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1879. . MASON. SO cents. Re2}rintcd from Mason^s Shorter Enijlinh Grarmnar. WEST. 11 WELLINGTON ST. B.) PRICE... {Public School Edition. . BY C. LONDONo SECOND EDITION. TOEONTO: ADAM MILLEE & CO. ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. p..A„ FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE.Ixlhx ^ €a'B (!Ebucafianal Merits.

.Bntered according to Act of Parliament of Canada. in the year 1679. in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. hy Adah Milleb & Co..

an adverb or a preposition by recognizing its meaning and function in the sentence. and there are some good works of that kind which have either a scanty apparatus of exercises or none references to the paragraphs of that at all. he learns step by step the functions of the various Parts of Speech. and the exercises themselves are so arranged that they may be nsed with any good text-book of English Grammar. The The present to work is a reprint in a separate form of the Exercises appended Grammar. and of their forms and combinations. or . of what possible iise can it be for him to give it a name by the application of some empirical rule relating to its position. Beginning with the simplest elements of a sentence. my recently published " Shorter Englisli Every effort has been made to render these exercises as serviceable as possible to those who wish to guide their pupils to a real understanding of the structure of English sentences. learner is The taken by easy stages from the simplest English work to the most difl&cult constructions in the language. or something of the sort this fashion % When in he has managed to say that "now" is an adverb. If he cannot tell that a word is a verb. li the use of these exercises I strenuously urge tlie upon teachers patient and unflinching compliance with directions given for guiding the pupil to a thorough understanding of the fimctions o words and forms. enable him to Nothing is more useless and even hurtful than of mechanical directions to to furnish the learner with tell any kind the Parts of Speech." work have been retained to prevent the cost of preparing new plates. and acquires by degrees the power of analysing and parsing the most complicated constructions.PREFACE.

through a certain number of pages of some text-b. profitless It is this that renders school "lessons" wearisome to the teacher. 1879. Streatham Hill. Xone but learners of abnormal hold out against this kind of treatment. really "against" a preposition. Dlikesell. he before. A tolerably long and Avide experience justifies sloiv me in afihming most strongly that examinations. while his knowledge this delusion is itself a bar to his acquisition of the only kind of knowledge which could be of is any use to him. P. the matter he a mere sham. and dreary and repulsive to the pupil." that is to say. knows no more than he did than this. Avorse he is deluded fancied the idea that is knows and something. PREFACE. talvC him patiently over the ground again and again till the difficulties stupidity will have vanished. into Nay. and careful teaching pays best even at The specimens of parsing and analysis that I see yearly in hundreds of instances. MASON. learners never find a lesson when they feel that they are really learning something. to master the proper if explanation readily. €hristchuech Koad. of far too I'he bane much of our ordinary school work is the ignorant impatience of teachers to get their pupils "over the ground. No dull matter what the suliject may be. Janucury. If the pupil till too is young older . and they had better devote such intellect as they have to simpler pursuits. wait he he is too dull.IV . but) impatience have been wasted in going over and over again the same unintelligent repetition. . show how deplorably time and round of mechanical and (not patience. C. ok. for He is simply using wonis without a perception of their is meaning.

5) II. saw an King Arthur's sword was called Excalibur. March is a cold month. Find out some uncouth cell Where brooding darkness spreads his jealous wings.EXERCISES. Things to eat. and the Proper Nouns in another John likes school. and the wherefore of everything. S. Trees and flowers. Rivers or mountains. in Exercise 2. Petrels and eclipse of the sun. 31-37). Boys or Towns. 4. — Definition of a Noun. nouns which are names of 3. Houses or parks. — Definition Modes of form- mg the plural (§§ 47. Countries. names of each I. (or write) ten proper girls. loathed Melancholy. Of Cerberus and blackest midnight bom.)." "You may avoid that too with an He wants to know the why ifs?" § " Tellest thou 'if'" (Shaksp. 3. nouns which are the Animals. 6. : Common Nouns and Exercise 1. The boys were : Bellerophon rode a winged horse reading about the battle of Agincourt. 4. 7. better than June. of Number. Say I. I. Write the Common Nouns in the following sentences one list. My brother has a horse called Dobbin. N . or to play with. Preliminary Lesson. She brought me a bunch of may. The Fido. Some stuff or material. The traveller ascended Helvellyn. I like May soldiers had a weary march. me of" (See 349. My uncle is the captain of the 'Bellerophon. Say (or write) ten common of the following things 2. Singular and Plural. Distinction between Preliminary Lesson. called Pegasus. The horse that won the race was Eclipse. That cow has lost a horn. in the 'Petrel. Things that you see in the room. &c. Ships.' We "O Solitude! where are thy charms?" " Hence.). 177 EXERCISES. He sailed round Cape Horn swallows are birds. 5. to wear.' Lie down. Dogs or horses. 2. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns (§§ Proper Nouns.

Pence. The office of sheriff. Play' is a verb it tells us something ' . The Lords and Commons. Sheriff Johnson. Thus ends the tale. Write the plural of each of the followhig nouns Chimney. Mr. Preliminary Lesson. In came William. '' Boys play. The Prince of Wales. The Duke of Bedford. The Cape of Good Hope. Nooses. Sky. what they do Thus. and explain their functions. The life of Dr. Horses neigh. Duty. Lies. Exercise 4. Noses. Halves Kine. Cries. Victory. it stands for that about which we tell something by means of the verb. A We sting ? IV. The house of mourning. Osprey. Exercise Boot. Stars Geese cackle. Sentences. Stuff. James The prescription of the doctor. The clemency of the conqueror. Negro. : Echo. An object in the student of the Middle Temple. Exercise 5. tells . The first chapter. but about that/or which the word stands. Flies.Snow falls.178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. John works. Wife. because in the sentence. B. Cats scratch. not about a word. Cargo. because the subject of a sentence is only a word. Calf. The death of th^ emperqr. Here comes papa. Speech. Lice. — Definition of Verb. Point out thd subject and the verb in each of the following sentences. • Not about the subject. Trespasses. Subject. Beware of confusion about this. where is thy common supplications. Copy out the following examples two or three times and then write them from dictation The mayors of provincial towns. Up went the rocket. Loaf. Bruises. Thrush." 'Boys' is the subject. III. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight. Johnson. Death. Pies. Grass. Trees. Capital Letters. note). 3. The barristers and : solicitors. Feet. The Lord Chief speak of lords and commoners. A court of justice. Valley. Preliminary Lesson. Scarf. &c. Leaf. The princes and dukes. It is in the noininative case. Use of the Nominative Case. The Lord Mayor. The recorder of these events. The Recorder of Carlisle. : Sheaf. . Then cometh the end. Enemy. (§§ Agreement of the verb with its subject 179. Ass. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. Sentence. Dray. The Solicitor-General. Children. Justice. Buoy. Predicate. Birds . about boys. Oxen. St. and the verb us something. The evangelist Matthew.Soldiers fight. Write the singular of each of the following nouns Arches.. middle distance. that is. John the Evangelist. 374). Waves.* fly. Down came the rain. Staves. Convoy. through grace. A.shine. have a good hope William the Conqueror. The House of Commons. — Use of capital letters (§ 6. Verbs. Our I The Book of Common Prayer. the First. Bees. Mice. .

Pray. &C. Growl. Cows. children's A We VI. lap. Speaks. The boy pulled the kitten's tail. Day. Graze. Sing. I bought this paper at the stationer's. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever. The following Sail. are verbs of which you can make use : Fight. The Possessive Case. This may be done by placing the same numeral over each. Glitters. The kittens are in Mary's patience. Ships. — Formation and use of the Possessive Case . Grow. Squeal. Squeak. Tom's horse's leg was broken John's day's work is nearly finished. Soldiers. child. Put a subject of the proper number before each of the following verbs : Shine. The wind. V.EXERCISES. Trees. Preach. Hens' eggs are white. Mice. Howl. Lions. Sing. cheese was made from the goat s milk. The farmers' barns are full of corn. Sinks." II 22 Men's lives are short. Play. went to St. He lodges at the baker's. Paul's this morning. The masters heard the boys' The boys tore the master's book. Parsons. Exercise 6b.Intransitive Verbs. Rain. The bird's leg was broken. . Goats' milk is wholesome. 179 Exercise Grass. Prelinmtary Lesson. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Stars. Scratches. Break. Sings Howl. Arrive. The voices are loud. Plays. The keeper caught the vixen's cubs. The bird. The birds have built nests in the farmer s bam. Draw one line under those nouns in the following sentences which are in the nominative case plural two lines under those which are in the possessive case singular and three lines under those which are in the possessive case plural and show in each instance to what other noun the noun in the possessive case is attached. Chatter. Water. Dances. Cry. Sink. so as to make a sentence : candle. J^reiimi7iary Lesson. Work. The horses ate the oxen's food. Swim. John's hands are dirty. Run. The boy taxed the masters' The men heard of their wives' danger. . lessons. Twinkle. Scratch. Run. Dogs. The leaves. Fall. The Object The Objective Case . Put some verb or other with each of the following nouns. Flies. (§^ 67. The John. (§§ 182. Appear. Shriek.). 'J'he baker's bread was spoih. 183). Works. Mary. Shine. The bakers' shops were shut. Float. Boys. — Distinction between Transitive Verbs and of a Verb. The sun. Kick. Dawn. Roar. Horses. Blow. Puss. The Owls. 6. as " I found Henry's book and William's slate.

as intransitive verbs . The parson preaches. —Verbs used {with a difference of meaning) . a transitive verb. The The boys play in the yard. 3. Bii'ds twitter. I. The boy struck his brother. two lines under those that are used intransitively. The hunter started a hare. and draw one under the verbs that are used transitively. Cats mew. Bakers make bread. The dog howled. In the following examples put in an object where it wanted to show what the action denoted by the verb is done to The boy hates. Mary wrote. Make a dozen sentences containing a subject. : The the French." : — ' groom kicked John touched Henry. VII. and reflectively. Preliminary Lesson. The boys play in the garden. as transitive verbs (§ 2. and an object. The butcher killed the pig. as in Exercise 5. Birds build. The hound chased the hare. and explain the use of " the Object as follows John struck the ball' The word ball is the object of the verb. The dog barked. Mary died. The horse neighs. Clouds covered. A lion deThe horse kicked the groom. as reflective verbs 183). In the following sentences point out which nouns are In each case explain subjects of verbs and which are objects of verbs. The man sank his fortune in the undertaldng. 11. The sun is ": shines. The lightning struck. The man spoke The man spoke well. Verbs used transitively. Men pray. and draw one 8. The boys waste time. intransitively. screamed. The girls dance. Exercise line Write out the following sentences. Write out the following sentences. Sheep eat grass. because it stands for that which is the object of the action denoted by the verb. and a dozen containing a subject and an intransitive verb. Exercise 10. The child Exercise 9. Exercise 7. and three under those that are used reflectively. and two lines under the intransitive : verbs Men eat bread. . under the transitive verbs. The man desires. The sheep graze. A verb should be treated as a transitive verb used reflectively whenever a reflective pronoun can be supplied as an object so as to make the sense more complete. the horse. travellers started yesterday. Rain fell. The girl plays piano. The dog bit. The voured a sheep. the use of the Subject. boys learn lessons. Cats eat mice. as " I always wash [myself] with " The visitors withdrew [themselves] " cold water " Exercise line . The sun warms. The horse carries.I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The man broke his leg. The pig squealed. The ship sank.

He We Exercise used : — i. Fly. cut his finger. Eye. The maid fnilks the cow. Personal Preliminary Lesson. The thief tried the lock. Exercise Find twenty more words which may be used either as nouns or as verbs. in such sentences as Iron is heavy and The women iron ' * — the shirts. Get out of my way. He gave up the game. 227).' Exercise 13. Work. Take yourself off. He made off as fast as The The The man he could. 15. The boy tried The traveller returned yesterday. PinCh. Get up. VIII. He turned the snake twists and turns about. Hook. Take this chair. Get thee gone. Beat. I delight to hear him. 218. Make sentences in which the following words are as nouns . The earth turns round. 2. He slipped a shilling into my hand. Owls hoot. to illustrate their use. Pen. or a verb (because it tells you what some person or thing does) : took a pinch of j«2{^ John snjiffs the candle. He ornat>ients the table with plate. The merchant returned the goods. The laundress irons the shirts. The judge tried the prisoner. Dig. He has twisted his ankle. out of the room. The passengers crowd the deck. Gneifurrcmis the brow. delighted the audience. Study the meaning and use of the word iron. The irons are hot. Form.. The Personal Pronotins. A crowd filled the square. T\\q furrows are not straight. Prelimhiary Lesson. Forms and use of the Personal Pronouns. Take the words in italics in the following sentences. audience hooted the speaker. The town surrendered. Seat. Cover. 14. He cut away pretty quickly. He has not shaved this morning. and make sentences Exercise and intransitively. The cook steams the meat. We all rejoiced at his success. She decks herself with ornaments. as verbs. l8t hard. Name. and say in each case whether the word is a noun (because it is the name of something). Task. He 12.EXERCISES. The deputation withdrew. — . inflexions of verbs (§§ 131. ^^^lip. squared accounts. He made a noise. Words used both as Nouns and ' as Verbs. Shoe. The barber shaved me yesterday. Pocket. Get your umbrella. You had better give in. &c. The singer transitively Find a dozen other verbs that may be used both and six that may be used reflectively without being followed by a reflective pronoun. Steam comes out of the kettle. old man slipped on the ice. I withdrew my claim. IX. and of the Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. The governor sunendered the town. The children drink milk. His safe return rejoiced us all.

* Suppose John is speaking to Thomas. Did I hurt you? You have spoilt my book. You will meet us there. John will lend Thomas John's knife. admire him because he is brave. They will love you if you are good. Preliminary Lesson. We took them home. dog's master beat the dog with a stick When the boys have finished the boys' because the dog bit the master's leg. The boy has hurt her. The master praised the boy because he was attentive. Thy friends are here. Look at this book. I We . Direct Object and Indirect Object. and which in thsir turn resemble what appeared previously in the author's ' First Notions of Grammar. 4). Will Thomas give John Thomas's stick.l82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Con- cord of Verb and Subject 218. Mary has lost Mary's thimble. the garden. 374. You have hurt me. lessons. Arm you against your other Bethink you of some expedient. They left us yesterday. Draw one line under those nouns and pronouns in ' These exercises are very like some that have recently appeared elsewhere. substitute the proper pronouns for their names in the following sentences.) Exercise 18. the girl When was old enough. and explain their use in the same way as that of the nouns in Exercises 5 and 7. Pronouns as Subjects and Objects of Verbs. Did I not tell thee so? mother. the Indirect Object of a verb (§§ 74 370. bethink me. and the proper names for the pronouns : Has John's father has come home John saw Thomas in the garden. Exercise 19. it is John's I found it in Get thee gone. I will I will lay me down. Parents love their children.' . The boys have lost The horse ran away with his rider. — Difference between the Direct Object and . The their ball. Exercise 16. John has had John's dinner. Thomas's brother arrived ? John's pony is lame. He has torn her church. and which are objects. I saw your father yesterday. foes. 227. XI. will learn to read. Preliminary Lesscni. My sister will call upon your Your brother has sent for me. I often see her at shall see you to-morrow. and state what nouns the pronouns stand for : where John John's mother has sent John to school. X. her mother sent her to school. I will arm me. Substitute pronouns for nouns wherever they are proper in the following sentences. — Inflexions of verbs (§§ to mark Person. frock. Exercise 17. the boys will go out to play. Point out which pronouns in the following sentences are subjects of verbs.

We XIII. Freliininary Lesson. He seethes the flesh. Will you lend me a shilling? I gave him a book. Pour your neighbour out a The policeman took the man to prison. Prelhninary Lesson. and two lines under those which are indirect objects : John gave Thomas a kick. Wt'ak Verbs. Tense Forms of the Active Voice. Shall we go and kill us venison ? We will buy you a watch. Conjugation of Verbs. The kind woman glass of beer.EXERCISES. He We We We B. Strong Verbs. 257). into bed. We shall be written. took good care. Hand He got took the poor man a loaf. Exercise 20. He him a wife. be struck. Tense Forms of the Passive Voice. It lay on the ground. I read many books. compound tenses are made up 204-209. The letter will The wine was drunk. Let every soldier hew him down a bough. our losses. successively naming the tenses as you do so . He was A stone was thrown. him Hand that lady to her seat. Send me to him. stood in the street. They met us in the street and gave us some apples. slain. kind. The dog was barking. 183 the following sentences which are direct objects of verbs. XII. I fetched a box on the ears. He bleeds to death. He breaks his word. Strong Verbs. : draw water. He dealt the cards. I hold the reins. We will disguise us. We crept They room. She spills the water. He tells a lie. Pass me the salt. We make us comforts of This will last you all the year. She strikes her brother. The soldiers fight bravely. Indicative — Formation of the various tenses of the (§ Mood of the Passive Voice 187 . Exercise 21. Mary fetched the beer. He drinks some ale. tive —Formation of (§§ all the tenses in the Indica- Mood of the Active Voice. Parts of which the 257). Change the verbs in each of the other tenses successively of the Indicative Passive Voice naming the tenses as you do so : the following sentences into Mood in the A. . Find a dozen verbs which may have objects of each and make sentences to illustrate their use. A. Money has been taken . The man knelt down. Exercise 22. You sold your horse. dealt me a hard blow. The cock crew. Tiie servant sweeps the met our friend at his house. Change the verbs in the following sentences into each of the other tenses of the Indicative Mood. They ate some bread. The sun shines. that lady the bread* Send me a letter. Active Voice. He gives me an apple. spent their money. throws a stone. You see the house. He slew his foe. I will get me a new coat.

-. A new house will be built by my brother. The archers are shooting arrows. the object of in the Active tlie verb Voice becomes the subject of the Verb in the Passive* (§ 186). Change all the following sentences so as to use passive verbs instead of active verbs. The John broke the window. He is • Beware of the mistake of saying that the subject of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the object of the verb in the Passive Voice. Make a dozen sentences containing a transitive Exercise 24. The door was opened by nurse. The object qf an action need not be expressed by the grammatical object of a verb. Thus for " The dog bit the for " I am writing a cat. 205) Exercise 27. and then alter them as in the last exercise. however. verb in the active voice. 'l"he men The men will be carrying the hay will have finished the work before night. That surprises me. and then a dozen sentences containing a transitive verb alter them as in the last exercise. The B. All ordinary passive verbs are transiIt docs not cease. The men We We the room. Goods have bee« stolen. and two lines under those which are in the passive voice (§§ 187. The children had been scolded by the The wine had been drunk by the butler. The wine was spilt. line : Arrows are shot by the archers. are spoken. A vcr]) in the Passive Voice has no direct object. Make in the passive voice. This have received a lette. The servant had swept to-morrow. are drinking the beer. We were overtaken by a storm. are caught by cats. The The caught. were gathering nuts in the wood. Exercise 25. had been sold by the butchers. Kind words is out of the till. Mutual Relation of the Active and Passive Voices* When an action is described by means of Prelimina?y Lesson. They had not counted the cost. Meat children are scolded by the nurse. The letter was written by us. The sparrow will be built. Too much was expected by them. — the Passive Voice instead of the Active. Exercise 28. and draw one under those verbs which are in the active voice. Mice me. Change all the following sentences so as to use active verbs instead of passive verbs in the same tense : The sparrow was caught by the boy. tive. Write out the following sentences. cat killed the rat. Weak Verbs. The boys have eaten the cake. sheep will be shorn. . XIV." put " The cat was bitten by the dog " letter " put " letter is being written by me " : A : will please you. report The house is spread. to be a Transitive Verb. Exercise 23.184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

Votsfry. cousin. Preliminary Lesson. Buck. it and to what subdivision of what the function of the word 3. baby. Caterer. Lady. . led across the river. Cow. — house. pen. Thames. John. part of speech. Ten neuter common nouns. Girl. rreliiuinary Lessoji. Boar. The men are drinking beer.'" Jolm's is a Proper Noun of the Masculine Gender [because it . Ram. ling all day. 185 the money. goose. Lass. bird. ruler. Napoleon. servant. lioness. form. lass. XV. Time is being wasted. queen. Earl. box. slate. Ten masculine common nouns. Daughter. fox. gander. Give the feminine nounS that correspond to the masculine nouns. Exercise 29. hen. tree. aunt. WitcTi. horse. The troops were being The officer was leading the troops across the river. 2. We were travelbe blamed for this. lord. Actor. sheep. Gender (§§ of Nouns.— 'Ssigm^ca. mother. nursemaid. Author. 2. Giant. Ten masculine proper nouns. Ten nouns of ambiguous or common gender. dog. footman. XVI. Hart.'don and formation of Genders 39^6). Mirrderess. Governess. —To parse a word you must is. Ten neuter proper nouns. Jane. elephant. and the masculine nouns that correspond to the feminine nouns in the following list : — Nun. I shall The men are come. The Victory. to what it belongs . : Exercise 28. Mistress. 6. ox. boy. Ten feminine common nouns. Sir. Aunt. brother. maid. the kind of work 4. State the gender of each of the following nouns girl. non.EXERCISES. running. infant. cart. " John's brother has found a shilling. He is spending all The town was taken by assault. 4. Duchess. Sister. Doe. Hind. Parsing. 5. The wine was being drunk. He is gone. sister. gartiener has vain. The AgamemThe jNJaria. that part of speech that is. Ten feminine proper nouns. Examples of Parsing. author. The been mowing the lawn. William. boar. Bull. Maria. tiger. Empress. pig. desk. London. I shall be travelling all night. ship. Drake. speaker. Write down i. cock. Robert. king. sovereign. nephew. The money will have been spent in We are losing time. 7. that does in the sentence the accidence of the word the construction of the word in the sentence. Nephew. France. Bachelor. uncle. state i. judge. 3. man. Exercise 30. lady. vixen.

[It stands for the speaker without naming him. ^He will please . the name ' ' Brother it is a Common Noun of the Masculine Gender [because denotes a male person. It is in the Singular Number. pleased. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. Indicative Mood. ' Has found (find. because it stands for that to which the action denoted by the verb is is a Common Noun ' ' directed]. of the Weak Conjugation It is in the Active Voice. It is in the Singular Number. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. pleased). . and it is transitive because it denotes an action which is done to some object.«<?. Present Perfect Tense. It is in the Singular Number.Substitute Masculine or Feminine.l86 is . t . [It is a verb because it tells us something about John's brother. and may be used for any other thing of the same class]. '\i the context shows whether the speaker is a male or a female person. Future Indefinite Tense.] It is in the Active Voice. found). and when parsing is written. and for beginners they arc of the utmost importance. Number. and is in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb has found' [that is. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. of a in the Singular depending on (or in It is ' ' ' male person and is that person's own name*]. Indicative (please.' • When pupils have gained some readiness in parsing. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject he. Mood. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject brother.' ' ' Me a Personal Pronoun of the First Person and of Comment Gender. namely brother ']. and in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive active verb is ' will please.' It has shilling for its object. ' ' ' Will please which is is a transitive verb [because it denotes an action directed to an object]. but in oral work. and is in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive verb has found [that is.'' He is a Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person and Masculine Gender [because it stands for a male person who is neither the speaker nor the person spoken to] in the Singular Number and in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb will please [that is. is a Transitive Verb of the Strong Conjugation found. ' ' ' Shilling of the Neuter Gender [because it is the name of something which is not a living being. such explanations as those in brackets may be omitted . and in the Possessive Case the attributive relation to) the noun brother [because it denotes that John possesses something. or her]. and may denote any other of the same class].

if the singular Thou is expressed or understood. Exercise 32. news.. ' ' ' • Me ' is in the Objective Case. She gave me+ a shilling. and verbs in Exercises XVII. In 'a black dog' the adjective black does not mark any quality belonging to the name dog. ' — Nature and ' use|| of a Qualitative Adjec- * You is always a ^m»«w«rt//ca/ plural. The hare The house was pulled down. Hand mej Henr}-'s father will give her j a new book. He was running away. You have lost the sight. John. She had been bitten by the dog. Adjectives of Quality. I ' ' ' ' Shall be seen is a Transitiv^e Verb [because it denotes an action that is directed to an object]. II ' ' ' . the bread. Tell me 1 the news. in the Passive Voice. in the Active Voice.' * In parsing this word state that it is in the objective case. Many new houses have been built." but a thing marking word. We have heard the news.e. i. Israel. and pronouns following sentences. and in the Singular Number and First Person to agree with its subject I.Vouns are names. It is in the Singular Number. Hear ye. except those in italics : in the The hunters caught a hare. . Mary's frock was torn by the dog. Of course.' . nouns. Parse the nouns. wards." njend is a Transitive Verb [because it denotes an action which is done to something]. frock will be mended.' ' ' ' .s usually understood is the plural you. You will be overtaken by the sterni. Carefully guard beginners against the common. it is the Indirect Object of the verb Lend {See Seclion Exercise 31. The hunters were chasing hares.' It is the a«w«a/ that is black. even when it refers to o«? person. The soon have finished the work.' ' ' " Lend ' me a shilling. I lent the iiianj a pound. The men saw Henry's cousin yesterday. 20. Plural Numbert and Second Person.EXERCISES. stands for the person about whom something is said by means of the verb]. " 187 I shall ' be seen. John's sister has told me+ the was being chased. Indicative Alood. ' ' because xi). Future Indefinite Tense. The masons are building a hou. and is hi the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb shall be seen [that is. They called her back. An adjective is not a ' noun-marking word. Read the letter.se. and not its name.§ hand mej the bread. * See last note. because it is the indirect object of the verb (See Section xi Ex. to agree with its subject you understood. 19. girl's We will 19. Parse all the verbs. the verb is singular but the subject which i. § Get thee behind me." is a Personal Pronoun of the First Person of common* (or ambiguous) gender. Preliminary Lesson. The cat has scratched her. Imperative Mood. pronouns.) § Parse this word as a Vocative or Nominative of address. and 22. but ob\'ious blunder. of saying that 'adjectives denote the qualities 0/ nouns. Go thou and do likewise.

Demonstrative Adjectives Preliminary Lesson. Adjective of Quality. ' ' ' ' both hands. The The cat caught a great black rat. animals. The girls are ready. We I have no money. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. but they describe its size. The naughty children ate some apples. XIX. travelled all night. . Examples. Much money men can resist waited several hours in the cold room. — Nature and use of Demonstrative Adjec- Different sorts of Demonstrative Adjectives (§ 95). He is a vulgar little boy. tives. He rode a girl has large black eyes. Preliminary Lesson. Have you any money ? Will you have some bread Few strong temptation. joined attributively to the noun 'bonnets. black horse. Tom's horse is are white. Many men possess great riches.'" Here ' smart is an Adjective of ' ' Quality joined predicatively to the noun ' bonnets.l88 .' Pick out the Adjectives of Quality in the following sentences. ' : XVIII. Rude boys are disagreeable.iking about. and sometimes an Adjective of Quantity. " It tells * ' Exercise 34. Thin ice is dangerous. He is a ready speaker. • Mind much of a or Adjectives of Relation. Hold out success.1t * great' and 'small' are Adjectives of Quality. Dogs are faithful. — Nature and use of Adjectives of Quantity. He wore a great. greedy little boy ate twenty pears." 'Twelve is an Adjective us how many pears we are speaking about. . strong. ' or Quantitative Adjectives {§§ 91-94).' " The girls' bonnets are smart. woollen cloak. thing we are spe. bony. My little brother is ill. of Quantity. and treat each of the latter in the same way as twelve and some in the above sentences. pleasures are often alluring. The bird's feathers Ripe fruit is wholesome. Great* riches bring much care. heavy. They do not tell ns lunu th. The naughty. and draw one line under the Adjectives of Quality. " The girls wore smart botmetsP It is It shows of what sort the ' bonnets are. tive (or Adjective of Quality) Attributive and predicative use of Adjectives (§§ 80-84 \ 90)' ' ' Smart is an Exercise 33. Adjectives of Quantity. Dogs are faithful Sinful The poor little bird is dead. and two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. Idle boys hate lessons. brown. and is therefore sometimes an Adjective of Quality. John bought twelve pears. It tells us (indefinitely) how much money we are speaking about. We Many men ? love vicious pleasures. The bird has white feathers. " / will ^ive you sofue jnoney." Some is an Adjective of Quantity. and treat each of them in the same way as ' smart in the above examples He rides a black horse. Write out the following sentences. brings much care. + 'Little' is used for both purposes. The poor woman has I have little t hope of many troubles.

that Interrogative Pronominal Adjectives (or Interrogative Adjective Pronouns) J belong to the class of Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives) . without reference to quality or quantity. Second thoughts are best. That last song was capital. Indicate what noun feach adjective belongs to. Have you any + money? I have not the least appetite. the noun book. little child might lead him. " Give 189 me that book." I I 2 3 2 3 Give me that large book. this relates to guatttity.EXERCISES. boy will is idle. He has but little discretion. I have but one brother. (See §§ 92. It points out a certain knife. It qualifies points out a certain book without describing it. You will know better one day. been tried. Each child received a penny. He spent half a day with me. She was my first lore. Every device has Either alternative is disagreeable.' ' " He ' lent me ' his knife. Some people like this loud music. or qualifies. These sheep are last Look at the Bring me my new boots. His first attempt was a failure. She is my first cousin. 166. and three lines under the Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives). Any man could tell you that. and draw one line under the Adjectives of (2ualit\'. bell.) Look carefully at the definitions. No other course is possible. Here Here Mind this word word is a demonstrative pronominal adjective (or indefinite adjective pro- noun). thus : " We 4 4 heard of the poor old man's sudden death." 'That' It is a Demonstrative Adjective. 169. Neither version of the story is correct. Write out the following sentences. He has a large head and little eyes. Which J wine do you prefer? What. Any* fool might see that. It qualifies (or is joined is attributively to) the noun ' knife.]! news have you heard? What X nonsense he talks have the A A ! XX. by putting the same numeral over both the adjective and the noun. —Study §§ 1 05-1 16. My apple is ripe. bearing in mind that several adjectives belong (with a slight difference of meaning) sometimes to one class. Some * thief has stolen my watch. little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. We arrived on the second day. Those little boys are my cousins. There was no other way left. We walk every other day. We had some + beef for dinner. Ring the fat." His a Possessive Pronominal Adjective or Possessive Adjective Pronoun. This She word. Comparison Preliminary Lesson. An enemy hath done this. or Adjective of Relation. sometimes to another. • t of Adjectives. second line in this page. two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. John is his half brother. I went to see him one day lately.' Exercise 35.

attached attributively to the noun most.. rich. last. hearty. wittier. Preliminary adjective it is.' adjective is often said to ' qualify a noun. in the Comparative Degree. Parsing of Adjectives." These in the Plural Number.' it does not in the least alter the meaning of the noun. happy. beautiful. joined predicatively to the noun men. This expression is legitimate only if the to qualify a noun' means 'to denote some quality of that for which the noun standi. finest. richest. or their substitutes Large. all three degrees of the following adjectives sweetest. full. crudest. gentler.) describes the quality of a noun.] : —A — Demonstrative Adjective Richer ' : An Adjective of Quality [it describes certain men]. slower. blithe. tidiest. red. brightest. thereforo. — sort of in what degree of comparison its it is. Write down Prettier.' to limit the application of a noun. of the following adjectives. duller.' attached attributively to {or qualifies) the : An Adjective of Quantity. joined attributively to the noun ' men.' (Much. " His numerous His A Demonstrative : won much esteem . § 85. noun jnen understood (see § 96). mightiest.' (Rich. fierce. steeper. more. richer.* [li points (or Pronominal) Adjective. handsome. mad. it is attached either attributively or predicatively three degrees of comparison. sad.] It is in the Positive Degree. . lovely. To parse an adjective state what Lessen. justest.) Those : —A qualifying the Demonstrative Adjective in the Plural Number. idle. better. high. cold.] virtues. great. —An Adjective noun ' of Quality in the Positive Degree. but does not describe or enumerate them. gay. rich. fresh. [It denotes how much esteem is spoken of. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees : Exercise 38. wealthier. quarrelsome.' It is joined* attributively to {or qualifies) the noun ' : — Numerous Much. nastiest. state Examples. It is [It describes the virtues spoken of. out certain virtues. splendid. gentlest. holy. gentle. dull. worst. monstrous. virtues (§§ 89.tgo ENGLISH GRAMMAR. tame. ' • phrase ' or As generally used. handsomest. merry.] virtues.) ' — " These men are richer than those. rudest. big. and is virtues. sprightlier. but does not describe or enumerate them.' [' These 'points to the men. near. &c. this mistake must be carefully ' guarded against. more. tenderer. and to what noun 84). : rudest. common. XXI. winsome. ' An (See it If the smacks strongly of the blunder of saying that an adjective term is used. bright. slenderest. clever. healthy. Lastly.

She wore a large man's hat on her head. B. Supply the noun when necessary. He teaches at the large boys' school. He cropped the black horse's tail. The schools are well managed. 7Vta( is the least atonement he can make. A dense cloud hid the sun. The elder boys' behaviour was excellent. Give me some more meat. He bought the handsomest lady's dress in the shop. of the Neuter Gender. He keeps a large boys' school. Parse all the adjectives (including the articles) in Those in italics qualify a noun which is the following sentences. \_ltpomfs interrogatively /^ a certain hand. Will you have hot or cold milk? Which boy is the cleverest? Here is bread. ' 191 Which hcmd will you have ? Which :— A Demonstrative Adjective noun hand. The little girls' frocks were torn. He is quite a ladies' man. The poor suffer more than the rich. girls' Exercise 38. I went to see him one day lately. His few remaining acres were sold. the adjective itself must be regarded as a substantive (§ 98J. but does not describe it. 97).] It is joined attributively to the Exercise 37. T/ies(' are my children. I will not have atty. Your elder brother lost some money yesterday. and see which nouns the adjectives qualify (§§ 96. Some careless person has upset the ink. Will that little boy have anymore fruit? Give me the other volume. Here are two books. The large linen-draper's shop at the comer is on fire. You will know some day or oi/ier. Each boy shall have a great piece of cake. * An adjective may be attached to a pronoun as well ' as to a noun. Few and brief were the prayers we said.EXERCISES. will you have some? No. When no noun can be conveniently supplied with the adjective. Others (in the plural) is a Substantive Pronoun. My younger sister is ill. That little girl has no milk. Ripe apples are nicer than sour * ones. Every * one was quiet. She is the prettiest of all my cousins. He has gained many more prizes than his elder brother. When ihis and that are not attached to a noun expressed or understood. Give me the other hand. or refer to its quantity. The tall corporal's hat was knocked off. which will you have? That is the ripest pear. ' ' ' ' . Some persons are too hasty. Which of these books is yours? Where are the others ?+ John is //4if cleverest % in the class. He took a three days' journey. I have had a whole day's anxiety. The girls' lessons are too long. I have done a good day's work. which is here qualified by the demont strative adjective the X An article always belongs to some noun expressed or understood. The wisest men are sometimes mistaken. One ' is an Indefinite Substantive Pronoun. Attend carefully to those examples where there is a noun in the possessive case. Have you any other sisters ? Of these wines I prefer the red to the white. A. understood. My youngest brother has gained the second prize in his class. Few men are his superiors. they must be parsed as Demonstrative Pronouns (not as Demonstrative Adjectives). He fitted a Chubb's patent lock to his desk. and in the Nominative or Objective case (§ 145).' ' " or Interrogative Adjective Pronoun.

able. merry. colonel. I can never believe that. king. for the gerund ' It or infinitive that denotes such an act or fact in an abstract form. I think it very strange that he It is very likely that he will come to-morrow. Read these letters to His father threatened to disinherit him. for an infinitive mood . monstrous. often stands for an infinitive mood. He thought of enlisting as a soldier. priest. simple. If you do not give up these bad habits. ' This and that are sometimes employed in a for a 2. give it. magistrate. humble. 329)- Exercise 40. you will suffer for it. infirm. for the act or fact stated in a sentence 4. I. . I This is the very coinage of your brain. leader. worthy. wicked. Abstract Nouns. it to me. He asked me There is a pen. long. jealous.' ' that. B. State clearly what the words in sentences : italics stand for in the following not manage hoped to get here before noon. broad. I will call upon you to-morrow I will help you if it is possible. if it be not He said that the matter was self-evident. The demonstratives noun . brief. Exercise 39. innocent. stand. popular. hold my tongue about the matter. It is of no use trying to help him. but I could absolutely impossible. or a sentence that is going to be used. sharp. red. infant. wide. temperate. pious. white. It would have been better for him if he had never known if it is convenient. To comply with your request is difficult. distant. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. shall How be content with that. wise. obstinate. ' this. ' ' ' similar manner. : relation. and your father that will amuse him.' and ' it ' may or gerund with its adjuncts 3. regent. italics in the fullovving Parse the words in sentences : That was a great disappointment to us. zz. sweet. son. but I woi/td not consent to that. just. useful. man. (§§ 32. blue. jovial. however difficult // may be. durable. soft. splendid. but this I would not allow. father. child. sad. did not tell me. brilliant. silent. a gerund. . widow. able. poor. XXII. is I Our duty to my claim. mayor. I think it best to // vexes me that he should act in this way. quick. Give the abstract nouns derived from the following nouns Friend. dead. good. sheriffj captain. — Nature and formation of Abstract Nouns 314. to surrender . meek. dare you tell me that ? I cannot undertake this. that man. We all knew that the attempt was hopeless. He does not frighten me by that. but he would not not see it. Preliminary Lesson.192 . believe it. what the result will be. bad. martyr. but I could obey the dictates of conscience. ihat brought him to his senses. sour. near. large. This quite altered our plans. sovereign. abundant. It is impossible to tell It grieved him to lose so much money. slow. prudent. Give the abstract nouns which correspond to the following adjectives : Pure.

infirmity. The We poverty o . width. treat . mayoralty . declension. wisdom. Painting was his chief pursuit. derange . deceive . in -ing) corresponding to the deride Offend . The steeple is of immense height. hate. and explain the difference of meaning in each case Exercise : nobility. crown . The vast field of nature is open reading. suppleness elegance . convene . thrift . strength. action. measure. debase . greenness. height. exact . Give the verbs from which the following Abstract derived : Nouns . invent . ductility. amplitude. . conhumility . insipidity. . multiply . acidity. Nothing relieved of the height. . . con^ tract . . growth tilth decision coercion defence derision. depart . These alms-houses are the refuge of old age and I admire nobility of character. Give the adjectives or nouns from which the following abstract nouns are formed — : Fickleness impertinence dependence . C. degrade . . depth . patience . rascality . Form Abstract Nouns (not ending following verbs . prosperity. . seize . He aspired to enter the ranks of the sculptures over the porch are very fine. fix . deviate . infirmity. depth. . ponderosity. soon reached the summit in all ages. legibility. durability. . complete . judgment. death. condescend . laughter. interrogate . . destroy . weigh. F. arrange . pressure. Intrusion . youth. . suction . . justify. elegance. girlhood. He made a solitude and called it peace. width. breadth. Some poetry is hardly worth the fine arts. magnanimity. D. dearth. steal. height . and two lines under those used in their concrete sense. move. . patience. That is the nature of the animal. valour. invert . sonority. please . . . line 41. health. . abstract. Can you tell me the age of that child ? This has been the case to our gaze. advance. suppleness. . and draw one under the nouns used in their adstraci sense. mortality weakness durability. boredom . wisdom. absolve . brevity . protect . senility. elevation. . depress . suspend conceal steal . I bought a the solitude of his existence. . shrievalty venience piety . are estrangement seclusion injection thought flight reflection conception adaptation . proceed . fickleness. rigidity. acidity . thieve . sing. addition. Write out the following sentences. heroism. splendid painting yesterday. uprightness . displace . composition. 193 Give the Adjectives from which the following Abstract Nouns : are derived Nobility. stupidity. erase. grandeur. Sculpture is one of He has the gift of poetry. candour. dissect . sleepiness.EXERCISES. grandeur. strength . dependence. E.

They Boon returned. They rode along together. Examples.' *' a word that shows when he came (or answers an it is We seldom see him. adjective. It ' "i answers the an Adverb of Place. Mary plays beautifully. • To modify a verb is to state some modt or condition. Now attend to me. " Whither ' ? adjective. Preliminary Lesson. The children played indoors. When ? ' ' How long ' ? ' ' How ' ' often ? ' Adverbs of ' ' Whence ? Place answer the questions Where ? Adverbs are usually said to modify* the verb." is Abruptly a word that shows how the mountain rises (or answers the question How does the mountain rise ')• Therefore it is an Adverb of Manner. or Adverbs of Time answer the is to be taken. — Nature and use of Adverbs." ' ' Too or is a word which shows to what degree that answers the question how bad ? Therefore Adverb of Degree.194 ENGLISH GRAMMAR.' ^ * My uncle lives there. ' Manner * answer the question How ? ' Adverbs of Adverbs of Degree show to other adverb questions ' what degree or extent' the meaning of a verb. John often writes to us. My friends live yonder. He always contradicts me. modifying the verb ' lives. Adverbs. denoted by the verb is performed." it is Seldom answers Therefore " the question How often do we see him?' an Adverb of Time modifying the verb see. He went straightway. ' ' in or under which the action . adverb to which they are attached (§§ 259-265).' Exercise 42. We lay down to sleep. modifying the verb ' came. I will go thither directly.' ' . XXIII. She is upstairs. modifying the adjective bad. or The mountain rises abruptly from the plain.' ' ' is it is bad an ' ** He came yesterday Yesterday is the question ' When did he come ? '). He went away. The troops fought splendidly. Therefore Adverb of Time. modifying the verb rises. Deal as in the above examples with each of the Adverbs in the following sentences : I saw him yesterday. We went thither.'' ' " Thai is too bad." (or is There shows the place where my uncle lives question Where does my uncle live ').

Day by day we magnify He comes bothering me day after day. This is many deg7-ees better than that. adjective or noun in the objective case with an Prelimmary some equivalent phrase. Exercise 43. I shall see you next week. He comes here four times a week. or when taken 267). We have got thus far on our journey. of State the Degree of Comparison of each of the the following sentences. and what verb. He is less restless to-day. That poor man is the worst hurt. I get up earlier than you. He walked yflr/z^^r than I did. I would sooner die. Do not tell so many stories. The noun should be parsed often does duty for an adverb. soonest. They very soon returned. He is more composed. Oh I am so tired. The bird is quite dead. 3 . That happened a year ago. I am almost penniless. He works harder than ever. He turned his head another Thee. The project was monstrously foolish. or even standing by itself. He comes oftener than ever. 4-1. He is most careful in his conduct acted tnore prudently than his friend. I am very He walked backwards. XXIV. adjective. with its as being in the Adverbial Objective. Parse the Adverbs in Exercises 42 and 44. last. I way. but Thomas reads better. The children were here I would rather not go. brother came He is most attentive to his work. travelled all night. He is far too extravagant. He slept all night. He is a year older than I am. it of adverbs Exercise 48. I am I am much obliged to you. what its degree of comparison is (if it admits of comparison). X95 Stand so. Vou write worse than your brother. adjective) some verb or adjective (§§370. He Many a . You speak too He is very learned. To parse an Adverb state to which class belongs. Exercise adverbs in italics in well. rapidly. Parse the nouns in italics in the following sentences : time have I played with him.EXERCISES. NounB used Lesson. He was the least alarmed of all. He was an extremely wicked man. ! much surprised. Make and ten containing adverbs ten sentences containing adverbs in the comin the superlative degree. Exercise 47. I placed my hand thus. giving the three degrees. or adverb it modities. and point out what verb. adjective. — A Adverbially. He qjften comes here. or adverb it modifies (§§ 274-276). parative degree. John reads He My Exercise 45. I have seen him many times. Make half a dozen sentences to illustrate the use each sort of adverb contained in the preceding examples. very much obliged to you. Parsing of Adverbs. modifying (either singly. They get up very early.

come a day day and night. many adverbs which once ended in -e have lost that inflexion. man in the room. In general I approve of his proMuch depends upon his answer. brother. He travelled arrived post- XXV. They once had the dative inflexion. 1 have enough. The town forth bound is ten viilcs distant. (2) an adjective. That is all nonsense. or (more sitnply) as substantives. Lesson. Do not let us hear ?nore of that. He slept (?// niylit. We have much He is ?nuch worse to-day. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Preliminary — Many them adjectives. will you have a little ? He told me less than his brother. they should be parsed as substantival adjectives.' and more' is an adjective qualifying ' ' * money understood. I have no ink. ceedings.^'' Here tnuck and 'more' are substantives. that I had uiy ]iains for nothing." Here much is an adjective qualifying money. It is better now to parse as simple adverbs. '''/do not 'much'' ' is much admire him. He is more con1 am much happier. The long and tlie short of it is. Here is some wine. . Much remains to be done. I • 'No/ as an adverb. his brother has more. may be taken as the simple adverb 'na' = never (A. the subjects of the verbs that follow them." Here '«(?'is an adverb modifying the adverb ' ' better. it especially those of Quantity. He has more ability than hi!. Parse the words in italics in the following senences. We hand and foot. the substantival adjectives. being impossible to supply These (like nouns) are often any particular noun with them." He is not much happier!'' an adverb. could hear no more. cause for thankfulness.' " He has not much money . He has lost a//. On the other hand.S. and the adverbs : — gave him ait I had. When they are used as subjects or objects of verbs.). '^ Here '•''He is no better. He knows more than he tells. ' Exercise 48. He is all powerful here. and become identical in form with adjectives. You know most about it. ' ' " Much has been revealed. He is the best dressed thich and thin. or after prepositions. but inoj'c remains behind. ^// bloodless lay the untrodden snow. and Adverbs reduced to the form of Adjectives. modifying (i) a verb. used with an adverbial force. He came sooner. Adjectives used Adverbially. I will follow you through He is my Ixst friend I did my best. carefully distinguishing the adjectives proper. tented.196 could not haste. are used as substantives. . I He is_«o * wiser than before.

cry did knock against love John best. else* He was is but I Nobody there. Such a round of pleasures is wearisome./ one glass. abundance. Do not take more trouble. ni.' except Else is always an adverb ' IS best taken as an adverb.' never') is an adverb modifying ' ' ' ' ' never used as an adverb.W We heard nothing inore of him. through the helmet. I heard (Z /.{// over the yard.adverb. We were just starting. Whoever is most diligent will meet with ?nost success. That is the very least you can do. my very heart. I did my best. Jt This word is an adjective qualifying the substantive 'nothing.show that more could have no meaning as a quantitative adjective. meaning. You are very kind. I will take one more § glass. — Nature and use of Prepositions. You are very much in fault. He was discoursing about the true and the just. little gratitude." (Compare the German «o<:/i and the French encore. is not any more diligent than he was before. || have not meat enough. 278). Hear the right. When it denotes that one ac'ii'n resembles another.' An adjective used as a substantive may still J be modified by an adverb. He He is no wiser than I. /// weeds thrive apace The The house is ill built. More is here an . it is an adjective. He is likeW my brother. ' II Some ' ' ' is More does not measure the "i That is. He was a very thunderbolt of war. I heard a// the speech. He sailed all round the world.) little reflection will . whole qidintiiy of trouble taken. We have a choice between good and ///. You must take me for better or worse. 5).' 'nothing inferior in amount. He wears a round hat.' The sense is I will take in \ rtr/i/Z/^V). Will you lake some more wine. He has «<? wtTcf ** sense than a goose. ' in sufficient when it here an adverb modifying 'more. He cut right future times he will be famous.' The next example is different . He bought two mo)'e loaves.S. He is XXVI. I have heard a little about that affair. He is a better writer than I am. and I will take no less. no trouble in addltum [to what you have taken]. That is a pretty picture.p little He shows but better. She not wherefore they were come together. I We from him. Preliminary Lesson. He is pretty sure of the prize. You know best. is little That expect not a a tnost lovely prospect. \ •s ziery tall. and no (= A. let me hear some tnore. He is no tnore contented than he used to be. I ask {cixnpX more. He swore like a trooper. ' + When like ' ' ' ' . Rela- which they indicate. t Enough a substantive. They have money enough. The corn was scattered . when joined to a singular noun like glass. The construction of this sentence is our guide to that of the four "No" is ' ' ' : — ' A ' ' ' uext.EXERCISES.' and therefore is a quantitative adjective attached to the noun. earth turns i-ound. ' ' ' more. He was moi-e frightened than hurt. I cannot write a7ty better. have enough and to spare. The more part knew The more the merrier {§ 265. Do your best. The future is hidden from our gaze. Enough has been done. O Lord. Come near the fire. ' Words which they ' join (§§ 277. *• Here more does measure the whole quantity of ' sense. tions * is ' Prepositions.' denotes personal resemblance. The I A\y best friend. it is an adverb. modifying the verb will take. i9. I will not take any more. He is less restless than he was yesterday. I will accept nothing less. more is equivalent to further. I cannot say more. He ran all round the park. He is more to blame than I am. There is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. In That decision was right. I am your equal. Take no more H trouble. I ne'er shall look upon his like again. We are near neighbours.

198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and ten in which it shows the relation of an attribute to a thing. The love of money is the root of Dick rode to York. ' ' On is and joining B. Preliminary Lcsson. 284). I am weary of work. He We We . I rode inside the omnibus. Pie rode outside.' the in the Parse the prepositions in the following sentences in above examples : Pick up the books on the floor.' (mouse) to another (floor). I am anxious about liis safety. He spoke to me at the close of the meeting. We shall start the day after to-morrow. I saw Jane in the kitchen. ' ' C. He shrank from the danger. XXVII. People in trouble often go to him. afraid. and joining it to the adjective attribute (afraid) to ^. walked along the road. She stayed within the house. I have in my hand a letter from my father. walked by the river. " ' I see a mouse on ' noun floor It shows the ' thefloor. Come along. 51. blow on the head knocked him down. The storm passed by. When it governs a noun or pro- noun. cut a piece off. Do not sit on the table.' It shows the relation of an act (leaping) to a thnig (wall). We saw the men in armour. books on the table. Do not lag behind. and joining it to the verb leaped. The box was painted within and without. That comes after. it.—ThQ same word is often used both as an adverb and as a preposition. I told you all tliat before. Tliere is a garden behind the house. When (§§ there is no noun or pronoun governed by Exercise tences : it is an adverb 279. Parse the words in itahcs in the following sen- He got up behind. it is a preposition. He spoke of me. Run routtd the The earth turns round. I am fond of music. same way as case. ran after me. table. We arrived the day before yesterday. " He leaped over the wall. in A Exercise 50. "He Is afraid of me . He works at the factory. Grief at the loss of his money turned him crazy. person (me). relation of one i/n'/t_g' a preposition governing the it to the noun * mouse. He departed before my arrival. A." ' Over ' is a preposition governing the noun wall in the objective case. Make ten sentences in which a preposition shows the relation of a thing to a thing j ten in which it shows the relation ot an action to a thing . Examples. Do not touch the all evil. Adverbs and Prepositions. I will come by and by. He cut " Three thousand a piece off\hc loaf The stick is loo long ." ' Of is a preposition governing the pro' noun 'me' in the objective It shows the relation of an Exercise 49. The tub is full of water.^ in the objective case. My father lives London.

Infinitive (simple) Mood. Present Tense ' ' : — ' .^'' 'May' is a defective (notional) verb. The Preliminary Lesson. 195). (§§ 194.^'' " Her cause and yours. and in the (simple) Infinitive Mood. never precedes the word which placed :it the end of the sentence. 199 " Nothing comes amiss. in the Active Voice. will. ." ' Shalt cative ' is a defective (notional) verb . Indi' Mood. iliary Infinitive Mood. and do and use of the Simple Infinitive as notional and as atixare always notional verbs. and the Second Person to agree with its subject you."* so money come withal. and make sentences to illustrate their use. I'll perfect him withal Exercise 52. . verbs (§ Mustf and can Examples. depending on " TJiou shall not steal. the Singular Numsubject /. depending on (or governed by) the verb ''may. Present Tense and in the Singular Number and the Second Person." "I must wait and watch withal. in the Active Voice. 184).'' is 'Steal' a Transitive Verb.' Mood. dicative Mood. to agree with ' its the Active Voice.' when used as a preposition. —A. Find a dozen words which may be used either as Adverbs or as Prepositions.'' You may go." 'Did' is a Indicative notional Transitive Verb. ducats we freely cope your courteous pains withal. governs. in the Active Voice.EXERCISES. may. t The so-called Potential Mood is a perfectly unnecessary invention. and Number and the Third Person to agree with Active Voice. but is .' ' ' Go ' is a Transitive Verb. and in the [or the object of) the (simple) Infinitive will. XXVIII. In.' in in ' Forget verb ' : — A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. in the Active Voice. Nattire Shall. depending on (or and in the governed by) the verb " 'shall.' in it * ' Withal. in the Mood. Past Indefinite Tense. to agree with its subject thou.' « He did his duty. " / 10 ill never forget yoit." A defective (notional) verb Will and Indicative Mood. the Singular its subject ' He. Present Tense and in the Plural Number. ber and First Person.

We • When ' do ' is separately. depart may be parsed separately. Thus be treated as eiiuivalent to knocked. is Exercise 53.' Sue the preceding examples. You need not stay. You would not have my help when you might. I will do my best. He did what he could. " / shall soon departs Here ' shall ' is an auxiliary (not a notional) verb. ' a mere auxiliary (whether emphatic or unemphatic) it may be parsed form may be parsed Did knock' may ' : . He will soon return. The notion of volition is entirely lost sight of. infinitive The simple ' ' in ' ' ' as The two verbs shall and the preceding examples. That boy shall be made to hold his tongue. The cry did J knock against my very heart.way as the simple tense for which it is a substitute. The compound form is emphatic only when an emphasis is laid upon the do. I shall I will go with you. He said that he would not come. stay. You may go. You do assist does not differ in the least in sense from you assist. You need not be alarmed.2©0 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He said that he did not choose to come. He shall not know of it. ' ' " He does this that he ' may -vex me. You must go directly. Does your father know of this? May I come in? Thou shalt not steal. and is in the Subjunctive Mood itself The notion of power or permission has altogether vanished. nr else taken with the dependent infinitive. I dare not go back.' But then any form is emphatic when it is emphasized. It does not assert that he is able or is pertnitted to vex me.''' " Did you hear the rain f " ' ' In these examples ' do ' and ' did ' are mere auxiliaries." Here 'may a mere auxiliary of the Subjunctive Mood. I could leap over that wall once. I cannot do what I will. and the compound in the same. We will never yield When shall \ you see your brother? Wherewithal shall a young to threats.' " He will come presently Here 'will' ^ is a mere auxiliary of the future tense. He could not reply. man cleanse his way ? 1 did not call yesterday lest I might seem intrusive. Parse all the verbs in the following sentences. They would keep on making a noise. + See \ 2IO. and specify in the case of the finite verbs whether they are used as notional or as auxiliary verbs : — can dance. It may be treated like shall' the last example. m " Yotc do assist the storm. He would not come when I called him. He says that he will not come. He durst not go home. You might have gone an hour ago. "You do * assist the storm. You shall not have it.' The verb does not itself constitute an emphatic form. or the compound phrase shall depart may be parsed as the future tense of the verb it ' ' 'depart' depends upon in the same manner depart.

201 infini- Preliminary Lesson. He is anxious to do* his duty.' and the infinitive to come ' is ' ' is the temporary object the real object.' and governing 'attempt' in the objective case.' ' 'To make': in A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. the ' ' — " He thinks it better not to co7ne" Here ' it of the verb thinks. found it advisable to return. To obey is useless to ask him.EXERCISES. Help me io carry this. does the work of an adverb. Nature and use of the gerundial with to' (§§ 194. As it the subject or object of another verb it does the work of a substantive. used wiih the force of an adverb modifying the verb 'ran. tive." Here to meet is a transitive verb in the Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. The master called the boy to say his lesson. Sometimes it expressea the came of the state deoeted by the adjective.* I am happy to They are come to stay with us. is . He came to pay me some money. Active Voice. " // is tiselcss to make the atte/npt. When it denotes the purpose or cause of an action or state.* The boys had a long task to do. . or infinitive — ' B. He hopes to hear from you soon. went up to the man to ask our way. The and neuter pronoun * it' is often used as a temporary or pro- visional subject or object. We We We Make ten sentences in which a gerundial infinitive the subject of a verb ten in which it is the object of a verb . 196). forming the temporary subject of the verb is. • In these cases the gerundial infinitive does the work of an adverb. He dislikes to be kept waiting. " He ran to meet me. in the Singular Number and Nominative Case. He was rude enough to contradict * me. Exercise 55. To work hard is the way to succeed. possible /<? go on. I am sorry to hear* that. I was not prepared to hear that news. and Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. He did his best to ruin me. Parse the verbs in italics and the following sentences in the way indicated above : word ' it ' in the better than sacrifice. I shall be sorry /<? leave. and modifies the preceding adjective.' ' ' Exercise 54. It is // is easy to see that. I am delighted to see* you. found it imfind* you so much better.* He is too clever to make* such a mistake. to show that an infinitive is coming. I am glad to hear* it. to indicate its construction." 'It' is a Neuter Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. and ten in which it does the work of an adverb. She was overjoyed to hear* of her son's return. forming the real subject of the verb is. The water is not fit to d?-ink. Such a fellow is not fit to live.

— Study §§ 197-202. Thinking ' had belter be taken in such con. Exercise 56. XXIX. riding on horseback. up the hall quence of pricking his hand with a poisoned dagger. Quitting the forest. This must be treated as a compound gerund.' My honou7'ed master bade me Honoured' is tell you this. Write out the following sentences. something wicked this way comes. It is impossible to construct the abstract noun in -j»^ with a past participle. Gervmds and Prelimmary Lesson. § ' ' ' .' used as an Adjective of Quality. he pressed my hand.' ' ' " Smiling faintly. ' Fanned by the wind. He went to see the hunting of the snark. ' fan. 5). He died in consepricking of my thumbs. I like reading.^'' Fanned is the Perfect (or Past) Participle ' qualifying the '' noun ' fire. J Forty and six years was this temple By sedulously doing his started before the rising of the sun. Participles used absolutely 201. qualifying the noun master. Oblige me by all leaving the room. Lesson.and the Gerund.' • When the verbal noun in -ing does not govern an object it may be treated as a simple abstract noun.struci Here a is a preposition {= at iir in). 282. Participles used as Qualitative Adjectives. lying witness He hates lying. withdrew his demand. the fire blazedfiercely. There was a great deal of shouting and clapping of hands. 202.202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and draw one line under the Abstract Nouns in -ing j two lines under the Gerunds three lines under the imperfect (Active) participles : . He strode Seeing* man A We We We We My bowing right and left to his guests. "You do draw my spirits from me with new lamenting § ancient oversights " (Shaksp. excessive reading of novels is injurious. ought to be punished. There is here a confusion between the Abstract Noun. 370. The I like reading history.' to which it is of the verb joined attributively. taking a short cut. I lay a thinking. In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward. No good can come of your doing On some opposition being made he that. the open plain. in building. PreUminary ordinary (§§ '' Parsing of Participles. were late in consequence of having lost+ at having succeeded -i* in his design. tions as the Abstract Noun in -ing. By the noble partner you greet with great prediction of noble having. 'Smiling' is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb qualifying the pronoun ' he." the Perfect Participle of the verb 'honour." 'smile. Participles. I see a is believing. our way. arrived there first through His conduct is in keeping with his professions. He was angry at my going away. He is delighted fell in with a ship sailing to America. — Participles proper.)i XXX. we advanced into duty he gained the approbation of all.

joined attributively to the ' ' noun ' Morn. of a certain act. The troops were surprised by the enemy. smilitig Morn. ' ' ' case. Preliminary Lesson. Where do you live ? and I live there. Considering your age. or taken together as equivalent to ' heard. one containing those in which the verb be and the perfect participle form a tense of the passive voice.' Exercise 57. the object of the transitive participle ' considering. Sleep. The ship was built of iron.' " Hail. wounded spirit who can bear? liest thou in smoky cribs. The general rode in front. I plunged in. Look at that smiling villain. you have done falcon. mounted on a " Why rather. I was surprised by his behaviour. * * ' ' j ' . Accoutred as I was.EXERCISES. he strode into the circle. The prisoner was starved to death.' &c. than in the perfumed chambers of the great. The The ship was built rack. —The elements of an Interrogative sentence its ' same way as those of the declarative Compare Did you hear ? and 'I did hear t Who told you so ? and He told me so Whom did you meet ? and I met John. the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister.' Considering is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb 'conThings is a noun in the objective used absolutely (§ 282). dressed in their fine clothes. The poor man was hurt. He was stretched stretched upon his bed.* the other containing those in which the participle is a mere qualitative adjective : upon the by contract. A A Exercise 58. Generally speaking he dines at home. I caught sight of the thief climbing in at the window. towerinjj in her pride of place. The captives were already slain. Being apprised of our approach. he has done very well. splendid charger. and preceded by a pipe and tabor. Use of the verb Do.' ' ' . Study § 214.. XXXI. Interrogative and Negative Sentences. They were slain by order of the captain." Smiling is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb ' smile. and separate the following sentences into two groups.' &c. He was children are famished. was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. very well. t ' Did ' and hear may be parsed separately. He bought a deferred annuity. we will be with you to-morrow. I am surprised that you do not see that. ' ' ' ' ' ' * * In these we get a statement of the actual doing. " Considering all thitigs. The string is stretched too tight. Smiling scornfully. in the second class wft get a statement of the results of the act." ' 203 sider.' are related to each other in the sentence which would be ' complete answer. and hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber.' used as an ordinary Qualitative Adjective." Barring accidents. upon uneasy pallets stretching thee. The poor man is badly hurt. Parse the Participles in the following sentences : Hope deferred maketh the heart sick.

) Will you meet me there to-morrow? Did the man go away? Have the boys hurt themselves? Are you happy? brother do that? turn Exercise 60. or some adjective or adverb. " Sentences. Exercise 59. — Study § 191. and the same numeral is placed after an interrogative pronoun and the preposition that governs it.u t Mind that an interrogative adverb modifies either the verb of the sentence in which it ' ' occurs.a) is placed after those interrogative pronouns (or pronominal adjectives) which qualify the nouns that they precede. X In cases like this. to the preceding questions. [In the first few sentences (s) is put after the subject and (o) after the object of the verb.] . in the possessive case depending on the noun 'pen. Give the complete sentences which are answers to the following questions. Exercise 61. and after an interrogative adverb and the word that it modifies and (. called me ? What (<?) did you say ? Which («) way is the shortest ? What did you eat for supper? On what (rt) day do you set out? Where (3) do (i) do you hope for (i) ? (2) are you writing to (2) ? you live (3) ? (4) far (4) did you walk ? {s) Who What (0) Whom How ? Which boy made that noise ? What author do you did you see ? On what day are you waiting for ? do you set out? Where did you find that book? Whither are you going? Whose * pen is this? What happened yesterday ? What comes ? next like best Whom Whom What ails you? In which house does your uncle live? What poet's writings please you most ? On what day do you set out ? When f will you t come ? t did you do that ? How t many persons were present ? often do you write home? t do you say that ? How t soon will you come ? Where J are you going to ? Where J do you come from ? How How Why Write answers to all the questions in this exercise in turn these answers into the negative form. and then parse all the words in each : Have you any money? Did your Did you say so? Does your sister sing well? Will your father return tomorrow? Shall you be afraid to go? (See | 210. Take the answers them into the negative form. 'thou. Go thou and do • likewise^ Go ' is Mood.' ' ' ' ' . . Imperative Preliminary Lesson.204 . ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and adverbs in the following Parse the verbs and the interrogative pronouns and sentences (§§ 152-154 270). to agree with its subject Parse whose as an interrogative pronoun of common gender. should be taken as doing duty for an interrogative pronoun. 'where governed by the preposition to or from.' u. full.' • an intransitive verb in the Active Voice. and then XXXII. when it is an interrogative pronoun. Imperative Second Person Singular.

EXERCISES.
'

205
it

Do

'

is

subject
"

parsed in the same way, except that thou understood.
'
' '

agrees with a

Let

nie sec that''
'

'Let and
'

a transitive verb in the Active Voice, Imperative second person plural, to agree with its subject understood.*
is

Mood,
'

in the

you

'

See

is a transitive verb in the Active Voice, and in _the ' (simplej infinitive mood depending on (or governed by) the

verb

'

let.'

'Me
Let me go. Let him see
cautious in

'

is

in the objective case,
all

governed by

'

let.'

Exercise Q^. Parse Come hither,

the words in the following sentences

:

boys ?t Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. it. Let me be Let us be spared this annoyance. Let us pray. the business. Do be quiet, boys.

XXXIII. Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.
Preliminary Lesson.
"

— Study

§§

144

— 164.

He is iJian 'Who' is
a.

wJio

is

beloved by

everybody.''''

a Relative Pronoun, of the Masculine Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'man.' It is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb is beloved.' It joins the clause who is beloved by all to the noun man.'
'

'

'

'

" That

is

the lady luhose
is

husband you met yesterday."

'Whose'

a Relative Pronoun of the Feininine Gender in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'lady.' It is in the Possessive Case depending J on (or qualifying) the noun 'husband.' It joins the clause whose husband you mot yesterday to the noun lady.'
'
'

'

"//dvv

is

the matt
'

whom you
'

wished

to see."

Here
" }'ou
'

whom

is

in the objective case, the object of the

verb

'to see.'

have not brought mc the book that T asked you for." is a Relative Pronoun of the Neuter Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent book.' It is in the objective case, governed by the preposition for.' It joins the clause that I asked you for' to the noun book.'

That

'

'

'

'

'

You is always a fcraviiiintical plural. Parse 'boys as a Vocative, or Nominative of Address. If who.<;e be treated as the possessive case of a substantive pronoun, it must be parsed t like a noun in the possessive If whose be regarded as on a par Vkfith ttiy, our, his, &c., it must be dealt with as an adjective.
*
'
'

t

'

'

'

'

2o6

.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

The construction of a relative clause is word for word the same as that of the clause which results when a demonstrative pronoun, or the antecedent noun is substituted for the relative. Thus That I asked you for' is hke 'I asked you for it (or the book) ': 'Whose husband you met her husband yesterday.' y(?li met yesterday is lilce
' ' '

Exercise 63. Parse all the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, and test the construction by substituting demonstratives for the I'elatives as in the above examples
:

painted that picture here is the pen which I gave you ? I who am poorer than you are, am contented. Thou, who wast my friend and guide, hast forsaken me. You, who have done the damage, must repair it. We who are well ofl should pity and help the poor. He is a man whose appearance is j repossessing. The boys whose w oik is finished may go out to play. He that is down need fear no fall. I will show you the horse which I bought yesterday. The picture which pleased you so much was painted by my brother. You have not brought me the volume that He is the yery man that I was speaking oi. Their soriows' 1 asked for. shall be multiplied that hasten after another God. It is that that grie\es me. " Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, This that you tell me is incredible. which art my near'st and dearest enemy?" ''I am that very duke which was thrust from Milan." "Whosoever* hath, to him shall be given." " Eles.'-ed is he whosoever shal' not be offended in Me." He doth sin that doth belie the dead. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall I e showtd before the whole congregation. Thty are but faint-hearted whose courage fails in time of danger. He to-day that .sheds his blocd with me shall be my brother. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the dog if.ai worried the cat that killed the rat that ate lihe malt that lay in the house "that Jack built.'
is

The man whom you met
last year.
1'

my

died

never saw the

The artist who man whom you speak ol.
brother.

W

'

Exercise 64. The antecedent of the neuter relative which is often the fact stated in a previous sentence, or the (implied) gerund or infinitive which expresses that act or fact in an abstract manner, as, " The king's two sons are stolen away and fled, which (namely, the fact that the king's two sons are stolen away and fled) puts upon them suspicion of the deed." State clearly what ii'/z/V// stands lor in the following sentences
' ' ' '
:

promised to follow my advice, which was the best thing he could do. "And, studied hard all the morning, after which we went for a walk. which is more than all these boasts cnn be, I am beloved of Hcrmia." *' I see thee still, and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, which was not so " Thou didst smile, which raised in me an undergoing stomach (i.e. before." courage to otdurc).'"

He

We

Exercise 65.
omitted
in

Supply (and parse) the relative pronouns which are the following sentences (sec § 164).
that of the simple relatives.

• The parsing of these compound rel.itives does not differ from They should be described as compound, or indc/itiitc relatives.

EXERCISES.
Pay me the money you owe me.

207

You have not sent the goods I bought received the money I sent you ? That is the place I "I have a mind presages very man I was looking for. went to. me such thrift, that I should questionless be fortunate. " That is not the way Those are the very words he used. Is the task I set you finished yet ? I came. He is not the man I expected.
yesterday.

Have you You are the

Make
supplied.

a dozen sentences in

which a suppressed
'

relative

may be

Exercise 66. When which accompanies and qualifies a noun, it should be parsed as a Conjunctive Pronominal Adjective.' It then generally refers to the 'general sense of the last sentence, but has no Parse which in the special antecedent in place of which it stands. following sentences
' '
'

'

'

:

I may be detained longer than I expect, in which case do not wait for rne. hope you will stay till Tuesday, on which day I expect my brother. He made a humble confession, by which means he averted his lather's displeasure.
I

Exercise 67. Supply the antecedents which are understood in the following examples
:

Who
we
raise
I

steals

my

purse, steals trash.

"Who was

we

will

whom

dislike.

make fast. I may neither And whom he strikes, his

the thane, lives yet. clioose whom I would, nor refuse
cruel tushes slay.

Whom
said

Whoever

"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted." I That is not what 1 sent dread what * is coming. I hear what you are saying. you for. You are telling me what is incredible. I cannot consent to t what you ask. That is just what I cannot understand. You have not done what Have you found what you were looking for ? What astonished you promised. me most was his imprudence. What pleases you will please me.
that, told

a falsehood.

XXXIV.

Relative (or Conjunctive) Adverbs.

Prdiniinary Lesson.

— Study

§§

262

— 265.
that clause to the predicate

Conjunctive adverbs modify a verb, adjective, or adverb in the
clause which they introduce,

and Join

of the principal clause.
If a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition (§ 406) it joins its clause to the antecedent

noun.

Exercise
sentences
:

68.

Parse

the

conjunctive

adverbs

in

the

following

* Parse ' w/wi" as a neuter Relative Pronoun relating to a suppressed antecedent, whenever the sense of the sentence remains the same if that ivhich is substituted for 'tt'hut.' + Mind that this preposition does not govern what (which is the object of to ask '), but its suppressed antecedent that.'
'
'

'

'

'

'

2o8
I

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

was not at home when you called. I shall see you when I return. He This lay where he had fallen. I will follow you whithersoever you go. Co Tell me the reason why you left the room. is the house where I live. bought Show me the shop where you back to the place whence you came. him whenever 1 can. Wherever he lives, he will be happy. I go to see that.
still

Exercise 69.
Herein do

ceded by prepositions for the adverbial compounds.
thereof

In the following sentences substitute pronouns pre(See § 146.)

Thereon I pawn my credit. She dares not I exercise myself. 1 will hereupon confess I discovery. heart accords thereto. am in love. Present to her a handl.erchief, and bid her dry her weeping eyes therewith. Whereunto shall I liken this generation ? Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? You take from me the means whereby I live.

make

My

Exercise 70.
sentences
I
:

Make

the

reverse

change

in

the

following

long to

know

the truth of this at large.

Thy

food shall be withered roots

The earth is the Lord's and its and husks in which the acorn cradled. lulness. Take this chain, and bid my wife disburse the sum on the receipt
of it.

XXXV.
rrclivimary Lesson.

Conjunctions.
classification of

Conjunctions

(§§

285

— —

Study the definition and

295).

parse a conjunction state what Part of Speech it is, and of what class, and state what words or sentences it couples together. The pairs both— and,' either or,' and neither nor,' may be taken together and parsed as correlative and co-ordinative conjunctions, joining such Subordinative conjunctions usually and such words or sentences. join the clause which they introduce to the predicate of the principal The conjunction than joins its clause to the preceding clause. comparative adjective or adverb.
' '

To

'

'

'

Exercise

71.

Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences

:

He neither came nor sent an excuse. A. He is jioor, but he is contented. He went out quickly and slammed the door. He shot a hare and two rabbits. Both [ohn and Henry came to see me. I will both lay me down in peace and I can neither eat nor [can Either I am mistaken, or you are. [I will] sleep.
1] sleep.

He told me that he had no money. You I have heard that he said so. If I had seen him, I would have spoken to be inmished if you do that. He would not help me, though he knew that I was in need. Though hand join hand in hand, the wicked shall not be unjjunishcd. You will lose tlie Take heed lest you fall. He spoke loud that prize unless you work harder. My I might .hear him. I cannot give you' any money, for I have none. He is richer than his brother [is]. He comes brother is taller than you are. oftener than [lie] ever [came]. As that is the case, I will come.
B.
will

him.

&c. He is very rich nevertheless he is unhappy. it. and tkeirfore lie is He is as t stingy as he never unhappy. I must believe it. They stayed nntil the next day. That book is mine. left after the concert was over. Except ye repent. I hear that he has ' to know that that t/iat '* Exercise 74. you may as well stay.) — Mood * 1. tlie P . therefore have I spoken.. &c. Subjunctive Mood. the word ' Make five or six sentences to illustrate each use of that. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. Play me the tune that I like so much. = XXXVI. He does that that he may vex me. He is contented. He says that we shall never succeed. 148. are prepositions. There is not a man here that I can trust. but are conjunctions when followed by a clause containing a finite verb with its subject : — John arrived after his brother. He has not smiled since his son died. 145. 2og Exercise 72. since. is rich. The Preliminary Lesson. They that will be rich fall into temptation.00k at § 349. that you see at the beginning of the a conjunction. have not eaten since yesterday. but merely refer by their meaning to something that has gone before carefully distinguishing the conjunctions : — He came because I called him. their money was spent. from the relative or conjunctive adverbs. I will go no^d<. Exercise 73. There is nobody but me at home. (Look at §§ 144. He is man that I want. bearing in mind that words like before^ after. else { some. first 'as' is always de>itoitstraiivc. when followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case. He was sorry after he had said it.) ^ it occurs in the Show me that picture. the second conjunctive. &c.. You may go. (§§ 192. They will go away before night. AH except John were present. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. t When 'as' is used twice over correlatively. ye shall all likewise perish. He did not say that. They stayed in Paris until I will wait until you return. Parse the word tliaf wherever following sentences. that he may deceive me. but We We I will stay. I lent you that book the very that you might read You ought clause is lost that book that I lent hint. 430. Since you say so. 5. and the latter from the adverbs which have no syntactical connecting force. Pie walked before me. Come 7uhen I call you. I am afraid that he says that. That is otherwise) I would give you true and also new. I believed. I have no money. because I told you that before. He left soon after came. consequently he lost the prize.EXERCISES. He wasted his time in play . 289. N'ow you are here. Nature and use of the Subjunctive 423. Do not go before I come.' Exercise 75. I .

ha I heai-d \. He would not tell me if 1 asked him. I south-west blo7ii on ye. it is very strange).' &c. Eiercise 78. He may\ liave been in the house. or expresses one of the subjunctive ideas. more diligent. desei-ves to be punished. The old man might be seen daily sitting in the porch.. build the house.2IO • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. it is but it is quite true. &c). He would not have kept it to himself. He came that he might beg money of me. He says that thnt he may vex mt. • ' ' ' ' .. I luouldl were a weaver. If he had heard the news. You might have won the prize if you had been possible that it was my fault). he had knozvn of it. if angry after Exercise 73. he would take a walk every day. he He could not do that if he tried." It is past in form. You may keep the book. or of a past perfect. If he If he were to make such a reply it -would be very foolish. merely to denote past time.e. it was a very did it. use of a past form in relation to present ii/ne.e.\\e news. they labour in vain that build it. If he did that he If he has betrayed his trust. in the indicative mood must be parsed as notional. If that was his reply. be ! A Exerciss 77. It follows the analogy of ought is indicative. Oh that it were with me as in days that are money. is one of the marks of the Subjunctive Mood : — Wju in IV* go.. Last winter However bad the weather roses might be found blooming at Christmas. He would have been " Had I had just finished when you came in. ]mst. The boys would not be quiet when I begged them to be so. You should % ftot tell lies. carefully distinguishing the moods and noting whether the verb relates The to what is actual fact. \ That is. and blister you all o'er. He would have open:d the door if you had knocked. yon zuould help me. not as auxiWary verbs See Seciion XXVIII. Take care that dinner Live temperately that you may live {\ 423) long. foolish one.' 'would. it is possible that zDould have been in his power. If he If he had done it. and yet it should is peculiar. it is possible that he was in the house. I will never forgive him. he would have confessed it. I haa lived a blessed time. He <:('///</ not be kinder if he were vay brother." He tvoidd open the door if you knocked. not open the door when I knocked.'•/// have come U he had wished {i. but He would be angry if he kne^v of it. ' indicative is used • ' May. It nmy be very strange {i. This herb may be met with almost everywhere. Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. Make ten sentences in which the if^ and ten in which the subjunctive is used. It may have been my fault {i. If yovL had sent for m% 1 woiild If you lucre generous. might be. he kept it all to himself. I did not see him. and explain in each case why the subjunctive is used : Beware lest someready for me by two o'clock. I luould not believe it. Except the Lord Peace be to his ashes.//. He ivoid i I but died M\ hour before this chance. he would seriously displease me. have come. it could not do it when he trieil. when there is no reference to any other event. If I had any If he zvere to swear to it.e. referring to present time.Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. I would givi it to you. He . !>-en able. thing worse happen to you. I would have done it if I had If this 'Mere true he would not deny it. X This use of and the other preterite-present verbs. could %\Vig psalms or anything.

XXXVIII. are responsible.EXERCISES. a vieiv which was supported by the summing-up of the judge. " Pie attempted to ascend the mountain without a guide. a denial for which I was not prepared. but the t>vo nouns are treated as a single cotnpoitnd name. a — When in the noun is attached without a consaid to be junction to another noun or pronoun. He has alienated even you. One noun in the possessive is never put in apposition to another. He energetically declared that he knew nothing about the matter ." is A noun tence.) Point out the attributive adjuncts of nouns and 81.im's must be parsed as a compound proper noun. Exercise 80. 211 XXXVII. came to England. often used to represent the fact stated in a previous senthen stands in a kind of apposition to the sentence. adjuncts are attached to the same noun. Adjuncts. distinguish them carefully Exercise pronouns in : — • That is. to give a more complete of the it. Preliminary Lesson.el for the defendant argued that there was no case to go before a jury . Pan- duir. depending on ' ' 'dog. the I'ope's Ui^inte. My brother Robert is expected. and to what they are attached. an act which nearly cost him his life. the author of that report. Parse the itaUcs the following He has gone to see liis au. it is in apposition to and same number and words in case. — Nature and classification of Attributive (§§ Phrases that do the work of Adjectives." my brother Willi. Preliminary Lesson. The coun-. 362 -364. I trod upon his corns. Fetch your luide Johii's spectacles. at the end of the compound name. You. Attributive Adjuncts. and the possessive inflexion is only put after the second of the two nouns. Explain and parse the nouns : in italics in the fallowing examples The general made a vigorous onset on the left of the Hne. an accident for which I apologized. It . provided Dtle case is the nominative or objective. a viamxuvre which distracted the enemy's attention from the main attack.* in Exercise sentences : 79.it Jaiu-. in the possessive case. his earliest friend. the following examples. In such a phrase as " My brother William's dog. that is.' . person is or thing meant. summing up and repeating its import in a single noun which serves as the antecedent to a relative as. and in each case state of what When two or more they consist. description Apposition.

Adjuncts. He will be none (= by nothing) the wiser. I am fond of reading. He is worthy of admiration. The book is worth a guinea. Whose hat did you take ? I bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. cousin Henry died last week. ' long. He is in an ««/«/w. Come started early. I saw a house to let further on.muchX (i. lame. friend in need is a friend indeed. . His right to the property was disputed. of tills itind may contain a noun which has adjuncts of its own att^ched to it. Thus in the above sentences the attributive adjuncts are ' complex attributive adjunct walking in the garden. In these examples a noun (or substantive pronoun) in the objective." &c. The prisoner's guilt is manifest. you go away? B. Collect all the sentences in Exercise 48 which contain adverbial adjuncts. It is [by] many degrees j colder. His right to adopt that course was challenged. What X [== for wkat purpose) ntud \vt any further witness? Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that He came (= • in which) I loved it first. IVhy did you Hcru) many persons were there ? find a truer friend ? Vou struck Tom mc with his fist. He is [by] a great deal % worse. That is This is the hour thatX (= at which) the reason tkat\ [=for which) I did it. by a hit) He \f. across the park. />y that -way). (§§ — by modifying 370-— 372. borrowed William's big two-bladed knife.e. I am none the worse.«£'/j' kind. He is worthy of your love. constitutes an Adverbial Adjunct. brother is My A rattling storm came on. You be glad to hear the ne7vs.) Exercise 82. to see We me. X He left the very day that X{— on 7vhich) I came.e. The friends of the prisoner are very rich. will : We quickly. without a preposition The A ' i before it. Where are i?x/ri?.' and ' white ' are adjuncts of the noun robe. Thus 'a. man soon reached the top of the mountain.' ' clothed in a long white robe. He is a little better to-day. State to what verb. Madam Sylvia entreated me to call. A clothed * We A A XXXIX. Nature and classification of Adverbial Words and phrases which do the work of Adverbs. I have a great deal to say to you. Give me now leave to leave thee. He came forth l)ound handX and/c?('/.' t Select from Exercise st all the examples of the Gerundial Infinitive used adverbially. Leave of absence was refused him. He is not a bill better (i. and f'ltrascs that attributive adjunct consists of the adjective or participle tixel Iter with nil the words are attached to it. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. adjectives or other adverbs.e. Adverbial Adjuncts. He spoke eloquently. verbs. by muck) richer than I am. You are to return I am to take you home. are iti fault. I see My Tom's pony is in a long white robe came up to me. Fearing to be caught in the rain. fo-morro7V.Vv good temper.212 John's coat . Go thctwayX (i. He obtained permission to go. Preliminary Lesson. we This is no time for trifling. adjective or adverb the adverbial adjuncts in italics in the following sentences are respectively attached A. seedy. a man walking * in the garden. Do not talk fad. Vou are to blame. To save time let us walk I was given to tmdeistand that you had left town. t were talking about your I shall brothtr. returned.

I They walked He advanced cap in hand. return with welcome home from banishment. He slept an untroubled sltep. He was his bill. E. The horses being exhausted we covXd no\. live in constant fear. I am fond of riding on horseback. did you say that ? \N here were you on duty last night ? He comes here every day. rained every The wall isjifty feet high. Thus in. My pony being lame. quickly. Lord Marmion's steed rushed by.iy examples all those in Exercise iq which contain an Indirect Object. I am satisfied. ' ' ' ' ' ' We * \ Come more Add Gerunds started very early. gave the Iwy a book on his birthday. Do wt' the favour of hearing Yl<i \s \\\ie his father. I cannot ride to-day. D. I was asked hrgixen his past offences. We cannot live our lives over again. The battle oz'er. this question. In the case of the following complex adverbial point out to what the oitire group of words is attached. ^^'c 213 d<jy. the troops withdrew. what I have to say. Six frozen 'cuinters spent.EXERCISES. He was paid Point out the adverbial adjuncts in the following Exercise 83. I am not disposed to sell the horse. t I shall be glad to to these ra. . were all talking of tiie accident." adjuncts. be modified by adverbs as well as any other forms of the verb. am much We We We We Why . his nostrils spread. He approached me dagger in hand. He accompanied us most of the way. and to what verb. and then show what words are modified by the subordinate adjuncts which the entire group contains. Do not talk so fast. \>YOceeA. What is the matter with you ? He is too ready to take offence. He is a year older They arrived yesterday. I will paint jjv« a picture. Housing and saddle bloody red." the words about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday constitute an adverbial adjunct to the verb 'were talking' while to your brother' and yesterday are adjuncts of the verb happened. had nothing to do.' 84:. He built a wall ten feet thick. There is a church a mile distant from the town. I They speedy deliverance. Wait a bit. I have fought a good fght. It rained all see your brother next 'ucck. On reaching home we found that the rest had arrived before us. I am content to be silent. The dead were refused burial. We were told our faults. loose rein dangling from his head. will be here to-night. It day last week. Pass nie the salt.* The rest must perish. You are to come home directly. F. their great leader slain. The cloth is worth a guinea a yard. than I am. adjective or adverb they are attached :— . " Bloodshot The his eye. He is not like his sister. roiitid. He prayed for a displeased with your conduct. This flower blooms all the year barefoot. sentences state of what they consist. He spoke unusually well. You are spending your time to no purpose. I shall went to the theatre last nig/tt. first Exercise We . " were talking about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday. I will pay you your account soon. C. are glad to see you. He was promised a rocking-horse. My object having been attained. To reign is worth ambition.

about the matter? I am delighted to see you in good health. That is a good stream for angling. He is a man of great industry. Parsing Exercise 87. carefully distinguishing the adverbial objective from the other uses of that case : pay you next ivtrk. the half of every day in bed. haviour. In the following examples show which of the phrases of a preposition and a noun do the work of an adjective (see § 362.e. You should do your best to repair your fault by working harder. fuss What is the use of all this shot a great quantity of game on the moor. i. except those in the absolute construction. the window. Every evening next week is engaged.) Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. made up . We shall spend next tveck in London. Reliance on his promises behaviour of this kind. He did nothing towards helping me out of my difficulties. 2\ that is. mind what he was about. and which do the work of an adverb (see § 370. Nouns occurring and not go- verned by prepositions. He spends every other day in London. must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective Case (i. I am fond hear of your safe arrival. The master praised the boy at the top of the class. of Adverbial Adjuncts. arc engaged wc have a rubber. (See §§ 370— 372. in adverbial phrases. and a dozen in which it forms an adverbial adjunct. What is called the Cognate Object is really one kind of adverbial objective. Papa goes to London every (fay. Exercise 85. Do your duty to him. I am looking at the man standing with his t)ack to of going to the theatre. on horseback. XL. I must express my displeasure at your befond of the pastime of angling. the attempt. He Exercise 86. Most days are joyless to me.2 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. by unflagging industry. He is too feeble to make adhered to his determination to make the attempt. We arrived an He was in too much haste to hour too late.. Every cvfuiug the day. We were The advantages of travelling in foreign counvexed by his rudeness to you. He is not prone to We rely on your promise.e. are adverbial adjuncts and show to what word each is attached. 4). I cannot walk a step farther. A man addicted to self-indulgence will not rise to He is fond of angling. I am greatness. He escaped by leaping over the ditch. are attributive adjuncts. Make a dozen sentences in which a^ preposition followed by a noun or pronoun forms an attributive adjunct. I will We We We . I see him most days. He accomplished the task tries are very great. He shouted to the boys at the top of his voice. He spends have lost half sat up half the night. He gave hnii his best wine to drink. You have displeased me l)y your behaviour. the Objective Case used adverbially). which must (now) be parsed as being in the nominative absolute. The place abounds in good Do you see that man on horseback? He has given up riding water to drink. What is my duty to my neighbour? He is useless.

It came to pass about an eight days after.' never an adjective. these sayings. All is lost.' adjective. we started. I never drink either beer or wine. Come this way. The rest must perish. You must spend less money. Both brothers were All those present present. Some twenty persons were present. What shall we do next? He sat next meat dinner. The battle was fought on this || * Else + ' is always a mere adverb. Nothing can or shall content It is an ez'en chance. Who only son. paying special attention to the constructions that are not obviously consistent with the rules: The multitude were of one mind (§ 376).than that would have been enough. Parse "but 'in the last sentence. Others may believe it. He knows most about the matter. He I am mueh pleased with you. He must needs pass through Samaria He told me much of what liad happened. that I have told him that. There were a dozen men there. I have somrwhat to say unto thee.vky and the loherefore of everything. I would do it but that I am forbidden. Lead I cannot count the times I have told him that twenty times.EXERCISES. Both John and I were present. He sat up all night. We have other things to attend to. We went over dry fooi. He bought three score sheep {\\ 362. All save one perished. You must go. every evening next the ' 215 iveek. left iiixt ([ay. He takes the medicine every three hours {\\ 173. It is not that he loves me more. Be 'iVell assured of that. I have not tnuch time. Parse the following sentences. and what did you do What need we any further witness ? What shall we next ? I am not 7vell. a certain number of mei:' . 2 . There was but a minute to spare. wavThe horses having been harnessed. 471). We have wasted half the day. ' either 'besides. I have not told you one //rtZ/'of what was said. Exercise 89. You may break him. I do not believe cither's account of the matter. He lived a hundred years (§ 362. else"^ he would not look so mysterious. 2). It is usually an adverb ' Some' had better be taken as an namely twenty. He will have the expense and the trouble besides. He even insulted me to my face. 54).e. He is all powerful at court. Either road is difficult. They gave us trouble enough. He spoke to all but me. I am //'?// inclined to believe it. but that he fears me less. They have bread enough and to spare. Why! he is as rich as Croe. I feel soniewhat indisposed. He need not be afraid. ' It means it is X II ' • Enough may be a substantive. He needs strict oversight. 55 .' or 'otherwise. Some men (i. They sent for you. He knows something about it. but I cannot. need in this business ? What ! Did you not get my letter ? He wants to know the 7. tences Parse the words in italics in the following sen- :— He will have the expense besides all the trouble.sus. Less . His needs will be well supplied. for you are sent for. He lived ten years there. It was built some % ten years ago. sir. ' Exercise 88. I have nobody else to look to. t We have not enough to eat. Give him more air. Intt you will never bend him. Do comes next ? He has lost his We _what you please. their great leader slain. You are sent for. have only four shillings left. only be quick about it. He would liave said fno7-e if I had not stopped him. but Some here is not an adverb. I will both lay me down in peace and sleep heard it. Well. There is no one /'«/ pities him. my soul till I am ezh-nd with him.

The children. appetite that J he sits this instant. Preliminary Lesson.2l6 . Macb. if the predicate be Thus. ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES.'"' may be put first. My little brother has fallen ilown. Simple Sentences. The I loved it first' (/(/. riseth from a feast with that keen. came indoors. The passengers are side* the river. and that quickly. king with the Lords and Commons form the legislature {\ 377)' Who ' XLI. terrified rich old uncle has left him a large estate in Yorkshire.i If the subject be the interrogative ' who. When will return to town ? Stibj. exercises may be taken for practice in parsing as well as S The examples in the following ' ' We ' ' ' m analysis. 3. friends of that little boy have sent him to sea. Does your uncle the doctor know of this? Went not my spirit with thee ? Wlience did the author of that book get his materials ? Who in the world told you that? Why did you send the poor man away ? How many shillings have you in your purse ? • There is no occasion to supply ' of. Exercise § 90. ran away at full speed. The horse. divided. Full many a flower is born to blush miseen. II ' ' ' Divide the following sentences in a similar way . . is I an adverbial adjunct. subject. tired with intends to sell it. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Divide the following sentences and the logical predicate : into the logical This naughty child has torn his clothes. of a preposition that by the whole of what it stands (or. The John's parents have sent him to school.). Questions may be divided in a similar inanner.' P7-cd. The i'oys came home child has hurt himself.' have an adverbial phrase a. I. The construction wiirsometimes be clearer in the priinary division. between the Difference Nature of a siinple sentence. logical Subject and Predicate.ssuming the function Compare the following sentences.' being here the representative of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition. Your brother. + To jiarse quickly replace 'I'h.). and the grammatical — Subject and Predicate. last night. A The play. He passed six months aboard the ship. The owner of that estate fJismayed at the prospect they beat a retreat. and must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective. " When will your brother return to town. f all on board the ship. Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that % down {S/iaksp.it. by the lightning.' it had better come first . and see § 2S1. Leave the room I must see him.

' or any confusion between participles and verbal nouns. In analysis and ^aisxu^ grammatical /'or}n is the The point in question has nothing to do with any servile imitation of Latin essential thing Grammar."' take " have heard. So in Milton. The handle of the pump in the yard is broken.o my desk) has been (Despairing t of success) ke picked." Here silent means although it was silent. I shall most likely hear from you lo-morrow. most unfau' manner been deprived of his rights. We shall in due time know all about it. (This) law. meaning for that reason. Thus. wrapped in a huge cloak. titere/otc have I spoken. but a demonstrative adverb. The brave soldiers of the garrison The old church has fallen into ruins rich old uncle left him his property horseman. and yet they often involve an advcrhial force .' but grammatically it is nothing more than an adjective. 217 Exercise 91.' Grammatically you can make nothing of afraid but an adjective. as '' I believed. (The) (Chubb's) (patent) lock \\. Make (or find) dozen sentences § 388). yet spake.EXERCISES. the leader halted. Take the following sentences logical subject in each into the in the way shown in § 490.' and because they were disAdjectives may be used in the same way. I have been all the morning trying to make out this problem. You will by these very stop his proceedings. died at their posts. silent. (Good) water (for drinking) was scarce. The component parts of a compound tense are often separated by the intrusion of adverbial adjuncts. though the same notion o{ because clings to the expression. (Disgusted t by so many acts of baseness) (the man's) friends (all) deserted hhn. ''His meek aspect. The work will very proliahly be finished before night. 'lake the following sentences and put with the subject in each the ivhole of tlie verb that belongs to it. in grammatical subject is enlarged (see what the enlargement consists. simple means He has in the Exercise 92. because he despaired of success." We We We shall soon reach our destination. * and separate the grammatical subject and its adjuncts (My) (poor) (little) brother has hurt himself. The field is already being reaped. entered the yard. the street) is on fire. Thus from " ha\e already heard the news.' So participles and participial phrases are (grammatically speaking) attributiz'c adjuncts . (the (My (The) house (on the other side of disgrace of our statute book) was repealed. He is of all enchantingly beloved. an int The grammaticalfonit of a sentence often lags behind its logical hiifort. (My brother John's) pony (A) man (carrying a great sack of flour) came into the has broken his leg. as here. and state in which the each case of ' In the first few sentences the words or groups of words forming separate adjuncts are enclosed in brackets. John's account of the affair alarmed me.' 'Afraid of being betrayed into an ambuscade. I had at last with infinite trouble surmounted the difficulty. gusted. without the other words. dependent sentence beginning with a demonstrative often occurs where the sense implies grammatical connection. abandoned the undertaking." 'Therefore' is not aeonjunction. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . barn (The) (impudent) fellow (not being satisfied with my alms) began to abuse me. Which boy knows his lessons? What poet's works please you most? What goods are most in A A demand ? What naughty little boy broke the window a ? Exercise 93. poor little brother's) (pet) bird was shot.

On the top of the in the road. Exercise 94. f I met some gipsies in my ramble. sentence with the next. 96." i. § In questions the subject is often so placed as to break the predicate (when it is a compound form of the verb) into two parts. t Contrast this Look at \ 370. much money will be enough for you? What foolish notion possesses you? A little girl's voice was heard in the garden. T Observe th. My brother Henry told me J that. give the complete ansiver to the question. has a subject. Thus ended a war * of ten years' My We Whom This ended that most unpleasant business. absence ? I desire nothing more ardently. The master I saw a soldier on horseback. He had the impudence to tell me to hold my tongue.' : — — ' told were greatly amused by his story. the other consisting of those in which there is not a grammatical object. 2. duration. and the several Thus John sent to us an amusing attributive adjuncts of the object. Howl! well at the examination. To do this jiroperly requires time. A large dog's bark was ^^ || * Mind that the subject very ohe. You say so to tease me. My . Down came the rain. hill stinds a stone cross. .you heard the news? Have those little boys finished their morning._. praised the boy at the top of the class.n follows the verb.' Object : Attributive account of the proceedings. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. Considering his age he has done pretty his steps. Separate the following sentences into two groups. we left our companions How did you find your way ? He used a stick to support at the brid. 'of the proadjuncts of Object: ceedings.^t this phrase does not show where the act of seeing touk place. one consisting of those in which there is a grammatical object of the predicate verb. will not help you out of the difficulty. The boys have been forbidden to enter the orchard.e. We We Exercise 95.-iko care in the analysis not to separate attributive words from the adverbial adjuncts that may be attached to them. Remember that 'how' is an adverb. write down : Take the sentences in the last three exercises. He Have you read this author's last us a droll story about his brother. did you see at the concert ? The girl is admired by everybody. To see the construction properly. The man struck the poor little boy on The boys were rewarded for their diligence. They shook the depths of the desert gloom with their hymns of holy chter. Who spoke last ? Whom did you hear at church this morning? Hoping to find an easier road. Then take the sentences in the first group and set down separately the object of the verb in each. Crying Latin exercises during my To act thus will displease his father. I saw the occurrence That lazy boy did not go out of doors all the through a gap in the wall. He sent his hat round to rapidl)' turned round in the direction of the report. and Exercise sentences Give the complete analysis of the following Every finite verb in a sentence John's account of the affair alarmed me. 4. Veryll few men could have done that. C II I.^ work ? Everybody admires John's little sister. horse fell down the head. 'amusing'. the several adverbial adjuncts of the predicate in each.2lS ENGLISH GRAMMAR. were strenuously advised to turn back. Account. 3. cousin arrived last night. Have. 'An'. collect contiibutions.

ike ? Hero man had better be taken as the direct object. originally formed a nominative (or Look at \ 370. desire? Whom did you find walkiuij in the ijaiden? Whose umbrella did you take? Whose exercise has the fewest faults? The poor man's wife died He fell liead foremost into the ri\er. Boy lost. 4. strongest works. Prcliininary Lesson. Here shall be done a deed of dreadful return interrupted our game note. ' !Ex:sr3ise 97. Loaf was bought. Horse threw. " This He died a happy death. Men found. that too I told you* all that an Jiour agot. We had a purpose to be his purveyor. soinetimes rob their unsuspecting friends shamefully. Make a dozen other sentences and verbs of your own chooiing. as you can. Man struck. I. dress My cousin's were sold by auction. 498 — 500). her young ones in her nest.' The dead were refused burial (§ 372). from Men rob.' The phrase objective) absolute. led astray by temptation. the words in Exercises 94 and 96. Forth at your eyes. said. The Downward poor wren will fight. predicates. Who ever experienced anything like kindness at his hands? Who but a fool would talk like that ? What have you done with the money? What arrant nonsense that foolish was torn. Children went. subjects Exercise 93. They advanced step by last nigh'. Brother left. and objects. of scusj as 'train' or 'instruct-' ' ' ' II ' ' teach'' having Lhc same kind . " Take thee * stei^. Conceit. Ship carries. Thus. Some ladies' dresses .EXERCISES. in weakest bodies. Theie by Duncan. Teach me He was taught Greek (§ 372) by his uncle. thy statutes. He found his brother We have bought a pretty little calf a month old.' ' ' Birds Sister build. with as many adjuncts. 'Ago' is a shortened form of 'agone. where they are wanted. he sat. X Look. What more do you wrath may find some wor^e way to our destruction. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. and construction of Verbs of Moile of analysing sen- tences in which they occur * \ 493.ittributive and adverbial. Parse all in a similar way with Exercise 99. I return you * my best thanks. at § 371. — Nature (§§ Incomplete Predication 391 i§§ — 396). XLII. his silver skin laced with his golden Vjlood. heard in the distance 219 The tall lady's An empty bird's silk nest was found. is here an adverb. and enlarging the subjects. We arrived. Take the following pairs of subjects and verbs and btild up sentences by putting in objects. against the owl. came. His lying fast asleep. .' 'Teach erring man|| to spurn the rage of gain.' you may make Men of weak character. Give me* a cup of tea. a melancholy band. your spirits wildly peep.}: man talks! Which [horse] of these horses is to be sold? He eats his food like § a hog. they move.

This delay is trying to our patience. The children are half starved. He grew rich suddenly. They made Henry king. The air feels keen.' But when used to form a tense of another verb. I am in doubt about that. We were delighted by the concert. He is named John. imprudent. Where are you ? Where have you been all the morning ? is He in the parlour. Analyse the following sentences containing SubjecComplements of verbs of Incomplete Predication — : are honest. I am deliglited to see you. That appears very plausible.) ' ' Exercise 102. deem this step very This measure rendered the plot abortive. He became very rich in a short time.— An adverb or adverbial phrase is not a complement. He sat twiddling his thumbs. She looks very pretty.' ' . ready.. The wine tastes got quite tired.' ' . They entered laughing. He was called an enthusiast by his friends. tive Exercise 100. The jury pronounced the consider him a fine player.) tion of ' Point out carefully the various uses of the verb in the following e. prisoner guilty. I am sure of pleasing He is insane. He called the man a liar. He stood rubbing his eyes. as He is going I was saying He is gone He was struck. it is usually called an Auxiliary Verb. Analyse the following sentences containing ObjecComplements of verbs of incomplete predications {^ 391. time has been. The prisoner was pronounced guilty of homicide. take the same case after them as before them. to be is a verb of complete predication. § Exarcise 101. He cfjnsidcrs this course expedient. or (better) by saying that the complement is in the predicative relation to the subject.220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He is going away. He is my cousin's friend. (See § 374.Kamples : Such things have been. He was elected Emperor. In accordance with 393 (which see) account for the case of the complement either by saying that the verbs be. When it is not accompanied by a complement of some sort. the participle that follows is merely an adjective' of quality. They We you in this. He is considered a pretty good player. He was called a fool for his pains. He felt tired.' {iV. The boy was blamed for that. I pronounce the wine We We . The poor man was starve 1 to death.B. sweet. The boys rushed shouting into the playground. He became my friend. He is an honest man. I think him clever.' &c. The dog ran away howling.' ' an action. He was wounded by an arrow. You have made your hands dirty. 395) : He painted the wall white. or (as it is sometimes called) the verb of exist jncc. He stood silent (see § 391). The poor soldier is badly wounded. that when the brains were out. He made us all merrj'. the continuance. Parse the preceding sentences.' become. He is not thought a fool. The We are the man would die. tive Exercise 103. or the comple- when ' . I am trying to do it. In such cases the compound form denotes the performance. When the state that is the result of the action is denoted. The verb to be is a verb of incomplete predication it is employed in making a compound tense of a verb in either the active or the passive voice.

Parse the preceding sentences. See whether the word in question denotes. That cannot be allowed. t In many of these constructions. His voice sounded feebly. You might have found an easier way.^ (See § 396. Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests. Show where the complementary infinitive has itself a complement. He instructed the man to wait. in which the subjeccomplement is a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 394). I We sing. its complement. I We must make must go home. shall You can be rewarded. or the manner in which an action is done.the condition of that which is spoken about. He ought to pay me. The cry sounded clear and shrill. They besought us to come to their help. I canThey . Analyse the following sentences. Indeed [ did not say so. Exercise 103. or to its complement. He is not to be endured. * He made his horse canter. I will depart. are in the predicative Do not confound the object of a verb with relation to the subject. The people wept sore. are supposed to have lost their way. excellent.-hall not hear you. will They may be answered. He spoke loud. Nothing could be more unfortunate. have a good scolding. He told the man to wait He asked me to come. They urged us to come. He directed the man to wait. That looks pretty. In sentences like '• How am I to do it ?" •' You are to be quiet. His voice sounded feeljle. I do so long to see him. complements are in reality in the Objective Relation to the verbs of incomplete J These predication. They invited us to come. That He was ordered to sit down. You ought to be more cautious.) Show carefully whether adverbial adjuncts are to be attached to the verb cf incomplete predication. this gerundial infinitive is scarcely distinguishable from an adverbial adjunct expressing purpose. He is believed to have perished. It grieved me sore. (See § 493. These secontive dary complements. I forbid you to touch that. was bidden to stand aside. as well as the primary ones. The bell sounded cracked. Exercise 107. carefully distinguishing those cases in which a verb is followed by a complejiicnt from those in which it is followed by an adverbial adjimct. . The stones have made my lect * In parsing an infinitive mood of this sort it must be described as the complement of the verb of incomplete predication. They He is thought to have poisoned the man.) They can haste." the infinitive is certainly adverbial. This kind of life to was considered He is believed to be mad. He bade the man wait. step be very imprudent. Exercise 105. That may perhaps be true. They have not made the street wide enougii. He set Let us pray. He has travelled far and wide. Exercise 104. Analyse the following sentences. write well. They may take the money return shortly. and in the attributive relation to the noun which is the object of the verb.EXERCISES. the audience laughing. 221 He made the bear dance. Analyse the following sentences containing Infinitive Complements. He ordered the man to wait. He ought not to do this.

' ' . In the example given in § 547 it is quite possible that we ought to regard 'this proud Sarazin to meete me as an infinitive phrase of the same kind u. The trees whispered soft and low. remembering that the conjunction that does not enter into the structure of the clause which it introduces. &. Complex Objective Phrases. heard the man say so. Complex Sentences. The bird sang The ship passed clear of the rock. feltt the air fan my cheek. and structure of substantive 401—405)." that there is found the man dead. I believet the man to be innocent.' and represented provisionally by 'it.amc . I expectedt the travellers to be here by this fault ? being in The duke will time. When 'it' is employed as a temporary.c. Analyse the bcntences in the mode indicated in § 515. Analyse the substantive clauses separately. Exercise 109. ' * These objective complements distinction infinitive phrases are often scarcely distinguishable from infinitive moods but it will be seen on consideration that there is the £.1 preposition. — Study : § 397. The whisper came soft sounds clear. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. or provisional subject.222 sore. clauses (§§ — Nature. set it down as such. and place after it the substantive clause as the real subject. The whole of the following phrase is the object of it. See note on § 395. ' In constructions of this sort the verb in the infinitive mood may be parsed as being the verb in an objective infinitive phrase. Analyse the following sentences containing ob- jective infinitive phrases — He heardt the wind roar through the I saw the thief try to pick a gentleman's pocket. We wishf you to come to-morrow. and low to our ears. as it is often termed) is the subject. He rubbed his This delay will make us late.<Sed as the (real) subject of chaunced. form. late.* Preliminary Lesson. The water is frozen hard. being either pronouns or adverbs. XLIV. + Notice that the meaning of this verb is quite complete in itself. Preliminary Lesson. It is too late forj the was too difficult forij: him to hope to succeed. t Here llu Infinitive phrase is governed by . Her voice clear. He rubbed his face hard. The wind sits fair forj news to travellers to arrive to-night. The task go to Ireland. but that interrogative words do. I have heard Have you ever known+ the man confess trees. [people] say that he is very rich. They came XLIII. I liket a knave to meet with his deserts. Substantive Clauses. The water runs clear. In the following sentences a substantive clause (or noun-sentence. I I never grant this forfeiture to hold. between ' He made used as kind of the child cry ' ' between ' He made the rpan angry and ' He and He saw the child fall. having the preceding noun or pronoun in the objective case as its subject.' In that case the analysis of the sentence will of course be different. face sore. Exercise 108.

It is to-day. the wood began to him. Analyse the following sentences in which a substantive clause is in apposition to a noun. He made it a condition that I should become security for the payment. or noun-sentence. note. I tliink I have Tell me who told you. Who How long I shall stay here is uncertain. first analyse the sentence without the substantive clause. I want to know when this old happened. He told me he knew all about the matter. He felt Try how far you can jump. Advise if§ this be worth attempting. It is very probable ihat he will not arrive not true that he said so. ' The that this It often does duty as a temporary or provisional object. can have told you that. I am hopeful that he will soon get better. I heard that he had arrived. What his capacity is signifies nothing. like a nominative iS 404). ' ' . and then the subject substitute that clause for the it. How I found the matter out is no concern of yours. or is used absolutely with a absolute : you say so is enough for me. day that I saw him. That he said so is undeniable. unless it has a subject and a finite verb. It is uncertain what the result will be. or of a phrase equivalent to a would come. See § 403 and § 244. I shall succeed. that he knew We Exercise 111. draw a Une * under the entire set of words which form the substantive clause. Was on Tuesday that Exercise 110. t The introductory conjunction that' is often omitted. (See § 512. Tell me what you think of all this. remembering that you have not got a complete substantive clause. it to be a disgrace that he had so utterly failed. 223 Before analysing the sentences in this and the succeeding Exercises. Tell me how the honour of addressing Mr. He is confident that are resolved that that shall not occur again. with all the adjuncts that may be attached to either of these. puzzles me." § ' If has here the force of whether*. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. I thought it J strange that he should leave without calling on me. How completely you are What signifies what weather we have ? mistaken can easily be shown. Tell him I cannot see him to-day. It does not matter what he It is uncertain how long I shall stay. What we are to do next is the question. or comes after a preposition participle. thinks.EXERCISES. Methought the ? It was only yester- Methinkst move. ' ' . I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night. stantive clause transitive verb I is : Analyse the following sentences in which a sub" the object of a verb. The idea that I can comply with his request fact that * To those who are acquainted with my larger grammar I need hardly observe mode of marking sentences has not been borrowed from the later works of others. I know that handwriting. What does it signify he was justified in that proceeding. Smith? you are.) That he did the deed is quite certain. it is Thence that I to your assistance do It is how rich he is ? a question how far make love. The circumstance that he was present must not be disregarded. Try if you can decipher that letter. it Anon methought he went away JNlethinks he hath no drowning mark upon billows spoke. Deal with it as in the case of t that is.

Being essentially a substantive. or closer definition). but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money gratis." "So please my lord {i. That depends upon how you did it. I will undertake the business. I am persuaded that that is the wiser course.' of wine. lie did this to the end that lie ni^^h. in which an inaccompanied by an interrogative word supplies the place of a substantive clause beginning with an interrogative finitive : Note the omission of ' that. but because they denote a tt'ansitive action. in which the SubClause forms an Adverbial Adjunct to a verb or adjective (like the Latin accusative of limitatioti. it may have a substantive clause in apposition to it. \ We are glad that you have come at last. not brought your brother. can want the thought how monstrous it was for Malcolm and for Donalbain to kill their gracious father ? He sent me word that he would come anon." You may go where you like so ' ) Exercise 112.' Is he a captain? He is sfl 'He is a fool. He is desirous that I should return. bring him with you. Exercise 114." § That is I am sorry on this account.. Analyse the following sentences. Provided this report be confirmed. I am content. co. In case* you should see him. We are disappointed that you have Exercise 113.' ' Analyse the following sentences I : is abating. In case I am not there. Analyse the following sentences ' ' : (= on the condition) that you are back by " For nothing hold me so it please thee hold {i.e. He has obtained my consent that he should go to college. Transitive verbs govern an object.' The ' . not because they are predicative words. as in I told you so. For that I love your daughter.dertook the business in the expectation that he would help me. Nouns that do this may have a substantive clause after them. He could not get rid of the idea that I was his enemy. nothing me a something dear to thee. I Ui. I came on the chance that I might find you at home. % I <im sorry that you are not well. ' I convinced him 7vtt/t respect to tliis point. go on without me. I hate him for he is a Christian. I would not believe the story but that you avouch it. 'on the condition that it please my lord to quit the fine. Provided that he consents. ENGLISH GRAMMAR..' + ' ' ' * ' I drank a pint or so his is brother. Oh yet I do repent me of my fury that I did kill them. That is a proof that he knows nothing about the matter. There is no fear that he will fail. I must advance the colours of my love. We welcomed these indications that spring was near.i2 4 is alisurJ. regard) that dinner time.' It is often used without any adverbial force. t 'I'hat is. see no sign that the fever stantive Analyse the following sentences. or as regards this. which may be described as an objective adjunct to the noun. Who ! The word so is only a substantive demonstrative pronoun t used adverbially. I convinced him that he was mistaken. and so strengthened form 'as' (also. There was a rumour that the army had been defeated.ivlnce me. we shall know what to do. ? 165) often has a pronominal force.t'. I am certain that he never said so.

and construction of Adjec- Clauses (§§ 406 Exercise 115. 413).' It must be t See § 162. and a dozen in which it is omitted. 225 do it is the difficulty. I taught him how to do it. The difficulty is how to get there. parsed as a compound adverb. X See § 165. I have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love asj I was wont to have. What sad talk was that wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. the gentleman to whom this park belongs ? Infected be the air whereon t they ride. repose ') is labour which is not used for you. to do next. 411. He had many heavy burdens to bear. such as§ it is. and lastly analyse the adjective clause separately* : serpent that did sting thy father's life. — Adjective Preliminary Lesson tive Clauses. Deal in a similar way with the sentences in Exer- Exercise 117. Thou speak'st to such a man that is no Vou fleering tell-tale.e. ' ' ' help. the pressure of which nearly crushed him. Where to get puzzles nie.Supply the relatives which are omitted in the sen- tences in Exercise 62. and then analyse them. as. I know not how to thank you to How the money sufficiently. The rest {i. . His behaviour is not such [Ijehaviour] as I like. Unto l)ad causes swear such creatures as+ men doubt. Ihrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.]. The ' Exercise cise 61. Analyse the following sentences in which the Adjective Clauses have a Relative Adverb in place of a Relative Pronoun governed by a Preposition (§ 406). XLV. • Remember that the Adjective Clause must contain a subject and a finite verb of its own. You are welcome to my help. Whereon (=: on which) forms an adverbial adjunct to ride. ' ' ' ' as it is is in the attributive relation to § The clause the complentent of the predicate in its own clause. and then analyse the sentences. now wears his crown. then analyse the entire sentence. Exercise 118.. 116. I am considering what I know not where to get food. As' must be treated as equivalent to a relative pronoun. Do you know I saw the captain in whose ship you will sail. He never knows when to go. form.' and the quasi-relative ' as ' is . Thy food shall be husks wherein the acorn cradled. — Nature. Underline the adjective clauses in each of the following sentences. Make (or find) a dozen sentences containing adjective clauses in which the relative is expressed. This cloth is not such [cloth] as I asked for. will soon find such peace wliich it is not in the power of the world to give.EXERCISES. In me thou seest the twilight of such day. after sunset fadeth in the west. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul.

and find out what is the already. have the same twofold use the adverbs. Do you know the source whence he obtained this information? The fortress whither the defeated troops had fled was soon captured. or treat the clauses as Adjective Clauses used substantively (§ 408). was the owl. eitlier Exercise 121. I will show you the shop where I bought these apples.' and the pronominal adverbs 'when. Exercise 122. You have only told me what I know I know what you said about me.' a nominative absolute belonging to the adjective clause. which is a substantive What is interrogative when it cannot be replaced by that which (§ 409). and tJiis. when used as the equivalents of relative pronouns governed by prepositions. f was it the eye of cliildhood that fears a painted devil. was John who said so. Do what you can in this business. in which the Adjective Clauses are attached to (and explain) the neuter demonstrative It pronouns it. The pronouns 'who' and 'which. are saying. Was that your brother who knocked at the door? Is that a scar that you have on your hand? It was a gun-shot that killed him. ' Exercise 123. Exercise 120. Return to the place whence you came. that. and then parse the sentences : Repeat what you have just said. * t That That ' t Tlie adjective hand is who said . I cannot make out what you I do not understand what you are saying. Analyse the following sentences. You may supply the suppressed antecedents." creature) that shrieked. Go. Exercise 119.' 'where. ' ' Analyse the following sentences.. Is this I see before me.236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. the handle towards my hand ? That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold.' and analyse them. clause. carefully distinguishing the subtantive clauses from the adjective clauses. " It (the person) " It (the — ' 'The handle towards my . The reason why you cannot succeed is evident. You matter. The word what sometimes introduces an adjective and sometimes an indirect question. ' ' clause. I can remember the time when there were no houses here. He knows well enough what he ought to do. is.so. He soon repented of what he had done. Pray tell me what ails you. It was the owl that shrieked. must not dictate to me what I am to do. I'his is what he did." clause 'which hand' is attached to this. That is precisely what he ought to have done. Make (or find) a dozen sentences illustrating each use of what.* ? Who that thus cried It is a dagger which j Analyse the sentences in Exercise 65. was John. . having a relative force.' &c. is.

where we parted company. 'when' should be described as a connective adverb. which he read.' to which a substantive clause beginning with 'that' was in apposition. first underlining you the Analyse (and parse) the following sentences.' By this tune we had traversed half the distance. and then analyse these \ clauses separately I will tell secret'l were a man. not know when quarrel. in a similar Exercise 125. tjonoiirable ladies sought my love. demonstrative pronoun were substituted for the relative (§ 413) ' . Clauses (§§ Adverbial Sentences.* after execution. That is why* I am angry. I did not shall have no peace. Whom we raise we will make fast. How. ivhere. See where* he looks out of the window. whom he visited frequently. We travelled together as far as Paris. While has nothing to do with the relative pronoim. . I do they will arrive. way with the sentences in Exercises XLVI. you live. and structure of Adverbial 414—435). Tell me where he is. which lasted till the evening. That is where* I live. ivhithcr. Being shown into a grand apartment. It is an old noun meaning 'time. which I denying. have no such force. I delivered my letter. I could not make out whom he was alluding to.EXERCISES. while.Prdbninary Lesson. Deal 63 and 65. up a Exercise 124. ' Here lies an honest man. This modest stone. ' : — matter will re-word. but that the Conjunctions after. In London he made the acquaintance of my brother. j they fell I the sick and died. when I see you. before.. Adverbial Clauses relating to Time (§ 1. I knew when* seven justices could not take I have seen when. Next day they renewed the fight. but as independent sentences as though and with a. treating the clauses containing a relative not as adjective clauses. — Nattire. Analyse the following sentences. judgment hath repented o'er his doom. forming an adverbial adjunct io/eli.' as a relative. then you know that till you told me. which madness would gambol from. The omission of that gave to while a conjunctive force. form. In parsing a sentence of this kind. May truly say. Analyse the following sentences : 227 Find out who did that. Sic. never has an antecedent expressed. That is howt he always treats me.' § Remember that the conjimction or pronominal adverbs when. While he is here we * In the analysis supply an antecedent no'in. when a loud clap of thunder warned us to quicken oiir steps. When you durst do it. That is why* I did it. X Which is the object of denying. what few vain marbles can. till. after the Adverbial Clauses. &c. have an adverbial construction in their own clavises.' ai)d joining the clause whei) I see you to the predicate ' wilj ' We ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' tejh' . Tell me where Tell me why you are so angry. Exercise 128. S have here a nominative absolute. modifying the verb 'see. 416).

Exercise 128.' 11 The demonstrative 'so' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' 'tired. me. Analyse and parse the following sentences : because I sent for him. the village preacher's modest mansion rose. He still Adverbial Clauses relating to Place (§ 417). You may come whenever you 2. He is aware that I did not come. we had left plague [be] upon signifies asking.' Each modifies the adjective in its demonstrative. therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice. He do not always write as we pronounce.' . left the room as I 1 shall be gone before you are up. he followed Seat yourselves wherever there is room. I'll charm there's not a soul to give you an answer? arrived after the air to give a sound while you peiform your antic round.' as the tree falls are co-ordinate . Purpose. more. the second demon§ Here the main clause is the second one. the prospect. What it. Ho\v|| far the substance of my praise doth wrong this a bright shadow.adverbial adjuncts of will lie. When I am determined I always listen to The fool is happy that he knows no reason. please. I must believe it. I will dwell. Ex3rcise 129. Analyse and parse the following sentences Where thou dwellest. She is star shooteth from the sk)-.So' and the clause nrst ' The as ' is disclose' are co-ofdinate adverbial adjuncts of 'rose. and Consequence (§ 421—423). strative. Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause. when thieves cannot be true to one another. the second relative. the wider will be The longer I know him. Take I I called own room lest on him that I might tell him that he might study quietly. I will forgive him. so glides he in the night from Venus' eye.' the ' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of wider. the more he wants. Exercise 127. : I will follow you. that he cannot so dark tl>at we cannot see. so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance.) The first modifies 'higher'. Wherever lay where he fell. Since you say so. Take heed ye fall am tired that I is am ready to drop. He retired to his about that matter. Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner and Degree (§ 418). I cannot tell you his age. as good as she is beautiful. the second modifies 'wider.2 28 • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Analyse and parse the following sentences As the tree falls. He so It weak is stand. you go. A when He He entered. As he lias begged my pardon.' How ' is a relative or connective adverb modifying far. He is asj : avaricious as his brother is generous. Because Thou hast been my help. is care that soil all be ready.* where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. ' ' ' — _ clause. for I do not know it. because then it can do no harm. The§ higher you climb. He came He toils hard that he may get rich. ' The first the' is relative. • 'There' and /he clause 'where ' + t . 3. The second (See § 420. Do as I tell you [to do].' the clause explaining the indefinite meaning of the. sot it will lie. Whithersoever I went. The more he has. into temptation. How We 4.' and joining the adverbial clause (which is co-ordinate with so ') to the second far. He such a liar that nobody believes him. always does as he promises [to do]. There. the less I like him.

I will not come your address.s construction with that of such a sentence as ' I believe whatever he J Aiialyse th. XLVII. J will do Whatever he may say.' but an attributive adjunct t Mind that ' ' ' ' ' of the verbal noun han:^in.' (\ 362. he cannot succeed without industry.. Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition. Say [he] \\hat 1 have said. j I shall not believe him. Though unless you invite me. {St'e Exercise iii. and afterwards analysing it separately.' in apposition 'o the adverb 'so.^ »_„^ Tell i) _ it. 1 shall go out..' which is in reality a substantive pronoun used adverbially. him. first treating the substantive clause as a whole." he construciinn in this and the following sentences is very peculiar. Analyse the sentences. An (=^ if ) I have not ballads made on you all. possible. _' when your (2) father died. Do [he] what he can [do]. Ihe construction is the same as if we had 'however cold I ' ' it is. he is rich he is not contented. Hypothetical and Concessive Clauses (§§ 424 434. 1 would have finished the work had it been . Had I kno\vn|| this I should have acted differently. — Exercise 130. shall be counselled I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this. But ^' i) that my foot slipped 2) as I tui-ned the corner "^(^7""" ' * This construction consists of a substantive clause '[that] I lose not honour.) So has no adverbial relation to any word in the clause vhich it introduces. whatever one does [find] of the family Cold§ as it is. and sung to filthy tunes. says. if I escape hanging for killingt that rogue. let a So* 1 lose not honour in seeking to augment it. You will not succeed unless you try harder. Do not confound tn. Underline the clauses in the way shown in § 514 and in the first few sentences : He said i) he would return 2) the book when he had read ^ (i). I am not afraid of in the wife. Whatever may be the consequence. . Were you my brother I could not do it for you. The lady's fortune must not go out one may find comfort in the money. for killing is not an adverbial aJjiuict of escape. Whenccsoever the money comes it is welcome. this day shall gentle his condition. However great his abihties may be. 4.' ' II If ' is omitted J 434. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. 229 5. Be he ne'er so vile.s. \ Co!d is in reality the complement of the preJicite. I cu|i of sack be my poison. me how (I)- old you were 2) J. Big as he is. wliat he will [say] he will ne\ er convince me. In the following sentences a substantive clause contains a subordinate clause within it.).. Complex Subordinate Clauses. I wish i) > (2) the l)oy (I) would finish the task 2) I set him. Ex3rcis3 131. You will see him though 1 shall not [see him].EXERCISES. he never pleases tiie man. if I had known If you call you will see him. Analyse the following sentences : — I would have called on you.

whom you may say. (2) •• is gone with her.) i) who care 2) not what they say. Analyse on similar principles the following senExercise 132. They fear what J yet they know must I have secret reasons which I forbear to mention because you are not follow. the subject of must. I think he will soon retrieve his Who told I should like to know how misfortunes if he sets to work with good-will.„ ^ 1 he construction will be best the nominative case. The man i) who does the best 2) that he can [do] deserves praise. A child i) : ^'^ . Now methinksyou teach me how a beggar I'll see if I can get my husband's ring.' t 'What' is in :— 'they know [that] that nuist folJovv. ' .' t Observe that the substantive clause is as in: 'I say [th. observed the air is delicate first. The eighth too late. . Fleance killed. who bears a glass which shows me many more. appears.' . tences. The time has been that when able to answer those of which I make no secret.atl I saw it. There are men <" (. Nor failed they to express how much they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. should have Where (I).s (2) 2) that does not mind when he is spoken to.' seen by substimting the jenjonstrative ' ' . (2) " My foolish rival i)" that her father likes (I) ii) 2) only for his possessions are so huge. done what I told you I would do. you that I built the house which you see? He fears that his But that I told him who did it.t I I lived when I was in town has been pulled down. must be punished.230 I ENGLISH GRAMMAR. : (I) ( 2) ' In analysis put I have • This clause breaks up the continuity of the substantive clause. Analyse the following sentences which contain complex adverbial clauses I wrote l) to him 1 will not leave i) till I know 2) that he is out of danger. ^ they most breed and haunt. . which contain complex adjective clauses The person i) who told 2) you that I said so. your friend found out where I live.=- observed* l) the air is . won the race. if it pleases you. is mistaken. The house where Iiave only Exercise 133. he father will ask him where he has been. I have . which I did should be answered. The right valiant Banquo walked the brains were out the man would die. (2) I I should report that l) which — (I) (2) say 2) I saw.. would never have known.(2) 2) delicate. The construction is the same broken by I say. make him swear to keep for ever.

§§ 439. (0 He soon left the house when he heard that I was coming. XLVIII. he had not they ought to act when they meet with obstacles. portion of Hcither-^nar t Suppress the cciijutictive by substituting not—twt. My day or night myself I make. each of which contains a subordinate clause containing a second. Don't let us make imaginary evils. Our purer essence then will overcome the noxious vapour of these raging fires. I have not decided whether I will go • Two or three are filled up by way of example. [will] not feel [the noxious vapour of these raging fires]. when] prosperous [things] of adverse [things] we can create. He seldom drinks wine because he finds that it disagrees with him. Analyse the following sentences. how he had obtained the character which he know that he would never have spread such a believed what your brother told him. immediatelv because (i) 231 I shall I knew .use their gifts and powers. I will give you no more money till I see how you use what report. Exercise 134. with the (§ omission of the conjunction that 436.] inured. Compound Sentences.) XLIX. when we know we have so many real ones to encounter. The two or more co-ordinate sentences which make up the compound sentence simply have to be analysed joins them. It was so hot in the valley that we could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when we were higher up among the mists. or [our purer essence. It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who al. when] useful [things] of hurtful [things we can create. which in its turn contains a third : I was grieved when I bore among if his neighbours. Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous when great things of small [things we can create. separately. whene'er I sleep or play. * Exercise 135. Sentences. Test the accuracy of the following contracted sentences in the manner shown in analyse them separately 440 : then them up and You must either be quiet or [you must] leave the room. 2) how anxious he was. These present no new features. be much obliged (2) i) if you will repeat the story 2) (2) which you have just heard. are invaluable helpers. Men who see heard I clearly how you have. Contracted FriUmijmry Lessofi. 551 fill — 556. You will be punished if you do not come when you are called. . — Study carefully § : 440.EXERCISES. He yields neither t to force nor t to persuasion.

" " Freely they stood who stood." Roman fool. what pleasure I. As she sat in the old arm-chair she pondered with bitter grief over the past. nothing can When touch him further." " Who wickedly is wise or madly brave. scandals increased and multiplied. but scarcely removes my suspicions. from o'er with zeal. have nothing to do with it. or when they need. wealth [is good] as [lie would tell me] if I did not know that before. and thought of the future with As the years went on. not now. I had rather die than [I would soon] endure such a disHe is better to-day than [he was well] yesterday. which glory excites. but you will ruin yourself.] Exercise 136. He is not so clever as his brother [is clever].. or close ambition varnished "What praise could they receive.iuse. He looks as stupid as an owl [looks stupid]. 557 — 564. He was so kind as [a man would be kuul] to give me this book. The sense is — Leaving out the case that I will raise king (that is. He looked as [he would look] if he could kill me. [Let the pupil study and practise these. He is as brave a man as [a brave man] ever lived. shuddering fear. in default of my raising ." The full meaning here is force. .' Feels' and 'thmks' are intransitive. He is a man in that degree\)X'XV^ in which degree brave a man ever lived. but I can never forget his ingratitude to me. t The logical intention of an attributive adjunct is often greater than its mere grammatical " (Although he is soj old as he is [old]." urge. malice domestic. which * who but feels can taste. you pursue this course you will not injure me." you return come and tell me the news. and reason to restrain.) The boy played truant as [it is] usual. but I will— King is an adverbial adjunct of 'will shed'. He allowed no day to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud. He pursued." " See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow. weapons laugh " What's Hecuba to to scorn. Pirlimbtary Lesson. That discovery relieves. Is but the more a fool. "Why should I play the contrive who need. I'll shed my ' ' . I will as you [have a good right to th-^ money]. but could not overtake the retreating enemy. consisting t 'J'he whole phrase. nor that a bad we call. He grows worse and worse. — Study §§ 443.." him. ' : — ' ' : ' ' dtar lilooJ ' iS:c. It is better to die than [it is good] to live in such misery. I'll shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust." " Two principles in human nature reign.. the more a knave. self-love to such obedience paid? " " Nor this a good. or he to Hecuba?" L.232 or not. (That is. I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon than He told me that wisdom is better than [I would soon be] such a Roman. in the way indicated in the first few examples. He stood aside so as [a man would stand aside] to let me pass. and die on mine own s^word ?" " Swords I smile at. and fell who fell. Analyse the following sentences. of a preposition ('but') followed by a substantive cl. Unless you alter your conduct you will offend your friends and bring disgrace upon yourself. I have as good a right to the money As [matters stand] for me. brandished by man that's of a woman born. having grace." wine or beer? " Nor steel nor poison. " Wiles let them I may forgive. but + I will raise the down-trod ' • Which object of the verb ' taste ' to be repeated as the object of the verb ' know. 01 t ^'vs he is [old] he is hale and hearty. first supplied the words that are understood. till he can fill up the ellipses when the elliptical sentences are dictated. foreign levy. If ENGLISH GRAMMAR. king'). Would you rather drink but thinks can know. " Bad men boast their specious deeds on earth. Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses.

He died as one that had been studied in his death to throw away the dearest thing he owed (= owned). How could you make such a blunder as t [you made] to suppose (/. + ' ' ' : * Provis^ional object. For none made sweeter melody than did the ]70or blind boy. As to what fool as to do that. The people of Paris are much fonder of strangers that have money than of those that have wit. The full phrase is such as the following "As I were a shepherdess. Wisdom is ofttimes nearer when we stoop than when we soar. He recommended me as a person very fit for a travelling tutor.EXERCISES. He spoke to me as if I were a He tliief. It is not so bad to suffer misfortune as to deserve it. but not so fond of play as of idleness. He is as a great a rascal as ever lived My feet are as cold as a stone. The boy is more He is no happier than before. . up the ellipses : Analyse the following sentences. He procured a room as near the prison as could conveniently be found.('. Take 'as as doing duty for a relative pronoun (= which blunder '). If time improve our wit as well as wine. I speak not as in absolute fear of you. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sang of chaos and eternal night. his brother. Herein fortune shows herself more kind than is her custom For myself alone I would not be so ambitious as to wish myself much better. l)e at all. He has no redeeming qualities whatever [redeeming qualities there are]. IV. He told me that wisdom was better than weahh as if I did not know that before. How could you make such a blunder as to suppose I did it ? None could be found so bold as to oppose him. What [will happen] if I don't tell you? His wages as + [he is] a labourer amount to twenty shillings a week.). he cared not to can be worse than to dwell here ? Present fears are le^s than horrible imaginings. he is little better than a beast. What . My pupil understood the art of guiding in money matters much better than I. He is more agile than troublesome than ever. I should earn mere as a crossing-sweeper. This construction is the counterpart (with a connective instead of a demonstrative adverb) i of the use of so' followed by a substantive clause to denote a condition or hypothesis (See Exercise 130). I could find it* in my heart to bestow it all on your worship. I should be piped and sung to. . he is a little worse than a man and when he is worst. I am not such a As to your proposal. Art thou not sensible to feeling as to sight. They dreaded not more the adventure than his voice forjjidding. 'twere not as good a deed as [to] drink [is a good deed] to turn frue man and leave these rogues. This is better than if we had lost everything. More is due than more than all can pay. looked as if he could kill me. 3'ou tell me.' &c. /. Rev. Exsrcise 137. If I were as tedious as a king [is tedious]. See § 165. He was wiser than to risk his money in that undertaking. He accompanied me as far as to the end of the street. eis a dairy-wench. say at what age a poet grows divine. I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. I would dance at maypoles " {Ben ycnsott^ Cynth. having first filled Rather than be less. as 'twere a careless trifle. When he is best. in supposing) I did it. He is fonder of play than of work. You are no Will you be so good as to lend me that knife ? worse off than your brother. He is better to-day than yesterday. 233- An "Mortimer as high in the air as this unthankful king [is h'gh in the air]. it passes belief. but nf>t so strong.. He is as tall a man as ever I saw. I never attend to such requests as that. showing the construction of the real object ' to bestow. I cannot assent to it. About him all the sanctities of Heaven stcod thick as stars.

Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed. all 2. wand'ring near her secret bower. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the And all the air a solemn stillness holds. Molest her ancient. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid . 14. % Take ' each — laid as a nominative absolute. . heap.§ The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. by the side of the pool sat on a three-legged stool.' and take 'as as a ' ' relative pronoun (§ 164). The 9. From yonder ivy-mantled tower The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such X as. which the subject here. light through chinks that time has made. Right sharp and quick the bells Rang out from Bristol town. sable mantle of the silent night Shut from the world the ever-joysome light. A man 5. • I-ook carefully to see is t Supply 'those regions' (or something of that kind). sight. 8. 12. Lightly and brightly breaks away The morning from her mantle gray. freighted clouds at anchor lie.* Save t where the beetle wheels his droning And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. . MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING. And putting in order his reel and his rod. adjunct modifying 'air. 10. 13. rills. Or waked to extasy the living lyre. 4. Here We The in cool grot and mossy cell rural fays and fairies dwell. he skirted still of that mighty hill. battered and decayed. Kicking his heels on the dewy sod. The soul's Lets in 6. The gallant The margin All alone tall king. 11.234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The last two lines form an adverbial t Supply ' persons. new dark cottage. night 3. j I. 7. the west wind blows. His daily teachers had been woods and Love had he found Waiting till in huts where poor men lie. solitary reign. that yew-tree's shade. Beneath those rugged elms. Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. flight.

which the God of nature hath placed in our power. May live to fight another day. sable goddess. bottomless perdition. Although thy breath be rude. leads on to fortune Omitted.EXERCISES. § See § 406.). But that II To tell 25.. Blow. If : 18. beyond the solar road. 21.' and the whols lentence '[which] omitttd— m'series is a second adjective clause qualifying tide. from her ebon throne In rayless majesty now stretches forth Her leaden sceptre o'er a prostrate world. 15. hour is almost come. 'for retiring. We are not weak if we make a proper use of those means 26. That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high. I am forbid the secrets of my prison house.' See 5 524. 17. Where shaggy forms o'er ice-built mountains roam.' fall.t Thy tooth is not so keen. &c. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong. He He that that down need fear no low no pride. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul. t See § 529.' Then 'which omitted' is a nominative absolute. 1 Sec § 5C0. Our sport shall be to take what + they mistake. taken at the flood. it is now too late to from the contest is is {i. When § I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself.e. My 24. The Muse has broke the twilight gloom To cheer the shiv'ring native's dull abode. He that fights and runs away. Thou art not so unkind As man's ingratitude. 19. 23. 235 There. 22. ' ' ' • Supply 'which' before 'omitted. thou winter wind. 20. His Hstless length at noontide would he stretch. flaming. |' . And pore upon the brook that babbles by. from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To 27. In climes 16. There is a tide in the affairs of men Which. modifying the verb is bound. at the foot of yonder nodding beech. Night. blow. Because thou art not seen.* all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries. we were base enough retire to desire it.

6. am content so thou wilt have so. . Now. man goes loose (see § 516). never to himself hath said. So may I. § 595. The great man down. 43.236 28. it ii II See § 521. that flattering unction to your soul. 38. . How dangerous is it When sorrows come.''** attain. A is not a dependent clause. is my own. But in battalions. merely a complex substantive.t 36. would [that] you had won the fleece that he hath 35. that this 44. quotation t I! _ Sec Sec § 434. 46. my native land'. Miss that which one unworthicr may • § ** See § 367. night descending. lapsed in time. save Heaven? Do you not come your tardy son to chide. I 30. must I have the half of anything that impart this same paper brings you. I freely told you [that] all the wealth [which] had lost. it 29. is The night long that never finds the day. That we would do. Breathes there the man with soul so dead. Sec § 403. and passion. See § 563.See § 370. blind Fortune leading me. How his audit stands. 5. . 39. See § 520. J you mark his favourite flies The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. we should do when we would (§ 459). 45. but my madness speaks.'' || 41. indirections find directions out. o'er. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. they come not single spies. evil that The men do h\es after them.t Their perfume take these again. Ran 34. lost. lets go by The important acting of your dread command. Lay not That^ not your 42. 33. ^ { . Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed. 40. When They I they do choose have the wisdom by their wit to freely lose.* That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf. That. I in these veins. trespass. Thus do we of wisdom and of reach With windlasses and with assays of bias By 37.§ who knows. 32. Who 'This 47. Would'st thou not stir in this. the proud scene was 31. When I did first my love to you.

I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. to the ' ' The ' so t an adverbial adjunct far' A hypothetical See § 397. 52. shadow 53. for that. (^= whether).' Omit and entire clause ' that follows so. Whilst light and colours rise and fly Lives Newton's deathless memory (§ 551). ' How—it' is co-ordinate with X § Nominative absolute. Repent t but you that you shall lose your friend. 55. if Your wnfe would give you little thanks were by to hear you make + the offer. 237 Benighted wanderers the forest o'er Curse the saved candle and unopening door While the gaunt mastiff. growling at the gate. it must appear that malice bears down 54. learn to bear. For May is on the lawn. You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. fonning an adverbial adjimct to make. which I did make him swear to keep for ever. . And he repents not that he pays your debt. surest virtues thus from passions shoot. doth appear you are a worthy judge. How* If far the substance of it. is * ' ' ' How' and is here relative or conjunctive. Herein Fortune shows herself more kind than is her cus- tom 57. will surely injure the reputation he designs to assist (§ 459)- 50. ungrateful to the planter's care. Blithe Flora from her couch upstarts. Affrisfhts the beggar whom he longs to eat. While from the purpling east departs The star that led the dawn. . 49 He that claims either for himself or for another the honours of perfection. 60. nature's vigour working at the root. As fruits. in underprizing my praise doth wrong the so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. (§ 563). 59.' ' in the analysis.EXERCISES. On The savage stocks inserted. this will not suffice. 51. clause without if. 48. These honours peace to happy Britain brings. 61.' . 56. Their savage eyes§ turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music. she 58. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. Wild 62. It truth.

through all life When Losing unblest life that made / Should* some notes we In days of boyhood meet our ear. ' skill. hast at least bestowed one penny well.' the suppressed subject of the imperative 'think. In my former days of bliss Her divine skill taught me this.thee ' modifies 'seems. Adieu E'en take the counsel which I gave you Or. Sigh.' TJ Talte •• Hypothetical clau&e without if. Prepares a dreadful jest for all mankind. while his Chloe. How sweet and fair [He] Who thinks that To Think how And buy a resemble her to thee she seems to be. mankind a shame. After ' do ' supply impart better precepts. ! 69 first . birth conspired To form not to admire but be admired. that future times may tell Thou 68.§ posterity will treat thy name . better precepts if you can impart. used to love ! Kindling former smiles again In fading eyes that long have wept 64. Separate it into (i) 'Whom Nature Whom Nature . That now she knows Vi^'hen X I 66. dear. Weds the rich dulness of some son of earth ? If this advice appear the worst. Oh how welcome breathes the strain Wakening thoughts that long have slept.' this. And 65. ! we rove. do. Go.' (2) admired. lovely rose Tell her that wastes her time . You'd think [that] no fools disgraced the former reign.' t § In apposition to 'thou. Did ** not some grave examples yet remain.conspired to form to be conspired not to form to admire. Who And • scorn [that] a lad should teach his father having once been wrong will be so still.' Supply ' ' ' which ' before 'we used.' Supply the. learning.' Substantive clause in apposition to Before 'raise' repeat that I could.' A contracted compound Adjective Clause. raise pleasure to her height Through the meanest object's sight. Hypothetical clause without if modifying the verb ' ' breathes. Thatt from everything I saw I could some invention draw . to fortune. I'll follow them with all my heart.' The adverbial clause when .relative that before I saw.' t ' ' ' II ' ' ' ' .' 238 63. blind to wit and worth. Why^ 70. to 67. Shall one whom|| Nature.' why ' as an interjection. and me. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. rope. friends. Fortune cannot change her mind.

75. 76. though no 73. is we stoop • In full t — 'You may suppose that the man ' ' That is \ A substantive is of the zeal of foals expressed in rhyme. But most of all the zeal of fools in rhyme. In sooth. I will My lips. 239 Had now ? use the man. Up 'J']. with love's familiar privilege decried the wealth that is your own. The zeal of fools offends at any time. Checking the finer spirits.' clause in apposition to fate. Untunes full oft the pleasures of the day.f Besides. . Who says in verse what others say in prose. 74. in a grove I sate reclined. useful to the State. In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. ancient times conspired to disallow 71. Cannot forget Thee here. But know we not that he who intermits task and duties of the day. a fate attends on all I write. what had been ancient 72. where Thou hast built For Thy own glory in the wilderness. they say I bite. "What then was new. to share his joyous sport. that refuse To flow. ThatjJ when I aim at praise. with grateful heart Called on the lovely wanderer who bestowed That timely light. You have 80 Wisdom Than Verily. Among these rocks and stones methinks I see More than the heedless impress that belongs To lonely nature's casual work. The nightly hunter. when to defend single verse we quarrel with a friend. Yet praise Thee with impassioned voice. methinks.EXERCISES. that may forget Thee in the crowd. Of little And.* you may suppose.' &c. lifting a bright eye towards the crescent moon. Then A I too we hurt ourselves. Yet let me show a poet's of some weight. oft-times nearer when when we soar. 79. when purposes are lightly changed? The appointed 78. soldier. While heard a thousand blended notes.' little use.

and not other men's opinions. He was one of the wisest men that has ever lived (J§ 447. (J Let each esteem other better than themselves Lives of the Poets' are reprinting (§ 175). Every man and boy showed sound but order their their joy by clapping (§ their hands ($ I7S). 22. He is (§ not one of those 24). Good own voices were heard and not mean savings produce (^ 374). 14. FAULTY SENTENCES FOR CORRECTION. 28. great profit (§ 374). . : You and me Let you and will take a I take a walk (§ 287). (J 57). 30. 21. 5. 10. Having finished the chapter the volume was shut {^^ 351. Where was you all last night? ($ 374). Everybody has their faults (^ 175). it 32. walk (§^ 191. 7. a better writer than (J me (J 487). 386). giving reasons for each correction 1. (§ 376). Is 12. 16. (^ 175). 362). Are either of those pens yours? Johnson's ' 175). ! 15. is What sort of a man he ? all 31. 395). 17. I do not like those kind of things. "How No pale each worshipful and reverend guest Rise from a clergy or a city feast " (§ 175). Tiiere are 23. 3. 25. Neither of them are better than they ought to be Our own John is conscience. 2. In modern English two negatives destroy one another. 20. 27. 26. he older than her? 487). 9. Neither John nor Henry were Either he or I are in fault ($ church (§ 386). 374). at 6. The The effluvia was disgusting intention of these persons are uncertain (§ 374). 4. 18. who interferes in matters that do not concern him 29. You did not ought to do that (§§ 184. constitute our respon- sibility (§ 374). who fancied what feared" (§ 464). Nor want nor cold his course delay many ways of dressing a 386). Correct the following sentences. 8. 11. calves' head.240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 24. 13. 231). (§ Six months' interest are due 374). 19. This is the greatest error of the rest (§ 109). What signifies promises without performance ? (^ 374). "'Twas Love's mistake.

Nothing but grave and serious studies delight him 374). (§ A numerous party Shakspere is were assembled 376). What the use of you talking like that told me. Call at Smith's the bookseller's My friend. I had treated like a brother. 34. Divide that cake 68. Who Men His can this letter be from? 61. 37. 241 (§ Homer There as well as Virgil were studied on the oanks of the Rhine (J 386J. (§ 287). 46. 43. 40. all 49. The peasantry wears 376). Who He is do you think I met this morning ? (§ 366). I. The I fleet are under orders to blouses sail (§ 376). (§ 41. These kind of people are my abhorrence. (§ Parliament have been prorogued 376). (§ wore a large and a very shabby hat see a red and white flag ? 454). 47. man whom I think deserves encouragement ({ man as him would never say that (§ 487). 59. The of all other follies the most pernicious (§ 72). 38. (§ 54. 50. 57. \Vhom do you a Such a think called on me yesterday ? (§ 379). come with him is 287). somebody or between you other. I forget who (§ 487). 53. 64. A versifier and poet are two different things (§ 454). There is nothing to show who that belongs to (§ 277). ij. 63. 51. 33. 39. 36. 65. are put in the plural because they are father's many. 35. him whom 2). Somebody whom four. 52. I forget (§ 484 ). This injury has been done brother (§ me by my ($ friend. 66. (§ He was angry is me asking him the question ? 484). 3).2. 56. {§ 487). has turned against m» a (§ 448. He told John and I to I. whom nor avarice nor pleasure are in fault (§ move Not you but John 374). Nor {§ (J 44. he whom I treated like 450. 60. A hot and cold spring were found near each other love of drink is (§ 454). 386). I heard that from 67. 69. 109). 386). 62. (^ have read the second and third chapter eye nor listening ear an object find 454). 379). and at his brother's lives were spared.EXERCISES. greater than any dramatist. He He is the most admired of the other dramatists {$ 109). . 55. 45. (§ Can you I can see neither 454). 58. is sometimes more than one auxiliary to a verb (J 374). 48. Between you and he a great fool (§ 277).

103. wish to cultivate a further acquaintance with you. 90. When will we get there? He has not yet began his (§§ 209. Whom Who I feel do men say that he (§ 379). (J She looked cold on her lover 393). 78. 74. This is the greatest misfortune that ever has or could (§ 44°)95. I 104. 81. 93. 80. 71. He was hoped as rich or even richer than his father (J 440). They seemed to be nearly dressed alike. 464). 82. 96. born Jan. (§ (§ 226). A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture. I think I will be gone by the time you come 100. 88. 386). home when you it (§ called. (§ 89. for 86. He not only ought but shall do 440). exercise i. A nation has no right to violate the treaties they have made (§ 464). and my father's leave (^ 449). 1874 (§ 378). 91. . as knowledge (440). do not know who send {§ 366).). 77. 76. coldly this morning 393). 102. Here John Brown. but for his wisdom (§ 440). my uncle. I would like to see him (J§ 209. I expected to have been at 105. 72. 87. sings bettter than me it (§ 487). 94. 2io). 1824. (§ He The raved like one out of their mind Atlantic separates the Old and lies 464). I cannot tell I I you how much to pains have been spent on him. He The did no more than fact of you was his duty to is have done. 79. having said so enough me {§ 484). 84. is ? 73. happen to me Each It is strives to cheat the other in their own way (§§ 175. Nobody gives so is much trouble as he does. loi. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. These flowers smell very sweetly 393). and even more so. Sincerity as valuable. 97. died Sept. 85. New World 454). He is not only famous for his riches.242 70. have my aunt. 99. ? do men declare him it to (§ (§ be (J 394). 75. to immediately succeed. Nobody She I in their senses would have done that (J 464). 5. {ii. me that say so (§461). 92. You have weakened instead of strengthened your case ({ 278). 210). 98. 83. It is I that he fears (^ 461). as well as read them in a book (§§ 464. I little thought was him 394).

i). He wrote a moderately sized volume. 107. 132. 129. 121. 366). hallowed cell. 117. He drew a line of about six inches long I (§ 278). 111. eager natures that longs for a confidante 112. lips with fire (§ 456). When I get home I another as 119. Valerie's was one of those impulsive. but it lacked either grandeur or beauty. 130. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 131. another joke which she suppressed (§ 439). 133. doom 123. B. Let us not increase our hardships by dissensions 108. His younger days were spent get to France (§ England. no use talking so. dwell (§§ 287. 243 While walking in my garden. J. 115. Doth he not leave the ninety and nine. fair Let thee and Severe the my 122. The Thames is derived from the Latin Thamesis. healths and abilities. Hoping to hear 116. {$ 440). More than one emperor prided himself upon his skill as a swordsman (§ 456). i). This dedication among each that has. We trust that by supplying a genuine and most superior class of article. These plantations are lain out by rule and line (§ 226). 136. other. Profusion as well as 124. Regard is to be had to every one's circumstances. in 1 14. parsimony are to avoided. have since his death arose (§ 226). It 127. and goeth into the wilderness and seeketh that which is gone astray ? (§ 440). voice inspire. (§ Let the same be she that thou has appointed Of all men else I have avoided thee. 126. He is a boy of nine years old {\ 287). He has only done that much of his task. can tell did not hear. or shall be published 109. no.EXERCISES. M. that length of days impose {§ 456). The service was impressive. . The centres of each compartment are ornamented with a star (§ 175). from you soon. whom nobody in the world loves O Thou my Who touched Isaiah's For ever in this I. humble one. 106. believe me yours truly. 135. 125. He made I 134. is 394). 120. 128. (§ 456). may serve for almost any book is. waiting for an opportunity to 362. was going to have written him a letter. In reading you should sit as uprightly as possible. and had bettter be you this much. 113. to increase the confidence so many years bestowed on Mr. (§ 362. No civil broils 118. I see the being than love her (§ 487).

Head Master STEELE. Inspector. M. after fully comparing the various editions that have been recommended. Moods. with a view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools.TO AVOID CONFUBtON. appointing the undersigned a Committee to consider the respective merits of different English Grammars. and its introduction into our Public Schools. McLEAN. Co. N. The MILLEe'S neu^ Authorized SWIITON'S Grammar. UNGOIIGE Qrammar. SSc. and Mason's Text Miller's Edition is prepared as an introductory Text Book for Mason's Grammar.. — Carried unanimously. Nov. Thomas. A. St. Verbi^t are the same as in Book. we beg leave to report. Co. that. It " St. Thomas High School. Town Inspector. '• A.. McMillan. was moved and seconded adopted. Aylmer High School. F. a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. J. MILLER. LESSONS. ADAM MILLEIl & CO. that the report be received and E*riee. A. BUTLEK. 30th. The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to Mason''8 mason's Grammar. Bet for admission to Miller's Edition contains all High Schools. . a.A. the authorized book for advanced classes for Public Schools. is adopted by the Schools of Montreal. 1878. BY J. we believe that " Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupUs and would urge its authorization on the Government.A. Cloth Extra. Manitoba. In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Definitions of tbe Parts of Speech are novir made identical witb General Treatment The Classlflcatlon of Pronouns. of Elgin Model School. ASK FOB MILLER'S SAINTON'S LANGUAGE LESSONS. To the President and Association Members of the In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of the Association. J. b. B. is authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. so that what is learned by a pupil in an elementary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book is used.CAMPBELL.M. is the recent examination Papers MIIiliGR'S STFINTOrV'S LANGUAGE LESSONS County of Elgin Teachers authorized by the Education Department of Ontario.

Na. 1878 " Resolved. . (North Huron). and the book admirably helps the judicious teacher in making correct thinkers and ready readers and writers. Model School. classification and general treatment are extremely simple and satis' factory. Whitby. Bracebridge. Cobourg. CAESON. Perth.' by McMillan. The definition's in " Miller's Swinton Language Lessons" are brief. would save time by using it. Brockville.. clear and exact. as other editions are in the market. W. H. Straihroy. May 17.S. PortHop«.The New Inthorized Elementarj ((rammnr.)anee. held at Brussels. Bclle¥llle. Eesolution passed unanimously by the Teachers' As sociation. Clinton. The arrangement of the subjects is logical and progressive. Be careful ta ask for MILIER'S !»>TI>TeN. London. John's. 1st W. WOOD. Mitchell. Schools of Winuiprg. J. Trenton Falls. B. Among them are used excluand Model Ottawa. and leave little to be unlearned in after years. Heaford. Catharines. Thomas. since the definitions. P. and St. That the Teachers at this Convention are of opinion that Miller's Swinton Language Lessons.. Manitoba. Uamiltou. Quebec. M. Lindsay. Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons is sively in nearly all the Principal Public Schools of Ontario. A Provincial H.. MILLER'S SWINTOH'S LANGUAGE LESSOHS. Listowelt Adopted by the Protestant Schools of Blontreal and Levi College. is the best introductory work on Grammar for Public School use. Windtor. All pupils who intend to enter a High School or to become students for Teachers' Certificates. St. St. Bxbridge. Neiv Foiuidland. Brantford." In my opinion the best introductory Text-book to Mason's Grammar. Beaforth.

BICHABD LEWIS.. Loncok. M.P. M. With to De dMlrod.A... M. • • • Mason'sGrammaris just such abook as many teachers have been hoping to see introduced into om: schools. Mason's grammar will be found a most valuable class-book gs pecially for the instruction of advanced classes in English. It has reached a twenty-first edition in and 1 have no doubt it -will meet with the same high apEngland preciation in this Province. UA. S.. High School. the grammars that I have seen. H. Head Master.A. I consider it by far best English grammar for high school purjioses that has yet "Mu«oa" and "Fleming" nothing more seeoia appeared.. Dufferin School Toronto. rank in M. a. Principal. Kingston CoUegiate Institute. P.A.A. M. The chapter on the Analysis of diflBcult sentences is of itself sufficient to place the work far beyond any English grammar hitherto before the Canadian pubUc.. B. Omemee. H. S. He immediately sent me Masoin. I this school. Newmarket.A. C. OakviUe of three years ago I asked a grammar school nspectoi the old country to send me the best grammar publi bed there. — JOHN SHAW.. M.ENGLISH GKAMMAE BY C. Fellow of Unitbbsiit Colleob. KING. H. Caledonia.. MASON.M.. JOHN JOHNSTON. M. H. It will be well received by teachers and advanced pupils. F. Cobourg Col. P.. have ordered it to be used in tlie .South Hastings. Incomparably the best text book for the senior classes of our high schools that has yet been ofCered to the Canadian public. P. all BelleviUe and. Of best. S. B.C. its method being to teach the subject by explanation..D. J.. J. definition and abundant illustrations without stereotyped rules thereby making the study even attractive. in A. H.MacHENBT.. PRICE Upwards 76 CENTS. SIM. Houston.. D.. H. M. 8.. H. Institute. H. I. I consider Mason's the MORRISON. With Examina4iion Papers by W. Ab a philosophical treatise its discussion of doubtful points anA Its excellent methods and definitions cannot fail to give it a high the school tiie estimation of the best judges of such works teachers of the country.. It Is an excellent and reliable work. liXJ).M. KNIGHT. AliEX.

and to suggest similar examplea for the use of the t«aoher. ANALYSIS. M. J.. varied in Prom THE WE8LEYAN. of M. Dr. &C. PART 1. H.B. 80c. its its Simple In Schools... The laatio Halifax. McLELLAN.-PERCENTAGE. Same progress cannot be made in Mathematical work. CLABKE. A. RATIO. Nova Scotia. S. Port Hope.M. 46C. it is the best book of its kind that I have examined. A.. GOGGIN. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic supplies a want that we shoiild have had supplied in W.D . is worth BB a clerk or accountant 50 per cent more than the prodigy who can boast of having " gone " through his written arithmetic half a dozen times. H. Provincial our Schools long ago. LL. PRICE. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic. Picton. Head Master Model and Its Public types of practical questions and sugggestive in methods. It is just what is wanted for "waking up mind" in the school room.Mentel Arithmetic. After two woeka use of class I am convinced that it is the book with much superior to any of the American texts that have been used here both as to the grading of questiont and the style of the problems. M. Inspectoi High Schools. A boy who is conversEint with the principles of Mental Arithmetic. and it supplies a long-felt \rant. By J. Model School.A. Dr. Principal Ingersoll Model School. is a credit to Canadians. Ont. FRACTIONS. series bids fair to take a good place in seho- work. J. as given this little text-book. unless what we call Mental Arithmetic is thoroughly and yatematicaUy pursued. Fart I. PART ll. A. PRICE. DIMOCK. D. A.. PROPORTION. B. McLellan's Mental Arithmetic contains a great number of useful problems well adapted to aevelop by regular gradations the thinking powers of the pupil. H. m DEACON. Dr. Nova Scotia. my J. D. arrangement. -FUNDAMENTAL RULES. .

Toronto. M. .. Within one year the iOth thousand haa been issued. Cloth Szfcra.A. Adopted in a number of the Schools of Newfoundland. Science Master Normal School. Authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. Frio* 25 Cents. Manitoba.. ADAM MILLER & Co. Prince Edward Island. Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction.One of the most popular Text Books erer published. NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. 176 Faees.A. Head Master Model School. and William Scott. Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamhlin Smith's Arithmetic. Toronto.. B. By Thomas Kirkland. Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec. Highly recommended by the leading Teachers of Ontario.

explanation. DIMOCK. Principal of Pictou Academy and Public Schools. B. I have no hesitation in saying that it is better adapted to the schools of this country than any similar book that has come within the range of my twenty-seven years experience. 2nd and 3rd of our schools. I B. and have no hesitation in saying that I consider it the best Elementary Arithmetic which I have yet seen.A. As a preparatory Arithrnetic 1 have not seen its equal. Head Master Model School. Model and Public Schools. MoKAY. well adapted for the purpose for which JOHN DBAENESS. JAMES DUNCAN. Math. M.B. By Thomas Kirkland. Normal School.NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. to Hajnblin Smith's Cloth Extra. As a discipline of the mind in tea-hing the pupil to think and reason. in addition to our present text-book. I have examined your Elementary Arithmetic on the unitary system by Kii'kland and Scott. a copious and well selected assortment of exercises. terse. W. Head Master Provincial Model Nova Scotia. Head — — .A. SPKAGUE. hitended as an Introdtictory Text-Book Arithmetic. Arithmetic is pre-eminent if taught by logical methods and this work places it in the power of the younger classes to be benefitted by such methods. is led almost unconsciously to the great field of the unknown... W. in the best eiamentary Arithmalao I have examined. RIDDELL. Price 25 Cents..B. 176 Pages. and William Scott. East Middleiex. B. H. D. a good arrangement and conciseness in definition and A. by a Btep. it (fcc. Science Master Normal School. The questions are in clear. as it offers. this book with increasing pleasure and can in almost unqualified recomnaendation. The young pupil.. Schools. It is admirably adapted to the requirements of grades Ist. Public I School Inspector. LL. A. B. have examined it speak of ooiuion. W. ty the arrangement of the principles presented and the exercises laid down. attractive language. that makes his earlier arithmetical studies a pleasure and a profit. The arrangement is natural and comprehensive. Toronto. Master Ottawa it is in- consider cended. my .A. It is. Cobourg. Master. The Elementary Arithmetic by Kirkland and Scott I can heartily recommend to our teachers. A very praiseworthy feature of the book is the large number of examples and problems pecuUar to so small a work. Principal Essex Model and Windsor Central SchooL After a thorough perusal of the Elementary Arithmetic by jKirkland & Scott.. Since failures in Arithmetic are mainly due to a want of power in independent analysis to a lack of knowledge of the unitary method and of skill in its application this volume which discusses the ijroblems'on independent methods will be cordially welcomed by teachers.

have much pleasure in certifying to the nperiority of the Canadian edition of Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic over any text book on that subject that has yet come under my notice. as the examples have been mostly culled nrom Examination papers. Education.. M. 0. Price. M. Manitoba. ADAPTED TO CAMAOIAM CVKKSaCT BT THOMAS glRTTLAND. It if Eractical. —"It has a value oandidatM preparing for public examination. Toronto. I Bball b« pleased to recommend its early introduction. Inspector of Schools. They will also prove of great service to pupils desiroua of passing the grade tests. Ontario. and ths examination papers are invaluable as aids to teachers in thorough training. 76 Cents. BL " Eaxnblin Smith's arithmetic seems very suitable to the neoe»« our public schools. DOAl^TE.A. Authorited by the Chief Supt. The exercises are admirable. M. Bsrrington. Gmnberland. The author appears not to rely so much on set rules as upon explanations and the clearing of seeming obscurities. DANAGH.A. I cordially recommend its nse to all those desirous of obtaining an acquaintance with this branch of Dsefol knowledge. B. Inspector of Sohoola..* . SOOTT. indeed I may say that I have not seen any other work on tnis branch that is so specially ealculated to assist the student in passing with credit offlctal t*$ta. I therefore think that Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic should to placed on the authorixed U»t of books for pabllo schooU." W. N.A. for Hamblin Smith's Abithmbtio. A. Science Master School. of Balifax.THREE EDITIONS SOLD —OF— IN SIX MONTHS HAMBLIN SMITH'S ARITHMETIC. B.. FROM NOVA Bities of SCOTIA. A. Nora Sootla. 0. AuthoriMed by th» Minitter of Edueatien. The appendix and examlation papers are important and valuable features. Head Master Model • Sohool. and Nonnal WM. "I ANDBEWS.. Ontario- 4tli Edition. complete and comprehensive. Authorieed hy Ihe Council of Public Inatruction. N. so that pupils may readily comprehend the questions and proceed to the solutions. QiMftMi Beeommended by the Senate of the Univ. F. Inspector for Qaeen'a Co.

A." '• Ci/ARKE Moses. Brighton. Co. and typoby graphical execution is all that could be desired. Principal High School. Orb.CREIGHTON'S EPOCHSOF ENGLISH HISTOHY tional Q. and the more advanced classes of our Public Schools. I. It forms a valuable addition to the valuable collection of school books you have issued. Madoc. Caledonia. It is remarkably clear and concise. "The series is admirably adapted for the use of teachers.. Schools.. M. but a study of the grand sequence of cause and effect by which the facts in tha world's life have been created. M. so much out of place a textbook on this subject. H. C.A." Am ROBT. Picton. S. Tou have done good service to Canadian students and teachers issuing a Canadian edition which.." u R. and shall. and tending in no small degree to nrn'note a better system of pursuing this important study." ' Wm. Hastings.. PL ATT. H. B. an earnest student of History. MOEOAN. DouGAN. K. N. "I am quite conscientious in saying that it is one of the best digests of History that I have seen. I shall be happy to gee them in the bands of all my pupils. "I have been for many years. D.. High School pupils. Lindsay." . Barrie. and without any attempt at rhetorical flourishes. P. paper. B.. I can. Head Master Erantford Central School. "The 'Epochs of English History' will be valuable aids in the preparation of pupils for the 2nd class and intermediate examinations. " led to express my admiration of the very concise and systematic method of arrangement adopted in them.A. Haldimand. Ont. S. Inspector. M. including my University course. W. They are clear and succinct in statement and convey a large amount of information. in binding. <3rand help these to the study of English History in its only raway hy epochs in the life of the English Nation and her in" Epochs of History'' mark an epoch in the study of iV* Btitutiona. and have certainly never met with any sketch of the periods embraced by the two volumes of Epochs' you sent me. Hamilton. which united in so singularly excellent a manner. S. and will he perused with pleasure and profit by many who are neither teachers nor pupils. I am particularly pleased with their simplicity of style and fair method of stating occurrences." G. and P. I shall introduce them in the schools here and encourage their use in those of the vicinity. Johnson. and a clear comprehension of the logic of History. They have the advantage of confining the attention of the learner to definite periods." s Wm. M. and thus enabling him to master diificult historical subjects without attempt ing to digest and memorize too much at once. and deserves especial commendation for giving just what the pupil ought to know without any extraneous matter. brevity. S. P. cordially recommend them to every teacher who wishes to make hlstoiy not an effort of memory alone.A.A. They are written in the most entertaining style. Wilkinsoh. •' — J. •• ± am glad to see these brief serials authorized by the Minister of Education. I should think their introduction into schools is much to be desired. B. P. Mackintosh. H. accuracy. " I have read them through carefully and consider them the best works on the subject for the use of schools that I have ever seen. Inspector.. M. rendering them particularly suitable for students.

Schools.BEATTY By S. DANAGH. " I have examined Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping and find it to be an excellent work. S. Shelburne Co. Ontario. Winnipeg." W. A. G. looking over this book have submitted it to the inspection of practical bookkeepers who agree with me in the propriety of recommending it as a school book. The definitions. Beoommended by tlie Covmcil of Public Instruction. Insp. Annapolis Co. Its directions are minute and to the point. " Several months ago we introduced Mason's English Grammar inte Manitoba College. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping is an admirable work. Nova Scotia. I Beaty & Clare's Bookkeeping. Book. Manitoba. S. Authorized by the Minister of Education. M. "I have carefully looked over Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping. C. for ve» k Treatise on Simolb and Double Entry Book-Keepino. thoroughbess of Beatty THOS. JOHN AMBROSE. and its examples ample. S. Nova Scotia. Insp. HART. Normal School. Digby. Insp. S. Supt. MORSE. Quebeo. L.." myself. Schools.. vid have much pleasure in saying that the work is just what is wanted for boys who desire to acquire in a short time such knowledge as will fit them for business*" KEV. D. ANDREWS. A.. Schools. and Sauubl Clare. AutJiorized by the Chief Supt. HioH AND Public Schools. Hants.. and now wc are introducing Beatty & Clare's Houkfind tbwn jmt what w« need in their respective sut^eeta.M. P. SMITH. and the varied commercial character of the whole work. C. - 70 CENTS. Inspector for Queen's Co." J. M. — " Besides D.Keeping and Writing Master. We . the perspicuity of the instructions. & IM CLARE'S lOOK-KEEPI m. Colchester County. " I am very much pleased with the aimplicity and & Clare's Bookkeeping. Insp. Co. It commends itself to teachers as a text book and to all others desirous of acquiring a knowledge of this important branch. H. of Schools. Inspector for Cnmberland. and transactions therein contained.. It is well adapted for use in the public schools. A. its simplicity alone is sufScient to secure for the book a place in our schools throughout (he Dominion. DOANE. 3rd Ed.' kceping. and cannot but ai^mire the simplicity of the outline. yet comprehensive and practical. while it is su£Bciently comprehensive for all practical purposes. PRICE.... Beattt. " I have looked into Beatty_& Clare's Bookkeeping. Education.A. N. M. Schools.A. will recommend this work to any teacher or pupil preparing for examination. Torontb. Nova Scotia. McGILLIVRAY. with which the principles of bookkeeping are explained and illustrated. N. Principal Ontario Commercial College. Belleville. are plain and simple. FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND MANITOBA. forms.A. the practical bearing of the transactions. T. Nova Scotia. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping has had a careful perusal. Nova Scotia..

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