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A„ FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. LONDONo SECOND EDITION. ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 1879. MASON. 11 WELLINGTON ST. SO cents. Re2}rintcd from Mason^s Shorter Enijlinh Grarmnar.. BY C. .) PRICE.Ixlhx ^ €a'B (!Ebucafianal Merits. {Public School Edition. . TOEONTO: ADAM MILLEE & CO. B. WEST.. p..

in the year 1679.Bntered according to Act of Parliament of Canada. .. hy Adah Milleb & Co. in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.

If he cannot tell that a word is a verb.PREFACE. Beginning with the simplest elements of a sentence. li the use of these exercises I strenuously urge tlie upon teachers patient and unflinching compliance with directions given for guiding the pupil to a thorough understanding of the fimctions o words and forms. and the exercises themselves are so arranged that they may be nsed with any good text-book of English Grammar. learner is The taken by easy stages from the simplest English work to the most difl&cult constructions in the language. and there are some good works of that kind which have either a scanty apparatus of exercises or none references to the paragraphs of that at all. my recently published " Shorter Englisli Every effort has been made to render these exercises as serviceable as possible to those who wish to guide their pupils to a real understanding of the structure of English sentences. The The present to work is a reprint in a separate form of the Exercises appended Grammar. or something of the sort this fashion % When in he has managed to say that "now" is an adverb. or . and of their forms and combinations. of what possible iise can it be for him to give it a name by the application of some empirical rule relating to its position. he learns step by step the functions of the various Parts of Speech. an adverb or a preposition by recognizing its meaning and function in the sentence. enable him to Nothing is more useless and even hurtful than of mechanical directions to to furnish the learner with tell any kind the Parts of Speech. and acquires by degrees the power of analysing and parsing the most complicated constructions." work have been retained to prevent the cost of preparing new plates.

knows no more than he did than this. PREFACE. and dreary and repulsive to the pupil. Xone but learners of abnormal hold out against this kind of treatment. through a certain number of pages of some text-b. Janucury. really "against" a preposition. learners never find a lesson when they feel that they are really learning something. he before. Avorse he is deluded fancied the idea that is knows and something. for He is simply using wonis without a perception of their is meaning. into Nay. of far too I'he bane much of our ordinary school work is the ignorant impatience of teachers to get their pupils "over the ground. P. 1879. while his knowledge this delusion is itself a bar to his acquisition of the only kind of knowledge which could be of is any use to him. Dlikesell. Streatham Hill. No dull matter what the suliject may be. wait he he is too dull.IV . profitless It is this that renders school "lessons" wearisome to the teacher. If the pupil till too is young older . to master the proper if explanation readily. show how deplorably time and round of mechanical and (not patience. MASON. ok. talvC him patiently over the ground again and again till the difficulties stupidity will have vanished. . but) impatience have been wasted in going over and over again the same unintelligent repetition. and they had better devote such intellect as they have to simpler pursuits. the matter he a mere sham. A tolerably long and Avide experience justifies sloiv me in afihming most strongly that examinations. C. €hristchuech Koad. and careful teaching pays best even at The specimens of parsing and analysis that I see yearly in hundreds of instances." that is to say.

Singular and Plural. I. names of each I. Distinction between Preliminary Lesson. Things to eat. 3. or to play with. He sailed round Cape Horn swallows are birds.). to wear. in the 'Petrel. I like May soldiers had a weary march. She brought me a bunch of may.' We "O Solitude! where are thy charms?" " Hence. The horse that won the race was Eclipse. The boys were : Bellerophon rode a winged horse reading about the battle of Agincourt. nouns which are the Animals. saw an King Arthur's sword was called Excalibur. Boys or Towns. loathed Melancholy. of Number. Find out some uncouth cell Where brooding darkness spreads his jealous wings. better than June. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns (§§ Proper Nouns. Write the Common Nouns in the following sentences one list. Things that you see in the room. : Common Nouns and Exercise 1. 177 EXERCISES. and the Proper Nouns in another John likes school. in Exercise 2. The traveller ascended Helvellyn. (or write) ten proper girls." "You may avoid that too with an He wants to know the why ifs?" § " Tellest thou 'if'" (Shaksp. called Pegasus. Rivers or mountains. My uncle is the captain of the 'Bellerophon. Say I. N . 4. Ships. nouns which are names of 3. &c.' Lie down. Of Cerberus and blackest midnight bom. Trees and flowers. The Fido. Preliminary Lesson. 7. My brother has a horse called Dobbin. March is a cold month. and the wherefore of everything. Dogs or horses. 6. 31-37). That cow has lost a horn.EXERCISES. 5. — Definition of a Noun. Some stuff or material. Petrels and eclipse of the sun. Countries. — Definition Modes of form- mg the plural (§§ 47. S. 4. 5) II. Say (or write) ten common of the following things 2. Houses or parks. 2. me of" (See 349.).

John works. Sentences. Staves. John the Evangelist. and explain their functions. The House of Commons. Play' is a verb it tells us something ' . In came William. Mice. Trees. Birds . Enemy. The Cape of Good Hope. Flies. The Duke of Bedford. Johnson. Horses neigh. Lice. '' Boys play. Exercise 4. The first chapter. Thus ends the tale. Halves Kine. The house of mourning. Trespasses. Negro.Soldiers fight. Justice. Bruises. tells . Loaf. Bees. about boys. Waves. . . but about that/or which the word stands. Sheriff Johnson. Victory. The death of th^ emperqr. through grace. • Not about the subject. Preliminary Lesson. Grass. The Lords and Commons. Noses. Mr. 374).. The princes and dukes. Duty. Leaf. The barristers and : solicitors. Up went the rocket. Calf. Write the singular of each of the following nouns Arches. A We sting ? IV. not about a word. Lies. The office of sheriff. The life of Dr. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight.* fly. Here comes papa. Beware of confusion about this. because the subject of a sentence is only a word. Speech. Cats scratch. Feet. Osprey. The evangelist Matthew. Down came the rain. Sky. Pence. Subject. Dray.Snow falls. Ass. (§§ Agreement of the verb with its subject 179. Cargo. what they do Thus. 3. the First. Buoy. Stuff. Use of the Nominative Case. because in the sentence. B. middle distance. Thrush. Preliminary Lesson. — Use of capital letters (§ 6. Copy out the following examples two or three times and then write them from dictation The mayors of provincial towns. Children. : Echo. Capital Letters. Wife. The Solicitor-General. where is thy common supplications. It is in the noininative case. : Sheaf. it stands for that about which we tell something by means of the verb. Death. Nooses. An object in the student of the Middle Temple. Then cometh the end. &c. A. The Prince of Wales. Write the plural of each of the followhig nouns Chimney. — Definition of Verb. Pies. The clemency of the conqueror. James The prescription of the doctor.shine. Cries. The Lord Mayor. Verbs. III. and the verb us something. The Recorder of Carlisle. Our I The Book of Common Prayer. The recorder of these events. Stars Geese cackle. A court of justice. Sentence." 'Boys' is the subject. The Lord Chief speak of lords and commoners.178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Exercise Boot. Oxen. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. note). Exercise 5. have a good hope William the Conqueror. Point out thd subject and the verb in each of the following sentences. Scarf. that is. St. Predicate. Valley. Convoy.

Kick. Appear. (§§ 182. Scratches. Twinkle. Dawn. child. Graze. The John. Roar. This may be done by placing the same numeral over each. Puss. Pray. The masters heard the boys' The boys tore the master's book. The wind. J^reiimi7iary Lesson. Cry. The bird's leg was broken." II 22 Men's lives are short. Float. Works. Sinks. Paul's this morning. The leaves. Parsons. children's A We VI. Glitters. V. The Object The Objective Case . The boy taxed the masters' The men heard of their wives' danger. Stars. 6. I bought this paper at the stationer's. Put a subject of the proper number before each of the following verbs : Shine. — Formation and use of the Possessive Case . Day. (§^ 67. The farmers' barns are full of corn. Mary. Dances. Squeak. The voices are loud. Break. The keeper caught the vixen's cubs. Sing. The following Sail. The Owls. are verbs of which you can make use : Fight. Arrive. The horses ate the oxen's food. lap. cheese was made from the goat s milk. Put some verb or other with each of the following nouns. Growl. The Possessive Case. Flies. Mice. Run. Dogs. Hens' eggs are white. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever. Swim. Sing. Work. Squeal. Rain. Horses. 179 Exercise Grass. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. went to St. Shine. Exercise 6b. Trees. Play.EXERCISES. Boys. Fall. The bird. Cows. Sings Howl. The birds have built nests in the farmer s bam. Chatter. as " I found Henry's book and William's slate. Shriek.). The sun. Goats' milk is wholesome. Run. lessons. — Distinction between Transitive Verbs and of a Verb. Ships. Plays. Water. Speaks. . He lodges at the baker's. Sink. 183). Prelinmtary Lesson. Grow. 'J'he baker's bread was spoih. Draw one line under those nouns in the following sentences which are in the nominative case plural two lines under those which are in the possessive case singular and three lines under those which are in the possessive case plural and show in each instance to what other noun the noun in the possessive case is attached. The kittens are in Mary's patience. &C.Intransitive Verbs. The boy pulled the kitten's tail. . Howl. Lions. John's hands are dirty. so as to make a sentence : candle. The bakers' shops were shut. Soldiers. Preach. Scratch. Blow. Tom's horse's leg was broken John's day's work is nearly finished.

The girls dance. as " I always wash [myself] with " The visitors withdrew [themselves] " cold water " Exercise line . and two lines under the intransitive : verbs Men eat bread. the horse. Cats eat mice. under the transitive verbs. The pig squealed. In the following examples put in an object where it wanted to show what the action denoted by the verb is done to The boy hates.I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR. In the following sentences point out which nouns are In each case explain subjects of verbs and which are objects of verbs. The child Exercise 9." : — ' groom kicked John touched Henry. The boys waste time. Rain fell. and reflectively. 11. I. The The boys play in the yard. The sheep graze. screamed. two lines under those that are used intransitively. and draw one under the verbs that are used transitively. 3. The parson preaches. The boy struck his brother. The boys play in the garden. A verb should be treated as a transitive verb used reflectively whenever a reflective pronoun can be supplied as an object so as to make the sense more complete. Men pray. and explain the use of " the Object as follows John struck the ball' The word ball is the object of the verb. as intransitive verbs . The man broke his leg. boys learn lessons. The butcher killed the pig. Bakers make bread. and an object. —Verbs used {with a difference of meaning) . as reflective verbs 183). the use of the Subject. The hunter started a hare. Mary wrote. Sheep eat grass. Exercise 10. VII. a transitive verb. as transitive verbs (§ 2. The dog bit. The man desires. The dog howled. Write out the following sentences. and three under those that are used reflectively. The sun warms. intransitively. as in Exercise 5. Mary died. Verbs used transitively. The dog barked. . Preliminary Lesson. Exercise 7. The horse carries. Clouds covered. The voured a sheep. because it stands for that which is the object of the action denoted by the verb. The sun is ": shines. Bii'ds twitter. : The the French. The hound chased the hare. The man spoke The man spoke well. Birds build. The horse neighs. travellers started yesterday. Cats mew. The girl plays piano. The ship sank. Exercise line Write out the following sentences. A lion deThe horse kicked the groom. and a dozen containing a subject and an intransitive verb. Make a dozen sentences containing a subject. and draw one 8. The man sank his fortune in the undertaldng. The lightning struck.

— . Steam comes out of the kettle. The singer transitively Find a dozen other verbs that may be used both and six that may be used reflectively without being followed by a reflective pronoun. Take the words in italics in the following sentences. &c. Shoe. out of the room. to illustrate their use. T\\q furrows are not straight. 14. squared accounts. Study the meaning and use of the word iron. inflexions of verbs (§§ 131. He 12. You had better give in. delighted the audience. and of the Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. l8t hard. Take this chair. The deputation withdrew. or a verb (because it tells you what some person or thing does) : took a pinch of j«2{^ John snjiffs the candle. A crowd filled the square. The judge tried the prisoner. He ornat>ients the table with plate.. Seat. 218. Words used both as Nouns and ' as Verbs. Pocket. Get up. She decks herself with ornaments. The boy tried The traveller returned yesterday. in such sentences as Iron is heavy and The women iron ' * — the shirts. old man slipped on the ice. IX. The merchant returned the goods. Dig. He We Exercise used : — i. We all rejoiced at his success.EXERCISES. Name. Fly. Cover. 15. Eye. Pen. 227). Get thee gone. 2. Prelimhiary Lesson. He has twisted his ankle. Beat. Owls hoot. His safe return rejoiced us all. He turned the snake twists and turns about. Make sentences in which the following words are as nouns . The laundress irons the shirts. Work. audience hooted the speaker. Forms and use of the Personal Pronouns. Exercise Find twenty more words which may be used either as nouns or as verbs. He made off as fast as The The The man he could. The maid fnilks the cow. He gave up the game. Take yourself off. The barber shaved me yesterday. Gneifurrcmis the brow. The governor sunendered the town. He made a noise. He has not shaved this morning. The thief tried the lock. The passengers crowd the deck. and say in each case whether the word is a noun (because it is the name of something). as verbs. Hook. Form. The children drink milk. The town surrendered. I withdrew my claim. cut his finger. VIII. I delight to hear him. The irons are hot. and make sentences Exercise and intransitively. The cook steams the meat.' Exercise 13. He cut away pretty quickly. Get your umbrella. The Personal Pronotins. The earth turns round. ^^^lip. Task. Get out of my way. PinCh. He slipped a shilling into my hand. Personal Preliminary Lesson.

4). I saw your father yesterday. — Difference between the Direct Object and . X. Draw one line under those nouns and pronouns in ' These exercises are very like some that have recently appeared elsewhere. and which are objects. XI. Thy friends are here. bethink me. Exercise 19.' . Arm you against your other Bethink you of some expedient. John will lend Thomas John's knife. Preliminary Lesson. Exercise 16. They will love you if you are good. Preliminary Lesscni. and the proper names for the pronouns : Has John's father has come home John saw Thomas in the garden. and explain their use in the same way as that of the nouns in Exercises 5 and 7. I will I will lay me down. The master praised the boy because he was attentive. Look at this book. — Inflexions of verbs (§§ to mark Person. The boys have lost The horse ran away with his rider. John has had John's dinner. dog's master beat the dog with a stick When the boys have finished the boys' because the dog bit the master's leg. and which in thsir turn resemble what appeared previously in the author's ' First Notions of Grammar. substitute the proper pronouns for their names in the following sentences. Pronouns as Subjects and Objects of Verbs. Did I hurt you? You have spoilt my book. The boy has hurt her. her mother sent her to school. Con- cord of Verb and Subject 218. My sister will call upon your Your brother has sent for me. Did I not tell thee so? mother. the girl When was old enough. I often see her at shall see you to-morrow. it is John's I found it in Get thee gone. The their ball. lessons. the Indirect Object of a verb (§§ 74 370. Mary has lost Mary's thimble.l82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. I will arm me. He has torn her church. admire him because he is brave. will learn to read. Parents love their children. Exercise 17. Thomas's brother arrived ? John's pony is lame.) Exercise 18. We took them home. They left us yesterday. the garden. I We . frock.* Suppose John is speaking to Thomas. Will Thomas give John Thomas's stick. Substitute pronouns for nouns wherever they are proper in the following sentences. and state what nouns the pronouns stand for : where John John's mother has sent John to school. 374. foes. the boys will go out to play. Point out which pronouns in the following sentences are subjects of verbs. You will meet us there. Direct Object and Indirect Object. You have hurt me. 227.

spent their money. I read many books. that lady the bread* Send me a letter. Prelhninary Lesson. Exercise 20. Exercise 21. He gives me an apple. We XIII. him Hand that lady to her seat. You sold your horse. Parts of which the 257). successively naming the tenses as you do so . He tells a lie. kind. Indicative — Formation of the various tenses of the (§ Mood of the Passive Voice 187 . Money has been taken . The man knelt down. . Tense Forms of the Active Voice. Hand He got took the poor man a loaf. He seethes the flesh. Tiie servant sweeps the met our friend at his house. The sun shines. be struck. She spills the water. He dealt the cards. : draw water. It lay on the ground. He was A stone was thrown. The kind woman glass of beer. I hold the reins. Strong Verbs. He him a wife. We make us comforts of This will last you all the year. into bed. Find a dozen verbs which may have objects of each and make sentences to illustrate their use. Shall we go and kill us venison ? We will buy you a watch. our losses. Send me to him. Change the verbs in the following sentences into each of the other tenses of the Indicative Mood. Pour your neighbour out a The policeman took the man to prison. slain. We will disguise us. He drinks some ale. We crept They room. The cock crew. Strong Verbs. They ate some bread. They met us in the street and gave us some apples. tive —Formation of (§§ all the tenses in the Indica- Mood of the Active Voice.EXERCISES. Pass me the salt. 257). She strikes her brother. Mary fetched the beer. and two lines under those which are indirect objects : John gave Thomas a kick. Freliininary Lesson. You see the house. I fetched a box on the ears. I will get me a new coat. XII. stood in the street. He bleeds to death. Conjugation of Verbs. The soldiers fight bravely. Exercise 22. took good care. The letter will The wine was drunk. Change the verbs in each of the other tenses successively of the Indicative Passive Voice naming the tenses as you do so : the following sentences into Mood in the A. Tense Forms of the Passive Voice. 183 the following sentences which are direct objects of verbs. throws a stone. He We We We B. Will you lend me a shilling? I gave him a book. Let every soldier hew him down a bough. A. Active Voice. The dog was barking. We shall be written. He slew his foe. compound tenses are made up 204-209. Wt'ak Verbs. He breaks his word. dealt me a hard blow.

The children had been scolded by the The wine had been drunk by the butler. The men We We the room. Write out the following sentences. . That surprises me. Change all the following sentences so as to use passive verbs instead of active verbs. The door was opened by nurse. Exercise 25. The sparrow will be built. Make in the passive voice. A vcr]) in the Passive Voice has no direct object. the object of in the Active tlie verb Voice becomes the subject of the Verb in the Passive* (§ 186). The servant had swept to-morrow." put " The cat was bitten by the dog " letter " put " letter is being written by me " : A : will please you. The letter was written by us. tive. were gathering nuts in the wood. line : Arrows are shot by the archers. to be a Transitive Verb. Make a dozen sentences containing a transitive Exercise 24. are caught by cats. verb in the active voice. Too much was expected by them. We were overtaken by a storm. and then a dozen sentences containing a transitive verb alter them as in the last exercise. Mice me. are spoken. The archers are shooting arrows. He is • Beware of the mistake of saying that the subject of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the object of the verb in the Passive Voice. The wine was spilt. and draw one under those verbs which are in the active voice. The object qf an action need not be expressed by the grammatical object of a verb. Goods have bee« stolen. The boys have eaten the cake. The B. Weak Verbs. Thus for " The dog bit the for " I am writing a cat. Mutual Relation of the Active and Passive Voices* When an action is described by means of Prelimina?y Lesson. are drinking the beer. Meat children are scolded by the nurse. This have received a lette. 205) Exercise 27. had been sold by the butchers. report The house is spread. 'l"he men The men will be carrying the hay will have finished the work before night. — the Passive Voice instead of the Active. Exercise 23. cat killed the rat. Kind words is out of the till. The John broke the window. sheep will be shorn.-. and then alter them as in the last exercise. Change all the following sentences so as to use active verbs instead of passive verbs in the same tense : The sparrow was caught by the boy. however. They had not counted the cost. XIV. The The caught. and two lines under those which are in the passive voice (§§ 187. All ordinary passive verbs are transiIt docs not cease. A new house will be built by my brother. Exercise 28.184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

and the masculine nouns that correspond to the feminine nouns in the following list : — Nun. gander. Girl. Daughter. Votsfry. We were travelbe blamed for this. baby. maid. to what it belongs . Exercise 29. boy. The money will have been spent in We are losing time. that part of speech that is. The wine was being drunk. : Exercise 28. WitcTi. form. elephant.EXERCISES. cousin. France. The troops were being The officer was leading the troops across the river. Duchess. boar. author. lass.'don and formation of Genders 39^6). Boar. Sister. He is gone. lioness. fox. desk. —To parse a word you must is. Thames. gartiener has vain. Ten feminine common nouns. Gender (§§ of Nouns. XV. part of speech. cart. non. queen. Ten nouns of ambiguous or common gender. it and to what subdivision of what the function of the word 3. mother. . Aunt. Bachelor. slate.'" Jolm's is a Proper Noun of the Masculine Gender [because it . tiger. Hart. goose. William. judge. Buck. I shall The men are come. The men are drinking beer. king. " John's brother has found a shilling. rreliiuinary Lessoji. the kind of work 4. Giant. vixen. horse. lady. Empress. sheep. Mirrderess. John. running. Examples of Parsing. Lass. Drake. Author. Nephew. nephew. cock. Ten masculine common nouns. man. pig. 7. Exercise 30. state i. Lady. speaker. 2. Write down i. Give the feminine nounS that correspond to the masculine nouns. Ten neuter common nouns. 6. 185 the money. State the gender of each of the following nouns girl. led across the river. aunt. The Victory. — house. 3. nursemaid. sovereign. ling all day. Maria. ox. Ram. Actor. pen. Governess. that does in the sentence the accidence of the word the construction of the word in the sentence. 5. lord. Ten feminine proper nouns. sister. Preliminary Lesson. infant. uncle. 2. box. dog. Doe. Parsing. He is spending all The town was taken by assault. Sir. Ten masculine proper nouns. servant. tree. Robert.— 'Ssigm^ca. Earl. London. XVI. ship. brother. hen. Jane. Hind. footman. Time is being wasted. I shall be travelling all night. Napoleon. bird. Ten neuter proper nouns. ruler. Bull. The been mowing the lawn. Cow. 4. The AgamemThe jNJaria. Mistress. Caterer.

Number. It is in the Singular Number.] It is in the Active Voice. Indicative Mood. namely brother ']. [It stands for the speaker without naming him. and may be used for any other thing of the same class]. ' ' ' Shilling of the Neuter Gender [because it is the name of something which is not a living being. t . pleased. and is in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb has found' [that is. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject he. the name ' ' Brother it is a Common Noun of the Masculine Gender [because denotes a male person.' It has shilling for its object. It is in the Singular Number. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject brother. because it stands for that to which the action denoted by the verb is is a Common Noun ' ' directed]. of the Weak Conjugation It is in the Active Voice.Substitute Masculine or Feminine. and may denote any other of the same class]. Mood. Future Indefinite Tense.' ' ' Me a Personal Pronoun of the First Person and of Comment Gender. and in the Possessive Case the attributive relation to) the noun brother [because it denotes that John possesses something. ' Has found (find. and when parsing is written.'' He is a Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person and Masculine Gender [because it stands for a male person who is neither the speaker nor the person spoken to] in the Singular Number and in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb will please [that is. pleased). and for beginners they arc of the utmost importance. Present Perfect Tense. . ^He will please . or her]. and is in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive verb has found [that is. Indicative (please. found). [It is a verb because it tells us something about John's brother. is a Transitive Verb of the Strong Conjugation found. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something].«<?. ' ' ' Will please which is is a transitive verb [because it denotes an action directed to an object].l86 is . ENGLISH GRAMMAR. It is in the Singular Number. and it is transitive because it denotes an action which is done to some object. of a in the Singular depending on (or in It is ' ' ' male person and is that person's own name*]. '\i the context shows whether the speaker is a male or a female person. and in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive active verb is ' will please. such explanations as those in brackets may be omitted .' • When pupils have gained some readiness in parsing. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. but in oral work.

to agree with its subject you understood. ' ' ' • Me ' is in the Objective Case.se. Future Indefinite Tense. Israel. * See last note. the bread. except those in italics : in the The hunters caught a hare. and not its name. i. Many new houses have been built." njend is a Transitive Verb [because it denotes an action which is done to something]. It is in the Singular Number. We have heard the news.' It is the a«w«a/ that is black. § Get thee behind me.e. 19. Mary's frock was torn by the dog. Of course. The masons are building a hou. Adjectives of Quality.s usually understood is the plural you. She gave me+ a shilling. frock will be mended.' * In parsing this word state that it is in the objective case. " 187 I shall ' be seen. wards. and 22. nouns. and pronouns following sentences.Vouns are names.' ' ' " Lend ' me a shilling. Hand mej Henr}-'s father will give her j a new book. in the Active Voice. John. The hunters were chasing hares. I ' ' ' ' Shall be seen is a Transitiv^e Verb [because it denotes an action that is directed to an object].. You have lost the sight. and verbs in Exercises XVII." is a Personal Pronoun of the First Person of common* (or ambiguous) gender. The cat has scratched her. but ob\'ious blunder. stands for the person about whom something is said by means of the verb]. Imperative Mood. Parse the nouns.) § Parse this word as a Vocative or Nominative of address. . In 'a black dog' the adjective black does not mark any quality belonging to the name dog. Tell me 1 the news. Read the letter.' .' ' ' ' . ' ' because xi). if the singular Thou is expressed or understood. pronouns. Plural Numbert and Second Person. They called her back. even when it refers to o«? person. The men saw Henry's cousin yesterday. Carefully guard beginners against the common. II ' ' ' . He was running away. the verb is singular but the subject which i. ' — Nature and ' use|| of a Qualitative Adjec- * You is always a ^m»«w«rt//ca/ plural. Exercise 32. and is hi the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb shall be seen [that is. Preliminary Lesson. You will be overtaken by the sterni. because it is the indirect object of the verb (See Section xi Ex.§ hand mej the bread. Hear ye. of saying that 'adjectives denote the qualities 0/ nouns. in the Passive Voice. girl's We will 19. Go thou and do likewise.EXERCISES. news. 20. The soon have finished the work. Indicative Alood. it is the Indirect Object of the verb Lend {See Seclion Exercise 31. and in the Singular Number and First Person to agree with its subject I. The hare The house was pulled down. I lent the iiianj a pound." but a thing marking word. She had been bitten by the dog. John's sister has told me+ the was being chased. Parse all the verbs. An adjective is not a ' noun-marking word.

bony. He is a vulgar little boy. The naughty children ate some apples. " The girls wore smart botmetsP It is It shows of what sort the ' bonnets are. My little brother is ill. We I have no money. woollen cloak. Many men possess great riches. and treat each of them in the same way as ' smart in the above examples He rides a black horse. and is therefore sometimes an Adjective of Quality. The The cat caught a great black rat. Hold out success. and two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. It tells us (indefinitely) how much money we are speaking about. We Many men ? love vicious pleasures. Rude boys are disagreeable.l88 . Demonstrative Adjectives Preliminary Lesson. strong. " It tells * ' Exercise 34. thing we are spe. He is a ready speaker. tives.' " The girls' bonnets are smart. Great* riches bring much care. + 'Little' is used for both purposes. and sometimes an Adjective of Quantity. and draw one line under the Adjectives of Quality. tive (or Adjective of Quality) Attributive and predicative use of Adjectives (§§ 80-84 \ 90)' ' ' Smart is an Exercise 33. Idle boys hate lessons. John bought twelve pears. ' or Quantitative Adjectives {§§ 91-94). brown. Preliminary Lesson. The girls are ready. Dogs are faithful. but they describe its size. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Tom's horse is are white. — Nature and use of Adjectives of Quantity. He rode a girl has large black eyes. Have you any money ? Will you have some bread Few strong temptation. The bird's feathers Ripe fruit is wholesome. greedy little boy ate twenty pears. Adjectives of Quantity.1t * great' and 'small' are Adjectives of Quality. — Nature and use of Demonstrative Adjec- Different sorts of Demonstrative Adjectives (§ 95). pleasures are often alluring." 'Twelve is an Adjective us how many pears we are speaking about. heavy. ' ' ' ' both hands. . He wore a great. Examples. The bird has white feathers. The naughty. Adjective of Quality. travelled all night. Write out the following sentences. Thin ice is dangerous. " / will ^ive you sofue jnoney. .iking about.'" Here ' smart is an Adjective of ' ' Quality joined predicatively to the noun ' bonnets. of Quantity." Some is an Adjective of Quantity. black horse. The poor woman has I have little t hope of many troubles. animals. Dogs are faithful Sinful The poor little bird is dead. • Mind much of a or Adjectives of Relation. XIX.' Pick out the Adjectives of Quality in the following sentences. They do not tell ns lunu th. joined attributively to the noun 'bonnets. brings much care. ' : XVIII. and treat each of the latter in the same way as twelve and some in the above sentences. Much money men can resist waited several hours in the cold room.

He has but little discretion. You will know better one day. We arrived on the second day. 166. 169.EXERCISES. It qualifies points out a certain book without describing it. Each child received a penny. little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.' ' " He ' lent me ' his knife. Some * thief has stolen my watch. This She word. " Give 189 me that book. been tried. Any man could tell you that. bearing in mind that several adjectives belong (with a slight difference of meaning) sometimes to one class. Here Here Mind this word word is a demonstrative pronominal adjective (or indefinite adjective pro- noun). I went to see him one day lately. • t of Adjectives. this relates to guatttity. We had some + beef for dinner. Some people like this loud music. or Adjective of Relation. Those little boys are my cousins. My apple is ripe. and three lines under the Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives). Ring the fat. without reference to quality or quantity. It points out a certain knife." 'That' It is a Demonstrative Adjective. —Study §§ 1 05-1 16. That last song was capital. (See §§ 92." His a Possessive Pronominal Adjective or Possessive Adjective Pronoun. John is his half brother. It qualifies (or is joined is attributively to) the noun ' knife. thus : " We 4 4 heard of the poor old man's sudden death. She was my first lore. Second thoughts are best. His first attempt was a failure. She is my first cousin. An enemy hath done this. Write out the following sentences. Indicate what noun feach adjective belongs to. He has a large head and little eyes. No other course is possible. little child might lead him. Which J wine do you prefer? What. or qualifies. We walk every other day.) Look carefully at the definitions. and draw one line under the Adjectives of (2ualit\'. boy will is idle. the noun book." I I 2 3 2 3 Give me that large book. I have but one brother. Comparison Preliminary Lesson. Neither version of the story is correct. There was no other way left. These sheep are last Look at the Bring me my new boots. Every device has Either alternative is disagreeable. Have you any + money? I have not the least appetite. that Interrogative Pronominal Adjectives (or Interrogative Adjective Pronouns) J belong to the class of Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives) . second line in this page. He spent half a day with me. sometimes to another.' Exercise 35. by putting the same numeral over both the adjective and the noun. Any* fool might see that. two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity.]! news have you heard? What X nonsense he talks have the A A ! XX. bell.

blithe. wittier. happy. handsomest. last. big. lovely.] virtues. joined attributively to the noun ' men.' attached attributively to {or qualifies) the : An Adjective of Quantity. near. " His numerous His A Demonstrative : won much esteem . [It denotes how much esteem is spoken of. duller. mad. sad. fresh. nastiest. all three degrees of the following adjectives sweetest. it is attached either attributively or predicatively three degrees of comparison. sprightlier. cold. and is virtues.) describes the quality of a noun. gentle. gentler.tgo ENGLISH GRAMMAR. tidiest. .' it does not in the least alter the meaning of the noun. state Examples. idle.' to limit the application of a noun.* [li points (or Pronominal) Adjective. gay. steeper. justest. XXI. tenderer. red. crudest. common. Lastly. of the following adjectives. this mistake must be carefully ' guarded against. : rudest. better. Preliminary adjective it is. rudest. —An Adjective noun ' of Quality in the Positive Degree.) Those : —A qualifying the Demonstrative Adjective in the Plural Number. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees : Exercise 38. great. To parse an adjective state what Lessen. brightest. wealthier. noun jnen understood (see § 96). richest." These in the Plural Number. more. &c. hearty. healthy. dull.] It is in the Positive Degree. in the Comparative Degree.' (Rich. but does not describe or enumerate them. slenderest. high.' (Much. full. monstrous. finest. virtues (§§ 89. worst. tame. It is [It describes the virtues spoken of. and to what noun 84). § 85. attached attributively to the noun most. quarrelsome. beautiful. fierce. Write down Prettier.' [' These 'points to the men. splendid. thereforo. merry.' It is joined* attributively to {or qualifies) the noun ' : — Numerous Much. holy. joined predicatively to the noun men. bright. handsome. ' An (See it If the smacks strongly of the blunder of saying that an adjective term is used. out certain virtues. more. slower. — sort of in what degree of comparison its it is. Parsing of Adjectives. but does not describe or enumerate them. gentlest. rich. winsome. mightiest. or their substitutes Large. This expression is legitimate only if the to qualify a noun' means 'to denote some quality of that for which the noun standi. clever.] : —A — Demonstrative Adjective Richer ' : An Adjective of Quality [it describes certain men].] virtues. rich.) ' — " These men are richer than those. ' • phrase ' or As generally used. richer.' adjective is often said to ' qualify a noun..

He cropped the black horse's tail. Give me some more meat. Few men are his superiors. The girls' lessons are too long. but does not describe it. Few and brief were the prayers we said. Will you have hot or cold milk? Which boy is the cleverest? Here is bread. Give me the other hand. they must be parsed as Demonstrative Pronouns (not as Demonstrative Adjectives). T/ies(' are my children. She wore a large man's hat on her head. When no noun can be conveniently supplied with the adjective. Your elder brother lost some money yesterday. Some persons are too hasty. One ' is an Indefinite Substantive Pronoun. His few remaining acres were sold. When ihis and that are not attached to a noun expressed or understood. He fitted a Chubb's patent lock to his desk. which is here qualified by the demont strative adjective the X An article always belongs to some noun expressed or understood. I have done a good day's work. The large linen-draper's shop at the comer is on fire. Have you any other sisters ? Of these wines I prefer the red to the white. Some careless person has upset the ink. ' ' ' ' . Which of these books is yours? Where are the others ?+ John is //4if cleverest % in the class. The little girls' frocks were torn. I will not have atty. The elder boys' behaviour was excellent. 7Vta( is the least atonement he can make. He has gained many more prizes than his elder brother. You will know some day or oi/ier. Each boy shall have a great piece of cake. the adjective itself must be regarded as a substantive (§ 98J. Supply the noun when necessary. of the Neuter Gender. which will you have? That is the ripest pear. A dense cloud hid the sun. B. or refer to its quantity. My younger sister is ill. Attend carefully to those examples where there is a noun in the possessive case. My youngest brother has gained the second prize in his class. * An adjective may be attached to a pronoun as well ' as to a noun. She is the prettiest of all my cousins. That little girl has no milk. I went to see him one day lately.' ' " or Interrogative Adjective Pronoun. The schools are well managed. Here are two books. Every * one was quiet. will you have some? No. The poor suffer more than the rich. \_ltpomfs interrogatively /^ a certain hand. He teaches at the large boys' school. ' 191 Which hcmd will you have ? Which :— A Demonstrative Adjective noun hand. Ripe apples are nicer than sour * ones.EXERCISES. He is quite a ladies' man. The wisest men are sometimes mistaken. A. He took a three days' journey. He bought the handsomest lady's dress in the shop. Others (in the plural) is a Substantive Pronoun. Parse all the adjectives (including the articles) in Those in italics qualify a noun which is the following sentences. girls' Exercise 38. I have had a whole day's anxiety. understood. and in the Nominative or Objective case (§ 145). He keeps a large boys' school.] It is joined attributively to the Exercise 37. and see which nouns the adjectives qualify (§§ 96. Will that little boy have anymore fruit? Give me the other volume. 97). The tall corporal's hat was knocked off.

is I Our duty to my claim.192 . prudent. wise. If you do not give up these bad habits. infirm. widow. did not tell me. good. what the result will be. broad. Give the abstract nouns which correspond to the following adjectives : Pure. infant. son. jealous. I will call upon you to-morrow I will help you if it is possible. innocent. magistrate. obstinate. able. man. zz. He does not frighten me by that. but I could obey the dictates of conscience. monstrous. bad. brief. Exercise 39. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. however difficult // may be. pious. ' This and that are sometimes employed in a for a 2. sour. simple. It is of no use trying to help him. it to me. white. believe it. — Nature and formation of Abstract Nouns 314. Preliminary Lesson. or a sentence that is going to be used. priest. This quite altered our plans. often stands for an infinitive mood. hold my tongue about the matter. merry. stand. if it be not He said that the matter was self-evident. shall How be content with that. XXII. Read these letters to His father threatened to disinherit him. that man. (§§ 32. ihat brought him to his senses. sad. just.' ' that. near. but I woi/td not consent to that. child. king. sweet. To comply with your request is difficult. He thought of enlisting as a soldier. sharp. sovereign. ' this. for the gerund ' It or infinitive that denotes such an act or fact in an abstract form.' and ' it ' may or gerund with its adjuncts 3. B. sheriffj captain. splendid. It is impossible to tell It grieved him to lose so much money. meek. jovial. We all knew that the attempt was hopeless. but I could absolutely impossible. . brilliant. soft. The demonstratives noun . useful. I think it very strange that he It is very likely that he will come to-morrow. colonel. italics in the fullovving Parse the words in sentences : That was a great disappointment to us. : relation. regent. Give the abstract nouns derived from the following nouns Friend. slow. worthy. give it. . leader. 329)- Exercise 40. long. a gerund. silent. and your father that will amuse him. abundant. you will suffer for it. Abstract Nouns. popular. poor. humble. father. temperate. dead. for an infinitive mood . mayor. dare you tell me that ? I cannot undertake this. wide. I think it best to // vexes me that he should act in this way. I This is the very coinage of your brain. large. I can never believe that. State clearly what the words in sentences : italics stand for in the following not manage hoped to get here before noon. red. quick. ' ' ' similar manner. It would have been better for him if he had never known if it is convenient. distant. martyr. blue. I. but this I would not allow. durable. for the act or fact stated in a sentence 4. wicked. to surrender . able. He asked me There is a pen. but he would not not see it.

laughter. dissect . . soon reached the summit in all ages. durability. F. width. depress . judgment. elevation. action. D. dearth. C. patience . depth. multiply . Form Abstract Nouns (not ending following verbs . acidity. ponderosity. fickleness. pressure. Sculpture is one of He has the gift of poetry. complete . Nothing relieved of the height. The We poverty o . convene . Some poetry is hardly worth the fine arts. suppleness elegance . magnanimity. exact . stupidity. dependence. hate. suction . . infirmity. strength. . . steal. rascality . move. Give the adjectives or nouns from which the following abstract nouns are formed — : Fickleness impertinence dependence . absolve . legibility. He made a solitude and called it peace. He aspired to enter the ranks of the sculptures over the porch are very fine. . displace . health. derange . greenness. Painting was his chief pursuit. sonority. arrange . please . and explain the difference of meaning in each case Exercise : nobility. addition. . wisdom. . boredom . . weigh. depart . The vast field of nature is open reading. . . grandeur. invert . growth tilth decision coercion defence derision. suppleness. acidity . . strength . infirmity. height. brevity . seize . rigidity. These alms-houses are the refuge of old age and I admire nobility of character. suspend conceal steal . thieve . deceive . fix . deviate . degrade . thrift . and draw one under the nouns used in their adstraci sense. protect . interrogate . prosperity. . patience. con^ tract . conhumility . and two lines under those used in their concrete sense. destroy . The steeple is of immense height. 193 Give the Adjectives from which the following Abstract Nouns : are derived Nobility. . . . invent . justify. composition. Can you tell me the age of that child ? This has been the case to our gaze. senility. debase . advance. sleepiness. valour. crown . mayoralty . I bought a the solitude of his existence. Write out the following sentences. width. uprightness . sing. line 41. Give the verbs from which the following Abstract derived : Nouns . in -ing) corresponding to the deride Offend . candour. height . That is the nature of the animal. amplitude. are estrangement seclusion injection thought flight reflection conception adaptation . breadth. death. ductility. girlhood. depth . mortality weakness durability. measure. Intrusion . . youth. shrievalty venience piety . erase. heroism. splendid painting yesterday. treat . . E. elegance. grandeur. . condescend . .EXERCISES. insipidity. abstract. wisdom. proceed . declension.

— Nature and use of Adverbs. The children played indoors. or The mountain rises abruptly from the plain." (or is There shows the place where my uncle lives question Where does my uncle live '). He went straightway.' *' a word that shows when he came (or answers an it is We seldom see him.' ' ' is it is bad an ' ** He came yesterday Yesterday is the question ' When did he come ? '). When ? ' ' How long ' ? ' ' How ' ' often ? ' Adverbs of ' ' Whence ? Place answer the questions Where ? Adverbs are usually said to modify* the verb.' ' . or Adverbs of Time answer the is to be taken. modifying the adjective bad." it is Seldom answers Therefore " the question How often do we see him?' an Adverb of Time modifying the verb see. adverb to which they are attached (§§ 259-265). Therefore Adverb of Time. Examples.' Exercise 42. modifying the verb ' lives. denoted by the verb is performed. He went away.'' ' " Thai is too bad. Adverbs. John often writes to us.' ^ * My uncle lives there. The troops fought splendidly. ' ' in or under which the action . He always contradicts me. • To modify a verb is to state some modt or condition. It ' "i answers the an Adverb of Place. We went thither. XXIII. " Whither ' ? adjective. Mary plays beautifully. She is upstairs. I will go thither directly. Now attend to me. My friends live yonder. ' Manner * answer the question How ? ' Adverbs of Adverbs of Degree show to other adverb questions ' what degree or extent' the meaning of a verb. They rode along together.194 ENGLISH GRAMMAR." is Abruptly a word that shows how the mountain rises (or answers the question How does the mountain rise ')• Therefore it is an Adverb of Manner. modifying the verb rises. Deal as in the above examples with each of the Adverbs in the following sentences : I saw him yesterday." ' ' Too or is a word which shows to what degree that answers the question how bad ? Therefore Adverb of Degree. They Boon returned. Preliminary Lesson. adjective. We lay down to sleep. modifying the verb ' came.

adjective) some verb or adjective (§§370. or adverb it modities. 3 . He works harder than ever. 4-1. They get up very early. and point out what verb. ! much surprised. Oh I am so tired. adjective or noun in the objective case with an Prelimmary some equivalent phrase. Exercise adverbs in italics in well. I have seen him many times. I am almost penniless. I am very He walked backwards. That poor man is the worst hurt. He Many a . He comes oftener than ever. it of adverbs Exercise 48. Parsing of Adverbs. Parse the Adverbs in Exercises 42 and 44. very much obliged to you. travelled all night. The bird is quite dead. He slept all night. He is more composed. XXIV. Parse the nouns in italics in the following sentences : time have I played with him. I shall see you next week. He is most careful in his conduct acted tnore prudently than his friend. He comes here four times a week. This is many deg7-ees better than that. but Thomas reads better.EXERCISES. The children were here I would rather not go. I get up earlier than you. Exercise 47. I would sooner die. soonest. — A Adverbially. adjective. X95 Stand so. what its degree of comparison is (if it admits of comparison). I placed my hand thus. of State the Degree of Comparison of each of the the following sentences. Day by day we magnify He comes bothering me day after day. He is less restless to-day. He was an extremely wicked man. Exercise 43. I way. rapidly. and what verb. To parse an Adverb state to which class belongs. The project was monstrously foolish. last. We have got thus far on our journey. Make half a dozen sentences to illustrate the use each sort of adverb contained in the preceding examples. giving the three degrees. brother came He is most attentive to his work. John reads He My Exercise 45. He was the least alarmed of all. The noun should be parsed often does duty for an adverb. He is a year older than I am. Make and ten containing adverbs ten sentences containing adverbs in the comin the superlative degree. He is far too extravagant. NounB used Lesson. He walked yflr/z^^r than I did. Do not tell so many stories. They very soon returned. with its as being in the Adverbial Objective. adjective. parative degree. or when taken 267). modifying (either singly. or even standing by itself. You speak too He is very learned. He turned his head another Thee. or adverb it modifies (§§ 274-276). Vou write worse than your brother. That happened a year ago. I am I am much obliged to you. He qjften comes here.

they should be parsed as substantival adjectives. ^// bloodless lay the untrodden snow. We have much He is ?nuch worse to-day. or (more sitnply) as substantives. come a day day and night. being impossible to supply These (like nouns) are often any particular noun with them. brother. I will follow you through He is my Ixst friend I did my best. He travelled arrived post- XXV. Lesson. ' ' " Much has been revealed. modifying (i) a verb. may be taken as the simple adverb 'na' = never (A. He came sooner. will you have a little ? He told me less than his brother. and become identical in form with adjectives. many adverbs which once ended in -e have lost that inflexion. I • 'No/ as an adverb. the subjects of the verbs that follow them. Parse the words in italics in the following senences. . 1 have enough. He is all powerful here. That is all nonsense. We hand and foot. '''/do not 'much'' ' is much admire him. He knows more than he tells. but inoj'c remains behind. .' and more' is an adjective qualifying ' ' * money understood. He is the best dressed thich and thin. and Adverbs reduced to the form of Adjectives." Here '«(?'is an adverb modifying the adverb ' ' better. cause for thankfulness. On the other hand. It is better now to parse as simple adverbs. that I had uiy ]iains for nothing. ceedings. I have no ink. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Here is some wine. carefully distinguishing the adjectives proper. I He is_«o * wiser than before.^'' Here tnuck and 'more' are substantives. He has lost a//. could hear no more. He slept (?// niylit. They once had the dative inflexion. are used as substantives. it especially those of Quantity. (2) an adjective.196 could not haste. used with an adverbial force. He is more con1 am much happier. Much remains to be done. '^ Here '•''He is no better. tented. man in the room. He has more ability than hi!. Do not let us hear ?nore of that. Preliminary — Many them adjectives. Adjectives used Adverbially. the substantival adjectives.' " He has not much money . When they are used as subjects or objects of verbs." Here much is an adjective qualifying money. The long and tlie short of it is.)." He is not much happier!'' an adverb. You know most about it. his brother has more. The town forth bound is ten viilcs distant. or after prepositions.S. ' Exercise 48. In general I approve of his proMuch depends upon his answer. and the adverbs : — gave him ait I had.

Such a round of pleasures is wearisome. 278).p little He shows but better. He is more to blame than I am. The construction of this sentence is our guide to that of the four "No" is ' ' ' : — ' A ' ' ' uext. I heard (Z /. t Enough a substantive. When it denotes that one ac'ii'n resembles another. He sailed all round the world. I ask {cixnpX more.' An adjective used as a substantive may still J be modified by an adverb. when joined to a singular noun like glass.' except Else is always an adverb ' IS best taken as an adverb. and no (= A. You are very kind. Do not take more trouble. ' + When like ' ' ' ' . He is less restless than he was yesterday. The more part knew The more the merrier {§ 265.adverb.' denotes personal resemblance.' The next example is different . more is equivalent to further. He has «<? wtTcf ** sense than a goose. ' ' ' more. 5).' and therefore is a quantitative adjective attached to the noun.S. He bought two mo)'e loaves. He was discoursing about the true and the just./ one glass. He is a better writer than I am. Enough has been done. Do your best. He is XXVI. it is an adverb.' The sense is I will take in \ rtr/i/Z/^V). it is an adjective. /// weeds thrive apace The The house is ill built. have enough and to spare. He wears a round hat. You know best. More is here an . and I will take no less. earth turns i-ound. I ne'er shall look upon his like again. ' Words which they ' join (§§ 277. You are very much in fault.' never') is an adverb modifying ' ' ' ' ' never used as an adverb. I have heard a little about that affair. ni." (Compare the German «o<:/i and the French encore. Preliminary Lesson. I will take one more § glass. I will not take any more. I cannot say more. — Nature and use of Prepositions. abundance. He is pretty sure of the prize. \ •s ziery tall.EXERCISES. He swore like a trooper. He is no tnore contented than he used to be. Come near the fire. ' II Some ' ' ' is More does not measure the "i That is. my very heart. He ran all round the park. cry did knock against love John best. Take no more H trouble. That is the very least you can do. through the helmet. Whoever is most diligent will meet with ?nost success. whole qidintiiy of trouble taken. There is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. I We from him. is not any more diligent than he was before. You must take me for better or worse.) little reflection will . *• Here more does measure the whole quantity of ' sense. meaning. Jt This word is an adjective qualifying the substantive 'nothing. I am your equal. He is likeW my brother. She not wherefore they were come together. That is a pretty picture. little gratitude.{// over the yard. i9. tions * is ' Prepositions. I will accept nothing less. We are near neighbours. I heard a// the speech. O Lord. Will you lake some more wine.W We heard nothing inore of him. || have not meat enough. I did my best. no trouble in addltum [to what you have taken]. They have money enough. Hear the right. He He is no wiser than I. We have a choice between good and ///. Rela- which they indicate. The future is hidden from our gaze. ' in sufficient when it here an adverb modifying 'more. The corn was scattered . let me hear some tnore.show that more could have no meaning as a quantitative adjective. The I A\y best friend.' 'nothing inferior in amount. modifying the verb will take. I cannot write a7ty better. He cut right future times he will be famous. is little That expect not a a tnost lovely prospect. He was moi-e frightened than hurt. In That decision was right. else* He was is but I Nobody there. He was a very thunderbolt of war. We were just starting.

I told you all tliat before." ' Of is a preposition governing the pro' noun 'me' in the objective It shows the relation of an Exercise 49. Examples. I saw Jane in the kitchen.' (mouse) to another (floor). and joining it to the adjective attribute (afraid) to ^. He works at the factory. People in trouble often go to him. " ' I see a mouse on ' noun floor It shows the ' thefloor. Come along. Do not lag behind. " He leaped over the wall. He spoke to me at the close of the meeting. person (me). Tliere is a garden behind the house. afraid. ' ' C. Run routtd the The earth turns round. and joining it to the verb leaped. and ten in which it shows the relation of an attribute to a thing. My father lives London. I am anxious about liis safety. it." ' Over ' is a preposition governing the noun wall in the objective case.^ in the objective case. cut a piece off.' the in the Parse the prepositions in the following sentences in above examples : Pick up the books on the floor.—ThQ same word is often used both as an adverb and as a preposition. We saw the men in armour. The love of money is the root of Dick rode to York. When it governs a noun or pro- noun. books on the table.' It shows the relation of an act (leaping) to a thnig (wall). ' ' On is and joining B. walked along the road. it is a preposition. I rode inside the omnibus. The tub is full of water. She stayed within the house. same way as case. I am fond of music. Grief at the loss of his money turned him crazy. Do not sit on the table. 51. He spoke of me. A. Do not touch the all evil. Adverbs and Prepositions. He We We . XXVII. relation of one i/n'/t_g' a preposition governing the it to the noun * mouse. in A Exercise 50. I will come by and by. walked by the river. blow on the head knocked him down. Preliminary Lcsson. ran after me. I have in my hand a letter from my father. Pie rode outside. Make ten sentences in which a preposition shows the relation of a thing to a thing j ten in which it shows the relation ot an action to a thing . We shall start the day after to-morrow. "He Is afraid of me . Parse the words in itahcs in the following sen- He got up behind. He cut " Three thousand a piece off\hc loaf The stick is loo long . The box was painted within and without. That comes after. table. The storm passed by.198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. When (§§ there is no noun or pronoun governed by Exercise tences : it is an adverb 279. He shrank from the danger. He departed before my arrival. 284). We arrived the day before yesterday. I am weary of work.

Present Tense ' ' : — ' . . In.' Mood. and the Second Person to agree with its subject you. and in the [or the object of) the (simple) Infinitive will. and do and use of the Simple Infinitive as notional and as atixare always notional verbs." A defective (notional) verb Will and Indicative Mood. —A. Find a dozen words which may be used either as Adverbs or as Prepositions.'' is 'Steal' a Transitive Verb. t The so-called Potential Mood is a perfectly unnecessary invention. in the Active Voice. and make sentences to illustrate their use.' ' ' Go ' is a Transitive Verb. XXVIII. depending on (or and in the governed by) the verb " 'shall. depending on (or governed by) the verb ''may. 199 " Nothing comes amiss. Present Tense and in the Singular Number and the Second Person. iliary Infinitive Mood. in the Active Voice. in the Mood. The Preliminary Lesson. Present Tense and in the Plural Number. and in the (simple) Infinitive Mood. 184). Indi' Mood.EXERCISES.' in in ' Forget verb ' : — A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. . verbs (§ Mustf and can Examples." "I must wait and watch withal." 'Did' is a Indicative notional Transitive Verb. depending on " TJiou shall not steal. but is .' when used as a preposition. in the Active Voice." ' Shalt cative ' is a defective (notional) verb . Infinitive (simple) Mood. (§§ 194.^'' 'May' is a defective (notional) verb. governs. Nattire Shall. to agree with its subject thou. never precedes the word which placed :it the end of the sentence. Past Indefinite Tense. the Singular Numsubject /. ducats we freely cope your courteous pains withal.^'' " Her cause and yours. to agree with ' its the Active Voice.' « He did his duty. may. and Number and the Third Person to agree with Active Voice. will.'' You may go. dicative Mood. ber and First Person. I'll perfect him withal Exercise 52. 195). the Singular its subject ' He. " / 10 ill never forget yoit."* so money come withal.' in it * ' Withal. in the Active Voice.

' The verb does not itself constitute an emphatic form. He said that he did not choose to come. depart may be parsed separately.' Sue the preceding examples.' " He will come presently Here 'will' ^ is a mere auxiliary of the future tense. "You do * assist the storm. He says that he will not come. + See \ 2IO. Does your father know of this? May I come in? Thou shalt not steal. He would not come when I called him. The compound form is emphatic only when an emphasis is laid upon the do. and the compound in the same. He could not reply. It may be treated like shall' the last example. You may go. It does not assert that he is able or is pertnitted to vex me. The cry did J knock against my very heart. nr else taken with the dependent infinitive." Here 'may a mere auxiliary of the Subjunctive Mood. Parse all the verbs in the following sentences. He durst not go home. I will do my best. I cannot do what I will. The notion of volition is entirely lost sight of. You do assist does not differ in the least in sense from you assist.2©0 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He shall not know of it. m " Yotc do assist the storm. You must go directly.' But then any form is emphatic when it is emphasized. man cleanse his way ? 1 did not call yesterday lest I might seem intrusive. You need not be alarmed. He said that he would not come. You would not have my help when you might. ' a mere auxiliary (whether emphatic or unemphatic) it may be parsed form may be parsed Did knock' may ' : . ' ' " He does this that he ' may -vex me. or the compound phrase shall depart may be parsed as the future tense of the verb it ' ' 'depart' depends upon in the same manner depart. I could leap over that wall once. " / shall soon departs Here ' shall ' is an auxiliary (not a notional) verb. is Exercise 53. infinitive The simple ' ' in ' ' ' as The two verbs shall and the preceding examples. and specify in the case of the finite verbs whether they are used as notional or as auxiliary verbs : — can dance. I shall I will go with you. We will never yield When shall \ you see your brother? Wherewithal shall a young to threats. Thus be treated as eiiuivalent to knocked. You might have gone an hour ago.way as the simple tense for which it is a substitute. I dare not go back. stay. He will soon return. You need not stay. You shall not have it. They would keep on making a noise. He did what he could. That boy shall be made to hold his tongue.''' " Did you hear the rain f " ' ' In these examples ' do ' and ' did ' are mere auxiliaries. We • When ' do ' is separately. and is in the Subjunctive Mood itself The notion of power or permission has altogether vanished.

* He is too clever to make* such a mistake. to show that an infinitive is coming. He hopes to hear from you soon. " He ran to meet me. " // is tiselcss to make the atte/npt. He did his best to ruin me." Here to meet is a transitive verb in the Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. went up to the man to ask our way. found it advisable to return.* I am happy to They are come to stay with us. Nature and use of the gerundial with to' (§§ 194. forming the temporary subject of the verb is.' ' 'To make': in A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice.' and governing 'attempt' in the objective case. I am glad to hear* it. possible /<? go on. • In these cases the gerundial infinitive does the work of an adverb.EXERCISES.* The boys had a long task to do. He is anxious to do* his duty. to indicate its construction.' and the infinitive to come ' is ' ' is the temporary object the real object. As it the subject or object of another verb it does the work of a substantive. in the Singular Number and Nominative Case. the ' ' — " He thinks it better not to co7ne" Here ' it of the verb thinks. does the work of an adverb. Such a fellow is not fit to live. Sometimes it expressea the came of the state deoeted by the adjective. found it imfind* you so much better. We We We Make ten sentences in which a gerundial infinitive the subject of a verb ten in which it is the object of a verb . forming the real subject of the verb is. and ten in which it does the work of an adverb. tive. 201 infini- Preliminary Lesson. I was not prepared to hear that news. When it denotes the purpose or cause of an action or state. Help me io carry this. is .' ' ' Exercise 54. The master called the boy to say his lesson." 'It' is a Neuter Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. or infinitive — ' B. Parse the verbs in italics and the following sentences in the way indicated above : word ' it ' in the better than sacrifice. To obey is useless to ask him. I am delighted to see* you. He was rude enough to contradict * me. The water is not fit to d?-ink. She was overjoyed to hear* of her son's return. I shall be sorry /<? leave. It is // is easy to see that. He came to pay me some money. 196). Active Voice. I am sorry to hear* that. used wiih the force of an adverb modifying the verb 'ran. The and neuter pronoun * it' is often used as a temporary or pro- visional subject or object. and Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. To work hard is the way to succeed. . Exercise 55. He dislikes to be kept waiting. and modifies the preceding adjective.

and draw one line under the Abstract Nouns in -ing j two lines under the Gerunds three lines under the imperfect (Active) participles : . Participles used as Qualitative Adjectives. Write out the following sentences.^'' Fanned is the Perfect (or Past) Participle ' qualifying the '' noun ' fire. I lay a thinking. Participles. "You do draw my spirits from me with new lamenting § ancient oversights " (Shaksp. Oblige me by all leaving the room. lying witness He hates lying. Quitting the forest. By the noble partner you greet with great prediction of noble having.struci Here a is a preposition {= at iir in). 282. tions as the Abstract Noun in -ing.202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. qualifying the noun master. our way. ' Fanned by the wind. something wicked this way comes. He strode Seeing* man A We We We We My bowing right and left to his guests.)i XXX.' • When the verbal noun in -ing does not govern an object it may be treated as a simple abstract noun. — Study §§ 197-202. No good can come of your doing On some opposition being made he that. withdrew his demand. the fire blazedfiercely. riding on horseback. ' fan." 'smile. he pressed my hand. He went to see the hunting of the snark. we advanced into duty he gained the approbation of all.and the Gerund. were late in consequence of having lost+ at having succeeded -i* in his design. PreUminary ordinary (§§ '' Parsing of Participles. 'Smiling' is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb qualifying the pronoun ' he.' to which it is of the verb joined attributively.' ' ' " Smiling faintly. Participles used absolutely 201. ought to be punished. He is delighted fell in with a ship sailing to America. Exercise 56. XXIX. He died in consepricking of my thumbs. It is impossible to construct the abstract noun in -j»^ with a past participle." the Perfect Participle of the verb 'honour. § ' ' ' . Thinking ' had belter be taken in such con. J Forty and six years was this temple By sedulously doing his started before the rising of the sun. in building. Lesson. The I like reading history. excessive reading of novels is injurious. up the hall quence of pricking his hand with a poisoned dagger. There is here a confusion between the Abstract Noun.' used as an Adjective of Quality. taking a short cut. 202. arrived there first through His conduct is in keeping with his professions. He was angry at my going away. I see a is believing. I like reading. the open plain. Gervmds and Prelimmary Lesson. There was a great deal of shouting and clapping of hands. In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward. 5). 370.' My honou7'ed master bade me Honoured' is tell you this. This must be treated as a compound gerund. — Participles proper.

' &c. * * ' ' j ' . we will be with you to-morrow. The string is stretched too tight. Sleep." Smiling is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb ' smile. —The elements of an Interrogative sentence its ' same way as those of the declarative Compare Did you hear ? and 'I did hear t Who told you so ? and He told me so Whom did you meet ? and I met John. The poor man is badly hurt. and preceded by a pipe and tabor. Where do you live ? and I live there. splendid charger. He was children are famished. mounted on a " Why rather." ' 203 sider. smilitig Morn. than in the perfumed chambers of the great. the object of the transitive participle ' considering. very well. he strode into the circle. he has done very well. The captives were already slain. ' ' ' ' ' ' * * In these we get a statement of the actual doing. The poor man was hurt. and hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber. Considering your age. XXXI. the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister. The prisoner was starved to death. Interrogative and Negative Sentences. or taken together as equivalent to ' heard. He was stretched stretched upon his bed. Look at that smiling villain.EXERCISES. The general rode in front. wounded spirit who can bear? liest thou in smoky cribs. you have done falcon. ' ' ' case. Generally speaking he dines at home. towerinjj in her pride of place. A A Exercise 58.' " Hail. joined attributively to the ' ' noun ' Morn. They were slain by order of the captain. of a certain act.' Considering is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb 'conThings is a noun in the objective used absolutely (§ 282).' ' ' ." Barring accidents. Smiling scornfully.. dressed in their fine clothes. was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed. The The ship was built rack. Being apprised of our approach. He bought a deferred annuity.' &c. in the second class wft get a statement of the results of the act. The ship was built of iron. one containing those in which the verb be and the perfect participle form a tense of the passive voice. Study § 214. I caught sight of the thief climbing in at the window. I plunged in. The troops were surprised by the enemy. Preliminary Lesson. and separate the following sentences into two groups. I am surprised that you do not see that.' used as an ordinary Qualitative Adjective. upon uneasy pallets stretching thee.' are related to each other in the sentence which would be ' complete answer. Parse the Participles in the following sentences : Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. t ' Did ' and hear may be parsed separately.' Exercise 57. Use of the verb Do. I was surprised by his behaviour.* the other containing those in which the participle is a mere qualitative adjective : upon the by contract. " Considering all thitigs. Accoutred as I was.

[In the first few sentences (s) is put after the subject and (o) after the object of the verb. Imperative Preliminary Lesson.204 . 'thou. . Take the answers them into the negative form. " Sentences. 'where governed by the preposition to or from. when it is an interrogative pronoun. and adverbs in the following Parse the verbs and the interrogative pronouns and sentences (§§ 152-154 270). in the possessive case depending on the noun 'pen. Go thou and do • likewise^ Go ' is Mood. or some adjective or adverb. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. to agree with its subject Parse whose as an interrogative pronoun of common gender. and after an interrogative adverb and the word that it modifies and (.' u. — Study § 191.' • an intransitive verb in the Active Voice. and then XXXII.) Will you meet me there to-morrow? Did the man go away? Have the boys hurt themselves? Are you happy? brother do that? turn Exercise 60.u t Mind that an interrogative adverb modifies either the verb of the sentence in which it ' ' occurs. Exercise 61. Exercise 59.] . Give the complete sentences which are answers to the following questions. and then parse all the words in each : Have you any money? Did your Did you say so? Does your sister sing well? Will your father return tomorrow? Shall you be afraid to go? (See | 210.a) is placed after those interrogative pronouns (or pronominal adjectives) which qualify the nouns that they precede. X In cases like this. should be taken as doing duty for an interrogative pronoun.' ' ' ' ' . Imperative Second Person Singular. called me ? What (<?) did you say ? Which («) way is the shortest ? What did you eat for supper? On what (rt) day do you set out? Where (3) do (i) do you hope for (i) ? (2) are you writing to (2) ? you live (3) ? (4) far (4) did you walk ? {s) Who What (0) Whom How ? Which boy made that noise ? What author do you did you see ? On what day are you waiting for ? do you set out? Where did you find that book? Whither are you going? Whose * pen is this? What happened yesterday ? What comes ? next like best Whom Whom What ails you? In which house does your uncle live? What poet's writings please you most ? On what day do you set out ? When f will you t come ? t did you do that ? How t many persons were present ? often do you write home? t do you say that ? How t soon will you come ? Where J are you going to ? Where J do you come from ? How How Why Write answers to all the questions in this exercise in turn these answers into the negative form. and the same numeral is placed after an interrogative pronoun and the preposition that governs it. full. to the preceding questions.

EXERCISES.
'

205
it

Do

'

is

subject
"

parsed in the same way, except that thou understood.
'
' '

agrees with a

Let

nie sec that''
'

'Let and
'

a transitive verb in the Active Voice, Imperative second person plural, to agree with its subject understood.*
is

Mood,
'

in the

you

'

See

is a transitive verb in the Active Voice, and in _the ' (simplej infinitive mood depending on (or governed by) the

verb

'

let.'

'Me
Let me go. Let him see
cautious in

'

is

in the objective case,
all

governed by

'

let.'

Exercise Q^. Parse Come hither,

the words in the following sentences

:

boys ?t Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. it. Let me be Let us be spared this annoyance. Let us pray. the business. Do be quiet, boys.

XXXIII. Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.
Preliminary Lesson.
"

— Study

§§

144

— 164.

He is iJian 'Who' is
a.

wJio

is

beloved by

everybody.''''

a Relative Pronoun, of the Masculine Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'man.' It is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb is beloved.' It joins the clause who is beloved by all to the noun man.'
'

'

'

'

" That

is

the lady luhose
is

husband you met yesterday."

'Whose'

a Relative Pronoun of the Feininine Gender in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'lady.' It is in the Possessive Case depending J on (or qualifying) the noun 'husband.' It joins the clause whose husband you mot yesterday to the noun lady.'
'
'

'

"//dvv

is

the matt
'

whom you
'

wished

to see."

Here
" }'ou
'

whom

is

in the objective case, the object of the

verb

'to see.'

have not brought mc the book that T asked you for." is a Relative Pronoun of the Neuter Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent book.' It is in the objective case, governed by the preposition for.' It joins the clause that I asked you for' to the noun book.'

That

'

'

'

'

'

You is always a fcraviiiintical plural. Parse 'boys as a Vocative, or Nominative of Address. If who.<;e be treated as the possessive case of a substantive pronoun, it must be parsed t like a noun in the possessive If whose be regarded as on a par Vkfith ttiy, our, his, &c., it must be dealt with as an adjective.
*
'
'

t

'

'

'

'

2o6

.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

The construction of a relative clause is word for word the same as that of the clause which results when a demonstrative pronoun, or the antecedent noun is substituted for the relative. Thus That I asked you for' is hke 'I asked you for it (or the book) ': 'Whose husband you met her husband yesterday.' y(?li met yesterday is lilce
' ' '

Exercise 63. Parse all the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, and test the construction by substituting demonstratives for the I'elatives as in the above examples
:

painted that picture here is the pen which I gave you ? I who am poorer than you are, am contented. Thou, who wast my friend and guide, hast forsaken me. You, who have done the damage, must repair it. We who are well ofl should pity and help the poor. He is a man whose appearance is j repossessing. The boys whose w oik is finished may go out to play. He that is down need fear no fall. I will show you the horse which I bought yesterday. The picture which pleased you so much was painted by my brother. You have not brought me the volume that He is the yery man that I was speaking oi. Their soriows' 1 asked for. shall be multiplied that hasten after another God. It is that that grie\es me. " Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, This that you tell me is incredible. which art my near'st and dearest enemy?" ''I am that very duke which was thrust from Milan." "Whosoever* hath, to him shall be given." " Eles.'-ed is he whosoever shal' not be offended in Me." He doth sin that doth belie the dead. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall I e showtd before the whole congregation. Thty are but faint-hearted whose courage fails in time of danger. He to-day that .sheds his blocd with me shall be my brother. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the dog if.ai worried the cat that killed the rat that ate lihe malt that lay in the house "that Jack built.'
is

The man whom you met
last year.
1'

my

died

never saw the

The artist who man whom you speak ol.
brother.

W

'

Exercise 64. The antecedent of the neuter relative which is often the fact stated in a previous sentence, or the (implied) gerund or infinitive which expresses that act or fact in an abstract manner, as, " The king's two sons are stolen away and fled, which (namely, the fact that the king's two sons are stolen away and fled) puts upon them suspicion of the deed." State clearly what ii'/z/V// stands lor in the following sentences
' ' ' '
:

promised to follow my advice, which was the best thing he could do. "And, studied hard all the morning, after which we went for a walk. which is more than all these boasts cnn be, I am beloved of Hcrmia." *' I see thee still, and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, which was not so " Thou didst smile, which raised in me an undergoing stomach (i.e. before." courage to otdurc).'"

He

We

Exercise 65.
omitted
in

Supply (and parse) the relative pronouns which are the following sentences (sec § 164).
that of the simple relatives.

• The parsing of these compound rel.itives does not differ from They should be described as compound, or indc/itiitc relatives.

EXERCISES.
Pay me the money you owe me.

207

You have not sent the goods I bought received the money I sent you ? That is the place I "I have a mind presages very man I was looking for. went to. me such thrift, that I should questionless be fortunate. " That is not the way Those are the very words he used. Is the task I set you finished yet ? I came. He is not the man I expected.
yesterday.

Have you You are the

Make
supplied.

a dozen sentences in

which a suppressed
'

relative

may be

Exercise 66. When which accompanies and qualifies a noun, it should be parsed as a Conjunctive Pronominal Adjective.' It then generally refers to the 'general sense of the last sentence, but has no Parse which in the special antecedent in place of which it stands. following sentences
' '
'

'

'

:

I may be detained longer than I expect, in which case do not wait for rne. hope you will stay till Tuesday, on which day I expect my brother. He made a humble confession, by which means he averted his lather's displeasure.
I

Exercise 67. Supply the antecedents which are understood in the following examples
:

Who
we
raise
I

steals

my

purse, steals trash.

"Who was

we

will

whom

dislike.

make fast. I may neither And whom he strikes, his

the thane, lives yet. clioose whom I would, nor refuse
cruel tushes slay.

Whom
said

Whoever

"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted." I That is not what 1 sent dread what * is coming. I hear what you are saying. you for. You are telling me what is incredible. I cannot consent to t what you ask. That is just what I cannot understand. You have not done what Have you found what you were looking for ? What astonished you promised. me most was his imprudence. What pleases you will please me.
that, told

a falsehood.

XXXIV.

Relative (or Conjunctive) Adverbs.

Prdiniinary Lesson.

— Study

§§

262

— 265.
that clause to the predicate

Conjunctive adverbs modify a verb, adjective, or adverb in the
clause which they introduce,

and Join

of the principal clause.
If a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition (§ 406) it joins its clause to the antecedent

noun.

Exercise
sentences
:

68.

Parse

the

conjunctive

adverbs

in

the

following

* Parse ' w/wi" as a neuter Relative Pronoun relating to a suppressed antecedent, whenever the sense of the sentence remains the same if that ivhich is substituted for 'tt'hut.' + Mind that this preposition does not govern what (which is the object of to ask '), but its suppressed antecedent that.'
'
'

'

'

'

'

2o8
I

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

was not at home when you called. I shall see you when I return. He This lay where he had fallen. I will follow you whithersoever you go. Co Tell me the reason why you left the room. is the house where I live. bought Show me the shop where you back to the place whence you came. him whenever 1 can. Wherever he lives, he will be happy. I go to see that.
still

Exercise 69.
Herein do

ceded by prepositions for the adverbial compounds.
thereof

In the following sentences substitute pronouns pre(See § 146.)

Thereon I pawn my credit. She dares not I exercise myself. 1 will hereupon confess I discovery. heart accords thereto. am in love. Present to her a handl.erchief, and bid her dry her weeping eyes therewith. Whereunto shall I liken this generation ? Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? You take from me the means whereby I live.

make

My

Exercise 70.
sentences
I
:

Make

the

reverse

change

in

the

following

long to

know

the truth of this at large.

Thy

food shall be withered roots

The earth is the Lord's and its and husks in which the acorn cradled. lulness. Take this chain, and bid my wife disburse the sum on the receipt
of it.

XXXV.
rrclivimary Lesson.

Conjunctions.
classification of

Conjunctions

(§§

285

— —

Study the definition and

295).

parse a conjunction state what Part of Speech it is, and of what class, and state what words or sentences it couples together. The pairs both— and,' either or,' and neither nor,' may be taken together and parsed as correlative and co-ordinative conjunctions, joining such Subordinative conjunctions usually and such words or sentences. join the clause which they introduce to the predicate of the principal The conjunction than joins its clause to the preceding clause. comparative adjective or adverb.
' '

To

'

'

'

Exercise

71.

Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences

:

He neither came nor sent an excuse. A. He is jioor, but he is contented. He went out quickly and slammed the door. He shot a hare and two rabbits. Both [ohn and Henry came to see me. I will both lay me down in peace and I can neither eat nor [can Either I am mistaken, or you are. [I will] sleep.
1] sleep.

He told me that he had no money. You I have heard that he said so. If I had seen him, I would have spoken to be inmished if you do that. He would not help me, though he knew that I was in need. Though hand join hand in hand, the wicked shall not be unjjunishcd. You will lose tlie Take heed lest you fall. He spoke loud that prize unless you work harder. My I might .hear him. I cannot give you' any money, for I have none. He is richer than his brother [is]. He comes brother is taller than you are. oftener than [lie] ever [came]. As that is the case, I will come.
B.
will

him.

I am afraid that he says that. He is man that I want. else { some. Subjunctive Mood. AH except John were present.. their money was spent. He has not smiled since his son died. He wasted his time in play . Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. He is contented. I lent you that book the very that you might read You ought clause is lost that book that I lent hint. Since you say so. left after the concert was over.) ^ it occurs in the Show me that picture.' Exercise 75. &c. you may as well stay. are prepositions. 145.. He did not say that. They stayed nntil the next day. it. consequently he lost the prize. I have no money. first 'as' is always de>itoitstraiivc. Do not go before I come.EXERCISES. ye shall all likewise perish. That book is mine. The Preliminary Lesson. Come 7uhen I call you. He says that we shall never succeed. because I told you that before. &c. the second conjunctive. They stayed in Paris until I will wait until you return. I . that he may deceive me. That is otherwise) I would give you true and also new. He is very rich nevertheless he is unhappy. There is nobody but me at home. I hear that he has ' to know that that t/iat '* Exercise 74. Pie walked before me. t When 'as' is used twice over correlatively. = XXXVI. 5. They that will be rich fall into temptation. N'ow you are here.00k at § 349. I will go no^d<. There is not a man here that I can trust. (Look at §§ 144. &c. He left soon after came. when followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case. Parse the word tliaf wherever following sentences. I believed. the word ' Make five or six sentences to illustrate each use of that. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. They will go away before night. He does that that he may vex me. You may go. from the relative or conjunctive adverbs. tlie P . but We We I will stay. Except ye repent. (§§ 192. that you see at the beginning of the a conjunction. is rich. have not eaten since yesterday.) — Mood * 1. but are conjunctions when followed by a clause containing a finite verb with its subject : — John arrived after his brother. but merely refer by their meaning to something that has gone before carefully distinguishing the conjunctions : — He came because I called him. 289. 430. 148. bearing in mind that words like before^ after. Nature and use of the Subjunctive 423. and tkeirfore lie is He is as t stingy as he never unhappy. Exercise 73. therefore have I spoken. I must believe it. 2og Exercise 72. since. and the latter from the adverbs which have no syntactical connecting force. Play me the tune that I like so much. He was sorry after he had said it.

could %\Vig psalms or anything.' 'would. He would have been " Had I had just finished when you came in. Except the Lord Peace be to his ashes. ha I heai-d \. He ivoid i I but died M\ hour before this chance. If he did that he If he has betrayed his trust. This herb may be met with almost everywhere. If he had heard the news. He .2IO • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. thing worse happen to you. it was a very did it. If yovL had sent for m% 1 woiild If you lucre generous. You might have won the prize if you had been possible that it was my fault). if angry after Exercise 73. it is possible that he was in the house.e. I would have done it if I had If this 'Mere true he would not deny it. not open the door when I knocked. You may keep the book. I will never forgive him.//. &c). Take care that dinner Live temperately that you may live {\ 423) long. \ That is. Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. use of a past form in relation to present ii/ne. If I had any If he zvere to swear to it. he had knozvn of it. The boys would not be quiet when I begged them to be so. It nmy be very strange {i.e. he kept it all to himself. it could not do it when he trieil. I luouldl were a weaver.. have come. build the house. Make ten sentences in which the if^ and ten in which the subjunctive is used.Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences.\\e news. carefully distinguishing the moods and noting whether the verb relates The to what is actual fact.e. and blister you all o'er. ' indicative is used • ' May. !>-en able. or of a past perfect. It follows the analogy of ought is indicative. Eiercise 78. He would have open:d the door if you had knocked. You should % ftot tell lies. He says that thnt he may vex mt. Oh that it were with me as in days that are money. when there is no reference to any other event. it is but it is quite true. He may\ liave been in the house." He tvoidd open the door if you knocked. He <:('///</ not be kinder if he were vay brother. they labour in vain that build it. or expresses one of the subjunctive ideas. • ' ' ' ' . He would not have kept it to himself. but He would be angry if he kne^v of it. desei-ves to be punished. and yet it should is peculiar. The old man might be seen daily sitting in the porch. more diligent. he would seriously displease me. he He could not do that if he tried. it is very strange). If he If he were to make such a reply it -would be very foolish. be ! A Exerciss 77. foolish one." It is past in form. it is possible that zDould have been in his power. is one of the marks of the Subjunctive Mood : — Wju in IV* go. Last winter However bad the weather roses might be found blooming at Christmas. not as auxiWary verbs See Seciion XXVIII. He would not tell me if 1 asked him. He came that he might beg money of me.' &c.. I would givi it to you. I haa lived a blessed time. I south-west blo7ii on ye. If he If he had done it. referring to present time. might be. he would take a walk every day. If that was his reply. yon zuould help me. and explain in each case why the subjunctive is used : Beware lest someready for me by two o'clock.. It may have been my fault {i. ]mst. in the indicative mood must be parsed as notional. X This use of and the other preterite-present verbs. I luould not believe it. I did not see him.'•/// have come U he had wished {i. he would have confessed it. merely to denote past time.

Parse the itaUcs the following He has gone to see liis au. You. at the end of the compound name. Preliminary Lesson. 211 XXXVII. It . an act which nearly cost him his life. to give a more complete of the it. XXXVIII.* in Exercise sentences : 79. the author of that report. Explain and parse the nouns : in italics in the fallowing examples The general made a vigorous onset on the left of the Hne. the I'ope's Ui^inte. are responsible. distinguish them carefully Exercise pronouns in : — • That is. and to what they are attached. that is. a vieiv which was supported by the summing-up of the judge. Pan- duir. — Nature and classification of Attributive (§§ Phrases that do the work of Adjectives. it is in apposition to and same number and words in case. a viamxuvre which distracted the enemy's attention from the main attack.it Jaiu-. 362 -364. He energetically declared that he knew nothing about the matter . " Pie attempted to ascend the mountain without a guide.el for the defendant argued that there was no case to go before a jury . My brother Robert is expected. his earliest friend. depending on ' ' 'dog.' . description Apposition. a denial for which I was not prepared.EXERCISES. I trod upon his corns. Exercise 80. often used to represent the fact stated in a previous senthen stands in a kind of apposition to the sentence. provided Dtle case is the nominative or objective. but the t>vo nouns are treated as a single cotnpoitnd name. adjuncts are attached to the same noun. person is or thing meant. Attributive Adjuncts. an accident for which I apologized. a — When in the noun is attached without a consaid to be junction to another noun or pronoun. Preliminary Lesson." is A noun tence.) Point out the attributive adjuncts of nouns and 81. The coun-. in the possessive case." my brother Willi. the following examples. came to England. summing up and repeating its import in a single noun which serves as the antecedent to a relative as.im's must be parsed as a compound proper noun. and the possessive inflexion is only put after the second of the two nouns. He has alienated even you. One noun in the possessive is never put in apposition to another. Adjuncts. Fetch your luide Johii's spectacles. and in each case state of what When two or more they consist. In such a phrase as " My brother William's dog.

verbs. You are to return I am to take you home." &c. constitutes an Adverbial Adjunct. In these examples a noun (or substantive pronoun) in the objective. Thus 'a. man soon reached the top of the mountain. (§§ — by modifying 370-— 372. Whose hat did you take ? I bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.' and ' white ' are adjuncts of the noun robe. The book is worth a guinea. It is [by] many degrees j colder. to see We me. That is This is the hour thatX (= at which) the reason tkat\ [=for which) I did it. Nature and classification of Adverbial Words and phrases which do the work of Adverbs. I saw a house to let further on.) Exercise 82. I am fond of reading.212 John's coat . a man walking * in the garden. His right to the property was disputed. cousin Henry died last week. His right to adopt that course was challenged. You be glad to hear the ne7vs. He is not a bill better (i.«£'/j' kind. across the park. State to what verb. I am none the worse. He is a little better to-day. lame. Preliminary Lesson. adjectives or other adverbs. without a preposition The A ' i before it. you go away? B.e. Give me now leave to leave thee. are iti fault. Madam Sylvia entreated me to call. The friends of the prisoner are very rich. IVhy did you Hcru) many persons were there ? find a truer friend ? Vou struck Tom mc with his fist. Adverbial Adjuncts. He obtained permission to go. He spoke eloquently. will : We quickly. . seedy.Vv good temper. Vou are to blame. He is [by] a great deal % worse. of tills itind may contain a noun which has adjuncts of its own att^ched to it. X He left the very day that X{— on 7vhich) I came. Do not talk fad. returned. brother is My A rattling storm came on. To save time let us walk I was given to tmdeistand that you had left town. borrowed William's big two-bladed knife. Go thctwayX (i. and f'ltrascs that attributive adjunct consists of the adjective or participle tixel Iter with nil the words are attached to it. Collect all the sentences in Exercise 48 which contain adverbial adjuncts. Leave of absence was refused him. He is in an ««/«/w. by muck) richer than I am. The prisoner's guilt is manifest. He came forth l)ound handX and/c?('/. He is worthy of your love. ' long. friend in need is a friend indeed. He is worthy of admiration. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Adjuncts. Where are i?x/ri?.e. by a hit) He \f.muchX (i. />y that -way). adjective or adverb the adverbial adjuncts in italics in the following sentences are respectively attached A.' t Select from Exercise st all the examples of the Gerundial Infinitive used adverbially. A clothed * We A A XXXIX. t were talking about your I shall brothtr.e. I have a great deal to say to you. Come started early.' ' clothed in a long white robe. Thus in the above sentences the attributive adjuncts are ' complex attributive adjunct walking in the garden. What X [== for wkat purpose) ntud \vt any further witness? Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that He came (= • in which) I loved it first. I see My Tom's pony is in a long white robe came up to me. fo-morro7V. Fearing to be caught in the rain. He will be none (= by nothing) the wiser. we This is no time for trifling.

I will pay you your account soon. Do not talk so fast." the words about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday constitute an adverbial adjunct to the verb 'were talking' while to your brother' and yesterday are adjuncts of the verb happened. My object having been attained. were all talking of tiie accident. be modified by adverbs as well as any other forms of the verb. roiitid. The cloth is worth a guinea a yard. Do wt' the favour of hearing Yl<i \s \\\ie his father. will be here to-night. The battle oz'er. In the case of the following complex adverbial point out to what the oitire group of words is attached. I cannot ride to-day. D. \>YOceeA. I They walked He advanced cap in hand. He was his bill. On reaching home we found that the rest had arrived before us. and then show what words are modified by the subordinate adjuncts which the entire group contains. am much We We We We Why . t I shall be glad to to these ra. than I am. quickly. We cannot live our lives over again. The horses being exhausted we covXd no\. The dead were refused burial. He accompanied us most of the way. " were talking about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday. I was asked hrgixen his past offences. He is not like his sister. Housing and saddle bloody red. What is the matter with you ? He is too ready to take offence. He prayed for a displeased with your conduct. rained every The wall isjifty feet high. To reign is worth ambition. Lord Marmion's steed rushed by. I am content to be silent. Pass nie the salt. You are spending your time to no purpose. E.EXERCISES. this question. I shall went to the theatre last nig/tt. He was promised a rocking-horse. are glad to see you. Six frozen 'cuinters spent. I am satisfied. did you say that ? \N here were you on duty last night ? He comes here every day." adjuncts. ^^'c 213 d<jy. . F. and to what verb. sentences state of what they consist. He was paid Point out the adverbial adjuncts in the following Exercise 83. C. " Bloodshot The his eye. I have fought a good fght. We were told our faults. There is a church a mile distant from the town. He approached me dagger in hand. had nothing to do. It day last week. I They speedy deliverance. live in constant fear. ' ' ' ' ' ' We * \ Come more Add Gerunds started very early. Thus in.* The rest must perish. adjective or adverb they are attached :— . He built a wall ten feet thick.iy examples all those in Exercise iq which contain an Indirect Object. He is a year older They arrived yesterday. Wait a bit. I am fond of riding on horseback. It rained all see your brother next 'ucck.' 84:. You are to come home directly. the troops withdrew. My pony being lame. gave the Iwy a book on his birthday. return with welcome home from banishment. He spoke unusually well. first Exercise We . what I have to say. He slept an untroubled sltep. I will paint jjv« a picture. loose rein dangling from his head. their great leader slain. his nostrils spread. This flower blooms all the year barefoot. I am not disposed to sell the horse.

In the following examples show which of the phrases of a preposition and a noun do the work of an adjective (see § 362. are adverbial adjuncts and show to what word each is attached. except those in the absolute construction. I must express my displeasure at your befond of the pastime of angling. He is too feeble to make adhered to his determination to make the attempt. i. A man addicted to self-indulgence will not rise to He is fond of angling.e. made up . He gave hnii his best wine to drink. What is my duty to my neighbour? He is useless. I cannot walk a step farther. What is called the Cognate Object is really one kind of adverbial objective. Make a dozen sentences in which a^ preposition followed by a noun or pronoun forms an attributive adjunct. and a dozen in which it forms an adverbial adjunct. He accomplished the task tries are very great. Every evening next week is engaged. I am fond hear of your safe arrival. I am greatness. which must (now) be parsed as being in the nominative absolute. by unflagging industry. He escaped by leaping over the ditch. carefully distinguishing the adverbial objective from the other uses of that case : pay you next ivtrk. of Adverbial Adjuncts. fuss What is the use of all this shot a great quantity of game on the moor. in adverbial phrases. the attempt. He Exercise 86. The master praised the boy at the top of the class. are attributive adjuncts. Most days are joyless to me. He spends every other day in London. We shall spend next tveck in London. arc engaged wc have a rubber. Parsing Exercise 87. about the matter? I am delighted to see you in good health. I see him most days. He did nothing towards helping me out of my difficulties.2 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR.) Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. That is a good stream for angling. must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective Case (i. We were The advantages of travelling in foreign counvexed by his rudeness to you. Do your duty to him. 2\ that is. He spends have lost half sat up half the night. the window. Papa goes to London every (fay. the half of every day in bed. I will We We We . You should do your best to repair your fault by working harder. on horseback. We arrived an He was in too much haste to hour too late. Reliance on his promises behaviour of this kind. the Objective Case used adverbially). Nouns occurring and not go- verned by prepositions. haviour. He is a man of great industry. I am looking at the man standing with his t)ack to of going to the theatre. The place abounds in good Do you see that man on horseback? He has given up riding water to drink.. mind what he was about. You have displeased me l)y your behaviour.e. 4). He shouted to the boys at the top of his voice. Every cvfuiug the day. XL. (See §§ 370— 372. He is not prone to We rely on your promise. and which do the work of an adverb (see § 370. Exercise 85.

They gave us trouble enough. and what did you do What need we any further witness ? What shall we next ? I am not 7vell. I will both lay me down in peace and sleep heard it. It is usually an adverb ' Some' had better be taken as an namely twenty. Well. we started. Parse "but 'in the last sentence. He needs strict oversight.' or 'otherwise. He knows something about it. Either road is difficult. Exercise 89. I feel soniewhat indisposed. Be 'iVell assured of that. tences Parse the words in italics in the following sen- :— He will have the expense besides all the trouble. He sat up all night. I have not tnuch time. There were a dozen men there. I have not told you one //rtZ/'of what was said. Nothing can or shall content It is an ez'en chance. I have somrwhat to say unto thee. need in this business ? What ! Did you not get my letter ? He wants to know the 7. Do comes next ? He has lost his We _what you please. but Some here is not an adverb. Parse the following sentences. Why! he is as rich as Croe. 2 . He lived ten years there. What shall we do next? He sat next meat dinner. All is lost. have only four shillings left. I have nobody else to look to. but that he fears me less. We have other things to attend to. Others may believe it. He will have the expense and the trouble besides. He bought three score sheep {\\ 362.vky and the loherefore of everything. 55 . He I am mueh pleased with you. The rest must perish. Less . 471). t We have not enough to eat. ' It means it is X II ' • Enough may be a substantive. It is not that he loves me more. You are sent for. He takes the medicine every three hours {\\ 173. It was built some % ten years ago. Give him more air. You must go. but I cannot. He need not be afraid. We have wasted half the day. ' either 'besides. He would liave said fno7-e if I had not stopped him. else"^ he would not look so mysterious. I would do it but that I am forbidden.sus. He knows most about the matter. He even insulted me to my face. every evening next the ' 215 iveek.EXERCISES. these sayings. He spoke to all but me. You must spend less money. Come this way. He must needs pass through Samaria He told me much of what liad happened. There is no one /'«/ pities him. left iiixt ([ay. 54). Intt you will never bend him. He is all powerful at court. It came to pass about an eight days after. I never drink either beer or wine. All save one perished.e. sir. I am //'?// inclined to believe it. Both brothers were All those present present. They sent for you. There was but a minute to spare. for you are sent for.' never an adjective. a certain number of mei:' . their great leader slain. Lead I cannot count the times I have told him that twenty times. Both John and I were present. only be quick about it.than that would have been enough. my soul till I am ezh-nd with him. We went over dry fooi. ' Exercise 88. paying special attention to the constructions that are not obviously consistent with the rules: The multitude were of one mind (§ 376). that I have told him that. His needs will be well supplied. Some men (i. Who only son. They have bread enough and to spare. You may break him. I do not believe cither's account of the matter. The battle was fought on this || * Else + ' is always a mere adverb.' adjective. 2). Some twenty persons were present. wavThe horses having been harnessed. He lived a hundred years (§ 362.

A The play. ran away at full speed. The construction wiirsometimes be clearer in the priinary division.'"' may be put first. and see § 2S1.ssuming the function Compare the following sentences. The I loved it first' (/(/. Does your uncle the doctor know of this? Went not my spirit with thee ? Wlience did the author of that book get his materials ? Who in the world told you that? Why did you send the poor man away ? How many shillings have you in your purse ? • There is no occasion to supply ' of. The i'oys came home child has hurt himself. Preliminary Lesson. Macb.' have an adverbial phrase a.' P7-cd. 3. f all on board the ship. Leave the room I must see him. tired with intends to sell it.2l6 . riseth from a feast with that keen. When will return to town ? Stibj. The owner of that estate fJismayed at the prospect they beat a retreat.it. I. is I an adverbial adjunct. He passed six months aboard the ship. last night. logical Subject and Predicate. " When will your brother return to town. Divide the following sentences and the logical predicate : into the logical This naughty child has torn his clothes. divided.' it had better come first . ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES. exercises may be taken for practice in parsing as well as S The examples in the following ' ' We ' ' ' m analysis.i If the subject be the interrogative ' who. Questions may be divided in a similar inanner. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The John's parents have sent him to school. and must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective. of a preposition that by the whole of what it stands (or. Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that % down {S/iaksp. My little brother has fallen ilown. Simple Sentences. The horse. The passengers are side* the river. Your brother. Full many a flower is born to blush miseen. The children. and the grammatical — Subject and Predicate.).). appetite that J he sits this instant. came indoors. subject. between the Difference Nature of a siinple sentence. friends of that little boy have sent him to sea. and that quickly. .' being here the representative of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition. II ' ' ' Divide the following sentences in a similar way . king with the Lords and Commons form the legislature {\ 377)' Who ' XLI. terrified rich old uncle has left him a large estate in Yorkshire. + To jiarse quickly replace 'I'h. if the predicate be Thus. Exercise § 90. by the lightning.

" 'Therefore' is not aeonjunction. most unfau' manner been deprived of his rights. (the (My (The) house (on the other side of disgrace of our statute book) was repealed. though the same notion o{ because clings to the expression. 217 Exercise 91. The component parts of a compound tense are often separated by the intrusion of adverbial adjuncts." We We We shall soon reach our destination.o my desk) has been (Despairing t of success) ke picked. entered the yard. dependent sentence beginning with a demonstrative often occurs where the sense implies grammatical connection. in grammatical subject is enlarged (see what the enlargement consists. I have been all the morning trying to make out this problem. 'lake the following sentences and put with the subject in each the ivhole of tlie verb that belongs to it. He is of all enchantingly beloved. without the other words. simple means He has in the Exercise 92. Take the following sentences logical subject in each into the in the way shown in § 490. (This) law. (Disgusted t by so many acts of baseness) (the man's) friends (all) deserted hhn. yet spake. Thus from " ha\e already heard the news. The field is already being reaped. So in Milton. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . barn (The) (impudent) fellow (not being satisfied with my alms) began to abuse me. ''His meek aspect. I shall most likely hear from you lo-morrow. poor little brother's) (pet) bird was shot. silent. Make (or find) dozen sentences § 388). because he despaired of success. You will by these very stop his proceedings. gusted.' but grammatically it is nothing more than an adjective.' 'Afraid of being betrayed into an ambuscade. (The) (Chubb's) (patent) lock \\. The work will very proliahly be finished before night.' or any confusion between participles and verbal nouns.EXERCISES. abandoned the undertaking. meaning for that reason. * and separate the grammatical subject and its adjuncts (My) (poor) (little) brother has hurt himself. (Good) water (for drinking) was scarce. titere/otc have I spoken.' and because they were disAdjectives may be used in the same way. The handle of the pump in the yard is broken. but a demonstrative adverb. John's account of the affair alarmed me. the leader halted. and state in which the each case of ' In the first few sentences the words or groups of words forming separate adjuncts are enclosed in brackets. as here. the street) is on fire. (My brother John's) pony (A) man (carrying a great sack of flour) came into the has broken his leg. We shall in due time know all about it. and yet they often involve an advcrhial force . Which boy knows his lessons? What poet's works please you most? What goods are most in A A demand ? What naughty little boy broke the window a ? Exercise 93."' take " have heard.' So participles and participial phrases are (grammatically speaking) attributiz'c adjuncts . In analysis and ^aisxu^ grammatical /'or}n is the The point in question has nothing to do with any servile imitation of Latin essential thing Grammar. I had at last with infinite trouble surmounted the difficulty. an int The grammaticalfonit of a sentence often lags behind its logical hiifort. as '' I believed.' Grammatically you can make nothing of afraid but an adjective. died at their posts. The brave soldiers of the garrison The old church has fallen into ruins rich old uncle left him his property horseman. Thus. wrapped in a huge cloak." Here silent means although it was silent.

Exercise 94. To see the construction properly. The boys have been forbidden to enter the orchard. has a subject. 2. On the top of the in the road. 96.n follows the verb." i. cousin arrived last night.^ work ? Everybody admires John's little sister.you heard the news? Have those little boys finished their morning. T Observe th. t Contrast this Look at \ 370.^t this phrase does not show where the act of seeing touk place.e. Then take the sentences in the first group and set down separately the object of the verb in each. sentence with the next. 3. we left our companions How did you find your way ? He used a stick to support at the brid. the several adverbial adjuncts of the predicate in each. hill stinds a stone cross. and Exercise sentences Give the complete analysis of the following Every finite verb in a sentence John's account of the affair alarmed me. A large dog's bark was ^^ || * Mind that the subject very ohe. collect contiibutions. You say so to tease me. praised the boy at the top of the class. .' Object : Attributive account of the proceedings. We We Exercise 95. Veryll few men could have done that. To do this jiroperly requires time. 4. one consisting of those in which there is a grammatical object of the predicate verb.2lS ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Howl! well at the examination. I saw the occurrence That lazy boy did not go out of doors all the through a gap in the wall. He sent his hat round to rapidl)' turned round in the direction of the report. The man struck the poor little boy on The boys were rewarded for their diligence. give the complete ansiver to the question. Who spoke last ? Whom did you hear at church this morning? Hoping to find an easier road. He had the impudence to tell me to hold my tongue. Account. The master I saw a soldier on horseback. the other consisting of those in which there is not a grammatical object. My . He Have you read this author's last us a droll story about his brother. Considering his age he has done pretty his steps. Crying Latin exercises during my To act thus will displease his father. horse fell down the head. were strenuously advised to turn back. 'amusing'. duration.' : — — ' told were greatly amused by his story. and the several Thus John sent to us an amusing attributive adjuncts of the object. They shook the depths of the desert gloom with their hymns of holy chter._. much money will be enough for you? What foolish notion possesses you? A little girl's voice was heard in the garden. Separate the following sentences into two groups. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. § In questions the subject is often so placed as to break the predicate (when it is a compound form of the verb) into two parts. f I met some gipsies in my ramble. write down : Take the sentences in the last three exercises. Remember that 'how' is an adverb.-iko care in the analysis not to separate attributive words from the adverbial adjuncts that may be attached to them. 'of the proadjuncts of Object: ceedings. did you see at the concert ? The girl is admired by everybody. C II I. Have. 'An'. will not help you out of the difficulty. Down came the rain. absence ? I desire nothing more ardently. My brother Henry told me J that. Thus ended a war * of ten years' My We Whom This ended that most unpleasant business.

We had a purpose to be his purveyor. 'Ago' is a shortened form of 'agone. He found his brother We have bought a pretty little calf a month old.' The dead were refused burial (§ 372). Here shall be done a deed of dreadful return interrupted our game note. — Nature (§§ Incomplete Predication 391 i§§ — 396). heard in the distance 219 The tall lady's An empty bird's silk nest was found. where they are wanted.}: man talks! Which [horse] of these horses is to be sold? He eats his food like § a hog. said. What more do you wrath may find some wor^e way to our destruction. Men found. and objects. your spirits wildly peep. X Look. led astray by temptation. predicates. Horse threw. desire? Whom did you find walkiuij in the ijaiden? Whose umbrella did you take? Whose exercise has the fewest faults? The poor man's wife died He fell liead foremost into the ri\er. Conceit. Theie by Duncan. subjects Exercise 93. a melancholy band.ike ? Hero man had better be taken as the direct object.ittributive and adverbial. Ship carries. is here an adverb. Man struck. " Take thee * stei^. and construction of Verbs of Moile of analysing sen- tences in which they occur * \ 493. I return you * my best thanks. Who ever experienced anything like kindness at his hands? Who but a fool would talk like that ? What have you done with the money? What arrant nonsense that foolish was torn. Boy lost.' you may make Men of weak character. and enlarging the subjects. with as many adjuncts. We arrived. originally formed a nominative (or Look at \ 370. Make a dozen other sentences and verbs of your own chooiing.' 'Teach erring man|| to spurn the rage of gain. " This He died a happy death. ' !Ex:sr3ise 97. in weakest bodies. Loaf was bought. Give me* a cup of tea. of scusj as 'train' or 'instruct-' ' ' ' II ' ' teach'' having Lhc same kind . Children went. . his silver skin laced with his golden Vjlood. against the owl. strongest works. her young ones in her nest. 4. thy statutes. The Downward poor wren will fight. Prcliininary Lesson. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. he sat. as you can. His lying fast asleep. Thus. came. Take the following pairs of subjects and verbs and btild up sentences by putting in objects. XLII. Teach me He was taught Greek (§ 372) by his uncle. Forth at your eyes. that too I told you* all that an Jiour agot. at § 371. dress My cousin's were sold by auction. the words in Exercises 94 and 96. They advanced step by last nigh'. they move. Some ladies' dresses .' ' ' Birds Sister build.' The phrase objective) absolute. 498 — 500).EXERCISES. I. Parse all in a similar way with Exercise 99. from Men rob. soinetimes rob their unsuspecting friends shamefully. Brother left.

take the same case after them as before them.' ' an action. They entered laughing. Parse the preceding sentences.B.' {iV. the continuance. tive Exercise 100. to be is a verb of complete predication. He became my friend. When the state that is the result of the action is denoted. I think him clever. This delay is trying to our patience. The poor man was starve 1 to death. He is going away. that when the brains were out. He is not thought a fool. The jury pronounced the consider him a fine player.' ' .' &c. Analyse the following sentences containing SubjecComplements of verbs of Incomplete Predication — : are honest. tive Exercise 103. I am in doubt about that. The We are the man would die. or (as it is sometimes called) the verb of exist jncc. sweet.' ' . That appears very plausible. He was called a fool for his pains.Kamples : Such things have been. The air feels keen. it is usually called an Auxiliary Verb.— An adverb or adverbial phrase is not a complement. § Exarcise 101. The boy was blamed for that. He is an honest man. the participle that follows is merely an adjective' of quality. They made Henry king. 395) : He painted the wall white. The verb to be is a verb of incomplete predication it is employed in making a compound tense of a verb in either the active or the passive voice. imprudent. He grew rich suddenly. The dog ran away howling. (See § 374. He was called an enthusiast by his friends. The wine tastes got quite tired. time has been. In accordance with 393 (which see) account for the case of the complement either by saying that the verbs be. deem this step very This measure rendered the plot abortive.) tion of ' Point out carefully the various uses of the verb in the following e. The boys rushed shouting into the playground. He sat twiddling his thumbs. ready. He stood silent (see § 391). He became very rich in a short time. When it is not accompanied by a complement of some sort. or the comple- when ' . I pronounce the wine We We .) ' ' Exercise 102. He is named John. You have made your hands dirty.' But when used to form a tense of another verb.. He felt tired. They We you in this. She looks very pretty. The children are half starved. Where are you ? Where have you been all the morning ? is He in the parlour. The poor soldier is badly wounded. He called the man a liar. The prisoner was pronounced guilty of homicide. In such cases the compound form denotes the performance. prisoner guilty. He cfjnsidcrs this course expedient. I am trying to do it. He made us all merrj'. Analyse the following sentences containing ObjecComplements of verbs of incomplete predications {^ 391. as He is going I was saying He is gone He was struck. I am sure of pleasing He is insane. He is my cousin's friend. He was wounded by an arrow.220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He is considered a pretty good player. I am deliglited to see you. We were delighted by the concert. or (better) by saying that the complement is in the predicative relation to the subject.' become. He was elected Emperor. He stood rubbing his eyes.

He spoke loud. The people wept sore. write well. 221 He made the bear dance. Indeed [ did not say so. have a good scolding. These secontive dary complements. It grieved me sore. Analyse the following sentences. (See § 493. Show where the complementary infinitive has itself a complement. Exercise 103. as well as the primary ones. They besought us to come to their help. I forbid you to touch that. He bade the man wait. You might have found an easier way. That He was ordered to sit down. are in the predicative Do not confound the object of a verb with relation to the subject. They may take the money return shortly. He told the man to wait He asked me to come. its complement. Analyse the following sentences. That cannot be allowed. This kind of life to was considered He is believed to be mad. carefully distinguishing those cases in which a verb is followed by a complejiicnt from those in which it is followed by an adverbial adjimct. You ought to be more cautious.) They can haste. In sentences like '• How am I to do it ?" •' You are to be quiet. His voice sounded feebly. I We must make must go home. That looks pretty. Exercise 104. are supposed to have lost their way. I canThey . was bidden to stand aside. He is believed to have perished. The stones have made my lect * In parsing an infinitive mood of this sort it must be described as the complement of the verb of incomplete predication. I will depart. t In many of these constructions. He directed the man to wait. He has travelled far and wide. shall You can be rewarded. or to its complement. They have not made the street wide enougii. will They may be answered. He ought not to do this. He is not to be endured. They invited us to come.the condition of that which is spoken about. this gerundial infinitive is scarcely distinguishable from an adverbial adjunct expressing purpose. and in the attributive relation to the noun which is the object of the verb.EXERCISES. His voice sounded feeljle. Exercise 107." the infinitive is certainly adverbial. in which the subjeccomplement is a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 394). See whether the word in question denotes. . Exercise 105. Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests. They urged us to come. I We sing. He instructed the man to wait.-hall not hear you. He ordered the man to wait. The bell sounded cracked. They He is thought to have poisoned the man. step be very imprudent.^ (See § 396. Nothing could be more unfortunate. excellent. That may perhaps be true. He set Let us pray. * He made his horse canter. He ought to pay me.) Show carefully whether adverbial adjuncts are to be attached to the verb cf incomplete predication. complements are in reality in the Objective Relation to the verbs of incomplete J These predication. Parse the preceding sentences. The cry sounded clear and shrill. or the manner in which an action is done. I do so long to see him. the audience laughing. Analyse the following sentences containing Infinitive Complements.

' and represented provisionally by 'it.<Sed as the (real) subject of chaunced. Complex Sentences. feltt the air fan my cheek. as it is often termed) is the subject. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. ' * These objective complements distinction infinitive phrases are often scarcely distinguishable from infinitive moods but it will be seen on consideration that there is the £. Substantive Clauses.222 sore. Her voice clear. We wishf you to come to-morrow. I expectedt the travellers to be here by this fault ? being in The duke will time. The bird sang The ship passed clear of the rock. The trees whispered soft and low. The whisper came soft sounds clear. being either pronouns or adverbs. Complex Objective Phrases. Analyse the substantive clauses separately.1 preposition. heard the man say so. &. and low to our ears. face sore. but that interrogative words do. Analyse the following sentences containing ob- jective infinitive phrases — He heardt the wind roar through the I saw the thief try to pick a gentleman's pocket. It is too late forj the was too difficult forij: him to hope to succeed. between ' He made used as kind of the child cry ' ' between ' He made the rpan angry and ' He and He saw the child fall. late. remembering that the conjunction that does not enter into the structure of the clause which it introduces.' In that case the analysis of the sentence will of course be different.c. He rubbed his face hard. The water is frozen hard. In the example given in § 547 it is quite possible that we ought to regard 'this proud Sarazin to meete me as an infinitive phrase of the same kind u. ' ' . t Here llu Infinitive phrase is governed by . Exercise 109. ' In constructions of this sort the verb in the infinitive mood may be parsed as being the verb in an objective infinitive phrase. [people] say that he is very rich.* Preliminary Lesson. — Study : § 397. The whole of the following phrase is the object of it. The task go to Ireland. I believet the man to be innocent. and place after it the substantive clause as the real subject. XLIV. The wind sits fair forj news to travellers to arrive to-night. They came XLIII. In the following sentences a substantive clause (or noun-sentence. Preliminary Lesson. I liket a knave to meet with his deserts. He rubbed his This delay will make us late. set it down as such. When 'it' is employed as a temporary. See note on § 395. I have heard Have you ever known+ the man confess trees. clauses (§§ — Nature. or provisional subject. I I never grant this forfeiture to hold. The water runs clear. and structure of substantive 401—405)." that there is found the man dead.amc . form. Exercise 108. + Notice that the meaning of this verb is quite complete in itself. Analyse the bcntences in the mode indicated in § 515. having the preceding noun or pronoun in the objective case as its subject.

It does not matter what he It is uncertain how long I shall stay. it to be a disgrace that he had so utterly failed. It is very probable ihat he will not arrive not true that he said so. or of a phrase equivalent to a would come. it Anon methought he went away JNlethinks he hath no drowning mark upon billows spoke. Tell him I cannot see him to-day. t The introductory conjunction that' is often omitted. remembering that you have not got a complete substantive clause. Who How long I shall stay here is uncertain. I thought it J strange that he should leave without calling on me. Advise if§ this be worth attempting. How I found the matter out is no concern of yours. note. See § 403 and § 244. with all the adjuncts that may be attached to either of these. day that I saw him. ' ' . draw a Une * under the entire set of words which form the substantive clause." § ' If has here the force of whether*. first analyse the sentence without the substantive clause. it is Thence that I to your assistance do It is how rich he is ? a question how far make love. like a nominative iS 404). 223 Before analysing the sentences in this and the succeeding Exercises.) That he did the deed is quite certain. Smith? you are. I want to know when this old happened. He is confident that are resolved that that shall not occur again. and then the subject substitute that clause for the it. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. ' The that this It often does duty as a temporary or provisional object. What does it signify he was justified in that proceeding. It is uncertain what the result will be. I know that handwriting. or comes after a preposition participle. Analyse the following sentences in which a substantive clause is in apposition to a noun. I heard that he had arrived. can have told you that. I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night.EXERCISES. I am hopeful that he will soon get better. stantive clause transitive verb I is : Analyse the following sentences in which a sub" the object of a verb. What we are to do next is the question. or is used absolutely with a absolute : you say so is enough for me. Methought the ? It was only yester- Methinkst move. The circumstance that he was present must not be disregarded. puzzles me. That he said so is undeniable. ' ' . or noun-sentence. (See § 512. How completely you are What signifies what weather we have ? mistaken can easily be shown. that he knew We Exercise 111. unless it has a subject and a finite verb. Tell me what you think of all this. He made it a condition that I should become security for the payment. He told me he knew all about the matter. He felt Try how far you can jump. The idea that I can comply with his request fact that * To those who are acquainted with my larger grammar I need hardly observe mode of marking sentences has not been borrowed from the later works of others. I tliink I have Tell me who told you. It is to-day. Deal with it as in the case of t that is. thinks. Tell me how the honour of addressing Mr. the wood began to him. What his capacity is signifies nothing. I shall succeed. Was on Tuesday that Exercise 110. Try if you can decipher that letter.

I am certain that he never said so.e. we shall know what to do. He is desirous that I should return. lie did this to the end that lie ni^^h. That is a proof that he knows nothing about the matter.dertook the business in the expectation that he would help me. There was a rumour that the army had been defeated. not because they are predicative words. He could not get rid of the idea that I was his enemy.. % I <im sorry that you are not well.' of wine.' ' Analyse the following sentences I : is abating.i2 4 is alisurJ. I convinced him that he was mistaken. We are disappointed that you have Exercise 113. I will undertake the business. We welcomed these indications that spring was near. in which an inaccompanied by an interrogative word supplies the place of a substantive clause beginning with an interrogative finitive : Note the omission of ' that. There is no fear that he will fail. bring him with you. 'on the condition that it please my lord to quit the fine. That depends upon how you did it.' + ' ' ' * ' I drank a pint or so his is brother. Nouns that do this may have a substantive clause after them. t 'I'hat is. \ We are glad that you have come at last. Oh yet I do repent me of my fury that I did kill them.. I would not believe the story but that you avouch it. in which the SubClause forms an Adverbial Adjunct to a verb or adjective (like the Latin accusative of limitatioti. but because they denote a tt'ansitive action. can want the thought how monstrous it was for Malcolm and for Donalbain to kill their gracious father ? He sent me word that he would come anon. go on without me. I Ui. it may have a substantive clause in apposition to it. regard) that dinner time. Provided that he consents. Who ! The word so is only a substantive demonstrative pronoun t used adverbially. I must advance the colours of my love.' The ' . Being essentially a substantive. ' I convinced him 7vtt/t respect to tliis point. For that I love your daughter.' Is he a captain? He is sfl 'He is a fool. In case I am not there.t'. nothing me a something dear to thee. He has obtained my consent that he should go to college. Analyse the following sentences.' It is often used without any adverbial force.ivlnce me. or closer definition). Analyse the following sentences ' ' : (= on the condition) that you are back by " For nothing hold me so it please thee hold {i. or as regards this. see no sign that the fever stantive Analyse the following sentences. ? 165) often has a pronominal force." You may go where you like so ' ) Exercise 112. I hate him for he is a Christian. not brought your brother. as in I told you so. which may be described as an objective adjunct to the noun. ENGLISH GRAMMAR." § That is I am sorry on this account. co. I am persuaded that that is the wiser course. Provided this report be confirmed. In case* you should see him. but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money gratis. I came on the chance that I might find you at home." "So please my lord {i. I am content. Transitive verbs govern an object. and so strengthened form 'as' (also. Exercise 114.

Underline the adjective clauses in each of the following sentences. I am considering what I know not where to get food. then analyse the entire sentence. Thy food shall be husks wherein the acorn cradled.' and the quasi-relative ' as ' is . now wears his crown. Where to get puzzles nie. I have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love asj I was wont to have. The difficulty is how to get there. Ihrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just. You are welcome to my help. the gentleman to whom this park belongs ? Infected be the air whereon t they ride. • Remember that the Adjective Clause must contain a subject and a finite verb of its own.. the pressure of which nearly crushed him.EXERCISES. will soon find such peace wliich it is not in the power of the world to give. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul. and construction of Adjec- Clauses (§§ 406 Exercise 115. ' ' ' ' as it is is in the attributive relation to § The clause the complentent of the predicate in its own clause. He never knows when to go. Whereon (=: on which) forms an adverbial adjunct to ride.' It must be t See § 162. X See § 165.e. 116. after sunset fadeth in the west. XLV. What sad talk was that wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. 413). form. and lastly analyse the adjective clause separately* : serpent that did sting thy father's life. repose ') is labour which is not used for you. parsed as a compound adverb. Analyse the following sentences in which the Adjective Clauses have a Relative Adverb in place of a Relative Pronoun governed by a Preposition (§ 406). Make (or find) a dozen sentences containing adjective clauses in which the relative is expressed. 411. This cloth is not such [cloth] as I asked for.]. Thou speak'st to such a man that is no Vou fleering tell-tale. and a dozen in which it is omitted. The ' Exercise cise 61.Supply the relatives which are omitted in the sen- tences in Exercise 62. 225 do it is the difficulty. ' ' ' help. Exercise 118. I taught him how to do it. As' must be treated as equivalent to a relative pronoun. and then analyse them. such as§ it is. . Unto l)ad causes swear such creatures as+ men doubt. I know not how to thank you to How the money sufficiently. — Nature. Do you know I saw the captain in whose ship you will sail. He had many heavy burdens to bear. — Adjective Preliminary Lesson tive Clauses. to do next. The rest {i. Deal in a similar way with the sentences in Exer- Exercise 117. and then analyse the sentences. as. In me thou seest the twilight of such day. His behaviour is not such [Ijehaviour] as I like.

must not dictate to me what I am to do. is." clause 'which hand' is attached to this. when used as the equivalents of relative pronouns governed by prepositions. I cannot make out what you I do not understand what you are saying. in which the Adjective Clauses are attached to (and explain) the neuter demonstrative It pronouns it. Do you know the source whence he obtained this information? The fortress whither the defeated troops had fled was soon captured. It was the owl that shrieked.so.. is. Do what you can in this business. eitlier Exercise 121. have the same twofold use the adverbs.' a nominative absolute belonging to the adjective clause. Exercise 119." creature) that shrieked.' and analyse them. The reason why you cannot succeed is evident. " It (the person) " It (the — ' 'The handle towards my . Go. ' Exercise 123. Was that your brother who knocked at the door? Is that a scar that you have on your hand? It was a gun-shot that killed him. That is precisely what he ought to have done. He soon repented of what he had done. and then parse the sentences : Repeat what you have just said. Analyse the following sentences.' &c. Pray tell me what ails you. He knows well enough what he ought to do. clause.' and the pronominal adverbs 'when. Exercise 122. The word what sometimes introduces an adjective and sometimes an indirect question. carefully distinguishing the subtantive clauses from the adjective clauses. Is this I see before me. and find out what is the already. You matter. . You may supply the suppressed antecedents. or treat the clauses as Adjective Clauses used substantively (§ 408). was the owl. which is a substantive What is interrogative when it cannot be replaced by that which (§ 409). I will show you the shop where I bought these apples. I can remember the time when there were no houses here. You have only told me what I know I know what you said about me. was John who said so. ' ' clause. The pronouns 'who' and 'which.236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. having a relative force. was John. Make (or find) a dozen sentences illustrating each use of what. * t That That ' t Tlie adjective hand is who said .* ? Who that thus cried It is a dagger which j Analyse the sentences in Exercise 65. the handle towards my hand ? That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold. and tJiis. that. Return to the place whence you came. are saying. ' ' Analyse the following sentences. I'his is what he did.' 'where. Exercise 120. f was it the eye of cliildhood that fears a painted devil.

' as a relative. whom he visited frequently. May truly say. ivhithcr. That is why* I did it. what few vain marbles can. In parsing a sentence of this kind. in a similar Exercise 125. . Analyse the following sentences. when a loud clap of thunder warned us to quicken oiir steps. See where* he looks out of the window. j they fell I the sick and died. In London he made the acquaintance of my brother. Whom we raise we will make fast. When you durst do it. demonstrative pronoun were substituted for the relative (§ 413) ' . which madness would gambol from. I do they will arrive. forming an adverbial adjunct io/eli. 416). That is why* I am angry. modifying the verb 'see. Analyse the following sentences : 227 Find out who did that.* after execution. How. ' : — matter will re-word. Sic. and then analyse these \ clauses separately I will tell secret'l were a man. ivhere. never has an antecedent expressed. Exercise 128. Deal 63 and 65. ' Here lies an honest man.' to which a substantive clause beginning with 'that' was in apposition. The omission of that gave to while a conjunctive force. While he is here we * In the analysis supply an antecedent no'in. Next day they renewed the fight. while. not know when quarrel. treating the clauses containing a relative not as adjective clauses.Prdbninary Lesson. and structure of Adverbial 414—435). up a Exercise 124. I could not make out whom he was alluding to. I knew when* seven justices could not take I have seen when. &c. when I see you. have no such force. then you know that till you told me. That is howt he always treats me. form. S have here a nominative absolute.' § Remember that the conjimction or pronominal adverbs when. judgment hath repented o'er his doom.EXERCISES. have an adverbial construction in their own clavises. which he read.' By this tune we had traversed half the distance. you live. That is where* I live. but as independent sentences as though and with a. till. Tell me where Tell me why you are so angry. Clauses (§§ Adverbial Sentences. — Nattire.' ai)d joining the clause whei) I see you to the predicate ' wilj ' We ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' tejh' . but that the Conjunctions after. This modest stone. X Which is the object of denying. after the Adverbial Clauses. way with the sentences in Exercises XLVI.. which I denying. tjonoiirable ladies sought my love. Being shown into a grand apartment. Tell me where he is. I did not shall have no peace. first underlining you the Analyse (and parse) the following sentences. before. which lasted till the evening. 'when' should be described as a connective adverb. While has nothing to do with the relative pronoim. where we parted company. I delivered my letter. It is an old noun meaning 'time. We travelled together as far as Paris. Adverbial Clauses relating to Time (§ 1.

You may come whenever you 2. The§ higher you climb. Because Thou hast been my help. Whithersoever I went. I will forgive him. Exercise 128. the less I like him. He retired to his about that matter. Since you say so.' 11 The demonstrative 'so' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' 'tired. so glides he in the night from Venus' eye. He such a liar that nobody believes him. Ho\v|| far the substance of my praise doth wrong this a bright shadow. He came He toils hard that he may get rich.' Each modifies the adjective in its demonstrative. sot it will lie. Analyse and parse the following sentences As the tree falls.' the clause explaining the indefinite meaning of the. we had left plague [be] upon signifies asking. the second relative. He so It weak is stand. I'll charm there's not a soul to give you an answer? arrived after the air to give a sound while you peiform your antic round. the second modifies 'wider. The second (See § 420.adverbial adjuncts of will lie. Take heed ye fall am tired that I is am ready to drop.) The first modifies 'higher'.' as the tree falls are co-ordinate .' How ' is a relative or connective adverb modifying far. left the room as I 1 shall be gone before you are up. 3. the wider will be The longer I know him. the second demon§ Here the main clause is the second one.' the ' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of wider. A when He He entered. : I will follow you. I will dwell. Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause. Take I I called own room lest on him that I might tell him that he might study quietly. the more he wants. ' ' ' — _ clause. He is asj : avaricious as his brother is generous. because then it can do no harm.So' and the clause nrst ' The as ' is disclose' are co-ofdinate adverbial adjuncts of 'rose. When I am determined I always listen to The fool is happy that he knows no reason. more. As he lias begged my pardon. There. Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner and Degree (§ 418). and Consequence (§ 421—423). therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice.2 28 • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. for I do not know it. He is aware that I did not come. into temptation. as good as she is beautiful. He do not always write as we pronounce. the prospect. Purpose. He still Adverbial Clauses relating to Place (§ 417). How We 4. Exercise 127. I cannot tell you his age. me.* where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. the village preacher's modest mansion rose. The more he has. • 'There' and /he clause 'where ' + t . strative. he followed Seat yourselves wherever there is room.' and joining the adverbial clause (which is co-ordinate with so ') to the second far. Do as I tell you [to do]. I must believe it. please. that he cannot so dark tl>at we cannot see.' . Ex3rcise 129. Analyse and parse the following sentences : because I sent for him. She is star shooteth from the sk)-. is care that soil all be ready. What it. ' The first the' is relative. you go. when thieves cannot be true to one another. Wherever lay where he fell. Analyse and parse the following sentences Where thou dwellest. so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. always does as he promises [to do].

{St'e Exercise iii. if I had known If you call you will see him. XLVII. wliat he will [say] he will ne\ er convince me. \ Co!d is in reality the complement of the preJicite. An (=^ if ) I have not ballads made on you all. and afterwards analysing it separately. However great his abihties may be. him. if I escape hanging for killingt that rogue. me how (I)- old you were 2) J. let a So* 1 lose not honour in seeking to augment it. he cannot succeed without industry. 229 5." he construciinn in this and the following sentences is very peculiar. — Exercise 130.. I cu|i of sack be my poison. 1 would have finished the work had it been . Be he ne'er so vile. Complex Subordinate Clauses. Ex3rcis3 131. j I shall not believe him. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. Ihe construction is the same as if we had 'however cold I ' ' it is. Underline the clauses in the way shown in § 514 and in the first few sentences : He said i) he would return 2) the book when he had read ^ (i).' in apposition 'o the adverb 'so. _' when your (2) father died. Analyse the sentences. first treating the substantive clause as a whole. Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition.^ »_„^ Tell i) _ it. this day shall gentle his condition.. Hypothetical and Concessive Clauses (§§ 424 434. 4. says. 1 shall go out. J will do Whatever he may say. You will not succeed unless you try harder. Big as he is. for killing is not an adverbial aJjiuict of escape. Say [he] \\hat 1 have said. In the following sentences a substantive clause contains a subordinate clause within it. You will see him though 1 shall not [see him].' (\ 362. possible.) So has no adverbial relation to any word in the clause vhich it introduces. Had I kno\vn|| this I should have acted differently. and sung to filthy tunes..' but an attributive adjunct t Mind that ' ' ' ' ' of the verbal noun han:^in. I wish i) > (2) the l)oy (I) would finish the task 2) I set him. The lady's fortune must not go out one may find comfort in the money. Analyse the following sentences : — I would have called on you. Whenccsoever the money comes it is welcome. . Do [he] what he can [do]. Though unless you invite me. whatever one does [find] of the family Cold§ as it is. But ^' i) that my foot slipped 2) as I tui-ned the corner "^(^7""" ' * This construction consists of a substantive clause '[that] I lose not honour. he is rich he is not contented.' ' II If ' is omitted J 434.s construction with that of such a sentence as ' I believe whatever he J Aiialyse th. I will not come your address.' which is in reality a substantive pronoun used adverbially. Whatever may be the consequence.EXERCISES. he never pleases tiie man.s. shall be counselled I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this.). I am not afraid of in the wife. Do not confound tn. Were you my brother I could not do it for you.

„ ^ 1 he construction will be best the nominative case. I have . your friend found out where I live.s (2) 2) that does not mind when he is spoken to. tences. who bears a glass which shows me many more. A child i) : ^'^ . observed the air is delicate first. ' .' . Analyse the following sentences which contain complex adverbial clauses I wrote l) to him 1 will not leave i) till I know 2) that he is out of danger. I think he will soon retrieve his Who told I should like to know how misfortunes if he sets to work with good-will. should have Where (I). . There are men <" (. which I did should be answered. The construction is the same broken by I say.' seen by substimting the jenjonstrative ' ' . ^ they most breed and haunt. done what I told you I would do.230 I ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The right valiant Banquo walked the brains were out the man would die. make him swear to keep for ever. (2) I I should report that l) which — (I) (2) say 2) I saw. Analyse on similar principles the following senExercise 132. Fleance killed. (2) " My foolish rival i)" that her father likes (I) ii) 2) only for his possessions are so huge. Now methinksyou teach me how a beggar I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. won the race. whom you may say.t I I lived when I was in town has been pulled down.) i) who care 2) not what they say.(2) 2) delicate. The time has been that when able to answer those of which I make no secret. (2) •• is gone with her. Nor failed they to express how much they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. . would never have known. you that I built the house which you see? He fears that his But that I told him who did it. must be punished. is mistaken.' t 'What' is in :— 'they know [that] that nuist folJovv. The eighth too late. : (I) ( 2) ' In analysis put I have • This clause breaks up the continuity of the substantive clause. appears. he father will ask him where he has been. the subject of must.. They fear what J yet they know must I have secret reasons which I forbear to mention because you are not follow. The house where Iiave only Exercise 133.atl I saw it. The man i) who does the best 2) that he can [do] deserves praise. if it pleases you.=- observed* l) the air is . which contain complex adjective clauses The person i) who told 2) you that I said so.' t Observe that the substantive clause is as in: 'I say [th.

Contracted FriUmijmry Lessofi. are invaluable helpers. 551 fill — 556.) XLIX. Exercise 134. He seldom drinks wine because he finds that it disagrees with him. These present no new features. he had not they ought to act when they meet with obstacles. which in its turn contains a third : I was grieved when I bore among if his neighbours. whene'er I sleep or play. Test the accuracy of the following contracted sentences in the manner shown in analyse them separately 440 : then them up and You must either be quiet or [you must] leave the room. when] prosperous [things] of adverse [things] we can create. be much obliged (2) i) if you will repeat the story 2) (2) which you have just heard. 2) how anxious he was. . §§ 439. or [our purer essence. I will give you no more money till I see how you use what report. XLVIII. My day or night myself I make. Our purer essence then will overcome the noxious vapour of these raging fires. separately. It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who al. [will] not feel [the noxious vapour of these raging fires]. Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous when great things of small [things we can create. The two or more co-ordinate sentences which make up the compound sentence simply have to be analysed joins them. (0 He soon left the house when he heard that I was coming. with the (§ omission of the conjunction that 436. Sentences. It was so hot in the valley that we could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when we were higher up among the mists. — Study carefully § : 440. immediatelv because (i) 231 I shall I knew . Compound Sentences. each of which contains a subordinate clause containing a second. when] useful [things] of hurtful [things we can create. He yields neither t to force nor t to persuasion.use their gifts and powers. You will be punished if you do not come when you are called.EXERCISES. I have not decided whether I will go • Two or three are filled up by way of example. Men who see heard I clearly how you have. * Exercise 135. when we know we have so many real ones to encounter. portion of Hcither-^nar t Suppress the cciijutictive by substituting not—twt.] inured. Don't let us make imaginary evils. Analyse the following sentences. how he had obtained the character which he know that he would never have spread such a believed what your brother told him.

wealth [is good] as [lie would tell me] if I did not know that before. you pursue this course you will not injure me. which glory excites." " Who wickedly is wise or madly brave. Is but the more a fool. I have as good a right to the money As [matters stand] for me. which * who but feels can taste.) The boy played truant as [it is] usual. or he to Hecuba?" L. 01 t ^'vs he is [old] he is hale and hearty. He is a man in that degree\)X'XV^ in which degree brave a man ever lived. what pleasure I. have nothing to do with it.." urge. He is as brave a man as [a brave man] ever lived.] Exercise 136. but scarcely removes my suspicions. but + I will raise the down-trod ' • Which object of the verb ' taste ' to be repeated as the object of the verb ' know. I will as you [have a good right to th-^ money]. — Study §§ 443. consisting t 'J'he whole phrase." wine or beer? " Nor steel nor poison. and reason to restrain. but I can never forget his ingratitude to me. brandished by man that's of a woman born. As she sat in the old arm-chair she pondered with bitter grief over the past. first supplied the words that are understood. not now." you return come and tell me the news. The sense is — Leaving out the case that I will raise king (that is. He pursued.232 or not. foreign levy. and thought of the future with As the years went on. "Why should I play the contrive who need." " Two principles in human nature reign. king'). nor that a bad we call. I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon than He told me that wisdom is better than [I would soon be] such a Roman. I had rather die than [I would soon] endure such a disHe is better to-day than [he was well] yesterday. Unless you alter your conduct you will offend your friends and bring disgrace upon yourself. but you will ruin yourself. Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses. weapons laugh " What's Hecuba to to scorn. He was so kind as [a man would be kuul] to give me this book. It is better to die than [it is good] to live in such misery." " Freely they stood who stood. If ENGLISH GRAMMAR.iuse. He looked as [he would look] if he could kill me. t The logical intention of an attributive adjunct is often greater than its mere grammatical " (Although he is soj old as he is [old]. malice domestic. 557 — 564. I'll shed my ' ' . " Bad men boast their specious deeds on earth. scandals increased and multiplied. I'll shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust." him. He stood aside so as [a man would stand aside] to let me pass. That discovery relieves. He looks as stupid as an owl [looks stupid]." " See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow. . and fell who fell. (That is. He allowed no day to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud.." Roman fool. He grows worse and worse. in default of my raising . Analyse the following sentences. till he can fill up the ellipses when the elliptical sentences are dictated. having grace. or close ambition varnished "What praise could they receive. shuddering fear. ' : — ' ' : ' ' dtar lilooJ ' iS:c.." The full meaning here is force. " Wiles let them I may forgive. but could not overtake the retreating enemy. and die on mine own s^word ?" " Swords I smile at. [Let the pupil study and practise these. He is not so clever as his brother [is clever]. Would you rather drink but thinks can know. or when they need. of a preposition ('but') followed by a substantive cl. Pirlimbtary Lesson. the more a knave.' Feels' and 'thmks' are intransitive. in the way indicated in the first few examples. self-love to such obedience paid? " " Nor this a good. but I will— King is an adverbial adjunct of 'will shed'. from o'er with zeal. nothing can When touch him further.

As to what fool as to do that. say at what age a poet grows divine. . showing the construction of the real object ' to bestow. 233- An "Mortimer as high in the air as this unthankful king [is h'gh in the air]. I could find it* in my heart to bestow it all on your worship. What . It is not so bad to suffer misfortune as to deserve it. He died as one that had been studied in his death to throw away the dearest thing he owed (= owned). up the ellipses : Analyse the following sentences. He is fonder of play than of work. He is more agile than troublesome than ever.). If time improve our wit as well as wine. + ' ' ' : * Provis^ional object. The people of Paris are much fonder of strangers that have money than of those that have wit. The full phrase is such as the following "As I were a shepherdess. he is a little worse than a man and when he is worst. My pupil understood the art of guiding in money matters much better than I. About him all the sanctities of Heaven stcod thick as stars. He accompanied me as far as to the end of the street. I cannot assent to it. Wisdom is ofttimes nearer when we stoop than when we soar. How could you make such a blunder as t [you made] to suppose (/. When he is best. See § 165. If I were as tedious as a king [is tedious]. He is better to-day than yesterday. 3'ou tell me. They dreaded not more the adventure than his voice forjjidding. /.('. in supposing) I did it. but nf>t so strong. This is better than if we had lost everything. He spoke to me as if I were a He tliief. Take 'as as doing duty for a relative pronoun (= which blunder '). looked as if he could kill me. He was wiser than to risk his money in that undertaking. He has no redeeming qualities whatever [redeeming qualities there are]. I should be piped and sung to. Herein fortune shows herself more kind than is her custom For myself alone I would not be so ambitious as to wish myself much better. He procured a room as near the prison as could conveniently be found. Exsrcise 137. . he is little better than a beast. it passes belief. This construction is the counterpart (with a connective instead of a demonstrative adverb) i of the use of so' followed by a substantive clause to denote a condition or hypothesis (See Exercise 130). I never attend to such requests as that. He is as tall a man as ever I saw. Rev.. I should earn mere as a crossing-sweeper. I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. 'twere not as good a deed as [to] drink [is a good deed] to turn frue man and leave these rogues. l)e at all. He told me that wisdom was better than weahh as if I did not know that before. having first filled Rather than be less.' &c. I speak not as in absolute fear of you. Art thou not sensible to feeling as to sight. I am not such a As to your proposal. What [will happen] if I don't tell you? His wages as + [he is] a labourer amount to twenty shillings a week. How could you make such a blunder as to suppose I did it ? None could be found so bold as to oppose him. More is due than more than all can pay. he cared not to can be worse than to dwell here ? Present fears are le^s than horrible imaginings. but not so fond of play as of idleness. You are no Will you be so good as to lend me that knife ? worse off than your brother.EXERCISES. his brother. For none made sweeter melody than did the ]70or blind boy. eis a dairy-wench. He is as a great a rascal as ever lived My feet are as cold as a stone. I would dance at maypoles " {Ben ycnsott^ Cynth. as 'twere a careless trifle. With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sang of chaos and eternal night. IV. He recommended me as a person very fit for a travelling tutor. The boy is more He is no happier than before.

11. • I-ook carefully to see is t Supply 'those regions' (or something of that kind). The soul's Lets in 6. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the And all the air a solemn stillness holds. freighted clouds at anchor lie.* Save t where the beetle wheels his droning And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. 8. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid . light through chinks that time has made. .§ The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. The gallant The margin All alone tall king. Beneath those rugged elms. And putting in order his reel and his rod. % Take ' each — laid as a nominative absolute. all 2. adjunct modifying 'air. . he skirted still of that mighty hill. A man 5. night 3. by the side of the pool sat on a three-legged stool. solitary reign. The last two lines form an adverbial t Supply ' persons. rills. the west wind blows. Or waked to extasy the living lyre.Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed. 4. The 9. 10. From yonder ivy-mantled tower The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such X as. Here We The in cool grot and mossy cell rural fays and fairies dwell. sable mantle of the silent night Shut from the world the ever-joysome light. heap. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 7. Molest her ancient. new dark cottage. which the subject here. j I.' and take 'as as a ' ' relative pronoun (§ 164). Right sharp and quick the bells Rang out from Bristol town. battered and decayed. that yew-tree's shade. 12. Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. wand'ring near her secret bower. Kicking his heels on the dewy sod. His daily teachers had been woods and Love had he found Waiting till in huts where poor men lie. Lightly and brightly breaks away The morning from her mantle gray. flight. 14. sight. 13.234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

23. 22. sable goddess. He He that that down need fear no low no pride.).' and the whols lentence '[which] omitttd— m'series is a second adjective clause qualifying tide. Thou art not so unkind As man's ingratitude. t See § 529. leads on to fortune Omitted. There is a tide in the affairs of men Which. But that II To tell 25. We are not weak if we make a proper use of those means 26. May live to fight another day. 'for retiring. taken at the flood. at the foot of yonder nodding beech.e. 1 Sec § 5C0. it is now too late to from the contest is is {i. My 24. § See § 406. His Hstless length at noontide would he stretch. The Muse has broke the twilight gloom To cheer the shiv'ring native's dull abode. Although thy breath be rude. I am forbid the secrets of my prison house.' fall.' Then 'which omitted' is a nominative absolute.* all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul. from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To 27. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong. 20. If : 18. modifying the verb is bound. That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high. flaming. And pore upon the brook that babbles by. |' .t Thy tooth is not so keen. hour is almost come. 235 There. bottomless perdition. &c. He that fights and runs away.' See 5 524. Night. Our sport shall be to take what + they mistake. 15.EXERCISES. Where shaggy forms o'er ice-built mountains roam. When § I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself. blow. 17. Blow. Because thou art not seen. beyond the solar road. from her ebon throne In rayless majesty now stretches forth Her leaden sceptre o'er a prostrate world. 19. we were base enough retire to desire it. 21. In climes 16. ' ' ' • Supply 'which' before 'omitted.. thou winter wind. which the God of nature hath placed in our power.

. lost. that flattering unction to your soul. would [that] you had won the fleece that he hath 35. I in these veins.See § 370. Miss that which one unworthicr may • § ** See § 367. lets go by The important acting of your dread command. trespass. merely a complex substantive.t 36. 45. 43. indirections find directions out. How dangerous is it When sorrows come.* That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf. 38. save Heaven? Do you not come your tardy son to chide. they come not single spies. Thus do we of wisdom and of reach With windlasses and with assays of bias By 37. 33.§ who knows. and passion. That. am content so thou wilt have so. § 595. it 29. never to himself hath said. 39.'' || 41. evil that The men do h\es after them.t Their perfume take these again. it ii II See § 521. . 32. 40. When They I they do choose have the wisdom by their wit to freely lose. Sec § 403. quotation t I! _ Sec Sec § 434. Ran 34. blind Fortune leading me. Now. my native land'. o'er. 5. we should do when we would (§ 459). night descending. I freely told you [that] all the wealth [which] had lost. So may I. See § 520. 6. The great man down. Breathes there the man with soul so dead. J you mark his favourite flies The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. I 30. A is not a dependent clause. Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed. . But in battalions.236 28. that this 44. ^ { .''** attain. Lay not That^ not your 42. must I have the half of anything that impart this same paper brings you. 46. the proud scene was 31. That we would do. is The night long that never finds the day. man goes loose (see § 516). lapsed in time. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. When I did first my love to you. See § 563. Would'st thou not stir in this. but my madness speaks. Who 'This 47. is my own. How his audit stands.

fonning an adverbial adjimct to make. 60. she 58. . I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. And he repents not that he pays your debt. which I did make him swear to keep for ever. It truth.' Omit and entire clause ' that follows so. doth appear you are a worthy judge. is * ' ' ' How' and is here relative or conjunctive. 59. Blithe Flora from her couch upstarts.' . to the ' ' The ' so t an adverbial adjunct far' A hypothetical See § 397. You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. Whilst light and colours rise and fly Lives Newton's deathless memory (§ 551). How* If far the substance of it. it must appear that malice bears down 54. Their savage eyes§ turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music. learn to bear. Wild 62. shadow 53. nature's vigour working at the root. Repent t but you that you shall lose your friend. . will surely injure the reputation he designs to assist (§ 459)- 50. 237 Benighted wanderers the forest o'er Curse the saved candle and unopening door While the gaunt mastiff.' ' in the analysis. 48. These honours peace to happy Britain brings. (^= whether). 51. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. While from the purpling east departs The star that led the dawn. (§ 563).EXERCISES. surest virtues thus from passions shoot. in underprizing my praise doth wrong the so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. for that. For May is on the lawn. Affrisfhts the beggar whom he longs to eat. 61. 55. clause without if. ungrateful to the planter's care. 56. growling at the gate. Herein Fortune shows herself more kind than is her cus- tom 57. As fruits. this will not suffice. 52. 49 He that claims either for himself or for another the honours of perfection. if Your wnfe would give you little thanks were by to hear you make + the offer. ' How—it' is co-ordinate with X § Nominative absolute. On The savage stocks inserted.

Hypothetical clause without if modifying the verb ' ' breathes.' (2) admired. Adieu E'en take the counsel which I gave you Or.' Supply ' ' ' which ' before 'we used. Oh how welcome breathes the strain Wakening thoughts that long have slept. through all life When Losing unblest life that made / Should* some notes we In days of boyhood meet our ear.§ posterity will treat thy name . Fortune cannot change her mind. blind to wit and worth. Shall one whom|| Nature.relative that before I saw. Sigh.' A contracted compound Adjective Clause. Prepares a dreadful jest for all mankind. In my former days of bliss Her divine skill taught me this. rope. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. to 67. Thatt from everything I saw I could some invention draw . Who And • scorn [that] a lad should teach his father having once been wrong will be so still. do. raise pleasure to her height Through the meanest object's sight.' t § In apposition to 'thou.' Supply the.' 238 63.' this. dear. to fortune. That now she knows Vi^'hen X I 66.' why ' as an interjection. that future times may tell Thou 68. used to love ! Kindling former smiles again In fading eyes that long have wept 64.conspired to form to be conspired not to form to admire. ! we rove. ' skill. How sweet and fair [He] Who thinks that To Think how And buy a resemble her to thee she seems to be. learning. You'd think [that] no fools disgraced the former reign.' The adverbial clause when . And 65.thee ' modifies 'seems. birth conspired To form not to admire but be admired. and me.' TJ Talte •• Hypothetical clau&e without if.' t ' ' ' II ' ' ' ' . Did ** not some grave examples yet remain. Go. Weds the rich dulness of some son of earth ? If this advice appear the worst. better precepts if you can impart. Separate it into (i) 'Whom Nature Whom Nature . Why^ 70. mankind a shame. friends. After ' do ' supply impart better precepts. hast at least bestowed one penny well.' Substantive clause in apposition to Before 'raise' repeat that I could. while his Chloe.' the suppressed subject of the imperative 'think. ! 69 first . I'll follow them with all my heart. lovely rose Tell her that wastes her time .

ThatjJ when I aim at praise. The nightly hunter. You have 80 Wisdom Than Verily.' little use. 76. Who says in verse what others say in prose. oft-times nearer when when we soar. where Thou hast built For Thy own glory in the wilderness. 79. Up 'J']. Checking the finer spirits. Among these rocks and stones methinks I see More than the heedless impress that belongs To lonely nature's casual work. what had been ancient 72.* you may suppose.' clause in apposition to fate. when to defend single verse we quarrel with a friend. . to share his joyous sport. soldier. Cannot forget Thee here. ancient times conspired to disallow 71. is we stoop • In full t — 'You may suppose that the man ' ' That is \ A substantive is of the zeal of foals expressed in rhyme. when purposes are lightly changed? The appointed 78. lifting a bright eye towards the crescent moon.f Besides. in a grove I sate reclined. that may forget Thee in the crowd. that refuse To flow. methinks. "What then was new. with grateful heart Called on the lovely wanderer who bestowed That timely light. Untunes full oft the pleasures of the day. In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. a fate attends on all I write.' &c. But know we not that he who intermits task and duties of the day. 239 Had now ? use the man. 74. they say I bite. In sooth. Of little And.EXERCISES. I will My lips. The zeal of fools offends at any time. Then A I too we hurt ourselves. though no 73. useful to the State. But most of all the zeal of fools in rhyme. While heard a thousand blended notes. 75. Yet let me show a poet's of some weight. Yet praise Thee with impassioned voice. with love's familiar privilege decried the wealth that is your own.

walk (§^ 191. 26. Everybody has their faults (^ 175). I do not like those kind of things. 14. He is (§ not one of those 24). 19. 395). 13. He was one of the wisest men that has ever lived (J§ 447. Is 12. Every man and boy showed sound but order their their joy by clapping (§ their hands ($ I7S). who interferes in matters that do not concern him 29. giving reasons for each correction 1. 18. The The effluvia was disgusting intention of these persons are uncertain (§ 374). 30. (§ 376). Good own voices were heard and not mean savings produce (^ 374). 386). 7. (§ Six months' interest are due 374). 27. 5. 20. at 6. You did not ought to do that (§§ 184. Nor want nor cold his course delay many ways of dressing a 386). (J Let each esteem other better than themselves Lives of the Poets' are reprinting (§ 175). (^ 175). 16. In modern English two negatives destroy one another.240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Neither of them are better than they ought to be Our own John is conscience. "How No pale each worshipful and reverend guest Rise from a clergy or a city feast " (§ 175). This is the greatest error of the rest (§ 109). Neither John nor Henry were Either he or I are in fault ($ church (§ 386). who fancied what feared" (§ 464). 22. Having finished the chapter the volume was shut {^^ 351. 8. ! 15. Where was you all last night? ($ 374). 24. 11. 231). 3. 4. he older than her? 487). Are either of those pens yours? Johnson's ' 175). 28. is What sort of a man he ? all 31. What signifies promises without performance ? (^ 374). 17. constitute our respon- sibility (§ 374). Tiiere are 23. Correct the following sentences. FAULTY SENTENCES FOR CORRECTION. 2. calves' head. 374). 362). 10. 9. . 21. : You and me Let you and will take a I take a walk (§ 287). and not other men's opinions. a better writer than (J me (J 487). "'Twas Love's mistake. great profit (§ 374). it 32. (J 57). 25.

The peasantry wears 376). (§ A numerous party Shakspere is were assembled 376). 38. I forget (§ 484 ). 47. Nor {§ (J 44. Divide that cake 68. (§ Can you I can see neither 454). 69. whom nor avarice nor pleasure are in fault (§ move Not you but John 374). 33. Between you and he a great fool (§ 277). .2. 386). 36. I forget who (§ 487). Who He is do you think I met this morning ? (§ 366). 65. 39. Nothing but grave and serious studies delight him 374). come with him is 287). are put in the plural because they are father's many. 35. 37. (§ Parliament have been prorogued 376). 56. These kind of people are my abhorrence. What the use of you talking like that told me. 3). 34. He He is the most admired of the other dramatists {$ 109). A versifier and poet are two different things (§ 454). (§ He was angry is me asking him the question ? 484). 52. 53. all 49. 59. This injury has been done brother (§ me by my ($ friend. 109).EXERCISES. man whom I think deserves encouragement ({ man as him would never say that (§ 487). I heard that from 67. Call at Smith's the bookseller's My friend. (§ 41. 58. Who Men His can this letter be from? 61. has turned against m» a (§ 448. A hot and cold spring were found near each other love of drink is (§ 454). Somebody whom four. greater than any dramatist. He told John and I to I. 60. 40. (§ 54. 379). 63. 241 (§ Homer There as well as Virgil were studied on the oanks of the Rhine (J 386J. (§ 287). 66. 46. The of all other follies the most pernicious (§ 72). (§ wore a large and a very shabby hat see a red and white flag ? 454). I. I had treated like a brother. {§ 487). somebody or between you other. 50. is sometimes more than one auxiliary to a verb (J 374). There is nothing to show who that belongs to (§ 277). 43. 62. he whom I treated like 450. \Vhom do you a Such a think called on me yesterday ? (§ 379). 64. him whom 2). 386). 51. ij. 45. 57. The I fleet are under orders to blouses sail (§ 376). (^ have read the second and third chapter eye nor listening ear an object find 454). 55. and at his brother's lives were spared. 48.

(§ He The raved like one out of their mind Atlantic separates the Old and lies 464). wish to cultivate a further acquaintance with you. 78. A nation has no right to violate the treaties they have made (§ 464). 77. 386). They seemed to be nearly dressed alike. 1824. 81. 94. having said so enough me {§ 484). 97. New World 454). 75. 98. sings bettter than me it (§ 487). and even more so. as knowledge (440). exercise i. This is the greatest misfortune that ever has or could (§ 44°)95. 93.).242 70. A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture. You have weakened instead of strengthened your case ({ 278). I expected to have been at 105. It is I that he fears (^ 461). These flowers smell very sweetly 393). 92. He The did no more than fact of you was his duty to is have done. loi. to immediately succeed. me that say so (§461). Nobody gives so is much trouble as he does. {ii. I think I will be gone by the time you come 100. . He was hoped as rich or even richer than his father (J 440). 90. home when you it (§ called. 99. do not know who send {§ 366). (J She looked cold on her lover 393). 210). 80. Nobody She I in their senses would have done that (J 464). 79. died Sept. He is not only famous for his riches. have my aunt. my uncle. 82. 464). I would like to see him (J§ 209. When will we get there? He has not yet began his (§§ 209. 96. Here John Brown. 72. I cannot tell I I you how much to pains have been spent on him. 2io). 103. (§ 89. is ? 73. 102. (§ (§ 226). 88. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. ? do men declare him it to (§ (§ be (J 394). 85. I little thought was him 394). for 86. 5. 74. 76. He not only ought but shall do 440). but for his wisdom (§ 440). 84. born Jan. I 104. 91. 83. Sincerity as valuable. 87. coldly this morning 393). happen to me Each It is strives to cheat the other in their own way (§§ 175. and my father's leave (^ 449). 71. as well as read them in a book (§§ 464. 1874 (§ 378). Whom Who I feel do men say that he (§ 379).

parsimony are to avoided. 107. M. voice inspire. 113. humble one. He made I 134. It 127. from you soon. can tell did not hear. The Thames is derived from the Latin Thamesis. He has only done that much of his task. no. Hoping to hear 116. was going to have written him a letter. 125. 111. 129. These plantations are lain out by rule and line (§ 226). and had bettter be you this much. 115. but it lacked either grandeur or beauty. His younger days were spent get to France (§ England. other. Regard is to be had to every one's circumstances. waiting for an opportunity to 362. He drew a line of about six inches long I (§ 278). Valerie's was one of those impulsive. B. He wrote a moderately sized volume. {$ 440). lips with fire (§ 456). 117.EXERCISES. 136. J. dwell (§§ 287. is 394). i). 130. to increase the confidence so many years bestowed on Mr. He is a boy of nine years old {\ 287). 120. 126. 366). eager natures that longs for a confidante 112. doom 123. hallowed cell. . and goeth into the wilderness and seeketh that which is gone astray ? (§ 440). 243 While walking in my garden. Profusion as well as 124. or shall be published 109. We trust that by supplying a genuine and most superior class of article. i). I see the being than love her (§ 487). healths and abilities. 106. The service was impressive. (§ 362. believe me yours truly. in 1 14. In reading you should sit as uprightly as possible. no use talking so. 133. another joke which she suppressed (§ 439). 132. have since his death arose (§ 226). (§ Let the same be she that thou has appointed Of all men else I have avoided thee. 131. that length of days impose {§ 456). fair Let thee and Severe the my 122. No civil broils 118. When I get home I another as 119. 121. 128. Doth he not leave the ninety and nine. 135. whom nobody in the world loves O Thou my Who touched Isaiah's For ever in this I. an idea suddenly occurred to me. The centres of each compartment are ornamented with a star (§ 175). may serve for almost any book is. More than one emperor prided himself upon his skill as a swordsman (§ 456). This dedication among each that has. Let us not increase our hardships by dissensions 108. (§ 456).

— Carried unanimously. F. 1878. that.. Bet for admission to Miller's Edition contains all High Schools. of Elgin Model School. J. a.. BY J.TO AVOID CONFUBtON. . and its introduction into our Public Schools. we believe that " Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupUs and would urge its authorization on the Government. is adopted by the Schools of Montreal. Aylmer High School. LESSONS. Town Inspector. after fully comparing the various editions that have been recommended. McLEAN. appointing the undersigned a Committee to consider the respective merits of different English Grammars. Thomas High School. St. ADAM MILLEIl & CO. Verbi^t are the same as in Book. '• A.M. Co. Cloth Extra.A. b. Co.CAMPBELL. was moved and seconded adopted. that the report be received and E*riee. N. Nov. so that what is learned by a pupil in an elementary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book is used. MILLER. The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to Mason''8 mason's Grammar. B. Thomas. The MILLEe'S neu^ Authorized SWIITON'S Grammar. To the President and Association Members of the In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of the Association. UNGOIIGE Qrammar. with a view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools. It " St. and Mason's Text Miller's Edition is prepared as an introductory Text Book for Mason's Grammar. ASK FOB MILLER'S SAINTON'S LANGUAGE LESSONS. Moods. SSc. McMillan. J. Manitoba. 30th. A. M. Inspector.A. Head Master STEELE. A. the authorized book for advanced classes for Public Schools. is the recent examination Papers MIIiliGR'S STFINTOrV'S LANGUAGE LESSONS County of Elgin Teachers authorized by the Education Department of Ontario. In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Definitions of tbe Parts of Speech are novir made identical witb General Treatment The Classlflcatlon of Pronouns. a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. BUTLEK. we beg leave to report. is authorized by the Council of Public Instruction.

Model School. B.)anee. is the best introductory work on Grammar for Public School use. Clinton. Neiv Foiuidland.S. since the definitions. 1878 " Resolved. Mitchell. Brockville. Uamiltou. Beaforth. May 17. All pupils who intend to enter a High School or to become students for Teachers' Certificates. as other editions are in the market. and leave little to be unlearned in after years. Trenton Falls. 1st W. Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons is sively in nearly all the Principal Public Schools of Ontario. WOOD. Windtor.. clear and exact. Among them are used excluand Model Ottawa. St. H. The arrangement of the subjects is logical and progressive. Brantford." In my opinion the best introductory Text-book to Mason's Grammar. Straihroy. A Provincial H. classification and general treatment are extremely simple and satis' factory. and the book admirably helps the judicious teacher in making correct thinkers and ready readers and writers. M. held at Brussels.' by McMillan.The New Inthorized Elementarj ((rammnr. Bclle¥llle. London. Heaford. Na. Manitoba. PortHop«. St. Be careful ta ask for MILIER'S !»>TI>TeN. Thomas. That the Teachers at this Convention are of opinion that Miller's Swinton Language Lessons. J. Catharines. The definition's in " Miller's Swinton Language Lessons" are brief. Eesolution passed unanimously by the Teachers' As sociation.. Cobourg. Lindsay. CAESON. (North Huron). . Schools of Winuiprg. P. Perth. Quebec. Listowelt Adopted by the Protestant Schools of Blontreal and Levi College. Bxbridge. Whitby. MILLER'S SWINTOH'S LANGUAGE LESSOHS.. would save time by using it. John's. and St. W. Bracebridge.

Kingston CoUegiate Institute. Fellow of Unitbbsiit Colleob. BICHABD LEWIS. • • • Mason'sGrammaris just such abook as many teachers have been hoping to see introduced into om: schools. KNIGHT. With to De dMlrod.. Caledonia... H. S. M. H.. its method being to teach the subject by explanation. P. H.. M. JOHN JOHNSTON. KING. M. have ordered it to be used in tlie . S. Incomparably the best text book for the senior classes of our high schools that has yet been ofCered to the Canadian public. I consider it by far best English grammar for high school purjioses that has yet "Mu«oa" and "Fleming" nothing more seeoia appeared.M... Principal. D.. MASON.ENGLISH GKAMMAE BY C.. H.. liXJ).. M.A. F.. H. M. I this school. He immediately sent me Masoin. I consider Mason's the MORRISON. a. in A. rank in M. It has reached a twenty-first edition in and 1 have no doubt it -will meet with the same high apEngland preciation in this Province. AliEX... OakviUe of three years ago I asked a grammar school nspectoi the old country to send me the best grammar publi bed there. J. M. It will be well received by teachers and advanced pupils. High School. Of best. Head Master.MacHENBT. S.C.A. Ab a philosophical treatise its discussion of doubtful points anA Its excellent methods and definitions cannot fail to give it a high the school tiie estimation of the best judges of such works teachers of the country. It Is an excellent and reliable work. H. Institute. H. Dufferin School Toronto. The chapter on the Analysis of diflBcult sentences is of itself sufficient to place the work far beyond any English grammar hitherto before the Canadian pubUc. C.D. Omemee. Loncok.P. UA. I. M. all BelleviUe and. definition and abundant illustrations without stereotyped rules thereby making the study even attractive. B. B. Houston. Mason's grammar will be found a most valuable class-book gs pecially for the instruction of advanced classes in English.A. SIM. H. Newmarket. the grammars that I have seen. With Examina4iion Papers by W. PRICE Upwards 76 CENTS. P.A. J.. P. — JOHN SHAW.A. 8. Cobourg Col.South Hastings.M...

m DEACON. 46C. S. series bids fair to take a good place in seho- work. By J. of M.. Dr. H. arrangement. Nova Scotia. PART 1. DIMOCK.B. as given this little text-book.. D. Dr. Picton. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic. The laatio Halifax. D. Port Hope. GOGGIN. Fart I. is a credit to Canadians. PRICE. ANALYSIS. M. A. its its Simple In Schools. Same progress cannot be made in Mathematical work.D .A. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic supplies a want that we shoiild have had supplied in W.-PERCENTAGE. &C. 80c. Inspectoi High Schools. PROPORTION.. M. LL. A. H.Mentel Arithmetic. Head Master Model and Its Public types of practical questions and sugggestive in methods. Model School. A. and to suggest similar examplea for the use of the t«aoher. J. FRACTIONS. Provincial our Schools long ago. McLELLAN. unless what we call Mental Arithmetic is thoroughly and yatematicaUy pursued.. PART ll. Dr. my J.M. After two woeka use of class I am convinced that it is the book with much superior to any of the American texts that have been used here both as to the grading of questiont and the style of the problems. is worth BB a clerk or accountant 50 per cent more than the prodigy who can boast of having " gone " through his written arithmetic half a dozen times. .. CLABKE. Principal Ingersoll Model School. varied in Prom THE WE8LEYAN. it is the best book of its kind that I have examined. and it supplies a long-felt \rant. B. RATIO. J. It is just what is wanted for "waking up mind" in the school room. -FUNDAMENTAL RULES. McLellan's Mental Arithmetic contains a great number of useful problems well adapted to aevelop by regular gradations the thinking powers of the pupil. Nova Scotia. H. PRICE. A boy who is conversEint with the principles of Mental Arithmetic. Ont. A.

Frio* 25 Cents. Prince Edward Island. ADAM MILLER & Co.One of the most popular Text Books erer published. Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec. Science Master Normal School. By Thomas Kirkland. Toronto. NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. Within one year the iOth thousand haa been issued. B. Manitoba. Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamhlin Smith's Arithmetic.. Adopted in a number of the Schools of Newfoundland. M. Highly recommended by the leading Teachers of Ontario. Toronto. 176 Faees.A. Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction. Authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. Head Master Model School. ...A. Cloth Szfcra. and William Scott.

as it offers. Head Master Model School. and William Scott. Principal Essex Model and Windsor Central SchooL After a thorough perusal of the Elementary Arithmetic by jKirkland & Scott. Model and Public Schools. that makes his earlier arithmetical studies a pleasure and a profit. The young pupil. It is admirably adapted to the requirements of grades Ist.. ty the arrangement of the principles presented and the exercises laid down. Toronto. W. B. W. I have examined your Elementary Arithmetic on the unitary system by Kii'kland and Scott. it (fcc.B.. this book with increasing pleasure and can in almost unqualified recomnaendation. explanation.A. attractive language. A. 2nd and 3rd of our schools. my . Head Master Provincial Model Nova Scotia. Cobourg. I B. M. Master Ottawa it is in- consider cended. in the best eiamentary Arithmalao I have examined. D. Since failures in Arithmetic are mainly due to a want of power in independent analysis to a lack of knowledge of the unitary method and of skill in its application this volume which discusses the ijroblems'on independent methods will be cordially welcomed by teachers. Head — — . to Hajnblin Smith's Cloth Extra. terse.NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. RIDDELL. and have no hesitation in saying that I consider it the best Elementary Arithmetic which I have yet seen. Normal School. Science Master Normal School.A. A very praiseworthy feature of the book is the large number of examples and problems pecuUar to so small a work. The arrangement is natural and comprehensive. It is. SPKAGUE. H. Price 25 Cents... As a preparatory Arithrnetic 1 have not seen its equal. 176 Pages. JAMES DUNCAN. LL. DIMOCK. B. is led almost unconsciously to the great field of the unknown. well adapted for the purpose for which JOHN DBAENESS. B. W. By Thomas Kirkland. I have no hesitation in saying that it is better adapted to the schools of this country than any similar book that has come within the range of my twenty-seven years experience. by a Btep. Schools.B. hitended as an Introdtictory Text-Book Arithmetic.. Arithmetic is pre-eminent if taught by logical methods and this work places it in the power of the younger classes to be benefitted by such methods. have examined it speak of ooiuion. Master. Public I School Inspector. The Elementary Arithmetic by Kirkland and Scott I can heartily recommend to our teachers. a copious and well selected assortment of exercises.A. a good arrangement and conciseness in definition and A. Principal of Pictou Academy and Public Schools. The questions are in clear. in addition to our present text-book. Math. East Middleiex. As a discipline of the mind in tea-hing the pupil to think and reason. MoKAY.

I therefore think that Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic should to placed on the authorixed U»t of books for pabllo schooU.. I cordially recommend its nse to all those desirous of obtaining an acquaintance with this branch of Dsefol knowledge. Education. SOOTT. DANAGH. "I ANDBEWS. Inspector of Schools. A. M. Authorited by the Chief Supt. Inspector of Sohoola. 0.THREE EDITIONS SOLD —OF— IN SIX MONTHS HAMBLIN SMITH'S ARITHMETIC. M. F. ADAPTED TO CAMAOIAM CVKKSaCT BT THOMAS glRTTLAND. for Hamblin Smith's Abithmbtio. A. BL " Eaxnblin Smith's arithmetic seems very suitable to the neoe»« our public schools. Authorieed hy Ihe Council of Public Inatruction. Ontario. so that pupils may readily comprehend the questions and proceed to the solutions. M. Science Master School.. AuthoriMed by th» Minitter of Edueatien. N. They will also prove of great service to pupils desiroua of passing the grade tests.A. B. Ontario- 4tli Edition. Toronto. B. Price. have much pleasure in certifying to the nperiority of the Canadian edition of Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic over any text book on that subject that has yet come under my notice.. 76 Cents. Gmnberland. I Bball b« pleased to recommend its early introduction.* . The author appears not to rely so much on set rules as upon explanations and the clearing of seeming obscurities. DOAl^TE. and ths examination papers are invaluable as aids to teachers in thorough training. and Nonnal WM. Bsrrington.A. N. The exercises are admirable. 0. Head Master Model • Sohool. It if Eractical.A. The appendix and examlation papers are important and valuable features. indeed I may say that I have not seen any other work on tnis branch that is so specially ealculated to assist the student in passing with credit offlctal t*$ta. Manitoba.. as the examples have been mostly culled nrom Examination papers. —"It has a value oandidatM preparing for public examination." W. QiMftMi Beeommended by the Senate of the Univ. Nora Sootla. complete and comprehensive. Inspector for Qaeen'a Co. FROM NOVA Bities of SCOTIA. of Balifax.

so much out of place a textbook on this subject. Schools. S.A. I shall introduce them in the schools here and encourage their use in those of the vicinity. paper. Orb. but a study of the grand sequence of cause and effect by which the facts in tha world's life have been created. Wilkinsoh. B. Hamilton. B. and a clear comprehension of the logic of History. including my University course. P. Tou have done good service to Canadian students and teachers issuing a Canadian edition which. PL ATT." u R.. which united in so singularly excellent a manner. and P. S. W. High School pupils. cordially recommend them to every teacher who wishes to make hlstoiy not an effort of memory alone.. "I have been for many years." ' Wm.. "The 'Epochs of English History' will be valuable aids in the preparation of pupils for the 2nd class and intermediate examinations." G. Picton. Principal High School. "I am quite conscientious in saying that it is one of the best digests of History that I have seen. Ont. DouGAN. and tending in no small degree to nrn'note a better system of pursuing this important study. M. accuracy. " led to express my admiration of the very concise and systematic method of arrangement adopted in them. and shall. They are written in the most entertaining style. C.A. K. Haldimand. and typoby graphical execution is all that could be desired. H.A. and thus enabling him to master diificult historical subjects without attempt ing to digest and memorize too much at once. I should think their introduction into schools is much to be desired. MOEOAN. H. Brighton.CREIGHTON'S EPOCHSOF ENGLISH HISTOHY tional Q. and will he perused with pleasure and profit by many who are neither teachers nor pupils." . I am particularly pleased with their simplicity of style and fair method of stating occurrences. Head Master Erantford Central School. M. B. " I have read them through carefully and consider them the best works on the subject for the use of schools that I have ever seen. •' — J.. and without any attempt at rhetorical flourishes. Mackintosh. D. P. brevity. I can. It is remarkably clear and concise. "The series is admirably adapted for the use of teachers. It forms a valuable addition to the valuable collection of school books you have issued. I shall be happy to gee them in the bands of all my pupils. S. Hastings." s Wm. an earnest student of History.. and the more advanced classes of our Public Schools. They are clear and succinct in statement and convey a large amount of information. P. Caledonia. Co. Inspector. Lindsay. I. M. Barrie. Inspector.. N. Johnson. <3rand help these to the study of English History in its only raway hy epochs in the life of the English Nation and her in" Epochs of History'' mark an epoch in the study of iV* Btitutiona." Am ROBT." '• Ci/ARKE Moses. Madoc.A. •• ± am glad to see these brief serials authorized by the Minister of Education. They have the advantage of confining the attention of the learner to definite periods. and have certainly never met with any sketch of the periods embraced by the two volumes of Epochs' you sent me. H.A. and deserves especial commendation for giving just what the pupil ought to know without any extraneous matter.. in binding. M. rendering them particularly suitable for students. M. S.

Authorized by the Minister of Education. S. The definitions. Inspector for Queen's Co. and transactions therein contained. of Schools. N. Nova Scotia. H. "I have carefully looked over Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping. S. and now wc are introducing Beatty & Clare's Houkfind tbwn jmt what w« need in their respective sut^eeta. Nova Scotia. P. Its directions are minute and to the point. Hants.' kceping. It is well adapted for use in the public schools.A. DANAGH. the practical bearing of the transactions." W. HioH AND Public Schools. JOHN AMBROSE. N. Nova Scotia. A.. A.A. AutJiorized by the Chief Supt. Torontb. PRICE. Belleville. Colchester County. " I am very much pleased with the aimplicity and & Clare's Bookkeeping. looking over this book have submitted it to the inspection of practical bookkeepers who agree with me in the propriety of recommending it as a school book. the perspicuity of the instructions. M. I Beaty & Clare's Bookkeeping. and cannot but ai^mire the simplicity of the outline. Insp. HART.. Schools. - 70 CENTS. are plain and simple. will recommend this work to any teacher or pupil preparing for examination.. T. Digby. Insp. Beoommended by tlie Covmcil of Public Instruction. Insp. Schools.." J. & IM CLARE'S lOOK-KEEPI m. ANDREWS. its simplicity alone is sufScient to secure for the book a place in our schools throughout (he Dominion. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping has had a careful perusal.. " I have looked into Beatty_& Clare's Bookkeeping. Supt. M. while it is su£Bciently comprehensive for all practical purposes. forms. We . MORSE. Principal Ontario Commercial College.Keeping and Writing Master. L... Schools. and its examples ample. yet comprehensive and practical. G. Education. Normal School. Annapolis Co. DOANE. " I have examined Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping and find it to be an excellent work.M. " Several months ago we introduced Mason's English Grammar inte Manitoba College. Nova Scotia. with which the principles of bookkeeping are explained and illustrated. Book.." myself. Shelburne Co. Nova Scotia. M. 3rd Ed. and the varied commercial character of the whole work.BEATTY By S. Inspector for Cnmberland. and Sauubl Clare. Beattt. Schools. Ontario. Co. C. for ve» k Treatise on Simolb and Double Entry Book-Keepino. FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND MANITOBA. D. vid have much pleasure in saying that the work is just what is wanted for boys who desire to acquire in a short time such knowledge as will fit them for business*" KEV. Winnipeg. Quebeo.A. A. thoroughbess of Beatty THOS. SMITH.. C. S. S. — " Besides D. McGILLIVRAY. Manitoba. Insp. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping is an admirable work. It commends itself to teachers as a text book and to all others desirous of acquiring a knowledge of this important branch.

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