity. justify. . . uprightness . girlhood. erase. infirmity. valour. width. invent . The vast field of nature is open reading. amplitude. sonority. ductility. sleepiness. He made a solitude and called it peace. soon reached the summit in all ages. greenness. durability. . rigidity. declension. Can you tell me the age of that child ? This has been the case to our gaze. patience . legibility. and draw one under the nouns used in their adstraci sense. The We poverty o . health. action. thrift . Write out the following sentences. thieve . convene . strength . growth tilth decision coercion defence derision. and explain the difference of meaning in each case Exercise : nobility. candour. please . death. These alms-houses are the refuge of old age and I admire nobility of character. height. debase . . abstract. 193 Give the Adjectives from which the following Abstract Nouns : are derived Nobility. and two lines under those used in their concrete sense. dearth. Painting was his chief pursuit. depth. The steeple is of immense height. weigh. elegance. con^ tract . . interrogate . protect . mortality weakness durability. . elevation. wisdom. . addition. suppleness. deviate . measure. . exact . move. wisdom. depart . treat . fickleness.

She is upstairs.' Exercise 42. Examples. Preliminary Lesson. They rode along together. XXIII. John often writes to us. He went straightway. The children played indoors. Adverbs.' *' a word that shows when he came (or answers an it is We seldom see him. We went thither. The troops fought splendidly. denoted by the verb is performed. My friends live yonder. He went away. ' Manner * answer the question How ? ' Adverbs of Adverbs of Degree show to other adverb questions ' what degree or extent' the meaning of a verb.'' ' " Thai is too bad. Therefore Adverb of Time. It ' "i answers the an Adverb of Place." (or is There shows the place where my uncle lives question Where does my uncle live '). modifying the verb ' came. He always contradicts me. When ? ' ' How long ' ? ' ' How ' ' often ? ' Adverbs of ' ' Whence ? Place answer the questions Where ? Adverbs are usually said to modify* the verb. Deal as in the above examples with each of the Adverbs in the following sentences : I saw him yesterday. modifying the adjective bad. We lay down to sleep.194 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. ' ' in or under which the action . Now attend to me. or Adverbs of Time answer the is to be taken. adjective. modifying the verb ' lives. or The mountain rises abruptly from the plain. I will go thither directly. " Whither ' ? adjective. modifying the verb rises. They Boon returned.' ' . Mary plays beautifully. • To modify a verb is to state some modt or condition. adverb to which they are attached (§§ 259-265).' ^ * My uncle lives there." ' ' Too or is a word which shows to what degree that answers the question how bad ? Therefore Adverb of Degree." is Abruptly a word that shows how the mountain rises (or answers the question How does the mountain rise ')• Therefore it is an Adverb of Manner." it is Seldom answers Therefore " the question How often do we see him?' an Adverb of Time modifying the verb see.' ' ' is it is bad an ' ** He came yesterday Yesterday is the question ' When did he come ? '). — Nature and use of Adverbs.

You speak too He is very learned. I am I am much obliged to you. X95 Stand so. modifying (either singly. last. — A Adverbially. Day by day we magnify He comes bothering me day after day. Make half a dozen sentences to illustrate the use each sort of adverb contained in the preceding examples. adjective or noun in the objective case with an Prelimmary some equivalent phrase. or even standing by itself. John reads He My Exercise 45. I am almost penniless. I am very He walked backwards. He is less restless to-day. The noun should be parsed often does duty for an adverb. soonest. or when taken 267). or adverb it modities. what its degree of comparison is (if it admits of comparison). Oh I am so tired. I have seen him many times. rapidly. The children were here I would rather not go. To parse an Adverb state to which class belongs. Make and ten containing adverbs ten sentences containing adverbs in the comin the superlative degree. Exercise adverbs in italics in well. Exercise 47. parative degree. He Many a . XXIV. Parse the Adverbs in Exercises 42 and 44. Parsing of Adverbs. He turned his head another Thee. I get up earlier than you. adjective. Vou write worse than your brother. Do not tell so many stories. with its as being in the Adverbial Objective. travelled all night. He slept all night. That poor man is the worst hurt. He qjften comes here. That happened a year ago. ! much surprised. He is far too extravagant. Exercise 43.EXERCISES. I placed my hand thus. adjective) some verb or adjective (§§370. giving the three degrees. it of adverbs Exercise 48. He works harder than ever. brother came He is most attentive to his work. and what verb. very much obliged to you. 4-1. He is more composed. and point out what verb. I way. NounB used Lesson. but Thomas reads better. He was an extremely wicked man. He comes oftener than ever. He comes here four times a week. or adverb it modifies (§§ 274-276). of State the Degree of Comparison of each of the the following sentences. Parse the nouns in italics in the following sentences : time have I played with him. I shall see you next week. He is most careful in his conduct acted tnore prudently than his friend. They get up very early. He walked yflr/z^^r than I did. He was the least alarmed of all. We have got thus far on our journey. He is a year older than I am. 3 . I would sooner die. The project was monstrously foolish. adjective. This is many deg7-ees better than that. The bird is quite dead. They very soon returned.

cause for thankfulness. Much remains to be done. that I had uiy ]iains for nothing. tented.^'' Here tnuck and 'more' are substantives. He travelled arrived post- XXV. used with an adverbial force. He knows more than he tells. Preliminary — Many them adjectives. The town forth bound is ten viilcs distant. When they are used as subjects or objects of verbs. will you have a little ? He told me less than his brother. The long and tlie short of it is. . You know most about it. Lesson. He is more con1 am much happier. We hand and foot. ' Exercise 48. He has lost a//. being impossible to supply These (like nouns) are often any particular noun with them. Do not let us hear ?nore of that. '''/do not 'much'' ' is much admire him. but inoj'c remains behind. Here is some wine. Adjectives used Adverbially.196 could not haste." Here '«(?'is an adverb modifying the adverb ' ' better.S. We have much He is ?nuch worse to-day. They once had the dative inflexion. I will follow you through He is my Ixst friend I did my best. It is better now to parse as simple adverbs. they should be parsed as substantival adjectives. it especially those of Quantity. '^ Here '•''He is no better. carefully distinguishing the adjectives proper.' and more' is an adjective qualifying ' ' * money understood. In general I approve of his proMuch depends upon his answer. could hear no more. He has more ability than hi!. He is all powerful here. modifying (i) a verb. Parse the words in italics in the following senences.). I He is_«o * wiser than before. He came sooner. and become identical in form with adjectives. man in the room. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He slept (?// niylit." He is not much happier!'' an adverb. (2) an adjective. the substantival adjectives. come a day day and night.' " He has not much money . may be taken as the simple adverb 'na' = never (A. 1 have enough. I • 'No/ as an adverb. his brother has more. the subjects of the verbs that follow them. He is the best dressed thich and thin." Here much is an adjective qualifying money. or (more sitnply) as substantives. are used as substantives. many adverbs which once ended in -e have lost that inflexion. and Adverbs reduced to the form of Adjectives. I have no ink. That is all nonsense. or after prepositions. . On the other hand. ' ' " Much has been revealed. and the adverbs : — gave him ait I had. ceedings. brother. ^// bloodless lay the untrodden snow.

— Nature and use of Prepositions. 5). Come near the fire. *• Here more does measure the whole quantity of ' sense. He is XXVI. I am your equal. The corn was scattered . modifying the verb will take. That is the very least you can do. We were just starting. I ask {cixnpX more. We have a choice between good and ///. I We from him. There is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. I will accept nothing less.' The sense is I will take in \ rtr/i/Z/^V). He was moi-e frightened than hurt. Rela- which they indicate. The future is hidden from our gaze. He is a better writer than I am. t Enough a substantive. Preliminary Lesson. little gratitude. He was a very thunderbolt of war. Will you lake some more wine. ni. meaning. whole qidintiiy of trouble taken. through the helmet.EXERCISES. He sailed all round the world. || have not meat enough.show that more could have no meaning as a quantitative adjective. no trouble in addltum [to what you have taken].p little He shows but better. ' II Some ' ' ' is More does not measure the "i That is. I heard a// the speech.' and therefore is a quantitative adjective attached to the noun. He bought two mo)'e loaves. I cannot write a7ty better. They have money enough. Such a round of pleasures is wearisome. cry did knock against love John best. and I will take no less. ' ' ' more. He is likeW my brother. and no (= A. I will take one more § glass. He is pretty sure of the prize. it is an adjective. ' + When like ' ' ' ' . ' Words which they ' join (§§ 277. You are very much in fault. He ran all round the park. He wears a round hat. You must take me for better or worse. ' in sufficient when it here an adverb modifying 'more. 278). is not any more diligent than he was before.W We heard nothing inore of him. He swore like a trooper. I ne'er shall look upon his like again. I did my best. \ •s ziery tall.' never') is an adverb modifying ' ' ' ' ' never used as an adverb. when joined to a singular noun like glass.S. Do your best.' except Else is always an adverb ' IS best taken as an adverb. You know best. more is equivalent to further. I have heard a little about that affair. The more part knew The more the merrier {§ 265. Enough has been done.' The next example is different .' denotes personal resemblance. That is a pretty picture. In That decision was right. He is less restless than he was yesterday. She not wherefore they were come together. i9.' 'nothing inferior in amount. The construction of this sentence is our guide to that of the four "No" is ' ' ' : — ' A ' ' ' uext. is little That expect not a a tnost lovely prospect. I heard (Z /. When it denotes that one ac'ii'n resembles another. earth turns i-ound.' An adjective used as a substantive may still J be modified by an adverb./ one glass. O Lord. abundance." (Compare the German «o<:/i and the French encore. Whoever is most diligent will meet with ?nost success. tions * is ' Prepositions. The I A\y best friend. He He is no wiser than I. I cannot say more. We are near neighbours. /// weeds thrive apace The The house is ill built. Do not take more trouble. else* He was is but I Nobody there. it is an adverb. Take no more H trouble.) little reflection will . He cut right future times he will be famous. He is no tnore contented than he used to be. He was discoursing about the true and the just. He is more to blame than I am. let me hear some tnore.{// over the yard. Hear the right. have enough and to spare.adverb. Jt This word is an adjective qualifying the substantive 'nothing. He has «<? wtTcf ** sense than a goose. I will not take any more. More is here an . my very heart. You are very kind.

I told you all tliat before. it is a preposition. Run routtd the The earth turns round. He spoke of me.198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He departed before my arrival. Do not touch the all evil. 284). He We We .—ThQ same word is often used both as an adverb and as a preposition." ' Over ' is a preposition governing the noun wall in the objective case. Adverbs and Prepositions.' (mouse) to another (floor). Grief at the loss of his money turned him crazy. and ten in which it shows the relation of an attribute to a thing. Do not lag behind. She stayed within the house. walked by the river.' the in the Parse the prepositions in the following sentences in above examples : Pick up the books on the floor. cut a piece off. books on the table. blow on the head knocked him down. and joining it to the adjective attribute (afraid) to ^. table. When it governs a noun or pro- noun. He works at the factory. I have in my hand a letter from my father. The love of money is the root of Dick rode to York. I am anxious about liis safety.^ in the objective case. The storm passed by. I rode inside the omnibus. " He leaped over the wall. ' ' C. Examples. person (me). A. That comes after.' It shows the relation of an act (leaping) to a thnig (wall). He shrank from the danger. I saw Jane in the kitchen. The box was painted within and without. Come along. " ' I see a mouse on ' noun floor It shows the ' thefloor. in A Exercise 50. ' ' On is and joining B. He cut " Three thousand a piece off\hc loaf The stick is loo long . Tliere is a garden behind the house. Do not sit on the table. ran after me. and joining it to the verb leaped. I am weary of work. We saw the men in armour. it. walked along the road. I will come by and by. My father lives London. Pie rode outside. The tub is full of water. Make ten sentences in which a preposition shows the relation of a thing to a thing j ten in which it shows the relation ot an action to a thing . afraid. When (§§ there is no noun or pronoun governed by Exercise tences : it is an adverb 279. Parse the words in itahcs in the following sen- He got up behind. He spoke to me at the close of the meeting. same way as case. XXVII. We shall start the day after to-morrow. 51. We arrived the day before yesterday. Preliminary Lcsson. "He Is afraid of me . People in trouble often go to him. relation of one i/n'/t_g' a preposition governing the it to the noun * mouse. I am fond of music." ' Of is a preposition governing the pro' noun 'me' in the objective It shows the relation of an Exercise 49.

in the Active Voice. Present Tense and in the Singular Number and the Second Person.EXERCISES. ber and First Person.^'' " Her cause and yours. XXVIII. may. in the Active Voice. depending on " TJiou shall not steal. In.' in in ' Forget verb ' : — A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. and the Second Person to agree with its subject you. but is ." A defective (notional) verb Will and Indicative Mood.' Mood.' ' ' Go ' is a Transitive Verb. and in the (simple) Infinitive Mood. dicative Mood. . to agree with ' its the Active Voice. Indi' Mood."* so money come withal. and do and use of the Simple Infinitive as notional and as atixare always notional verbs. and make sentences to illustrate their use. to agree with its subject thou. The Preliminary Lesson. depending on (or governed by) the verb ''may. and Number and the Third Person to agree with Active Voice. governs. Nattire Shall.' « He did his duty.' in it * ' Withal.'' You may go. in the Mood." 'Did' is a Indicative notional Transitive Verb. Infinitive (simple) Mood. ducats we freely cope your courteous pains withal. 195). I'll perfect him withal Exercise 52. depending on (or and in the governed by) the verb " 'shall. 184). Present Tense and in the Plural Number. iliary Infinitive Mood.^'' 'May' is a defective (notional) verb. Find a dozen words which may be used either as Adverbs or as Prepositions. will. Past Indefinite Tense. the Singular its subject ' He. t The so-called Potential Mood is a perfectly unnecessary invention. in the Active Voice." ' Shalt cative ' is a defective (notional) verb . —A. (§§ 194. never precedes the word which placed :it the end of the sentence.'' is 'Steal' a Transitive Verb. . Present Tense ' ' : — ' . 199 " Nothing comes amiss. in the Active Voice. verbs (§ Mustf and can Examples." "I must wait and watch withal. the Singular Numsubject /. " / 10 ill never forget yoit. and in the [or the object of) the (simple) Infinitive will.' when used as a preposition.

You might have gone an hour ago. " / shall soon departs Here ' shall ' is an auxiliary (not a notional) verb. The compound form is emphatic only when an emphasis is laid upon the do. He did what he could. You shall not have it. + See \ 2IO. That boy shall be made to hold his tongue. He says that he will not come. He will soon return.' Sue the preceding examples. He shall not know of it.' " He will come presently Here 'will' ^ is a mere auxiliary of the future tense. ' ' " He does this that he ' may -vex me. They would keep on making a noise. He durst not go home. He said that he would not come. Parse all the verbs in the following sentences. I will do my best. He said that he did not choose to come.''' " Did you hear the rain f " ' ' In these examples ' do ' and ' did ' are mere auxiliaries. It may be treated like shall' the last example. infinitive The simple ' ' in ' ' ' as The two verbs shall and the preceding examples. He would not come when I called him. I could leap over that wall once. and the compound in the same.' But then any form is emphatic when it is emphasized. depart may be parsed separately. and specify in the case of the finite verbs whether they are used as notional or as auxiliary verbs : — can dance. You would not have my help when you might. You must go directly. is Exercise 53. Does your father know of this? May I come in? Thou shalt not steal. "You do * assist the storm.2©0 ENGLISH GRAMMAR." Here 'may a mere auxiliary of the Subjunctive Mood. stay. It does not assert that he is able or is pertnitted to vex me. I shall I will go with you. and is in the Subjunctive Mood itself The notion of power or permission has altogether vanished. Thus be treated as eiiuivalent to knocked. You may go. I cannot do what I will. man cleanse his way ? 1 did not call yesterday lest I might seem intrusive. You need not be alarmed.way as the simple tense for which it is a substitute. ' a mere auxiliary (whether emphatic or unemphatic) it may be parsed form may be parsed Did knock' may ' : . He could not reply. We will never yield When shall \ you see your brother? Wherewithal shall a young to threats. We • When ' do ' is separately. I dare not go back.' The verb does not itself constitute an emphatic form. or the compound phrase shall depart may be parsed as the future tense of the verb it ' ' 'depart' depends upon in the same manner depart. You need not stay. nr else taken with the dependent infinitive. The cry did J knock against my very heart. The notion of volition is entirely lost sight of. m " Yotc do assist the storm. You do assist does not differ in the least in sense from you assist.

' and the infinitive to come ' is ' ' is the temporary object the real object. to show that an infinitive is coming. or infinitive — ' B. Parse the verbs in italics and the following sentences in the way indicated above : word ' it ' in the better than sacrifice. forming the real subject of the verb is.* He is too clever to make* such a mistake." Here to meet is a transitive verb in the Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood.EXERCISES. He dislikes to be kept waiting. As it the subject or object of another verb it does the work of a substantive. The master called the boy to say his lesson. " // is tiselcss to make the atte/npt. went up to the man to ask our way. We We We Make ten sentences in which a gerundial infinitive the subject of a verb ten in which it is the object of a verb . does the work of an adverb. I am delighted to see* you. It is // is easy to see that. 196). To work hard is the way to succeed. found it imfind* you so much better.' ' ' Exercise 54. to indicate its construction. • In these cases the gerundial infinitive does the work of an adverb. in the Singular Number and Nominative Case. . Help me io carry this.* I am happy to They are come to stay with us. Nature and use of the gerundial with to' (§§ 194. used wiih the force of an adverb modifying the verb 'ran. possible /<? go on. Active Voice. found it advisable to return. When it denotes the purpose or cause of an action or state. " He ran to meet me. I am glad to hear* it. is . Sometimes it expressea the came of the state deoeted by the adjective.* The boys had a long task to do.' ' 'To make': in A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. To obey is useless to ask him. Exercise 55. the ' ' — " He thinks it better not to co7ne" Here ' it of the verb thinks. Such a fellow is not fit to live. and modifies the preceding adjective. I shall be sorry /<? leave. forming the temporary subject of the verb is. 201 infini- Preliminary Lesson. and Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. He did his best to ruin me. The and neuter pronoun * it' is often used as a temporary or pro- visional subject or object. I was not prepared to hear that news. The water is not fit to d?-ink. He hopes to hear from you soon. and ten in which it does the work of an adverb. He came to pay me some money." 'It' is a Neuter Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. I am sorry to hear* that. She was overjoyed to hear* of her son's return. He is anxious to do* his duty. He was rude enough to contradict * me.' and governing 'attempt' in the objective case. tive.

"You do draw my spirits from me with new lamenting § ancient oversights " (Shaksp. ought to be punished. Participles used as Qualitative Adjectives. taking a short cut.' • When the verbal noun in -ing does not govern an object it may be treated as a simple abstract noun. arrived there first through His conduct is in keeping with his professions. excessive reading of novels is injurious. Thinking ' had belter be taken in such con." the Perfect Participle of the verb 'honour. our way. 5). — Study §§ 197-202." 'smile. PreUminary ordinary (§§ '' Parsing of Participles. Gervmds and Prelimmary Lesson. — Participles proper. The I like reading history. No good can come of your doing On some opposition being made he that. Participles.' to which it is of the verb joined attributively. He was angry at my going away. and draw one line under the Abstract Nouns in -ing j two lines under the Gerunds three lines under the imperfect (Active) participles : . In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward. Participles used absolutely 201.' My honou7'ed master bade me Honoured' is tell you this.202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He is delighted fell in with a ship sailing to America. He went to see the hunting of the snark. the open plain. It is impossible to construct the abstract noun in -j»^ with a past participle. something wicked this way comes. withdrew his demand. He died in consepricking of my thumbs. ' fan.^'' Fanned is the Perfect (or Past) Participle ' qualifying the '' noun ' fire. Exercise 56.)i XXX.and the Gerund. I lay a thinking.' used as an Adjective of Quality. 202. J Forty and six years was this temple By sedulously doing his started before the rising of the sun. were late in consequence of having lost+ at having succeeded -i* in his design. I see a is believing. the fire blazedfiercely. He strode Seeing* man A We We We We My bowing right and left to his guests. Write out the following sentences. By the noble partner you greet with great prediction of noble having. There was a great deal of shouting and clapping of hands. ' Fanned by the wind. Quitting the forest. I like reading. XXIX. qualifying the noun master. Lesson. lying witness He hates lying. 370. up the hall quence of pricking his hand with a poisoned dagger. 'Smiling' is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb qualifying the pronoun ' he. This must be treated as a compound gerund. riding on horseback. 282. tions as the Abstract Noun in -ing. There is here a confusion between the Abstract Noun. we advanced into duty he gained the approbation of all.' ' ' " Smiling faintly.struci Here a is a preposition {= at iir in). Oblige me by all leaving the room. § ' ' ' . in building. he pressed my hand.

They were slain by order of the captain. very well. Look at that smiling villain. in the second class wft get a statement of the results of the act. you have done falcon. The general rode in front. upon uneasy pallets stretching thee.' are related to each other in the sentence which would be ' complete answer. Use of the verb Do. towerinjj in her pride of place. joined attributively to the ' ' noun ' Morn. " Considering all thitigs." Smiling is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb ' smile.' " Hail. Being apprised of our approach." Barring accidents. splendid charger. The troops were surprised by the enemy. The poor man was hurt. ' ' ' ' ' ' * * In these we get a statement of the actual doing. we will be with you to-morrow. The ship was built of iron. The The ship was built rack. t ' Did ' and hear may be parsed separately. I caught sight of the thief climbing in at the window. or taken together as equivalent to ' heard. Sleep." ' 203 sider.' Exercise 57. The prisoner was starved to death. Preliminary Lesson.' Considering is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb 'conThings is a noun in the objective used absolutely (§ 282). mounted on a " Why rather. The captives were already slain.' ' ' . Parse the Participles in the following sentences : Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. Accoutred as I was.* the other containing those in which the participle is a mere qualitative adjective : upon the by contract. XXXI.. The string is stretched too tight. —The elements of an Interrogative sentence its ' same way as those of the declarative Compare Did you hear ? and 'I did hear t Who told you so ? and He told me so Whom did you meet ? and I met John. and preceded by a pipe and tabor. one containing those in which the verb be and the perfect participle form a tense of the passive voice. The poor man is badly hurt. I plunged in.' used as an ordinary Qualitative Adjective. Where do you live ? and I live there. I am surprised that you do not see that.EXERCISES. He was children are famished.' &c. Study § 214. A A Exercise 58. the object of the transitive participle ' considering. * * ' ' j ' . He was stretched stretched upon his bed. he has done very well. he strode into the circle. Considering your age. Interrogative and Negative Sentences. was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. smilitig Morn. wounded spirit who can bear? liest thou in smoky cribs. and separate the following sentences into two groups. Smiling scornfully. and hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber. ' ' ' case.' &c. than in the perfumed chambers of the great. of a certain act. the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister. I was surprised by his behaviour. dressed in their fine clothes. Generally speaking he dines at home. He bought a deferred annuity.

full. and adverbs in the following Parse the verbs and the interrogative pronouns and sentences (§§ 152-154 270).204 .u t Mind that an interrogative adverb modifies either the verb of the sentence in which it ' ' occurs. — Study § 191. and then XXXII. 'thou. X In cases like this.a) is placed after those interrogative pronouns (or pronominal adjectives) which qualify the nouns that they precede. in the possessive case depending on the noun 'pen. Imperative Preliminary Lesson. Imperative Second Person Singular. should be taken as doing duty for an interrogative pronoun.' • an intransitive verb in the Active Voice. and the same numeral is placed after an interrogative pronoun and the preposition that governs it. Exercise 61. called me ? What (<?) did you say ? Which («) way is the shortest ? What did you eat for supper? On what (rt) day do you set out? Where (3) do (i) do you hope for (i) ? (2) are you writing to (2) ? you live (3) ? (4) far (4) did you walk ? {s) Who What (0) Whom How ? Which boy made that noise ? What author do you did you see ? On what day are you waiting for ? do you set out? Where did you find that book? Whither are you going? Whose * pen is this? What happened yesterday ? What comes ? next like best Whom Whom What ails you? In which house does your uncle live? What poet's writings please you most ? On what day do you set out ? When f will you t come ? t did you do that ? How t many persons were present ? often do you write home? t do you say that ? How t soon will you come ? Where J are you going to ? Where J do you come from ? How How Why Write answers to all the questions in this exercise in turn these answers into the negative form. Take the answers them into the negative form. Go thou and do • likewise^ Go ' is Mood. to agree with its subject Parse whose as an interrogative pronoun of common gender. Give the complete sentences which are answers to the following questions. when it is an interrogative pronoun. to the preceding questions. 'where governed by the preposition to or from. or some adjective or adverb. and after an interrogative adverb and the word that it modifies and (. and then parse all the words in each : Have you any money? Did your Did you say so? Does your sister sing well? Will your father return tomorrow? Shall you be afraid to go? (See | 210. [In the first few sentences (s) is put after the subject and (o) after the object of the verb.' ' ' ' ' . ENGLISH GRAMMAR.] . Exercise 59.' u. . " Sentences.) Will you meet me there to-morrow? Did the man go away? Have the boys hurt themselves? Are you happy? brother do that? turn Exercise 60.







parsed in the same way, except that thou understood.
' '

agrees with a


nie sec that''

'Let and

a transitive verb in the Active Voice, Imperative second person plural, to agree with its subject understood.*


in the




is a transitive verb in the Active Voice, and in _the ' (simplej infinitive mood depending on (or governed by) the




Let me go. Let him see
cautious in



in the objective case,

governed by



Exercise Q^. Parse Come hither,

the words in the following sentences


boys ?t Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. it. Let me be Let us be spared this annoyance. Let us pray. the business. Do be quiet, boys.

XXXIII. Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.
Preliminary Lesson.

— Study



— 164.

He is iJian 'Who' is



beloved by


a Relative Pronoun, of the Masculine Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'man.' It is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb is beloved.' It joins the clause who is beloved by all to the noun man.'




" That


the lady luhose

husband you met yesterday."


a Relative Pronoun of the Feininine Gender in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'lady.' It is in the Possessive Case depending J on (or qualifying) the noun 'husband.' It joins the clause whose husband you mot yesterday to the noun lady.'




the matt

whom you


to see."

" }'ou



in the objective case, the object of the


'to see.'

have not brought mc the book that T asked you for." is a Relative Pronoun of the Neuter Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent book.' It is in the objective case, governed by the preposition for.' It joins the clause that I asked you for' to the noun book.'







You is always a fcraviiiintical plural. Parse 'boys as a Vocative, or Nominative of Address. If who.<;e be treated as the possessive case of a substantive pronoun, it must be parsed t like a noun in the possessive If whose be regarded as on a par Vkfith ttiy, our, his, &c., it must be dealt with as an adjective.









The construction of a relative clause is word for word the same as that of the clause which results when a demonstrative pronoun, or the antecedent noun is substituted for the relative. Thus That I asked you for' is hke 'I asked you for it (or the book) ': 'Whose husband you met her husband yesterday.' y(?li met yesterday is lilce
' ' '

Exercise 63. Parse all the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, and test the construction by substituting demonstratives for the I'elatives as in the above examples

painted that picture here is the pen which I gave you ? I who am poorer than you are, am contented. Thou, who wast my friend and guide, hast forsaken me. You, who have done the damage, must repair it. We who are well ofl should pity and help the poor. He is a man whose appearance is j repossessing. The boys whose w oik is finished may go out to play. He that is down need fear no fall. I will show you the horse which I bought yesterday. The picture which pleased you so much was painted by my brother. You have not brought me the volume that He is the yery man that I was speaking oi. Their soriows' 1 asked for. shall be multiplied that hasten after another God. It is that that grie\es me. " Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, This that you tell me is incredible. which art my near'st and dearest enemy?" ''I am that very duke which was thrust from Milan." "Whosoever* hath, to him shall be given." " Eles.'-ed is he whosoever shal' not be offended in Me." He doth sin that doth belie the dead. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall I e showtd before the whole congregation. Thty are but faint-hearted whose courage fails in time of danger. He to-day that .sheds his blocd with me shall be my brother. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the dog if.ai worried the cat that killed the rat that ate lihe malt that lay in the house "that Jack built.'

The man whom you met
last year.



never saw the

The artist who man whom you speak ol.



Exercise 64. The antecedent of the neuter relative which is often the fact stated in a previous sentence, or the (implied) gerund or infinitive which expresses that act or fact in an abstract manner, as, " The king's two sons are stolen away and fled, which (namely, the fact that the king's two sons are stolen away and fled) puts upon them suspicion of the deed." State clearly what ii'/z/V// stands lor in the following sentences
' ' ' '

promised to follow my advice, which was the best thing he could do. "And, studied hard all the morning, after which we went for a walk. which is more than all these boasts cnn be, I am beloved of Hcrmia." *' I see thee still, and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, which was not so " Thou didst smile, which raised in me an undergoing stomach (i.e. before." courage to otdurc).'"



Exercise 65.

Supply (and parse) the relative pronouns which are the following sentences (sec § 164).
that of the simple relatives.

• The parsing of these compound rel.itives does not differ from They should be described as compound, or indc/itiitc relatives.

Pay me the money you owe me.


You have not sent the goods I bought received the money I sent you ? That is the place I "I have a mind presages very man I was looking for. went to. me such thrift, that I should questionless be fortunate. " That is not the way Those are the very words he used. Is the task I set you finished yet ? I came. He is not the man I expected.

Have you You are the


a dozen sentences in

which a suppressed


may be

Exercise 66. When which accompanies and qualifies a noun, it should be parsed as a Conjunctive Pronominal Adjective.' It then generally refers to the 'general sense of the last sentence, but has no Parse which in the special antecedent in place of which it stands. following sentences
' '




I may be detained longer than I expect, in which case do not wait for rne. hope you will stay till Tuesday, on which day I expect my brother. He made a humble confession, by which means he averted his lather's displeasure.

Exercise 67. Supply the antecedents which are understood in the following examples




purse, steals trash.

"Who was





make fast. I may neither And whom he strikes, his

the thane, lives yet. clioose whom I would, nor refuse
cruel tushes slay.



"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted." I That is not what 1 sent dread what * is coming. I hear what you are saying. you for. You are telling me what is incredible. I cannot consent to t what you ask. That is just what I cannot understand. You have not done what Have you found what you were looking for ? What astonished you promised. me most was his imprudence. What pleases you will please me.
that, told

a falsehood.


Relative (or Conjunctive) Adverbs.

Prdiniinary Lesson.

— Study



— 265.
that clause to the predicate

Conjunctive adverbs modify a verb, adjective, or adverb in the
clause which they introduce,

and Join

of the principal clause.
If a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition (§ 406) it joins its clause to the antecedent











* Parse ' w/wi" as a neuter Relative Pronoun relating to a suppressed antecedent, whenever the sense of the sentence remains the same if that ivhich is substituted for 'tt'hut.' + Mind that this preposition does not govern what (which is the object of to ask '), but its suppressed antecedent that.'







was not at home when you called. I shall see you when I return. He This lay where he had fallen. I will follow you whithersoever you go. Co Tell me the reason why you left the room. is the house where I live. bought Show me the shop where you back to the place whence you came. him whenever 1 can. Wherever he lives, he will be happy. I go to see that.

Exercise 69.
Herein do

ceded by prepositions for the adverbial compounds.

In the following sentences substitute pronouns pre(See § 146.)

Thereon I pawn my credit. She dares not I exercise myself. 1 will hereupon confess I discovery. heart accords thereto. am in love. Present to her a handl.erchief, and bid her dry her weeping eyes therewith. Whereunto shall I liken this generation ? Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? You take from me the means whereby I live.



Exercise 70.








long to


the truth of this at large.


food shall be withered roots

The earth is the Lord's and its and husks in which the acorn cradled. lulness. Take this chain, and bid my wife disburse the sum on the receipt
of it.

rrclivimary Lesson.

classification of




— —

Study the definition and


parse a conjunction state what Part of Speech it is, and of what class, and state what words or sentences it couples together. The pairs both— and,' either or,' and neither nor,' may be taken together and parsed as correlative and co-ordinative conjunctions, joining such Subordinative conjunctions usually and such words or sentences. join the clause which they introduce to the predicate of the principal The conjunction than joins its clause to the preceding clause. comparative adjective or adverb.
' '







Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences


He neither came nor sent an excuse. A. He is jioor, but he is contented. He went out quickly and slammed the door. He shot a hare and two rabbits. Both [ohn and Henry came to see me. I will both lay me down in peace and I can neither eat nor [can Either I am mistaken, or you are. [I will] sleep.
1] sleep.

He told me that he had no money. You I have heard that he said so. If I had seen him, I would have spoken to be inmished if you do that. He would not help me, though he knew that I was in need. Though hand join hand in hand, the wicked shall not be unjjunishcd. You will lose tlie Take heed lest you fall. He spoke loud that prize unless you work harder. My I might .hear him. I cannot give you' any money, for I have none. He is richer than his brother [is]. He comes brother is taller than you are. oftener than [lie] ever [came]. As that is the case, I will come.


EXERCISES. 289. their money was spent. &c. He was sorry after he had said it. from the relative or conjunctive adverbs.' Exercise 75. have not eaten since yesterday. tlie P . Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. bearing in mind that words like before^ after. since. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. You may go. He does that that he may vex me. He is very rich nevertheless he is unhappy. therefore have I spoken. I am afraid that he says that. Except ye repent. He says that we shall never succeed. else { some.. Exercise 73. Parse the word tliaf wherever following sentences. I have no money. but We We I will stay. 148. 2og Exercise 72. I . = XXXVI. The Preliminary Lesson. They will go away before night. left after the concert was over. They that will be rich fall into temptation. N'ow you are here. There is not a man here that I can trust. Subjunctive Mood. &c. That book is mine. are prepositions. &c. because I told you that before. ye shall all likewise perish. I hear that he has ' to know that that t/iat '* Exercise 74.) — Mood * 1. There is nobody but me at home. the second conjunctive. but are conjunctions when followed by a clause containing a finite verb with its subject : — John arrived after his brother. t When 'as' is used twice over correlatively. and tkeirfore lie is He is as t stingy as he never unhappy.00k at § 349. 5. Play me the tune that I like so much. Come 7uhen I call you. (§§ 192. I lent you that book the very that you might read You ought clause is lost that book that I lent hint. He wasted his time in play . that he may deceive me. but merely refer by their meaning to something that has gone before carefully distinguishing the conjunctions : — He came because I called him. Nature and use of the Subjunctive 423. Do not go before I come. He has not smiled since his son died. first 'as' is always de>itoitstraiivc. the word ' Make five or six sentences to illustrate each use of that. you may as well stay. Pie walked before me. is rich. I believed. consequently he lost the prize. They stayed nntil the next day. when followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case. He is man that I want. He did not say that. (Look at §§ 144. I will go no^d<. He left soon after came. They stayed in Paris until I will wait until you return. 430. that you see at the beginning of the a conjunction. That is otherwise) I would give you true and also new. He is contented.) ^ it occurs in the Show me that picture. Since you say so.. AH except John were present. it. 145. I must believe it. and the latter from the adverbs which have no syntactical connecting force.

I luouldl were a weaver. You may keep the book. carefully distinguishing the moods and noting whether the verb relates The to what is actual fact. referring to present time. It nmy be very strange {i. it could not do it when he trieil.\\e news." He tvoidd open the door if you knocked. and explain in each case why the subjunctive is used : Beware lest someready for me by two o'clock. Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. he would seriously displease me. in the indicative mood must be parsed as notional. !>-en able.. it is but it is quite true.e. You might have won the prize if you had been possible that it was my fault). if angry after Exercise 73. or expresses one of the subjunctive ideas. but He would be angry if he kne^v of it. not as auxiWary verbs See Seciion XXVIII. when there is no reference to any other event. I would have done it if I had If this 'Mere true he would not deny it. If he had heard the news. it is possible that zDould have been in his power. and yet it should is peculiar. Make ten sentences in which the if^ and ten in which the subjunctive is used. build the house.e. they labour in vain that build it. It may have been my fault {i. I will never forgive him. He ivoid i I but died M\ hour before this chance. he had knozvn of it. I haa lived a blessed time. He would have been " Had I had just finished when you came in. Last winter However bad the weather roses might be found blooming at Christmas. he would have confessed it. thing worse happen to you. could %\Vig psalms or anything. He would not have kept it to himself. If he If he had done it. or of a past perfect. more diligent." It is past in form. ha I heai-d \. The boys would not be quiet when I begged them to be so. have come. be ! A Exerciss 77. &c). he would take a walk every day. he kept it all to himself. If yovL had sent for m% 1 woiild If you lucre generous. X This use of and the other preterite-present verbs. Oh that it were with me as in days that are money. If he If he were to make such a reply it -would be very foolish. If I had any If he zvere to swear to it. ]mst.//. Eiercise 78. I luould not believe it. He would have open:d the door if you had knocked.. Except the Lord Peace be to his ashes. You should % ftot tell lies.e. • ' ' ' ' . I did not see him. merely to denote past time. not open the door when I knocked. ' indicative is used • ' May. He may\ liave been in the house.2IO • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. he He could not do that if he tried. yon zuould help me. If that was his reply. I south-west blo7ii on ye. It follows the analogy of ought is indicative. might be. Take care that dinner Live temperately that you may live {\ 423) long. desei-ves to be punished. it was a very did it. He <:('///</ not be kinder if he were vay brother. I would givi it to you. use of a past form in relation to present ii/ne.Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences.' 'would. it is very strange).' &c. \ That is. If he did that he If he has betrayed his trust. He came that he might beg money of me. He . The old man might be seen daily sitting in the porch. and blister you all o'er. He says that thnt he may vex mt.'•/// have come U he had wished {i. This herb may be met with almost everywhere. He would not tell me if 1 asked him. it is possible that he was in the house.. foolish one. is one of the marks of the Subjunctive Mood : — Wju in IV* go.

Preliminary Lesson. a denial for which I was not prepared. Fetch your luide Johii's spectacles. an act which nearly cost him his life. He has alienated even you. summing up and repeating its import in a single noun which serves as the antecedent to a relative as. I trod upon his corns. Explain and parse the nouns : in italics in the fallowing examples The general made a vigorous onset on the left of the Hne. " Pie attempted to ascend the mountain without a guide. at the end of the compound name. 211 XXXVII. Exercise 80. and the possessive inflexion is only put after the second of the two nouns. the following examples. distinguish them carefully Exercise pronouns in : — • That is. a — When in the noun is attached without a consaid to be junction to another noun or pronoun. One noun in the possessive is never put in apposition to another. Attributive Adjuncts.* in Exercise sentences : 79. the I'ope's Ui^inte. — Nature and classification of Attributive (§§ Phrases that do the work of Adjectives. an accident for which I apologized. My brother Robert is expected. are responsible. XXXVIII. came to England.el for the defendant argued that there was no case to go before a jury . 362 -364. a vieiv which was supported by the summing-up of the judge. often used to represent the fact stated in a previous senthen stands in a kind of apposition to the sentence. in the possessive case. that is. to give a more complete of the it. In such a phrase as " My brother William's dog.) Point out the attributive adjuncts of nouns and 81.it Jaiu-. person is or thing meant. description Apposition.im's must be parsed as a compound proper noun. depending on ' ' 'dog. Parse the itaUcs the following He has gone to see liis au. He energetically declared that he knew nothing about the matter . it is in apposition to and same number and words in case." is A noun tence." my brother Willi. The coun-. but the t>vo nouns are treated as a single cotnpoitnd name. adjuncts are attached to the same noun. It . provided Dtle case is the nominative or objective. Preliminary Lesson.' . and in each case state of what When two or more they consist.EXERCISES. the author of that report. and to what they are attached. a viamxuvre which distracted the enemy's attention from the main attack. Adjuncts. his earliest friend. Pan- duir. You.

Thus in the above sentences the attributive adjuncts are ' complex attributive adjunct walking in the garden. Collect all the sentences in Exercise 48 which contain adverbial adjuncts. across the park. Adjuncts. He is a little better to-day. He is worthy of your love. you go away? B. He is in an ««/«/w. and f'ltrascs that attributive adjunct consists of the adjective or participle tixel Iter with nil the words are attached to it. He is not a bill better (i. adjective or adverb the adverbial adjuncts in italics in the following sentences are respectively attached A. Do not talk fad. Preliminary Lesson. constitutes an Adverbial Adjunct. He will be none (= by nothing) the wiser. I see My Tom's pony is in a long white robe came up to me.) Exercise 82. I am none the worse.e. You be glad to hear the ne7vs. will : We quickly. without a preposition The A ' i before it. are iti fault. That is This is the hour thatX (= at which) the reason tkat\ [=for which) I did it. A clothed * We A A XXXIX. Thus 'a. Vou are to blame. Fearing to be caught in the rain. In these examples a noun (or substantive pronoun) in the objective. The book is worth a guinea. Leave of absence was refused him. ' long. Adverbial Adjuncts. t were talking about your I shall brothtr.muchX (i. />y that -way). lame. I have a great deal to say to you. Nature and classification of Adverbial Words and phrases which do the work of Adverbs. Madam Sylvia entreated me to call. seedy. Give me now leave to leave thee.e. Where are i?x/ri?. He is worthy of admiration. X He left the very day that X{— on 7vhich) I came.e. by a hit) He \f. we This is no time for trifling. The prisoner's guilt is manifest. You are to return I am to take you home. IVhy did you Hcru) many persons were there ? find a truer friend ? Vou struck Tom mc with his fist. friend in need is a friend indeed.' t Select from Exercise st all the examples of the Gerundial Infinitive used adverbially. Whose hat did you take ? I bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Come started early. To save time let us walk I was given to tmdeistand that you had left town. adjectives or other adverbs. by muck) richer than I am.«£'/j' kind.' ' clothed in a long white robe.Vv good temper. The friends of the prisoner are very rich. man soon reached the top of the mountain. He is [by] a great deal % worse. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.212 John's coat . . It is [by] many degrees j colder. His right to adopt that course was challenged. verbs. I saw a house to let further on. He spoke eloquently. brother is My A rattling storm came on. to see We me." &c. returned. He came forth l)ound handX and/c?('/. borrowed William's big two-bladed knife. His right to the property was disputed. a man walking * in the garden. What X [== for wkat purpose) ntud \vt any further witness? Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that He came (= • in which) I loved it first. State to what verb. He obtained permission to go.' and ' white ' are adjuncts of the noun robe. Go thctwayX (i. (§§ — by modifying 370-— 372. cousin Henry died last week. fo-morro7V. I am fond of reading. of tills itind may contain a noun which has adjuncts of its own att^ched to it.

This flower blooms all the year barefoot. return with welcome home from banishment. first Exercise We . I will pay you your account soon. We cannot live our lives over again. He accompanied us most of the way.iy examples all those in Exercise iq which contain an Indirect Object. D. In the case of the following complex adverbial point out to what the oitire group of words is attached.* The rest must perish. You are to come home directly. ' ' ' ' ' ' We * \ Come more Add Gerunds started very early. Do not talk so fast. Lord Marmion's steed rushed by. The horses being exhausted we covXd no\. this question. He was promised a rocking-horse. I was asked hrgixen his past offences. We were told our faults. Six frozen 'cuinters spent. " Bloodshot The his eye. Thus in. He is a year older They arrived yesterday. I cannot ride to-day. I have fought a good fght. quickly. I am fond of riding on horseback. rained every The wall isjifty feet high. " were talking about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday. To reign is worth ambition. It day last week. What is the matter with you ? He is too ready to take offence. I am satisfied. My pony being lame. live in constant fear. . had nothing to do. He was paid Point out the adverbial adjuncts in the following Exercise 83. On reaching home we found that the rest had arrived before us. roiitid. He slept an untroubled sltep. am much We We We We Why .EXERCISES. and to what verb. Housing and saddle bloody red. t I shall be glad to to these ra. He was his bill. will be here to-night." adjuncts. were all talking of tiie accident. their great leader slain. did you say that ? \N here were you on duty last night ? He comes here every day. his nostrils spread. He prayed for a displeased with your conduct. than I am. ^^'c 213 d<jy. The battle oz'er. F. I will paint jjv« a picture." the words about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday constitute an adverbial adjunct to the verb 'were talking' while to your brother' and yesterday are adjuncts of the verb happened. I They walked He advanced cap in hand. adjective or adverb they are attached :— . Wait a bit. sentences state of what they consist. The dead were refused burial. E. He built a wall ten feet thick. \>YOceeA. I am not disposed to sell the horse. the troops withdrew. He is not like his sister. The cloth is worth a guinea a yard. I am content to be silent. I They speedy deliverance. Do wt' the favour of hearing Yl<i \s \\\ie his father. He spoke unusually well. C. gave the Iwy a book on his birthday. You are spending your time to no purpose. He approached me dagger in hand. It rained all see your brother next 'ucck.' 84:. loose rein dangling from his head. Pass nie the salt. and then show what words are modified by the subordinate adjuncts which the entire group contains. My object having been attained. what I have to say. I shall went to the theatre last nig/tt. are glad to see you. There is a church a mile distant from the town. be modified by adverbs as well as any other forms of the verb.

haviour. of Adverbial Adjuncts. Make a dozen sentences in which a^ preposition followed by a noun or pronoun forms an attributive adjunct. We arrived an He was in too much haste to hour too late. made up . I see him most days. are attributive adjuncts. You should do your best to repair your fault by working harder.e. Most days are joyless to me. A man addicted to self-indulgence will not rise to He is fond of angling. 4).e. I must express my displeasure at your befond of the pastime of angling. I am fond hear of your safe arrival. The place abounds in good Do you see that man on horseback? He has given up riding water to drink. by unflagging industry. He Exercise 86. He is not prone to We rely on your promise. We were The advantages of travelling in foreign counvexed by his rudeness to you. the window.) Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. What is called the Cognate Object is really one kind of adverbial objective. He is a man of great industry. except those in the absolute construction. He did nothing towards helping me out of my difficulties. 2\ that is. Every evening next week is engaged. Nouns occurring and not go- verned by prepositions. I am looking at the man standing with his t)ack to of going to the theatre. are adverbial adjuncts and show to what word each is attached. In the following examples show which of the phrases of a preposition and a noun do the work of an adjective (see § 362. the half of every day in bed. What is my duty to my neighbour? He is useless. Exercise 85. He escaped by leaping over the ditch. the attempt. i. He spends every other day in London. arc engaged wc have a rubber. which must (now) be parsed as being in the nominative absolute. Reliance on his promises behaviour of this kind. I cannot walk a step farther. the Objective Case used adverbially). He accomplished the task tries are very great. XL. I am greatness. on horseback. and which do the work of an adverb (see § 370. Every cvfuiug the day. He is too feeble to make adhered to his determination to make the attempt. That is a good stream for angling.. We shall spend next tveck in London. You have displeased me l)y your behaviour. carefully distinguishing the adverbial objective from the other uses of that case : pay you next ivtrk. Parsing Exercise 87. He spends have lost half sat up half the night. must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective Case (i. in adverbial phrases. I will We We We . fuss What is the use of all this shot a great quantity of game on the moor.2 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He gave hnii his best wine to drink. Papa goes to London every (fay. He shouted to the boys at the top of his voice. about the matter? I am delighted to see you in good health. and a dozen in which it forms an adverbial adjunct. mind what he was about. The master praised the boy at the top of the class. (See §§ 370— 372. Do your duty to him.

There is no one /'«/ pities him. Parse "but 'in the last sentence. Both brothers were All those present present. It is not that he loves me more. t We have not enough to eat. only be quick about it. It came to pass about an eight days after. We have other things to attend to. Either road is difficult. Nothing can or shall content It is an ez'en chance. my soul till I am ezh-nd with him. I will both lay me down in peace and sleep heard it. You may break him. their great leader slain. Some twenty persons were present. 54). He I am mueh pleased with you. He need not be afraid. There were a dozen men there.EXERCISES. He would liave said fno7-e if I had not stopped him. You must go. I feel soniewhat indisposed. He lived ten years there. We have wasted half the day. Who only son. He lived a hundred years (§ 362. The rest must perish. You must spend less money. these sayings. 471). I never drink either beer or wine. have only four shillings left. He spoke to all but me. They gave us trouble enough. I do not believe cither's account of the matter. but that he fears me less. and what did you do What need we any further witness ? What shall we next ? I am not 7vell. I have somrwhat to say unto thee.sus. but I cannot. 2 . Less . He will have the expense and the trouble besides. We went over dry fooi. sir. He needs strict oversight.vky and the loherefore of everything. Give him more air. tences Parse the words in italics in the following sen- :— He will have the expense besides all the trouble. Come this way.than that would have been enough. He knows most about the matter. Intt you will never bend him. He sat up all night. Lead I cannot count the times I have told him that twenty times. I would do it but that I am forbidden. Both John and I were present. All save one perished. Well.' adjective. You are sent for. Be 'iVell assured of that. I have not tnuch time.' never an adjective. There was but a minute to spare. Do comes next ? He has lost his We _what you please. ' It means it is X II ' • Enough may be a substantive. The battle was fought on this || * Else + ' is always a mere adverb. left iiixt ([ay. All is lost. else"^ he would not look so mysterious. It was built some % ten years ago. Some men (i. 55 . They have bread enough and to spare. for you are sent for. He knows something about it. His needs will be well supplied. He is all powerful at court.' or 'otherwise. wavThe horses having been harnessed. need in this business ? What ! Did you not get my letter ? He wants to know the 7. but Some here is not an adverb. He must needs pass through Samaria He told me much of what liad happened. He takes the medicine every three hours {\\ 173. They sent for you. Why! he is as rich as Croe. He bought three score sheep {\\ 362. that I have told him that. What shall we do next? He sat next meat dinner. He even insulted me to my face. ' either 'besides. 2). Parse the following sentences. I have nobody else to look to. Exercise 89. every evening next the ' 215 iveek. a certain number of mei:' . I am //'?// inclined to believe it. It is usually an adverb ' Some' had better be taken as an namely twenty. I have not told you one //rtZ/'of what was said. Others may believe it. we started. paying special attention to the constructions that are not obviously consistent with the rules: The multitude were of one mind (§ 376).e. ' Exercise 88.

3. . I. subject. The owner of that estate fJismayed at the prospect they beat a retreat. of a preposition that by the whole of what it stands (or.' P7-cd.2l6 . The I loved it first' (/(/. Leave the room I must see him. The construction wiirsometimes be clearer in the priinary division. appetite that J he sits this instant. f all on board the ship. Preliminary Lesson.i If the subject be the interrogative ' who.' being here the representative of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition. exercises may be taken for practice in parsing as well as S The examples in the following ' ' We ' ' ' m analysis. The i'oys came home child has hurt himself. II ' ' ' Divide the following sentences in a similar way .). Full many a flower is born to blush miseen. divided.' it had better come first .). and the grammatical — Subject and Predicate. by the lightning. if the predicate be Thus. terrified rich old uncle has left him a large estate in Yorkshire. riseth from a feast with that keen.ssuming the function Compare the following sentences. Macb. " When will your brother return to town. Does your uncle the doctor know of this? Went not my spirit with thee ? Wlience did the author of that book get his materials ? Who in the world told you that? Why did you send the poor man away ? How many shillings have you in your purse ? • There is no occasion to supply ' of. ran away at full speed. Divide the following sentences and the logical predicate : into the logical This naughty child has torn his clothes. The children. came indoors. and must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective. ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES. Your brother. logical Subject and Predicate. friends of that little boy have sent him to sea.it. The John's parents have sent him to school. tired with intends to sell it. The horse. Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that % down {S/iaksp. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.'"' may be put first. between the Difference Nature of a siinple sentence. Exercise § 90. When will return to town ? Stibj. Questions may be divided in a similar inanner. A The play. + To jiarse quickly replace 'I'h. Simple Sentences. is I an adverbial adjunct. last night. He passed six months aboard the ship. My little brother has fallen ilown. The passengers are side* the river. and see § 2S1. and that quickly. king with the Lords and Commons form the legislature {\ 377)' Who ' XLI.' have an adverbial phrase a.

Take the following sentences logical subject in each into the in the way shown in § 490."' take " have heard. and state in which the each case of ' In the first few sentences the words or groups of words forming separate adjuncts are enclosed in brackets. Make (or find) dozen sentences § 388). The work will very proliahly be finished before night. (The) (Chubb's) (patent) lock \\. He is of all enchantingly beloved. ''His meek aspect. abandoned the undertaking.' but grammatically it is nothing more than an adjective. The handle of the pump in the yard is broken. died at their posts. I shall most likely hear from you lo-morrow. barn (The) (impudent) fellow (not being satisfied with my alms) began to abuse me. Which boy knows his lessons? What poet's works please you most? What goods are most in A A demand ? What naughty little boy broke the window a ? Exercise 93. Thus. titere/otc have I spoken. 'lake the following sentences and put with the subject in each the ivhole of tlie verb that belongs to it. I had at last with infinite trouble surmounted the difficulty. * and separate the grammatical subject and its adjuncts (My) (poor) (little) brother has hurt himself. (My brother John's) pony (A) man (carrying a great sack of flour) came into the has broken his leg. John's account of the affair alarmed me. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . in grammatical subject is enlarged (see what the enlargement consists.' 'Afraid of being betrayed into an ambuscade. The field is already being reaped. (the (My (The) house (on the other side of disgrace of our statute book) was repealed. The component parts of a compound tense are often separated by the intrusion of adverbial adjuncts.o my desk) has been (Despairing t of success) ke picked." 'Therefore' is not aeonjunction. 217 Exercise 91. gusted. We shall in due time know all about it. without the other words. poor little brother's) (pet) bird was shot. though the same notion o{ because clings to the expression. most unfau' manner been deprived of his rights. the leader halted. entered the yard. as here. (Good) water (for drinking) was scarce. dependent sentence beginning with a demonstrative often occurs where the sense implies grammatical connection." We We We shall soon reach our destination. wrapped in a huge cloak. but a demonstrative adverb.' So participles and participial phrases are (grammatically speaking) attributiz'c adjuncts .' or any confusion between participles and verbal nouns. Thus from " ha\e already heard the news. the street) is on fire. In analysis and ^aisxu^ grammatical /'or}n is the The point in question has nothing to do with any servile imitation of Latin essential thing Grammar. (Disgusted t by so many acts of baseness) (the man's) friends (all) deserted hhn. I have been all the morning trying to make out this problem. simple means He has in the Exercise 92. (This) law.EXERCISES. You will by these very stop his proceedings.' Grammatically you can make nothing of afraid but an adjective. as '' I believed. because he despaired of success. an int The grammaticalfonit of a sentence often lags behind its logical hiifort. and yet they often involve an advcrhial force . silent. The brave soldiers of the garrison The old church has fallen into ruins rich old uncle left him his property horseman. meaning for that reason. So in Milton. yet spake.' and because they were disAdjectives may be used in the same way." Here silent means although it was silent.

e.' Object : Attributive account of the proceedings." i.2lS ENGLISH GRAMMAR. § In questions the subject is often so placed as to break the predicate (when it is a compound form of the verb) into two parts. They shook the depths of the desert gloom with their hymns of holy chter.^t this phrase does not show where the act of seeing touk place. Separate the following sentences into two groups.^ work ? Everybody admires John's little sister. 'amusing'. C II I. 4._. I saw the occurrence That lazy boy did not go out of doors all the through a gap in the wall. and the several Thus John sent to us an amusing attributive adjuncts of the object. Remember that 'how' is an adverb. The man struck the poor little boy on The boys were rewarded for their diligence.n follows the verb. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. Crying Latin exercises during my To act thus will displease his father. Then take the sentences in the first group and set down separately the object of the verb in each. A large dog's bark was ^^ || * Mind that the subject very ohe. My . write down : Take the sentences in the last three exercises. the several adverbial adjuncts of the predicate in each. duration. You say so to tease me. absence ? I desire nothing more ardently. 'An'. T Observe th. Thus ended a war * of ten years' My We Whom This ended that most unpleasant business. He sent his hat round to rapidl)' turned round in the direction of the report. Account.-iko care in the analysis not to separate attributive words from the adverbial adjuncts that may be attached to them. Exercise 94. To do this jiroperly requires time. On the top of the in the road. Considering his age he has done pretty his steps. will not help you out of the difficulty. Have. f I met some gipsies in my ramble. Who spoke last ? Whom did you hear at church this morning? Hoping to find an easier road. The boys have been forbidden to enter the orchard. give the complete ansiver to the question. were strenuously advised to turn back.you heard the news? Have those little boys finished their morning. has a subject. much money will be enough for you? What foolish notion possesses you? A little girl's voice was heard in the garden. 2. one consisting of those in which there is a grammatical object of the predicate verb. praised the boy at the top of the class. the other consisting of those in which there is not a grammatical object. and Exercise sentences Give the complete analysis of the following Every finite verb in a sentence John's account of the affair alarmed me. we left our companions How did you find your way ? He used a stick to support at the brid. t Contrast this Look at \ 370. sentence with the next. He Have you read this author's last us a droll story about his brother. Veryll few men could have done that. 3. To see the construction properly. We We Exercise 95. 'of the proadjuncts of Object: ceedings. My brother Henry told me J that. He had the impudence to tell me to hold my tongue. .' : — — ' told were greatly amused by his story. Howl! well at the examination. 96. hill stinds a stone cross. Down came the rain. did you see at the concert ? The girl is admired by everybody. The master I saw a soldier on horseback. collect contiibutions. horse fell down the head. cousin arrived last night.

I return you * my best thanks. 'Ago' is a shortened form of 'agone.' you may make Men of weak character. is here an adverb. Man struck. — Nature (§§ Incomplete Predication 391 i§§ — 396). Prcliininary Lesson. as you can. your spirits wildly peep. We had a purpose to be his purveyor. ' !Ex:sr3ise 97. Here shall be done a deed of dreadful return interrupted our game note. of scusj as 'train' or 'instruct-' ' ' ' II ' ' teach'' having Lhc same kind . strongest works. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. Men found. Conceit. said. I. her young ones in her nest. they move.}: man talks! Which [horse] of these horses is to be sold? He eats his food like § a hog. Take the following pairs of subjects and verbs and btild up sentences by putting in objects. Make a dozen other sentences and verbs of your own chooiing.' 'Teach erring man|| to spurn the rage of gain. Horse threw. Some ladies' dresses . thy statutes. in weakest bodies. Theie by Duncan. led astray by temptation.' The phrase objective) absolute.ike ? Hero man had better be taken as the direct object. Teach me He was taught Greek (§ 372) by his uncle. Who ever experienced anything like kindness at his hands? Who but a fool would talk like that ? What have you done with the money? What arrant nonsense that foolish was torn. Thus. Ship carries. that too I told you* all that an Jiour agot. dress My cousin's were sold by auction. and enlarging the subjects. Give me* a cup of tea.' The dead were refused burial (§ 372). came. Forth at your eyes. We arrived. X Look. What more do you wrath may find some wor^e way to our destruction. Loaf was bought. Parse all in a similar way with Exercise 99. The Downward poor wren will fight. He found his brother We have bought a pretty little calf a month old. subjects Exercise 93. and construction of Verbs of Moile of analysing sen- tences in which they occur * \ 493. a melancholy band. XLII. Brother left. where they are wanted. originally formed a nominative (or Look at \ 370. Children went. and objects. " This He died a happy death. desire? Whom did you find walkiuij in the ijaiden? Whose umbrella did you take? Whose exercise has the fewest faults? The poor man's wife died He fell liead foremost into the ri\er. His lying fast asleep. " Take thee * stei^. soinetimes rob their unsuspecting friends shamefully. heard in the distance 219 The tall lady's An empty bird's silk nest was found. the words in Exercises 94 and 96. They advanced step by last nigh'. against the owl. 4.' ' ' Birds Sister build. with as many adjuncts. 498 — 500). at § 371. he sat. from Men rob.ittributive and adverbial. Boy lost.EXERCISES. . predicates. his silver skin laced with his golden Vjlood.

This delay is trying to our patience. time has been. He is not thought a fool.' {iV. I think him clever.' ' . He stood silent (see § 391). (See § 374. The jury pronounced the consider him a fine player. We were delighted by the concert.Kamples : Such things have been. I pronounce the wine We We . That appears very plausible. The boys rushed shouting into the playground. He became my friend. The children are half starved. ready. or the comple- when ' . The wine tastes got quite tired.' ' . He is named John. He called the man a liar. I am in doubt about that. You have made your hands dirty. The verb to be is a verb of incomplete predication it is employed in making a compound tense of a verb in either the active or the passive voice. Analyse the following sentences containing ObjecComplements of verbs of incomplete predications {^ 391. Where are you ? Where have you been all the morning ? is He in the parlour.B. or (better) by saying that the complement is in the predicative relation to the subject. Parse the preceding sentences. He became very rich in a short time. deem this step very This measure rendered the plot abortive. He was wounded by an arrow. The prisoner was pronounced guilty of homicide. He felt tired.. sweet. imprudent. prisoner guilty. He was called an enthusiast by his friends. The dog ran away howling. tive Exercise 103. The We are the man would die. to be is a verb of complete predication.) ' ' Exercise 102. or (as it is sometimes called) the verb of exist jncc.) tion of ' Point out carefully the various uses of the verb in the following e. He sat twiddling his thumbs. 395) : He painted the wall white. He stood rubbing his eyes. He is an honest man.' become. In accordance with 393 (which see) account for the case of the complement either by saying that the verbs be. The poor soldier is badly wounded.220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He was called a fool for his pains.' ' an action. tive Exercise 100. He was elected Emperor. When it is not accompanied by a complement of some sort. They made Henry king. The poor man was starve 1 to death. He cfjnsidcrs this course expedient. § Exarcise 101. it is usually called an Auxiliary Verb. He is considered a pretty good player. I am deliglited to see you.' &c. She looks very pretty. as He is going I was saying He is gone He was struck. In such cases the compound form denotes the performance. They We you in this. the continuance. He is my cousin's friend. take the same case after them as before them. They entered laughing. When the state that is the result of the action is denoted. He grew rich suddenly. I am sure of pleasing He is insane. The air feels keen. The boy was blamed for that. Analyse the following sentences containing SubjecComplements of verbs of Incomplete Predication — : are honest.— An adverb or adverbial phrase is not a complement. I am trying to do it. the participle that follows is merely an adjective' of quality. He is going away.' But when used to form a tense of another verb. He made us all merrj'. that when the brains were out.

EXERCISES. His voice sounded feebly. or the manner in which an action is done. The bell sounded cracked. That cannot be allowed. They besought us to come to their help. in which the subjeccomplement is a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 394). He bade the man wait.) They can haste. He told the man to wait He asked me to come. Exercise 105. (See § 493. They invited us to come. will They may be answered. I do so long to see him. You might have found an easier way. have a good scolding. That may perhaps be true. That looks pretty. Show where the complementary infinitive has itself a complement. Analyse the following sentences containing Infinitive Complements. The stones have made my lect * In parsing an infinitive mood of this sort it must be described as the complement of the verb of incomplete predication. t In many of these constructions. This kind of life to was considered He is believed to be mad. The people wept sore. Exercise 104. He ought not to do this." the infinitive is certainly adverbial. and in the attributive relation to the noun which is the object of the verb. are supposed to have lost their way. He instructed the man to wait. He spoke loud. He ought to pay me. I canThey . this gerundial infinitive is scarcely distinguishable from an adverbial adjunct expressing purpose. as well as the primary ones. Parse the preceding sentences.the condition of that which is spoken about. Exercise 107. He ordered the man to wait. It grieved me sore. You ought to be more cautious. its complement. They He is thought to have poisoned the man. excellent. That He was ordered to sit down. are in the predicative Do not confound the object of a verb with relation to the subject.-hall not hear you. I will depart. The cry sounded clear and shrill. Exercise 103. Analyse the following sentences. shall You can be rewarded. write well. His voice sounded feeljle. Analyse the following sentences. They urged us to come. These secontive dary complements. In sentences like '• How am I to do it ?" •' You are to be quiet. He directed the man to wait. the audience laughing. Nothing could be more unfortunate. complements are in reality in the Objective Relation to the verbs of incomplete J These predication. . He is believed to have perished. He is not to be endured. 221 He made the bear dance. See whether the word in question denotes. or to its complement. carefully distinguishing those cases in which a verb is followed by a complejiicnt from those in which it is followed by an adverbial adjimct. Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests. * He made his horse canter. Indeed [ did not say so. They may take the money return shortly.) Show carefully whether adverbial adjuncts are to be attached to the verb cf incomplete predication. step be very imprudent. was bidden to stand aside. He has travelled far and wide. They have not made the street wide enougii. I We sing. I We must make must go home.^ (See § 396. I forbid you to touch that. He set Let us pray.

Preliminary Lesson. ' * These objective complements distinction infinitive phrases are often scarcely distinguishable from infinitive moods but it will be seen on consideration that there is the £. The whisper came soft sounds clear. I I never grant this forfeiture to hold. In the example given in § 547 it is quite possible that we ought to regard 'this proud Sarazin to meete me as an infinitive phrase of the same kind u.' In that case the analysis of the sentence will of course be different. late. Analyse the following sentences containing ob- jective infinitive phrases — He heardt the wind roar through the I saw the thief try to pick a gentleman's pocket. We wishf you to come to-morrow. See note on § 395. He rubbed his face hard.amc . ' In constructions of this sort the verb in the infinitive mood may be parsed as being the verb in an objective infinitive phrase. form. The bird sang The ship passed clear of the rock. Complex Sentences. clauses (§§ — Nature. The water is frozen hard. heard the man say so. Analyse the bcntences in the mode indicated in § 515. [people] say that he is very rich. Complex Objective Phrases. I believet the man to be innocent. being either pronouns or adverbs. It is too late forj the was too difficult forij: him to hope to succeed. I liket a knave to meet with his deserts. or provisional subject. The whole of the following phrase is the object of it.1 preposition. but that interrogative words do. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Exercise 109. In the following sentences a substantive clause (or noun-sentence." that there is found the man dead. as it is often termed) is the subject. The water runs clear. and place after it the substantive clause as the real subject. and structure of substantive 401—405). I expectedt the travellers to be here by this fault ? being in The duke will time. between ' He made used as kind of the child cry ' ' between ' He made the rpan angry and ' He and He saw the child fall. — Study : § 397. He rubbed his This delay will make us late. face sore. feltt the air fan my cheek. Her voice clear. set it down as such. When 'it' is employed as a temporary. + Notice that the meaning of this verb is quite complete in itself. The task go to Ireland. I have heard Have you ever known+ the man confess trees. t Here llu Infinitive phrase is governed by . They came XLIII. &. XLIV. ' ' .222 sore. and low to our ears. remembering that the conjunction that does not enter into the structure of the clause which it introduces. Analyse the substantive clauses separately. Exercise 108.c. The trees whispered soft and low.<Sed as the (real) subject of chaunced. Substantive Clauses. having the preceding noun or pronoun in the objective case as its subject.* Preliminary Lesson.' and represented provisionally by 'it. The wind sits fair forj news to travellers to arrive to-night.

Try if you can decipher that letter. I heard that he had arrived. Tell him I cannot see him to-day. and then the subject substitute that clause for the it. He made it a condition that I should become security for the payment. Who How long I shall stay here is uncertain. draw a Une * under the entire set of words which form the substantive clause. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. Tell me how the honour of addressing Mr. ' ' . Was on Tuesday that Exercise 110. Deal with it as in the case of t that is. What does it signify he was justified in that proceeding. That he said so is undeniable. It is uncertain what the result will be. 223 Before analysing the sentences in this and the succeeding Exercises. it is Thence that I to your assistance do It is how rich he is ? a question how far make love. Advise if§ this be worth attempting. I thought it J strange that he should leave without calling on me. The circumstance that he was present must not be disregarded. or noun-sentence. How I found the matter out is no concern of yours. unless it has a subject and a finite verb. can have told you that. it to be a disgrace that he had so utterly failed. Tell me what you think of all this. I want to know when this old happened." § ' If has here the force of whether*. first analyse the sentence without the substantive clause. Analyse the following sentences in which a substantive clause is in apposition to a noun. What his capacity is signifies nothing. See § 403 and § 244. stantive clause transitive verb I is : Analyse the following sentences in which a sub" the object of a verb. ' The that this It often does duty as a temporary or provisional object. that he knew We Exercise 111. like a nominative iS 404). (See § 512. It is to-day. thinks. What we are to do next is the question. I tliink I have Tell me who told you. Smith? you are. I am hopeful that he will soon get better.EXERCISES. it Anon methought he went away JNlethinks he hath no drowning mark upon billows spoke. I know that handwriting.) That he did the deed is quite certain. or of a phrase equivalent to a would come. It does not matter what he It is uncertain how long I shall stay. the wood began to him. Methought the ? It was only yester- Methinkst move. remembering that you have not got a complete substantive clause. He told me he knew all about the matter. How completely you are What signifies what weather we have ? mistaken can easily be shown. ' ' . day that I saw him. note. I shall succeed. t The introductory conjunction that' is often omitted. with all the adjuncts that may be attached to either of these. I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night. or comes after a preposition participle. puzzles me. He felt Try how far you can jump. or is used absolutely with a absolute : you say so is enough for me. It is very probable ihat he will not arrive not true that he said so. The idea that I can comply with his request fact that * To those who are acquainted with my larger grammar I need hardly observe mode of marking sentences has not been borrowed from the later works of others. He is confident that are resolved that that shall not occur again.

I am persuaded that that is the wiser course. Being essentially a substantive. not brought your brother. I Ui. see no sign that the fever stantive Analyse the following sentences. which may be described as an objective adjunct to the noun. I would not believe the story but that you avouch it.. or closer definition). go on without me. We welcomed these indications that spring was near. regard) that dinner time. and so strengthened form 'as' (also. co. Analyse the following sentences. Provided this report be confirmed.' The ' . as in I told you so. I came on the chance that I might find you at home. lie did this to the end that lie ni^^h. Oh yet I do repent me of my fury that I did kill them.ivlnce me. % I <im sorry that you are not well. That depends upon how you did it.' of wine. He could not get rid of the idea that I was his enemy." § That is I am sorry on this account. Analyse the following sentences ' ' : (= on the condition) that you are back by " For nothing hold me so it please thee hold {i. \ We are glad that you have come at last. nothing me a something dear to thee. He is desirous that I should return. we shall know what to do. Exercise 114.' Is he a captain? He is sfl 'He is a fool. I must advance the colours of my love. ' I convinced him 7vtt/t respect to tliis point. There was a rumour that the army had been defeated. I am content. In case I am not there.' ' Analyse the following sentences I : is abating." "So please my lord {i.t'. We are disappointed that you have Exercise 113. 'on the condition that it please my lord to quit the fine.i2 4 is alisurJ. That is a proof that he knows nothing about the matter. t 'I'hat is. Who ! The word so is only a substantive demonstrative pronoun t used adverbially. bring him with you. I hate him for he is a Christian. For that I love your daughter. In case* you should see him. or as regards this. but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money gratis. in which an inaccompanied by an interrogative word supplies the place of a substantive clause beginning with an interrogative finitive : Note the omission of ' that. not because they are predicative words.e. I will undertake the business. I convinced him that he was mistaken.' + ' ' ' * ' I drank a pint or so his is brother. I am certain that he never said so.dertook the business in the expectation that he would help me. There is no fear that he will fail. Transitive verbs govern an object. in which the SubClause forms an Adverbial Adjunct to a verb or adjective (like the Latin accusative of limitatioti. but because they denote a tt'ansitive action. ? 165) often has a pronominal force. can want the thought how monstrous it was for Malcolm and for Donalbain to kill their gracious father ? He sent me word that he would come anon. Nouns that do this may have a substantive clause after them. it may have a substantive clause in apposition to it. Provided that he consents.' It is often used without any adverbial force. He has obtained my consent that he should go to college. ENGLISH GRAMMAR." You may go where you like so ' ) Exercise 112..

. ' ' ' ' as it is is in the attributive relation to § The clause the complentent of the predicate in its own clause. the gentleman to whom this park belongs ? Infected be the air whereon t they ride.' It must be t See § 162. Unto l)ad causes swear such creatures as+ men doubt. Whereon (=: on which) forms an adverbial adjunct to ride. In me thou seest the twilight of such day. He had many heavy burdens to bear. I am considering what I know not where to get food. Thy food shall be husks wherein the acorn cradled. 116. You are welcome to my help. The difficulty is how to get there. This cloth is not such [cloth] as I asked for. 225 do it is the difficulty. and lastly analyse the adjective clause separately* : serpent that did sting thy father's life. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul. — Adjective Preliminary Lesson tive Clauses. His behaviour is not such [Ijehaviour] as I like. I taught him how to do it. Analyse the following sentences in which the Adjective Clauses have a Relative Adverb in place of a Relative Pronoun governed by a Preposition (§ 406). The rest {i. X See § 165. after sunset fadeth in the west. I know not how to thank you to How the money sufficiently. Underline the adjective clauses in each of the following sentences.]. Make (or find) a dozen sentences containing adjective clauses in which the relative is expressed. As' must be treated as equivalent to a relative pronoun. • Remember that the Adjective Clause must contain a subject and a finite verb of its own. Do you know I saw the captain in whose ship you will sail.e. The ' Exercise cise 61.EXERCISES. now wears his crown. and a dozen in which it is omitted. XLV. as. such as§ it is. then analyse the entire sentence. repose ') is labour which is not used for you. parsed as a compound adverb. Thou speak'st to such a man that is no Vou fleering tell-tale.' and the quasi-relative ' as ' is . and then analyse them. to do next. Ihrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just. — Nature. Exercise 118. . form. 413). Where to get puzzles nie. and then analyse the sentences. Deal in a similar way with the sentences in Exer- Exercise 117. and construction of Adjec- Clauses (§§ 406 Exercise 115. will soon find such peace wliich it is not in the power of the world to give. I have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love asj I was wont to have.Supply the relatives which are omitted in the sen- tences in Exercise 62. 411. the pressure of which nearly crushed him. He never knows when to go. What sad talk was that wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. ' ' ' help.

The word what sometimes introduces an adjective and sometimes an indirect question. when used as the equivalents of relative pronouns governed by prepositions. Pray tell me what ails you. Exercise 119. ' ' clause. in which the Adjective Clauses are attached to (and explain) the neuter demonstrative It pronouns it. I cannot make out what you I do not understand what you are saying.236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. " It (the person) " It (the — ' 'The handle towards my . The pronouns 'who' and 'which. clause. that. and then parse the sentences : Repeat what you have just said. Go. and tJiis. was the owl." creature) that shrieked. That is precisely what he ought to have done. It was the owl that shrieked. You matter. Is this I see before me.. Exercise 120. and find out what is the already.' &c. f was it the eye of cliildhood that fears a painted devil. Analyse the following sentences. must not dictate to me what I am to do. was John who said so. Do you know the source whence he obtained this information? The fortress whither the defeated troops had fled was soon captured.' a nominative absolute belonging to the adjective clause. carefully distinguishing the subtantive clauses from the adjective clauses. He soon repented of what he had done. Make (or find) a dozen sentences illustrating each use of what. I will show you the shop where I bought these apples. The reason why you cannot succeed is evident. * t That That ' t Tlie adjective hand is who said . You may supply the suppressed antecedents. Do what you can in this business. is.' and analyse them. or treat the clauses as Adjective Clauses used substantively (§ 408).' 'where. Return to the place whence you came. the handle towards my hand ? That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold. . is. which is a substantive What is interrogative when it cannot be replaced by that which (§ 409). You have only told me what I know I know what you said about me. ' ' Analyse the following sentences." clause 'which hand' is attached to this.* ? Who that thus cried It is a dagger which j Analyse the sentences in Exercise 65. was John. ' Exercise 123. I can remember the time when there were no houses here. are saying.' and the pronominal adverbs 'when. eitlier Exercise 121. I'his is what he did. having a relative force.so. Exercise 122. Was that your brother who knocked at the door? Is that a scar that you have on your hand? It was a gun-shot that killed him. He knows well enough what he ought to do. have the same twofold use the adverbs.

Tell me where he is. then you know that till you told me. Tell me where Tell me why you are so angry. In parsing a sentence of this kind. what few vain marbles can. Exercise 128. judgment hath repented o'er his doom. Being shown into a grand apartment. I knew when* seven justices could not take I have seen when. While he is here we * In the analysis supply an antecedent no'in. ' Here lies an honest man. till. . That is why* I am angry. and structure of Adverbial 414—435). In London he made the acquaintance of my brother.Prdbninary Lesson. That is where* I live. The omission of that gave to while a conjunctive force. Adverbial Clauses relating to Time (§ 1. which he read. have an adverbial construction in their own clavises. See where* he looks out of the window. &c.EXERCISES. while. We travelled together as far as Paris. It is an old noun meaning 'time. forming an adverbial adjunct io/eli. first underlining you the Analyse (and parse) the following sentences. Next day they renewed the fight. whom he visited frequently. but that the Conjunctions after. When you durst do it.' as a relative. which lasted till the evening. — Nattire. you live.' § Remember that the conjimction or pronominal adverbs when. where we parted company.' ai)d joining the clause whei) I see you to the predicate ' wilj ' We ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' tejh' . j they fell I the sick and died. and then analyse these \ clauses separately I will tell secret'l were a man. This modest stone. but as independent sentences as though and with a.' to which a substantive clause beginning with 'that' was in apposition. Analyse the following sentences : 227 Find out who did that. ' : — matter will re-word. tjonoiirable ladies sought my love. form. treating the clauses containing a relative not as adjective clauses. demonstrative pronoun were substituted for the relative (§ 413) ' . Whom we raise we will make fast. Analyse the following sentences. have no such force. Clauses (§§ Adverbial Sentences. which madness would gambol from.. ivhere. ivhithcr. 416). before. Deal 63 and 65. I do they will arrive. never has an antecedent expressed. How. I delivered my letter. modifying the verb 'see. which I denying. Sic. after the Adverbial Clauses. I could not make out whom he was alluding to. not know when quarrel. in a similar Exercise 125.* after execution. S have here a nominative absolute. That is howt he always treats me. May truly say. I did not shall have no peace. when I see you. That is why* I did it. While has nothing to do with the relative pronoim. X Which is the object of denying. 'when' should be described as a connective adverb.' By this tune we had traversed half the distance. way with the sentences in Exercises XLVI. when a loud clap of thunder warned us to quicken oiir steps. up a Exercise 124.

Since you say so. Ex3rcise 129. You may come whenever you 2. Whithersoever I went. Because Thou hast been my help. more. When I am determined I always listen to The fool is happy that he knows no reason. Exercise 127. I'll charm there's not a soul to give you an answer? arrived after the air to give a sound while you peiform your antic round.' Each modifies the adjective in its demonstrative. He came He toils hard that he may get rich. so glides he in the night from Venus' eye. please. the second modifies 'wider.' the ' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of wider.' How ' is a relative or connective adverb modifying far. into temptation. He still Adverbial Clauses relating to Place (§ 417). always does as he promises [to do]. the less I like him. Take I I called own room lest on him that I might tell him that he might study quietly. left the room as I 1 shall be gone before you are up. Ho\v|| far the substance of my praise doth wrong this a bright shadow. As he lias begged my pardon. I must believe it. as good as she is beautiful. Analyse and parse the following sentences Where thou dwellest. he followed Seat yourselves wherever there is room. sot it will lie. He is asj : avaricious as his brother is generous. when thieves cannot be true to one another. the wider will be The longer I know him. Analyse and parse the following sentences As the tree falls. The§ higher you climb. for I do not know it. Take heed ye fall am tired that I is am ready to drop. because then it can do no harm.So' and the clause nrst ' The as ' is disclose' are co-ofdinate adverbial adjuncts of 'rose. therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice. He such a liar that nobody believes him. Do as I tell you [to do].* where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. 3.) The first modifies 'higher'. so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. Purpose. me. the village preacher's modest mansion rose.' the clause explaining the indefinite meaning of the. we had left plague [be] upon signifies asking. There. How We 4. you go. the second demon§ Here the main clause is the second one. Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause. Wherever lay where he fell. Exercise 128. He so It weak is stand. Analyse and parse the following sentences : because I sent for him. She is star shooteth from the sk)-. I will forgive him. the second relative.' and joining the adverbial clause (which is co-ordinate with so ') to the second far. strative. Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner and Degree (§ 418).' 11 The demonstrative 'so' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' 'tired. is care that soil all be ready. the prospect. The second (See § 420. that he cannot so dark tl>at we cannot see.' . I cannot tell you his age.adverbial adjuncts of will lie. A when He He entered. ' The first the' is relative. and Consequence (§ 421—423). I will dwell. He retired to his about that matter. He do not always write as we pronounce.2 28 • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He is aware that I did not come. What it. The more he has. : I will follow you. • 'There' and /he clause 'where ' + t . the more he wants.' as the tree falls are co-ordinate . ' ' ' — _ clause.

him.EXERCISES. 1 shall go out. wliat he will [say] he will ne\ er convince me. shall be counselled I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this.^ »_„^ Tell i) _ it. Do not confound tn. 1 would have finished the work had it been . Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. In the following sentences a substantive clause contains a subordinate clause within it. Had I kno\vn|| this I should have acted differently. Though unless you invite me. Analyse the following sentences : — I would have called on you. for killing is not an adverbial aJjiuict of escape.' which is in reality a substantive pronoun used adverbially. 229 5. if I had known If you call you will see him. whatever one does [find] of the family Cold§ as it is. he never pleases tiie man. However great his abihties may be." he construciinn in this and the following sentences is very peculiar. You will not succeed unless you try harder. and sung to filthy tunes. An (=^ if ) I have not ballads made on you all. . I will not come your address. J will do Whatever he may say.) So has no adverbial relation to any word in the clause vhich it introduces.).' but an attributive adjunct t Mind that ' ' ' ' ' of the verbal noun han:^in. \ Co!d is in reality the complement of the preJicite.. Be he ne'er so vile. Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition. I am not afraid of in the wife.s construction with that of such a sentence as ' I believe whatever he J Aiialyse th. and afterwards analysing it separately. he cannot succeed without industry. — Exercise 130. Whatever may be the consequence.' (\ 362.. You will see him though 1 shall not [see him]. {St'e Exercise iii. Say [he] \\hat 1 have said. Do [he] what he can [do].' in apposition 'o the adverb 'so.' ' II If ' is omitted J 434. Ex3rcis3 131. me how (I)- old you were 2) J. Ihe construction is the same as if we had 'however cold I ' ' it is. Whenccsoever the money comes it is welcome. XLVII. Big as he is. But ^' i) that my foot slipped 2) as I tui-ned the corner "^(^7""" ' * This construction consists of a substantive clause '[that] I lose not honour..s. The lady's fortune must not go out one may find comfort in the money. Were you my brother I could not do it for you. he is rich he is not contented. Underline the clauses in the way shown in § 514 and in the first few sentences : He said i) he would return 2) the book when he had read ^ (i). says. Hypothetical and Concessive Clauses (§§ 424 434. j I shall not believe him. Analyse the sentences. let a So* 1 lose not honour in seeking to augment it. possible. Complex Subordinate Clauses. 4. I wish i) > (2) the l)oy (I) would finish the task 2) I set him. I cu|i of sack be my poison. _' when your (2) father died. if I escape hanging for killingt that rogue. this day shall gentle his condition. first treating the substantive clause as a whole.

230 I ENGLISH GRAMMAR.) i) who care 2) not what they say. .atl I saw it.„ ^ 1 he construction will be best the nominative case. The eighth too late. They fear what J yet they know must I have secret reasons which I forbear to mention because you are not follow. who bears a glass which shows me many more. . I think he will soon retrieve his Who told I should like to know how misfortunes if he sets to work with good-will. The right valiant Banquo walked the brains were out the man would die. would never have known. tences.(2) 2) delicate. you that I built the house which you see? He fears that his But that I told him who did it. A child i) : ^'^ .' t 'What' is in :— 'they know [that] that nuist folJovv.t I I lived when I was in town has been pulled down. done what I told you I would do. Fleance killed. I have . if it pleases you. The man i) who does the best 2) that he can [do] deserves praise. Nor failed they to express how much they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. : (I) ( 2) ' In analysis put I have • This clause breaks up the continuity of the substantive clause. (2) •• is gone with her. should have Where (I). won the race. appears. Analyse the following sentences which contain complex adverbial clauses I wrote l) to him 1 will not leave i) till I know 2) that he is out of danger. which contain complex adjective clauses The person i) who told 2) you that I said so.=- observed* l) the air is . ' .s (2) 2) that does not mind when he is spoken to.' seen by substimting the jenjonstrative ' ' . observed the air is delicate first. the subject of must. make him swear to keep for ever. must be punished. he father will ask him where he has been. The construction is the same broken by I say.' t Observe that the substantive clause is as in: 'I say [th. The house where Iiave only Exercise 133. The time has been that when able to answer those of which I make no secret.. (2) " My foolish rival i)" that her father likes (I) ii) 2) only for his possessions are so huge. (2) I I should report that l) which — (I) (2) say 2) I saw. Analyse on similar principles the following senExercise 132. whom you may say. your friend found out where I live. is mistaken. There are men <" (.' . Now methinksyou teach me how a beggar I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. ^ they most breed and haunt. which I did should be answered.

§§ 439. Analyse the following sentences. He yields neither t to force nor t to persuasion. These present no new features. Sentences.EXERCISES. Our purer essence then will overcome the noxious vapour of these raging fires. — Study carefully § : 440.] inured. which in its turn contains a third : I was grieved when I bore among if his neighbours. The two or more co-ordinate sentences which make up the compound sentence simply have to be analysed joins them. with the (§ omission of the conjunction that 436. he had not they ought to act when they meet with obstacles. XLVIII. Contracted FriUmijmry Lessofi. I have not decided whether I will go • Two or three are filled up by way of example. Exercise 134. immediatelv because (i) 231 I shall I knew . when we know we have so many real ones to encounter. portion of Hcither-^nar t Suppress the cciijutictive by substituting not—twt. [will] not feel [the noxious vapour of these raging fires]. It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who al. Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous when great things of small [things we can create. It was so hot in the valley that we could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when we were higher up among the mists. whene'er I sleep or play. how he had obtained the character which he know that he would never have spread such a believed what your brother told him. Don't let us make imaginary evils. 551 fill — 556. . My day or night myself I make. Compound Sentences.) XLIX.use their gifts and powers. are invaluable helpers. Test the accuracy of the following contracted sentences in the manner shown in analyse them separately 440 : then them up and You must either be quiet or [you must] leave the room. * Exercise 135. I will give you no more money till I see how you use what report. He seldom drinks wine because he finds that it disagrees with him. separately. when] prosperous [things] of adverse [things] we can create. You will be punished if you do not come when you are called. (0 He soon left the house when he heard that I was coming. 2) how anxious he was. when] useful [things] of hurtful [things we can create. each of which contains a subordinate clause containing a second. or [our purer essence. be much obliged (2) i) if you will repeat the story 2) (2) which you have just heard. Men who see heard I clearly how you have.

but + I will raise the down-trod ' • Which object of the verb ' taste ' to be repeated as the object of the verb ' know." " Who wickedly is wise or madly brave. — Study §§ 443. but scarcely removes my suspicions. That discovery relieves. 557 — 564. in default of my raising . He allowed no day to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud. [Let the pupil study and practise these." " Two principles in human nature reign. " Bad men boast their specious deeds on earth. He looked as [he would look] if he could kill me. Unless you alter your conduct you will offend your friends and bring disgrace upon yourself. He pursued. consisting t 'J'he whole phrase." you return come and tell me the news. Pirlimbtary Lesson. Is but the more a fool. (That is. foreign levy. He is not so clever as his brother [is clever]. I had rather die than [I would soon] endure such a disHe is better to-day than [he was well] yesterday. self-love to such obedience paid? " " Nor this a good. " Wiles let them I may forgive." " See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow. or when they need. shuddering fear. . He grows worse and worse. t The logical intention of an attributive adjunct is often greater than its mere grammatical " (Although he is soj old as he is [old].232 or not. in the way indicated in the first few examples." " Freely they stood who stood. He stood aside so as [a man would stand aside] to let me pass. first supplied the words that are understood. the more a knave.. of a preposition ('but') followed by a substantive cl. and reason to restrain.. It is better to die than [it is good] to live in such misery. Analyse the following sentences. have nothing to do with it." wine or beer? " Nor steel nor poison. which * who but feels can taste. nor that a bad we call. what pleasure I. I'll shed my ' ' . till he can fill up the ellipses when the elliptical sentences are dictated. I will as you [have a good right to th-^ money]. not now. or he to Hecuba?" L. and thought of the future with As the years went on. king')." urge. which glory excites. from o'er with zeal. "Why should I play the contrive who need. but you will ruin yourself. but I will— King is an adverbial adjunct of 'will shed'. He is as brave a man as [a brave man] ever lived. I have as good a right to the money As [matters stand] for me. I'll shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust. but could not overtake the retreating enemy.) The boy played truant as [it is] usual. having grace. and fell who fell. nothing can When touch him further. wealth [is good] as [lie would tell me] if I did not know that before.' Feels' and 'thmks' are intransitive." him. but I can never forget his ingratitude to me. He was so kind as [a man would be kuul] to give me this book. brandished by man that's of a woman born. Would you rather drink but thinks can know. If ENGLISH GRAMMAR." The full meaning here is force. or close ambition varnished "What praise could they receive.] Exercise 136.iuse. He looks as stupid as an owl [looks stupid]. The sense is — Leaving out the case that I will raise king (that is. ' : — ' ' : ' ' dtar lilooJ ' iS:c. weapons laugh " What's Hecuba to to scorn. I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon than He told me that wisdom is better than [I would soon be] such a Roman.. scandals increased and multiplied. malice domestic. He is a man in that degree\)X'XV^ in which degree brave a man ever lived. 01 t ^'vs he is [old] he is hale and hearty. Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses. As she sat in the old arm-chair she pondered with bitter grief over the past." Roman fool. and die on mine own s^word ?" " Swords I smile at. you pursue this course you will not injure me.

He told me that wisdom was better than weahh as if I did not know that before. /. He was wiser than to risk his money in that undertaking. . Art thou not sensible to feeling as to sight. He is as tall a man as ever I saw. 3'ou tell me. up the ellipses : Analyse the following sentences. he is a little worse than a man and when he is worst. + ' ' ' : * Provis^ional object. What [will happen] if I don't tell you? His wages as + [he is] a labourer amount to twenty shillings a week. he cared not to can be worse than to dwell here ? Present fears are le^s than horrible imaginings. I am not such a As to your proposal. I would dance at maypoles " {Ben ycnsott^ Cynth. having first filled Rather than be less. Herein fortune shows herself more kind than is her custom For myself alone I would not be so ambitious as to wish myself much better. He recommended me as a person very fit for a travelling tutor. You are no Will you be so good as to lend me that knife ? worse off than your brother. Take 'as as doing duty for a relative pronoun (= which blunder ').. He spoke to me as if I were a He tliief. If time improve our wit as well as wine. How could you make such a blunder as t [you made] to suppose (/. in supposing) I did it. but not so fond of play as of idleness. It is not so bad to suffer misfortune as to deserve it. When he is best. He is fonder of play than of work. If I were as tedious as a king [is tedious]. I should earn mere as a crossing-sweeper. Rev. This is better than if we had lost everything.EXERCISES. He died as one that had been studied in his death to throw away the dearest thing he owed (= owned). I should be piped and sung to. l)e at all. I cannot assent to it. How could you make such a blunder as to suppose I did it ? None could be found so bold as to oppose him. As to what fool as to do that. showing the construction of the real object ' to bestow. About him all the sanctities of Heaven stcod thick as stars. IV. his brother. More is due than more than all can pay.). but nf>t so strong. He is more agile than troublesome than ever. he is little better than a beast. He is better to-day than yesterday. looked as if he could kill me. The boy is more He is no happier than before.('. The people of Paris are much fonder of strangers that have money than of those that have wit. . For none made sweeter melody than did the ]70or blind boy. He procured a room as near the prison as could conveniently be found. 'twere not as good a deed as [to] drink [is a good deed] to turn frue man and leave these rogues. as 'twere a careless trifle. He accompanied me as far as to the end of the street. eis a dairy-wench. What . Wisdom is ofttimes nearer when we stoop than when we soar. it passes belief. He is as a great a rascal as ever lived My feet are as cold as a stone. They dreaded not more the adventure than his voice forjjidding. I could find it* in my heart to bestow it all on your worship. 233- An "Mortimer as high in the air as this unthankful king [is h'gh in the air]. I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. I never attend to such requests as that. I speak not as in absolute fear of you. My pupil understood the art of guiding in money matters much better than I.' &c. This construction is the counterpart (with a connective instead of a demonstrative adverb) i of the use of so' followed by a substantive clause to denote a condition or hypothesis (See Exercise 130). The full phrase is such as the following "As I were a shepherdess. He has no redeeming qualities whatever [redeeming qualities there are]. See § 165. Exsrcise 137. say at what age a poet grows divine. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sang of chaos and eternal night.

he skirted still of that mighty hill. adjunct modifying 'air. Or waked to extasy the living lyre. . The soul's Lets in 6.* Save t where the beetle wheels his droning And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. heap. . all 2. The gallant The margin All alone tall king. 11. 10. Beneath those rugged elms. solitary reign. the west wind blows. rills. flight. battered and decayed. light through chinks that time has made. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the And all the air a solemn stillness holds. Lightly and brightly breaks away The morning from her mantle gray. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING. sable mantle of the silent night Shut from the world the ever-joysome light. wand'ring near her secret bower.Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed.' and take 'as as a ' ' relative pronoun (§ 164). The last two lines form an adverbial t Supply ' persons. Here We The in cool grot and mossy cell rural fays and fairies dwell. that yew-tree's shade. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid . 8. 13. A man 5. Molest her ancient.234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. From yonder ivy-mantled tower The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such X as. sight.§ The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 4. 14. Right sharp and quick the bells Rang out from Bristol town. which the subject here. • I-ook carefully to see is t Supply 'those regions' (or something of that kind). 7. His daily teachers had been woods and Love had he found Waiting till in huts where poor men lie. by the side of the pool sat on a three-legged stool. new dark cottage. night 3. Kicking his heels on the dewy sod. j I. And putting in order his reel and his rod. freighted clouds at anchor lie. 12. The 9. % Take ' each — laid as a nominative absolute. Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring Each in his narrow cell for ever laid.

leads on to fortune Omitted. bottomless perdition. His Hstless length at noontide would he stretch. which the God of nature hath placed in our power. There is a tide in the affairs of men Which.* all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries.' See 5 524. 23. Where shaggy forms o'er ice-built mountains roam. 'for retiring. 21.' Then 'which omitted' is a nominative absolute. |' . hour is almost come.EXERCISES. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong.' fall. sable goddess.t Thy tooth is not so keen. it is now too late to from the contest is is {i. Night. The Muse has broke the twilight gloom To cheer the shiv'ring native's dull abode. 15. 22. Blow. flaming. If : 18. from her ebon throne In rayless majesty now stretches forth Her leaden sceptre o'er a prostrate world. 1 Sec § 5C0.e. thou winter wind. When § I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself. blow. t See § 529. But that II To tell 25.. we were base enough retire to desire it. Thou art not so unkind As man's ingratitude. May live to fight another day. My 24.' and the whols lentence '[which] omitttd— m'series is a second adjective clause qualifying tide. taken at the flood. Although thy breath be rude. I am forbid the secrets of my prison house. 19. He He that that down need fear no low no pride. at the foot of yonder nodding beech. 235 There. 17. § See § 406. ' ' ' • Supply 'which' before 'omitted.). That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high. And pore upon the brook that babbles by. modifying the verb is bound. beyond the solar road. We are not weak if we make a proper use of those means 26. He that fights and runs away. &c. Our sport shall be to take what + they mistake. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul. Because thou art not seen. In climes 16. 20. from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To 27.

merely a complex substantive. must I have the half of anything that impart this same paper brings you. Sec § 403. That. The great man down.t 36. never to himself hath said. . lost. 46. quotation t I! _ Sec Sec § 434. I 30. 43. indirections find directions out. How his audit stands. Miss that which one unworthicr may • § ** See § 367. 39.236 28. lets go by The important acting of your dread command. See § 520. blind Fortune leading me. 6. they come not single spies. See § 563.'' || 41. Would'st thou not stir in this. § 595. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and passion. 38. the proud scene was 31. That we would do. 40. So may I. that flattering unction to your soul.§ who knows. 33.* That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf.t Their perfume take these again.See § 370. but my madness speaks. is my own. I in these veins. it ii II See § 521. I freely told you [that] all the wealth [which] had lost. How dangerous is it When sorrows come. Ran 34. it 29. Lay not That^ not your 42. would [that] you had won the fleece that he hath 35. evil that The men do h\es after them.''** attain. man goes loose (see § 516). Now. save Heaven? Do you not come your tardy son to chide. ^ { . trespass. Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed. night descending. But in battalions. Who 'This 47. Thus do we of wisdom and of reach With windlasses and with assays of bias By 37. my native land'. 5. is The night long that never finds the day. that this 44. 45. am content so thou wilt have so. . o'er. we should do when we would (§ 459). When I did first my love to you. When They I they do choose have the wisdom by their wit to freely lose. lapsed in time. Breathes there the man with soul so dead. J you mark his favourite flies The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. . A is not a dependent clause. 32.

doth appear you are a worthy judge. (^= whether). You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. 51. These honours peace to happy Britain brings. which I did make him swear to keep for ever. And he repents not that he pays your debt. As fruits. clause without if. 237 Benighted wanderers the forest o'er Curse the saved candle and unopening door While the gaunt mastiff.' Omit and entire clause ' that follows so. While from the purpling east departs The star that led the dawn.EXERCISES. 49 He that claims either for himself or for another the honours of perfection. . . for that. 60. she 58. (§ 563). will surely injure the reputation he designs to assist (§ 459)- 50.' ' in the analysis. fonning an adverbial adjimct to make. if Your wnfe would give you little thanks were by to hear you make + the offer. On The savage stocks inserted. Whilst light and colours rise and fly Lives Newton's deathless memory (§ 551). You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. this will not suffice. 48. Repent t but you that you shall lose your friend. 56. Affrisfhts the beggar whom he longs to eat. it must appear that malice bears down 54. Their savage eyes§ turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music. 52. nature's vigour working at the root. 55. I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. It truth. learn to bear. 59.' . ungrateful to the planter's care. surest virtues thus from passions shoot. 61. to the ' ' The ' so t an adverbial adjunct far' A hypothetical See § 397. in underprizing my praise doth wrong the so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. For May is on the lawn. Wild 62. is * ' ' ' How' and is here relative or conjunctive. Herein Fortune shows herself more kind than is her cus- tom 57. shadow 53. Blithe Flora from her couch upstarts. How* If far the substance of it. growling at the gate. ' How—it' is co-ordinate with X § Nominative absolute.

dear. Why^ 70. Separate it into (i) 'Whom Nature Whom Nature . Who And • scorn [that] a lad should teach his father having once been wrong will be so still.' Supply ' ' ' which ' before 'we used. lovely rose Tell her that wastes her time . I'll follow them with all my heart.' Substantive clause in apposition to Before 'raise' repeat that I could. rope. Prepares a dreadful jest for all mankind. Hypothetical clause without if modifying the verb ' ' breathes. After ' do ' supply impart better precepts. that future times may tell Thou 68. learning. ! we rove.thee ' modifies 'seems. used to love ! Kindling former smiles again In fading eyes that long have wept 64. better precepts if you can impart. blind to wit and worth. ! 69 first .' TJ Talte •• Hypothetical clau&e without if. Adieu E'en take the counsel which I gave you Or.' why ' as an interjection.' A contracted compound Adjective Clause.' (2) admired. while his Chloe.' t ' ' ' II ' ' ' ' . You'd think [that] no fools disgraced the former reign. Weds the rich dulness of some son of earth ? If this advice appear the worst. ' skill. do. mankind a shame. And 65. to 67. raise pleasure to her height Through the meanest object's sight. Fortune cannot change her mind. In my former days of bliss Her divine skill taught me this. through all life When Losing unblest life that made / Should* some notes we In days of boyhood meet our ear. Sigh.' t § In apposition to 'thou. hast at least bestowed one penny well.relative that before I saw. birth conspired To form not to admire but be admired.' the suppressed subject of the imperative 'think. That now she knows Vi^'hen X I 66. Did ** not some grave examples yet remain.' The adverbial clause when . ENGLISH GRAMMAR.§ posterity will treat thy name .' Supply the. Go.' 238 63. Thatt from everything I saw I could some invention draw . friends. Oh how welcome breathes the strain Wakening thoughts that long have slept. Shall one whom|| Nature. and me. to fortune. How sweet and fair [He] Who thinks that To Think how And buy a resemble her to thee she seems to be.conspired to form to be conspired not to form to admire.' this.

that may forget Thee in the crowd.EXERCISES. Among these rocks and stones methinks I see More than the heedless impress that belongs To lonely nature's casual work. . But know we not that he who intermits task and duties of the day. 79. when to defend single verse we quarrel with a friend.f Besides. ancient times conspired to disallow 71. 239 Had now ? use the man. Who says in verse what others say in prose. soldier. useful to the State. I will My lips. In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. in a grove I sate reclined. with love's familiar privilege decried the wealth that is your own. Cannot forget Thee here. Up 'J']. While heard a thousand blended notes.' &c. In sooth. But most of all the zeal of fools in rhyme.' clause in apposition to fate. The nightly hunter. 75. a fate attends on all I write. "What then was new. with grateful heart Called on the lovely wanderer who bestowed That timely light. what had been ancient 72. when purposes are lightly changed? The appointed 78.* you may suppose. to share his joyous sport. 76. lifting a bright eye towards the crescent moon. Yet let me show a poet's of some weight. Checking the finer spirits.' little use. is we stoop • In full t — 'You may suppose that the man ' ' That is \ A substantive is of the zeal of foals expressed in rhyme. methinks. Yet praise Thee with impassioned voice. Untunes full oft the pleasures of the day. where Thou hast built For Thy own glory in the wilderness. You have 80 Wisdom Than Verily. though no 73. 74. they say I bite. The zeal of fools offends at any time. oft-times nearer when when we soar. ThatjJ when I aim at praise. Then A I too we hurt ourselves. that refuse To flow. Of little And.

386). great profit (§ 374). 8. Are either of those pens yours? Johnson's ' 175). 2. 13. giving reasons for each correction 1. 10. 18. (^ 175). walk (§^ 191. 27. (J Let each esteem other better than themselves Lives of the Poets' are reprinting (§ 175). 26. constitute our respon- sibility (§ 374). Tiiere are 23. He is (§ not one of those 24). is What sort of a man he ? all 31. 28. 231). 21. FAULTY SENTENCES FOR CORRECTION. 30. 5. 11. 4. Neither John nor Henry were Either he or I are in fault ($ church (§ 386). who interferes in matters that do not concern him 29. You did not ought to do that (§§ 184. and not other men's opinions. In modern English two negatives destroy one another. (§ Six months' interest are due 374). 9. 17. 3. Correct the following sentences. ! 15. The The effluvia was disgusting intention of these persons are uncertain (§ 374). 22. : You and me Let you and will take a I take a walk (§ 287). I do not like those kind of things. 25. he older than her? 487). Everybody has their faults (^ 175). 24. This is the greatest error of the rest (§ 109). a better writer than (J me (J 487). (§ 376). 395). He was one of the wisest men that has ever lived (J§ 447. 20. 16. 7. Every man and boy showed sound but order their their joy by clapping (§ their hands ($ I7S). 362). Good own voices were heard and not mean savings produce (^ 374). 14. "'Twas Love's mistake.240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Where was you all last night? ($ 374). 19. who fancied what feared" (§ 464). at 6. 374). "How No pale each worshipful and reverend guest Rise from a clergy or a city feast " (§ 175). Nor want nor cold his course delay many ways of dressing a 386). Is 12. Neither of them are better than they ought to be Our own John is conscience. calves' head. (J 57). it 32. . Having finished the chapter the volume was shut {^^ 351. What signifies promises without performance ? (^ 374).

39. he whom I treated like 450. 59. 386). 66. I had treated like a brother. He told John and I to I. The peasantry wears 376). 60. (§ A numerous party Shakspere is were assembled 376). The of all other follies the most pernicious (§ 72).EXERCISES. man whom I think deserves encouragement ({ man as him would never say that (§ 487). 53. I forget who (§ 487). 386). 55. (§ 287). He He is the most admired of the other dramatists {$ 109). There is nothing to show who that belongs to (§ 277). 241 (§ Homer There as well as Virgil were studied on the oanks of the Rhine (J 386J. (^ have read the second and third chapter eye nor listening ear an object find 454). ij. I. 43. 45. (§ He was angry is me asking him the question ? 484). 379). (§ 41. 33. (§ 54. What the use of you talking like that told me. I heard that from 67. The I fleet are under orders to blouses sail (§ 376). 57. 63. \Vhom do you a Such a think called on me yesterday ? (§ 379). 37. greater than any dramatist. 35.2. 52. 65. 3). (§ Parliament have been prorogued 376). come with him is 287). {§ 487). A hot and cold spring were found near each other love of drink is (§ 454). Nothing but grave and serious studies delight him 374). 64. Nor {§ (J 44. A versifier and poet are two different things (§ 454). Who He is do you think I met this morning ? (§ 366). Between you and he a great fool (§ 277). (§ Can you I can see neither 454). 34. 47. 48. 109). 40. This injury has been done brother (§ me by my ($ friend. 38. all 49. him whom 2). These kind of people are my abhorrence. 62. Somebody whom four. are put in the plural because they are father's many. (§ wore a large and a very shabby hat see a red and white flag ? 454). 46. somebody or between you other. Call at Smith's the bookseller's My friend. is sometimes more than one auxiliary to a verb (J 374). Who Men His can this letter be from? 61. I forget (§ 484 ). 36. 51. and at his brother's lives were spared. 50. Divide that cake 68. whom nor avarice nor pleasure are in fault (§ move Not you but John 374). . 56. 58. has turned against m» a (§ 448. 69.

When will we get there? He has not yet began his (§§ 209. me that say so (§461). He not only ought but shall do 440). These flowers smell very sweetly 393). 2io). Whom Who I feel do men say that he (§ 379). but for his wisdom (§ 440). 77. You have weakened instead of strengthened your case ({ 278). home when you it (§ called. 71. . 78. 96. loi. He The did no more than fact of you was his duty to is have done. I think I will be gone by the time you come 100. Here John Brown. died Sept. This is the greatest misfortune that ever has or could (§ 44°)95. 79. 386). to immediately succeed. as well as read them in a book (§§ 464. I expected to have been at 105. 82. 80. 93. born Jan. 103. 98. He was hoped as rich or even richer than his father (J 440). I would like to see him (J§ 209. 83. 210). 87. 84. exercise i. and my father's leave (^ 449). I little thought was him 394). 76. 81. He is not only famous for his riches. coldly this morning 393). It is I that he fears (^ 461). 85. for 86. as knowledge (440). sings bettter than me it (§ 487). have my aunt. 90. 92.242 70. do not know who send {§ 366). I cannot tell I I you how much to pains have been spent on him. A nation has no right to violate the treaties they have made (§ 464). 88. They seemed to be nearly dressed alike. A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture. is ? 73. (§ (§ 226). 1824. 464). (§ He The raved like one out of their mind Atlantic separates the Old and lies 464). (§ 89. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. {ii. (J She looked cold on her lover 393). having said so enough me {§ 484). 74. 99. 97. 91. 1874 (§ 378). my uncle. New World 454). wish to cultivate a further acquaintance with you. Nobody gives so is much trouble as he does.). happen to me Each It is strives to cheat the other in their own way (§§ 175. Nobody She I in their senses would have done that (J 464). and even more so. 72. 94. 5. 75. I 104. Sincerity as valuable. 102. ? do men declare him it to (§ (§ be (J 394).

(§ 456). 128. . B. The Thames is derived from the Latin Thamesis. and had bettter be you this much. is 394). J. eager natures that longs for a confidante 112. 117. or shall be published 109. He made I 134. Doth he not leave the ninety and nine. I see the being than love her (§ 487). other. 131. 243 While walking in my garden. to increase the confidence so many years bestowed on Mr. 126. 132. voice inspire. an idea suddenly occurred to me. i). We trust that by supplying a genuine and most superior class of article. 135. hallowed cell. M. 121. dwell (§§ 287. 113. No civil broils 118. 366). 129.EXERCISES. His younger days were spent get to France (§ England. Hoping to hear 116. These plantations are lain out by rule and line (§ 226). waiting for an opportunity to 362. 136. Profusion as well as 124. Regard is to be had to every one's circumstances. 111. another joke which she suppressed (§ 439). 130. humble one. He drew a line of about six inches long I (§ 278). i). healths and abilities. 115. It 127. believe me yours truly. that length of days impose {§ 456). was going to have written him a letter. (§ Let the same be she that thou has appointed Of all men else I have avoided thee. lips with fire (§ 456). He has only done that much of his task. whom nobody in the world loves O Thou my Who touched Isaiah's For ever in this I. doom 123. 133. 120. parsimony are to avoided. 125. no use talking so. The centres of each compartment are ornamented with a star (§ 175). 107. This dedication among each that has. no. Let us not increase our hardships by dissensions 108. have since his death arose (§ 226). {$ 440). He is a boy of nine years old {\ 287). More than one emperor prided himself upon his skill as a swordsman (§ 456). The service was impressive. He wrote a moderately sized volume. can tell did not hear. but it lacked either grandeur or beauty. in 1 14. may serve for almost any book is. fair Let thee and Severe the my 122. from you soon. In reading you should sit as uprightly as possible. 106. When I get home I another as 119. (§ 362. and goeth into the wilderness and seeketh that which is gone astray ? (§ 440). Valerie's was one of those impulsive.

appointing the undersigned a Committee to consider the respective merits of different English Grammars. ASK FOB MILLER'S SAINTON'S LANGUAGE LESSONS. so that what is learned by a pupil in an elementary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book is used. SSc.CAMPBELL.. Cloth Extra. McLEAN. Co. N. and Mason's Text Miller's Edition is prepared as an introductory Text Book for Mason's Grammar. J. M.TO AVOID CONFUBtON. Town Inspector. Verbi^t are the same as in Book. we believe that " Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupUs and would urge its authorization on the Government. Nov. . is the recent examination Papers MIIiliGR'S STFINTOrV'S LANGUAGE LESSONS County of Elgin Teachers authorized by the Education Department of Ontario.A. ADAM MILLEIl & CO. In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Definitions of tbe Parts of Speech are novir made identical witb General Treatment The Classlflcatlon of Pronouns. Head Master STEELE. a. The MILLEe'S neu^ Authorized SWIITON'S Grammar. b. 30th. Thomas High School. Thomas. that. after fully comparing the various editions that have been recommended. MILLER.A. Manitoba. The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to Mason''8 mason's Grammar. BY J. A. To the President and Association Members of the In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of the Association. McMillan. is authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. — Carried unanimously.M. and its introduction into our Public Schools. B. is adopted by the Schools of Montreal. was moved and seconded adopted. Co. Aylmer High School. A. J. we beg leave to report. F. of Elgin Model School. Inspector. 1878. St. with a view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools. Moods. LESSONS. UNGOIIGE Qrammar. Bet for admission to Miller's Edition contains all High Schools. that the report be received and E*riee. It " St.. BUTLEK. the authorized book for advanced classes for Public Schools. '• A.

is the best introductory work on Grammar for Public School use. and St. A Provincial H. Schools of Winuiprg. Bxbridge. clear and exact. MILLER'S SWINTOH'S LANGUAGE LESSOHS. Perth.. M.. Brantford. Whitby. . Manitoba.)anee. W. P. Model School. and leave little to be unlearned in after years.S. Neiv Foiuidland. Beaforth. WOOD. Straihroy. held at Brussels. Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons is sively in nearly all the Principal Public Schools of Ontario. Brockville.The New Inthorized Elementarj ((rammnr. classification and general treatment are extremely simple and satis' factory.' by McMillan. Catharines. London. B. Quebec. That the Teachers at this Convention are of opinion that Miller's Swinton Language Lessons. Bclle¥llle. since the definitions. Cobourg. J.. Thomas. would save time by using it. (North Huron). Among them are used excluand Model Ottawa. Windtor. Uamiltou. St. H. PortHop«. The arrangement of the subjects is logical and progressive. as other editions are in the market. Listowelt Adopted by the Protestant Schools of Blontreal and Levi College." In my opinion the best introductory Text-book to Mason's Grammar. 1878 " Resolved. Bracebridge. CAESON. Eesolution passed unanimously by the Teachers' As sociation. Mitchell. All pupils who intend to enter a High School or to become students for Teachers' Certificates. The definition's in " Miller's Swinton Language Lessons" are brief. Be careful ta ask for MILIER'S !»>TI>TeN. 1st W. Clinton. Trenton Falls. St. John's. Heaford. Lindsay. May 17. and the book admirably helps the judicious teacher in making correct thinkers and ready readers and writers. Na.

B... a. M. H. M.. H. B. definition and abundant illustrations without stereotyped rules thereby making the study even attractive.ENGLISH GKAMMAE BY C.C. It Is an excellent and reliable work.. all BelleviUe and. Newmarket. have ordered it to be used in tlie . Caledonia. J. Of best. in A. D. MASON. F. M. H. UA.D. I consider it by far best English grammar for high school purjioses that has yet "Mu«oa" and "Fleming" nothing more seeoia appeared.. KING. He immediately sent me Masoin.A.M. With Examina4iion Papers by W. KNIGHT.A. Houston. Principal.South Hastings.A... Institute. I. It has reached a twenty-first edition in and 1 have no doubt it -will meet with the same high apEngland preciation in this Province... High School.M. the grammars that I have seen. liXJ). I this school. C. P. J. • • • Mason'sGrammaris just such abook as many teachers have been hoping to see introduced into om: schools.. — JOHN SHAW. rank in M. S. S.MacHENBT.A.. Dufferin School Toronto. JOHN JOHNSTON. The chapter on the Analysis of diflBcult sentences is of itself sufficient to place the work far beyond any English grammar hitherto before the Canadian pubUc. BICHABD LEWIS. Ab a philosophical treatise its discussion of doubtful points anA Its excellent methods and definitions cannot fail to give it a high the school tiie estimation of the best judges of such works teachers of the country.A. It will be well received by teachers and advanced pupils. AliEX. Kingston CoUegiate Institute. PRICE Upwards 76 CENTS. 8. SIM.. Mason's grammar will be found a most valuable class-book gs pecially for the instruction of advanced classes in English. Loncok. P.P. its method being to teach the subject by explanation.. OakviUe of three years ago I asked a grammar school nspectoi the old country to send me the best grammar publi bed there. M.. M. H. I consider Mason's the MORRISON.. H. P. Head Master.. Fellow of Unitbbsiit Colleob. M. H.. Cobourg Col. Incomparably the best text book for the senior classes of our high schools that has yet been ofCered to the Canadian public. With to De dMlrod. H. M. H. S. Omemee.

Port Hope. J. is worth BB a clerk or accountant 50 per cent more than the prodigy who can boast of having " gone " through his written arithmetic half a dozen times. S. it is the best book of its kind that I have examined. . A. McLellan's Mental Arithmetic contains a great number of useful problems well adapted to aevelop by regular gradations the thinking powers of the pupil. After two woeka use of class I am convinced that it is the book with much superior to any of the American texts that have been used here both as to the grading of questiont and the style of the problems. PRICE. of M. It is just what is wanted for "waking up mind" in the school room. Principal Ingersoll Model School. H. M. Ont. 46C.Mentel Arithmetic. Nova Scotia. H. and it supplies a long-felt \rant.. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic. H. my J. Dr. B. Nova Scotia. A. unless what we call Mental Arithmetic is thoroughly and yatematicaUy pursued.. DIMOCK. -FUNDAMENTAL RULES. PART ll. Dr. CLABKE.D . J. as given this little text-book.. Model School. Provincial our Schools long ago. D. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic supplies a want that we shoiild have had supplied in W. D. GOGGIN.. Picton. A. varied in Prom THE WE8LEYAN. M. The laatio Halifax..B. LL. Dr. McLELLAN. FRACTIONS. its its Simple In Schools. PROPORTION. PRICE. series bids fair to take a good place in seho- work. is a credit to Canadians.-PERCENTAGE. Same progress cannot be made in Mathematical work. By J. Fart I. Inspectoi High Schools. arrangement. &C. m DEACON.M. Head Master Model and Its Public types of practical questions and sugggestive in methods. PART 1. A. RATIO. ANALYSIS. A boy who is conversEint with the principles of Mental Arithmetic. and to suggest similar examplea for the use of the t«aoher.A. 80c.

. Science Master Normal School. B. NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. Head Master Model School. Manitoba. Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction. By Thomas Kirkland.. Highly recommended by the leading Teachers of Ontario. Prince Edward Island. Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamhlin Smith's Arithmetic. Toronto. ADAM MILLER & Co. Toronto. Adopted in a number of the Schools of Newfoundland. Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec.A. Frio* 25 Cents. and William Scott. Authorized by the Council of Public Instruction.One of the most popular Text Books erer published.. Cloth Szfcra. . 176 Faees. Within one year the iOth thousand haa been issued.A. M.

I B. The arrangement is natural and comprehensive. my . Normal School. The Elementary Arithmetic by Kirkland and Scott I can heartily recommend to our teachers. in the best eiamentary Arithmalao I have examined. MoKAY. I have examined your Elementary Arithmetic on the unitary system by Kii'kland and Scott. The questions are in clear. SPKAGUE. Since failures in Arithmetic are mainly due to a want of power in independent analysis to a lack of knowledge of the unitary method and of skill in its application this volume which discusses the ijroblems'on independent methods will be cordially welcomed by teachers. As a preparatory Arithrnetic 1 have not seen its equal.. Public I School Inspector. East Middleiex. W. Cobourg. By Thomas Kirkland. Science Master Normal School... Math. B. Principal of Pictou Academy and Public Schools. I have no hesitation in saying that it is better adapted to the schools of this country than any similar book that has come within the range of my twenty-seven years experience. It is. to Hajnblin Smith's Cloth Extra.. Head Master Provincial Model Nova Scotia. LL. in addition to our present text-book. Master Ottawa it is in- consider cended. Toronto. As a discipline of the mind in tea-hing the pupil to think and reason. M. ty the arrangement of the principles presented and the exercises laid down. Price 25 Cents. is led almost unconsciously to the great field of the unknown. terse. A very praiseworthy feature of the book is the large number of examples and problems pecuUar to so small a work. It is admirably adapted to the requirements of grades Ist. RIDDELL. W. by a Btep. this book with increasing pleasure and can in almost unqualified recomnaendation.A. H.B. it (fcc. have examined it speak of ooiuion.NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. hitended as an Introdtictory Text-Book Arithmetic. Head — — . The young pupil. and William Scott.A. Master. a good arrangement and conciseness in definition and A. as it offers. JAMES DUNCAN. a copious and well selected assortment of exercises. attractive language. Principal Essex Model and Windsor Central SchooL After a thorough perusal of the Elementary Arithmetic by jKirkland & Scott. 2nd and 3rd of our schools. and have no hesitation in saying that I consider it the best Elementary Arithmetic which I have yet seen. explanation. Arithmetic is pre-eminent if taught by logical methods and this work places it in the power of the younger classes to be benefitted by such methods. A. D. W. Model and Public Schools. well adapted for the purpose for which JOHN DBAENESS. B. Schools. B. DIMOCK.A. 176 Pages. that makes his earlier arithmetical studies a pleasure and a profit..B. Head Master Model School.

" W. Gmnberland. I cordially recommend its nse to all those desirous of obtaining an acquaintance with this branch of Dsefol knowledge. Authorited by the Chief Supt. The exercises are admirable.. They will also prove of great service to pupils desiroua of passing the grade tests. Inspector of Sohoola. as the examples have been mostly culled nrom Examination papers. It if Eractical.THREE EDITIONS SOLD —OF— IN SIX MONTHS HAMBLIN SMITH'S ARITHMETIC. for Hamblin Smith's Abithmbtio. —"It has a value oandidatM preparing for public examination. indeed I may say that I have not seen any other work on tnis branch that is so specially ealculated to assist the student in passing with credit offlctal t*$ta. have much pleasure in certifying to the nperiority of the Canadian edition of Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic over any text book on that subject that has yet come under my notice. and ths examination papers are invaluable as aids to teachers in thorough training. Manitoba. Inspector for Qaeen'a Co. N. of Balifax.. DANAGH. "I ANDBEWS. Price.A. so that pupils may readily comprehend the questions and proceed to the solutions. Science Master School. Head Master Model • Sohool. N. Ontario- 4tli Edition. AuthoriMed by th» Minitter of Edueatien. B. Inspector of Schools. I therefore think that Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic should to placed on the authorixed U»t of books for pabllo schooU. M.A. FROM NOVA Bities of SCOTIA. Education.. complete and comprehensive. Nora Sootla. and Nonnal WM. The appendix and examlation papers are important and valuable features.* . A. A. 76 Cents. I Bball b« pleased to recommend its early introduction. Bsrrington. B. ADAPTED TO CAMAOIAM CVKKSaCT BT THOMAS glRTTLAND.. 0. Toronto. M.A. 0. M. DOAl^TE. F. Authorieed hy Ihe Council of Public Inatruction. BL " Eaxnblin Smith's arithmetic seems very suitable to the neoe»« our public schools. Ontario. QiMftMi Beeommended by the Senate of the Univ. The author appears not to rely so much on set rules as upon explanations and the clearing of seeming obscurities. SOOTT.

and without any attempt at rhetorical flourishes. Caledonia. " I have read them through carefully and consider them the best works on the subject for the use of schools that I have ever seen. Hastings.. and a clear comprehension of the logic of History. W. Principal High School. Brighton.. and typoby graphical execution is all that could be desired.. They are clear and succinct in statement and convey a large amount of information. Inspector. rendering them particularly suitable for students. Haldimand. I am particularly pleased with their simplicity of style and fair method of stating occurrences. B.A.A. S. I." G. Co. B. C. K." s Wm. <3rand help these to the study of English History in its only raway hy epochs in the life of the English Nation and her in" Epochs of History'' mark an epoch in the study of iV* Btitutiona. Madoc. and shall.. H. and P. which united in so singularly excellent a manner. High School pupils." Am ROBT. Ont. D. DouGAN. and the more advanced classes of our Public Schools. They have the advantage of confining the attention of the learner to definite periods. Lindsay. Schools. It is remarkably clear and concise. MOEOAN. M.. M. so much out of place a textbook on this subject. "I have been for many years. paper. M. I shall introduce them in the schools here and encourage their use in those of the vicinity." ' Wm. Barrie. in binding.. S. accuracy. H. including my University course. I can. "I am quite conscientious in saying that it is one of the best digests of History that I have seen. Wilkinsoh. Orb. Picton. cordially recommend them to every teacher who wishes to make hlstoiy not an effort of memory alone. Head Master Erantford Central School.A. "The 'Epochs of English History' will be valuable aids in the preparation of pupils for the 2nd class and intermediate examinations. and will he perused with pleasure and profit by many who are neither teachers nor pupils. Hamilton. but a study of the grand sequence of cause and effect by which the facts in tha world's life have been created. " led to express my admiration of the very concise and systematic method of arrangement adopted in them. PL ATT. M. S." '• Ci/ARKE Moses. •' — J. and deserves especial commendation for giving just what the pupil ought to know without any extraneous matter. P. Tou have done good service to Canadian students and teachers issuing a Canadian edition which. B. N. and have certainly never met with any sketch of the periods embraced by the two volumes of Epochs' you sent me. •• ± am glad to see these brief serials authorized by the Minister of Education. "The series is admirably adapted for the use of teachers.. Mackintosh.A. brevity. Inspector. Johnson." u R." . and tending in no small degree to nrn'note a better system of pursuing this important study. I shall be happy to gee them in the bands of all my pupils. P. It forms a valuable addition to the valuable collection of school books you have issued. M. H. They are written in the most entertaining style. an earnest student of History. and thus enabling him to master diificult historical subjects without attempt ing to digest and memorize too much at once. S. I should think their introduction into schools is much to be desired.A. P.CREIGHTON'S EPOCHSOF ENGLISH HISTOHY tional Q.

thoroughbess of Beatty THOS. Schools. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping has had a careful perusal. "I have carefully looked over Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping. M. are plain and simple. Schools. Co. Annapolis Co. S. forms. P. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping is an admirable work. Nova Scotia. Shelburne Co. of Schools. Insp. N.. G. and cannot but ai^mire the simplicity of the outline. MORSE. Nova Scotia. Insp. FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND MANITOBA..A. H. its simplicity alone is sufScient to secure for the book a place in our schools throughout (he Dominion. " Several months ago we introduced Mason's English Grammar inte Manitoba College. & IM CLARE'S lOOK-KEEPI m. Belleville. A. S. Nova Scotia." J. will recommend this work to any teacher or pupil preparing for examination. and its examples ample. DOANE.M. 3rd Ed.. Insp. McGILLIVRAY..A. A. C.. L. the practical bearing of the transactions. Torontb. Inspector for Queen's Co. Normal School. PRICE. — " Besides D. and Sauubl Clare. the perspicuity of the instructions. M. with which the principles of bookkeeping are explained and illustrated. SMITH." W. Ontario. We . C. It commends itself to teachers as a text book and to all others desirous of acquiring a knowledge of this important branch. while it is su£Bciently comprehensive for all practical purposes.. Nova Scotia. and the varied commercial character of the whole work.. S. and now wc are introducing Beatty & Clare's Houkfind tbwn jmt what w« need in their respective sut^eeta. " I have looked into Beatty_& Clare's Bookkeeping.BEATTY By S. Its directions are minute and to the point. for ve» k Treatise on Simolb and Double Entry Book-Keepino..' kceping. M. Hants. D. Beoommended by tlie Covmcil of Public Instruction. S. looking over this book have submitted it to the inspection of practical bookkeepers who agree with me in the propriety of recommending it as a school book. Digby. HioH AND Public Schools. It is well adapted for use in the public schools. Quebeo. AutJiorized by the Chief Supt. Beattt. Principal Ontario Commercial College. JOHN AMBROSE. DANAGH. N. Nova Scotia.Keeping and Writing Master.A. A. Manitoba. Inspector for Cnmberland. Insp.. Authorized by the Minister of Education. Schools. ANDREWS. HART." myself. " I am very much pleased with the aimplicity and & Clare's Bookkeeping. Schools. - 70 CENTS. Colchester County. The definitions. Book. Supt. T. yet comprehensive and practical. " I have examined Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping and find it to be an excellent work. vid have much pleasure in saying that the work is just what is wanted for boys who desire to acquire in a short time such knowledge as will fit them for business*" KEV. Education. and transactions therein contained. Winnipeg. I Beaty & Clare's Bookkeeping.


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