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English Grammah Exercises



MASON.) PRICE. Re2}rintcd from Mason^s Shorter Enijlinh Grarmnar. . . 11 WELLINGTON ST.. ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. BY C. B. SO cents.A„ FELLOW OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGE.. {Public School Edition. TOEONTO: ADAM MILLEE & CO.. 1879. LONDONo SECOND EDITION. p. WEST.Ixlhx ^ €a'B (!Ebucafianal Merits.

in the year 1679. in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.Bntered according to Act of Parliament of Canada. hy Adah Milleb & Co.. .

If he cannot tell that a word is a verb. The The present to work is a reprint in a separate form of the Exercises appended Grammar. and acquires by degrees the power of analysing and parsing the most complicated constructions. or something of the sort this fashion % When in he has managed to say that "now" is an adverb.PREFACE. enable him to Nothing is more useless and even hurtful than of mechanical directions to to furnish the learner with tell any kind the Parts of Speech. of what possible iise can it be for him to give it a name by the application of some empirical rule relating to its position. li the use of these exercises I strenuously urge tlie upon teachers patient and unflinching compliance with directions given for guiding the pupil to a thorough understanding of the fimctions o words and forms. and of their forms and combinations. he learns step by step the functions of the various Parts of Speech. or . my recently published " Shorter Englisli Every effort has been made to render these exercises as serviceable as possible to those who wish to guide their pupils to a real understanding of the structure of English sentences." work have been retained to prevent the cost of preparing new plates. and there are some good works of that kind which have either a scanty apparatus of exercises or none references to the paragraphs of that at all. learner is The taken by easy stages from the simplest English work to the most difl&cult constructions in the language. an adverb or a preposition by recognizing its meaning and function in the sentence. Beginning with the simplest elements of a sentence. and the exercises themselves are so arranged that they may be nsed with any good text-book of English Grammar.

and they had better devote such intellect as they have to simpler pursuits. If the pupil till too is young older . profitless It is this that renders school "lessons" wearisome to the teacher. the matter he a mere sham. 1879. talvC him patiently over the ground again and again till the difficulties stupidity will have vanished. €hristchuech Koad. ." that is to say. knows no more than he did than this. Avorse he is deluded fancied the idea that is knows and something. No dull matter what the suliject may be. and careful teaching pays best even at The specimens of parsing and analysis that I see yearly in hundreds of instances. but) impatience have been wasted in going over and over again the same unintelligent repetition. while his knowledge this delusion is itself a bar to his acquisition of the only kind of knowledge which could be of is any use to him. learners never find a lesson when they feel that they are really learning something. for He is simply using wonis without a perception of their is meaning. of far too I'he bane much of our ordinary school work is the ignorant impatience of teachers to get their pupils "over the ground.IV . P. show how deplorably time and round of mechanical and (not patience. PREFACE. C. wait he he is too dull. MASON. Streatham Hill. to master the proper if explanation readily. and dreary and repulsive to the pupil. ok. A tolerably long and Avide experience justifies sloiv me in afihming most strongly that examinations. really "against" a preposition. Xone but learners of abnormal hold out against this kind of treatment. into Nay. Janucury. he before. through a certain number of pages of some text-b. Dlikesell.

The horse that won the race was Eclipse.' We "O Solitude! where are thy charms?" " Hence. He sailed round Cape Horn swallows are birds. Things to eat. — Definition of a Noun. Dogs or horses. better than June. My uncle is the captain of the 'Bellerophon. 3. and the wherefore of everything. loathed Melancholy. 6. nouns which are the Animals. saw an King Arthur's sword was called Excalibur. Trees and flowers. in the 'Petrel. names of each I. 4. 5) II. me of" (See 349. Petrels and eclipse of the sun. in Exercise 2. 5. Houses or parks. I.). Countries. The Fido. S. — Definition Modes of form- mg the plural (§§ 47. &c. March is a cold month. The traveller ascended Helvellyn. called Pegasus. to wear. Say (or write) ten common of the following things 2. Some stuff or material. and the Proper Nouns in another John likes school. of Number. 7. 4." "You may avoid that too with an He wants to know the why ifs?" § " Tellest thou 'if'" (Shaksp. Things that you see in the room. Find out some uncouth cell Where brooding darkness spreads his jealous wings. nouns which are names of 3. Singular and Plural.EXERCISES. 177 EXERCISES.). My brother has a horse called Dobbin. 31-37). N . Preliminary Lesson. Distinction between Preliminary Lesson. I like May soldiers had a weary march. 2. Of Cerberus and blackest midnight bom. That cow has lost a horn. Rivers or mountains. Say I. : Common Nouns and Exercise 1. Common Nouns and Proper Nouns (§§ Proper Nouns. (or write) ten proper girls. Ships. or to play with. The boys were : Bellerophon rode a winged horse reading about the battle of Agincourt.' Lie down. She brought me a bunch of may. Write the Common Nouns in the following sentences one list. Boys or Towns.

Pence. . Exercise 4. 374). Ass. Predicate. Sentences. where is thy common supplications. Beware of confusion about this. The Lords and Commons. Wife. . Noses. The recorder of these events. through grace. Birds . because in the sentence. Negro. it stands for that about which we tell something by means of the verb. Bruises.shine. Stars Geese cackle. '' Boys play. Thus ends the tale. Cargo. The evangelist Matthew. Leaf. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight. tells . Preliminary Lesson. • Not about the subject. &c. that is. Loaf. Here comes papa. Preliminary Lesson. James The prescription of the doctor. Use of the Nominative Case. A court of justice. Write the plural of each of the followhig nouns Chimney. Point out thd subject and the verb in each of the following sentences. John the Evangelist." 'Boys' is the subject. have a good hope William the Conqueror. Pies. Feet. Halves Kine. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave.* fly. Grass. Scarf. Cats scratch. because the subject of a sentence is only a word. Calf. : Echo. Subject. — Use of capital letters (§ 6. Bees. The first chapter. John works. Up went the rocket. Lice. The Lord Mayor. Death. but about that/or which the word stands. : Sheaf. Staves. Play' is a verb it tells us something ' . The Solicitor-General. A We sting ? IV. An object in the student of the Middle Temple. Oxen. Exercise Boot. about boys. Trees. Our I The Book of Common Prayer. Nooses.Snow falls. A. The clemency of the conqueror. Down came the rain. Dray. Capital Letters. Horses neigh. III. The Recorder of Carlisle. The princes and dukes. Exercise 5. what they do Thus. Convoy. Sky. St. Osprey. Then cometh the end. The barristers and : solicitors. Victory. B. Trespasses. 3. Johnson. and the verb us something. Buoy. The Lord Chief speak of lords and commoners. The Prince of Wales. Valley. note). The House of Commons. Mice. Speech. (§§ Agreement of the verb with its subject 179. Enemy. Verbs. Stuff. The Cape of Good Hope.Soldiers fight. The Duke of Bedford. Copy out the following examples two or three times and then write them from dictation The mayors of provincial towns. Mr. not about a word. Duty. — Definition of Verb. middle distance. Flies. and explain their functions. It is in the noininative case.178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Thrush. The death of th^ emperqr. The house of mourning.. Cries. The life of Dr. Justice. The office of sheriff. Lies. Children. Sheriff Johnson. Waves. In came William. Write the singular of each of the following nouns Arches. Sentence. the First.

Sink. The wind. &C. Glitters. Put some verb or other with each of the following nouns. Trees. Exercise 6b. V. Squeal. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever. as " I found Henry's book and William's slate. The birds have built nests in the farmer s bam. Sings Howl. — Formation and use of the Possessive Case . (§§ 182. Arrive. Appear. cheese was made from the goat s milk. . Water. Plays. Howl. Puss. The horses ate the oxen's food. Fall. . He lodges at the baker's." II 22 Men's lives are short. lessons. J^reiimi7iary Lesson. Shine. Preach. Mary. The bird's leg was broken. Scratches. Squeak. I bought this paper at the stationer's. Sinks. Parsons. Tom's horse's leg was broken John's day's work is nearly finished. lap. Goats' milk is wholesome. Put a subject of the proper number before each of the following verbs : Shine. The masters heard the boys' The boys tore the master's book. Break. Rain. Hens' eggs are white. Dawn. The bakers' shops were shut. Works. The John. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. are verbs of which you can make use : Fight. 183). Dances. This may be done by placing the same numeral over each. went to St. Cry. Run. Sing. 6. 'J'he baker's bread was spoih. John's hands are dirty. The Owls. Cows. The boy pulled the kitten's tail. The bird. The keeper caught the vixen's cubs. Sing. Pray. Grow. Work. The Possessive Case.EXERCISES. The leaves. The following Sail. 179 Exercise Grass. The boy taxed the masters' The men heard of their wives' danger. Paul's this morning. The farmers' barns are full of corn. Horses. (§^ 67. children's A We VI. Boys. Speaks. Roar. Chatter. Dogs. Day. Stars. The Object The Objective Case . Scratch. Run. Ships. Soldiers. Graze. Flies. Swim. Shriek. Blow. Mice.).Intransitive Verbs. Kick. Growl. Play. The sun. Draw one line under those nouns in the following sentences which are in the nominative case plural two lines under those which are in the possessive case singular and three lines under those which are in the possessive case plural and show in each instance to what other noun the noun in the possessive case is attached. The voices are loud. The kittens are in Mary's patience. Prelinmtary Lesson. child. so as to make a sentence : candle. Float. — Distinction between Transitive Verbs and of a Verb. Lions. Twinkle.

the use of the Subject. The man spoke The man spoke well. The horse carries. screamed. The dog bit. The sheep graze. Preliminary Lesson. The girl plays piano. . The voured a sheep. The hound chased the hare. 11. Birds build. : The the French. under the transitive verbs. The boys play in the garden. intransitively." : — ' groom kicked John touched Henry. and three under those that are used reflectively. and an object. The lightning struck. Make a dozen sentences containing a subject. The boys waste time. Exercise line Write out the following sentences. Mary died. as " I always wash [myself] with " The visitors withdrew [themselves] " cold water " Exercise line . and draw one 8. In the following examples put in an object where it wanted to show what the action denoted by the verb is done to The boy hates. Write out the following sentences. two lines under those that are used intransitively. The ship sank. The sun is ": shines. as intransitive verbs . The boy struck his brother. Mary wrote. In the following sentences point out which nouns are In each case explain subjects of verbs and which are objects of verbs. Bii'ds twitter. The man broke his leg. The The boys play in the yard. and a dozen containing a subject and an intransitive verb. The girls dance. Rain fell. The dog barked. The man sank his fortune in the undertaldng. The horse neighs. and reflectively. The dog howled. Bakers make bread. The man desires. as reflective verbs 183). Verbs used transitively. Clouds covered. The parson preaches. I. boys learn lessons. Cats mew. The pig squealed. Men pray. and draw one under the verbs that are used transitively. as in Exercise 5.I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR. as transitive verbs (§ 2. VII. The butcher killed the pig. A lion deThe horse kicked the groom. Cats eat mice. A verb should be treated as a transitive verb used reflectively whenever a reflective pronoun can be supplied as an object so as to make the sense more complete. travellers started yesterday. the horse. Exercise 7. a transitive verb. The hunter started a hare. Exercise 10. 3. The child Exercise 9. and explain the use of " the Object as follows John struck the ball' The word ball is the object of the verb. because it stands for that which is the object of the action denoted by the verb. —Verbs used {with a difference of meaning) . Sheep eat grass. The sun warms. and two lines under the intransitive : verbs Men eat bread.

Get out of my way. cut his finger. Take yourself off. I withdrew my claim.. You had better give in. &c. PinCh. 15. Prelimhiary Lesson. Steam comes out of the kettle. Personal Preliminary Lesson. His safe return rejoiced us all. Dig. Name. Take this chair. He turned the snake twists and turns about.' Exercise 13. The thief tried the lock. — . l8t hard. The boy tried The traveller returned yesterday. 227). The barber shaved me yesterday. The Personal Pronotins. Gneifurrcmis the brow. He ornat>ients the table with plate. Beat. A crowd filled the square. Seat. He cut away pretty quickly. He We Exercise used : — i. audience hooted the speaker. The governor sunendered the town. He made a noise. Take the words in italics in the following sentences. Pen. Work. Eye. and say in each case whether the word is a noun (because it is the name of something). The irons are hot. The town surrendered. The passengers crowd the deck. He has twisted his ankle. He gave up the game. ^^^lip. Get thee gone. VIII. T\\q furrows are not straight. and make sentences Exercise and intransitively. He slipped a shilling into my hand. He has not shaved this morning. Words used both as Nouns and ' as Verbs. delighted the audience. The cook steams the meat. Pocket. as verbs. 14. Get up. He made off as fast as The The The man he could. The merchant returned the goods. old man slipped on the ice. Forms and use of the Personal Pronouns. She decks herself with ornaments. Make sentences in which the following words are as nouns . Task. Cover. and of the Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. inflexions of verbs (§§ 131. Form. 2. Fly. We all rejoiced at his success. I delight to hear him. 218. The maid fnilks the cow. Study the meaning and use of the word iron. The children drink milk. The earth turns round. He 12. Shoe. or a verb (because it tells you what some person or thing does) : took a pinch of j«2{^ John snjiffs the candle. to illustrate their use. The judge tried the prisoner. Exercise Find twenty more words which may be used either as nouns or as verbs. Owls hoot. The deputation withdrew. out of the room.EXERCISES. in such sentences as Iron is heavy and The women iron ' * — the shirts. The laundress irons the shirts. squared accounts. The singer transitively Find a dozen other verbs that may be used both and six that may be used reflectively without being followed by a reflective pronoun. IX. Get your umbrella. Hook.

John will lend Thomas John's knife. will learn to read. dog's master beat the dog with a stick When the boys have finished the boys' because the dog bit the master's leg. foes. Exercise 19. — Difference between the Direct Object and . — Inflexions of verbs (§§ to mark Person. Arm you against your other Bethink you of some expedient. 227. the garden. Point out which pronouns in the following sentences are subjects of verbs. The master praised the boy because he was attentive. Exercise 17. the girl When was old enough. Look at this book. Did I not tell thee so? mother. X. the Indirect Object of a verb (§§ 74 370. Draw one line under those nouns and pronouns in ' These exercises are very like some that have recently appeared elsewhere.* Suppose John is speaking to Thomas. You will meet us there. admire him because he is brave.l82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Will Thomas give John Thomas's stick. and which in thsir turn resemble what appeared previously in the author's ' First Notions of Grammar. it is John's I found it in Get thee gone. Preliminary Lesscni. Did I hurt you? You have spoilt my book. her mother sent her to school. I We . the boys will go out to play. 4). I will arm me. Direct Object and Indirect Object. You have hurt me. Mary has lost Mary's thimble.) Exercise 18. frock. John has had John's dinner. Exercise 16. bethink me. Pronouns as Subjects and Objects of Verbs. I often see her at shall see you to-morrow. Con- cord of Verb and Subject 218. My sister will call upon your Your brother has sent for me. Substitute pronouns for nouns wherever they are proper in the following sentences. They will love you if you are good. and the proper names for the pronouns : Has John's father has come home John saw Thomas in the garden. and which are objects. XI. I will I will lay me down.' . Parents love their children. Preliminary Lesson. Thomas's brother arrived ? John's pony is lame. and state what nouns the pronouns stand for : where John John's mother has sent John to school. 374. The their ball. I saw your father yesterday. They left us yesterday. The boys have lost The horse ran away with his rider. We took them home. He has torn her church. lessons. Thy friends are here. substitute the proper pronouns for their names in the following sentences. and explain their use in the same way as that of the nouns in Exercises 5 and 7. The boy has hurt her.

Prelhninary Lesson. You see the house. Exercise 20. Parts of which the 257). He We We We B. He gives me an apple. Pour your neighbour out a The policeman took the man to prison. Hand He got took the poor man a loaf. and two lines under those which are indirect objects : John gave Thomas a kick. Tense Forms of the Passive Voice. I will get me a new coat. Mary fetched the beer. The letter will The wine was drunk. slain. stood in the street. We shall be written. Pass me the salt. We will disguise us. Indicative — Formation of the various tenses of the (§ Mood of the Passive Voice 187 . our losses. that lady the bread* Send me a letter. He drinks some ale. They ate some bread. He breaks his word. : draw water. He slew his foe. kind. Exercise 21. He was A stone was thrown. She spills the water. 257). The dog was barking. . successively naming the tenses as you do so . into bed. XII. Wt'ak Verbs. Change the verbs in the following sentences into each of the other tenses of the Indicative Mood. He him a wife. The sun shines. Tiie servant sweeps the met our friend at his house. The soldiers fight bravely. He bleeds to death. Shall we go and kill us venison ? We will buy you a watch. Tense Forms of the Active Voice. They met us in the street and gave us some apples. Send me to him. We crept They room. be struck. Exercise 22. 183 the following sentences which are direct objects of verbs. I hold the reins. Freliininary Lesson. A. Find a dozen verbs which may have objects of each and make sentences to illustrate their use. Strong Verbs. Will you lend me a shilling? I gave him a book. Let every soldier hew him down a bough. He dealt the cards. Conjugation of Verbs. dealt me a hard blow. It lay on the ground. He seethes the flesh. I fetched a box on the ears. throws a stone. compound tenses are made up 204-209. He tells a lie. We XIII. The kind woman glass of beer. Change the verbs in each of the other tenses successively of the Indicative Passive Voice naming the tenses as you do so : the following sentences into Mood in the A. him Hand that lady to her seat. The cock crew. spent their money.EXERCISES. She strikes her brother. You sold your horse. Money has been taken . Strong Verbs. The man knelt down. took good care. I read many books. We make us comforts of This will last you all the year. tive —Formation of (§§ all the tenses in the Indica- Mood of the Active Voice. Active Voice.

are spoken. The children had been scolded by the The wine had been drunk by the butler. verb in the active voice. and two lines under those which are in the passive voice (§§ 187. The boys have eaten the cake. the object of in the Active tlie verb Voice becomes the subject of the Verb in the Passive* (§ 186). The wine was spilt. That surprises me. The men We We the room. report The house is spread. 205) Exercise 27. and then alter them as in the last exercise. Change all the following sentences so as to use passive verbs instead of active verbs. Thus for " The dog bit the for " I am writing a cat. Weak Verbs. 'l"he men The men will be carrying the hay will have finished the work before night. Exercise 28.-. line : Arrows are shot by the archers. tive. The letter was written by us. The archers are shooting arrows. XIV. — the Passive Voice instead of the Active. The The caught. The servant had swept to-morrow. Too much was expected by them." put " The cat was bitten by the dog " letter " put " letter is being written by me " : A : will please you. They had not counted the cost. Goods have bee« stolen. The B. This have received a lette. The object qf an action need not be expressed by the grammatical object of a verb. Make in the passive voice. however. to be a Transitive Verb. are caught by cats. Make a dozen sentences containing a transitive Exercise 24. and draw one under those verbs which are in the active voice.184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Meat children are scolded by the nurse. sheep will be shorn. Write out the following sentences. A new house will be built by my brother. The door was opened by nurse. had been sold by the butchers. and then a dozen sentences containing a transitive verb alter them as in the last exercise. Mice me. Mutual Relation of the Active and Passive Voices* When an action is described by means of Prelimina?y Lesson. The John broke the window. Change all the following sentences so as to use active verbs instead of passive verbs in the same tense : The sparrow was caught by the boy. The sparrow will be built. A vcr]) in the Passive Voice has no direct object. . Kind words is out of the till. were gathering nuts in the wood. cat killed the rat. All ordinary passive verbs are transiIt docs not cease. Exercise 25. Exercise 23. He is • Beware of the mistake of saying that the subject of the verb in the Active Voice becomes the object of the verb in the Passive Voice. are drinking the beer. We were overtaken by a storm.

boy. Lady. Ten masculine common nouns.EXERCISES. desk. Sister. fox. Exercise 29. The AgamemThe jNJaria. Examples of Parsing. Doe. part of speech. ruler. I shall be travelling all night. Preliminary Lesson. non. man. tree. Girl. Ten neuter proper nouns. Sir. and the masculine nouns that correspond to the feminine nouns in the following list : — Nun. : Exercise 28. sheep. The been mowing the lawn. lass. ship. gander. boar. The men are drinking beer. vixen. 185 the money. 2. London. 2. that does in the sentence the accidence of the word the construction of the word in the sentence. nephew. nursemaid. bird. uncle. Mistress.'" Jolm's is a Proper Noun of the Masculine Gender [because it . king. Earl. John. Thames. Giant. Ten feminine proper nouns. cart. Jane. Cow. State the gender of each of the following nouns girl. brother. Buck. He is spending all The town was taken by assault. lady. 7. elephant. The Victory. Actor. WitcTi. ling all day. mother. Gender (§§ of Nouns. He is gone. judge. to what it belongs . gartiener has vain. lord. Boar. Nephew. ox. cousin. The wine was being drunk. maid. 6. Daughter. tiger. horse. pen. Robert. Give the feminine nounS that correspond to the masculine nouns. Write down i. form. Ten masculine proper nouns. Empress. Ten feminine common nouns. Exercise 30. William. Parsing. the kind of work 4. Drake. Ten neuter common nouns. author. — house. Hart. Author. rreliiuinary Lessoji. that part of speech that is. 3. Duchess. Lass. lioness. Governess. XVI. aunt.'don and formation of Genders 39^6). hen. . Bachelor. sister. baby. Mirrderess. servant. Aunt. Time is being wasted.— 'Ssigm^ca. it and to what subdivision of what the function of the word 3. 4. footman. Maria. Bull. The money will have been spent in We are losing time. Napoleon. speaker. France. We were travelbe blamed for this. " John's brother has found a shilling. goose. Caterer. I shall The men are come. Votsfry. —To parse a word you must is. Hind. slate. pig. 5. queen. Ten nouns of ambiguous or common gender. dog. running. box. XV. led across the river. cock. Ram. infant. The troops were being The officer was leading the troops across the river. state i. sovereign.

Number. because it stands for that to which the action denoted by the verb is is a Common Noun ' ' directed]. and may be used for any other thing of the same class]. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject brother.' ' ' Me a Personal Pronoun of the First Person and of Comment Gender.'' He is a Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person and Masculine Gender [because it stands for a male person who is neither the speaker nor the person spoken to] in the Singular Number and in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb will please [that is. It is in the Singular Number. is a Transitive Verb of the Strong Conjugation found. or her]. of the Weak Conjugation It is in the Active Voice. and may denote any other of the same class]. the name ' ' Brother it is a Common Noun of the Masculine Gender [because denotes a male person. pleased). Mood. It is in the Singular Number. namely brother ']. and when parsing is written. [It is a verb because it tells us something about John's brother. Indicative Mood. pleased. such explanations as those in brackets may be omitted . ' ' ' Will please which is is a transitive verb [because it denotes an action directed to an object]. and is in the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb has found' [that is. ^He will please .«<?. ' Has found (find. Future Indefinite Tense.' • When pupils have gained some readiness in parsing.] It is in the Active Voice. and it is transitive because it denotes an action which is done to some object. It is in the Singular Number. Indicative (please. Present Perfect Tense. found). but in oral work. ' ' ' Shilling of the Neuter Gender [because it is the name of something which is not a living being. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. '\i the context shows whether the speaker is a male or a female person. .l86 is . ENGLISH GRAMMAR.' It has shilling for its object.Substitute Masculine or Feminine. because it stands for the person about whom the verb tells something]. [It stands for the speaker without naming him. and for beginners they arc of the utmost importance. and in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive active verb is ' will please. of a in the Singular depending on (or in It is ' ' ' male person and is that person's own name*]. and is in the Singular Number and the Third Person to agree with its subject he. and is in the Objective Case because it is the object of the transitive verb has found [that is. and in the Possessive Case the attributive relation to) the noun brother [because it denotes that John possesses something. t .

EXERCISES. and in the Singular Number and First Person to agree with its subject I. Of course. of saying that 'adjectives denote the qualities 0/ nouns.) § Parse this word as a Vocative or Nominative of address. but ob\'ious blunder. ' ' because xi). and 22. girl's We will 19.se. The men saw Henry's cousin yesterday.' ' ' " Lend ' me a shilling. ' — Nature and ' use|| of a Qualitative Adjec- * You is always a ^m»«w«rt//ca/ plural. and pronouns following sentences. The masons are building a hou. nouns. frock will be mended. Carefully guard beginners against the common.' * In parsing this word state that it is in the objective case. in the Active Voice. Read the letter. It is in the Singular Number. even when it refers to o«? person. Hear ye. We have heard the news. 20. the bread. wards. The soon have finished the work. Israel. Adjectives of Quality. i. Preliminary Lesson. Future Indefinite Tense. news. The hunters were chasing hares. Tell me 1 the news. except those in italics : in the The hunters caught a hare. and is hi the Nominative Case because it is the subject of the verb shall be seen [that is. and verbs in Exercises XVII. An adjective is not a ' noun-marking word. 19. ." njend is a Transitive Verb [because it denotes an action which is done to something]. The cat has scratched her. In 'a black dog' the adjective black does not mark any quality belonging to the name dog.s usually understood is the plural you. stands for the person about whom something is said by means of the verb]. Plural Numbert and Second Person. You have lost the sight.Vouns are names. She had been bitten by the dog. You will be overtaken by the sterni. in the Passive Voice. § Get thee behind me. Exercise 32. I lent the iiianj a pound. Parse all the verbs. She gave me+ a shilling.. Go thou and do likewise. Imperative Mood. * See last note. Mary's frock was torn by the dog. to agree with its subject you understood. " 187 I shall ' be seen. The hare The house was pulled down.' . Indicative Alood. He was running away.e. pronouns. Hand mej Henr}-'s father will give her j a new book. the verb is singular but the subject which i. because it is the indirect object of the verb (See Section xi Ex. ' ' ' • Me ' is in the Objective Case. John's sister has told me+ the was being chased. They called her back. I ' ' ' ' Shall be seen is a Transitiv^e Verb [because it denotes an action that is directed to an object].' ' ' ' . it is the Indirect Object of the verb Lend {See Seclion Exercise 31.§ hand mej the bread." but a thing marking word. Many new houses have been built. and not its name. II ' ' ' .' It is the a«w«a/ that is black." is a Personal Pronoun of the First Person of common* (or ambiguous) gender. Parse the nouns. if the singular Thou is expressed or understood. John.

The naughty. We Many men ? love vicious pleasures. thing we are spe. Adjective of Quality. brown. They do not tell ns lunu th. The bird's feathers Ripe fruit is wholesome. — Nature and use of Demonstrative Adjec- Different sorts of Demonstrative Adjectives (§ 95). " The girls wore smart botmetsP It is It shows of what sort the ' bonnets are.1t * great' and 'small' are Adjectives of Quality. and treat each of them in the same way as ' smart in the above examples He rides a black horse. and is therefore sometimes an Adjective of Quality.'" Here ' smart is an Adjective of ' ' Quality joined predicatively to the noun ' bonnets. The naughty children ate some apples. Many men possess great riches. pleasures are often alluring. John bought twelve pears. Rude boys are disagreeable. It tells us (indefinitely) how much money we are speaking about. Thin ice is dangerous. and two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity.l88 . The bird has white feathers. Adjectives of Quantity." Some is an Adjective of Quantity. He wore a great. He rode a girl has large black eyes. brings much care. XIX. and sometimes an Adjective of Quantity. • Mind much of a or Adjectives of Relation. bony. The poor woman has I have little t hope of many troubles. and treat each of the latter in the same way as twelve and some in the above sentences. tives. Preliminary Lesson. of Quantity.' " The girls' bonnets are smart. ' or Quantitative Adjectives {§§ 91-94). Demonstrative Adjectives Preliminary Lesson. We I have no money. ' ' ' ' both hands. joined attributively to the noun 'bonnets. The girls are ready. animals. . Write out the following sentences. — Nature and use of Adjectives of Quantity. ' : XVIII. The The cat caught a great black rat. He is a ready speaker. Examples.iking about. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. travelled all night." 'Twelve is an Adjective us how many pears we are speaking about. greedy little boy ate twenty pears. He is a vulgar little boy. woollen cloak. Dogs are faithful Sinful The poor little bird is dead. Dogs are faithful. and draw one line under the Adjectives of Quality. Tom's horse is are white. My little brother is ill. Much money men can resist waited several hours in the cold room. . black horse. Have you any money ? Will you have some bread Few strong temptation. Idle boys hate lessons. Great* riches bring much care.' Pick out the Adjectives of Quality in the following sentences. heavy. tive (or Adjective of Quality) Attributive and predicative use of Adjectives (§§ 80-84 \ 90)' ' ' Smart is an Exercise 33. strong. but they describe its size. " / will ^ive you sofue jnoney. Hold out success. + 'Little' is used for both purposes. " It tells * ' Exercise 34.

There was no other way left. I have but one brother. We arrived on the second day. boy will is idle. 166. It points out a certain knife. Those little boys are my cousins. We walk every other day. or qualifies. You will know better one day. That last song was capital. No other course is possible. by putting the same numeral over both the adjective and the noun. Neither version of the story is correct. this relates to guatttity. without reference to quality or quantity. It qualifies (or is joined is attributively to) the noun ' knife. Every device has Either alternative is disagreeable. thus : " We 4 4 heard of the poor old man's sudden death. bearing in mind that several adjectives belong (with a slight difference of meaning) sometimes to one class. We had some + beef for dinner. or Adjective of Relation. Any* fool might see that.' Exercise 35. My apple is ripe. been tried. Here Here Mind this word word is a demonstrative pronominal adjective (or indefinite adjective pro- noun). John is his half brother.EXERCISES. that Interrogative Pronominal Adjectives (or Interrogative Adjective Pronouns) J belong to the class of Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives) .]! news have you heard? What X nonsense he talks have the A A ! XX. These sheep are last Look at the Bring me my new boots. (See §§ 92. Ring the fat. • t of Adjectives. Any man could tell you that. Have you any + money? I have not the least appetite. sometimes to another. the noun book. He has a large head and little eyes. He spent half a day with me. An enemy hath done this. —Study §§ 1 05-1 16. bell. It qualifies points out a certain book without describing it. I went to see him one day lately. " Give 189 me that book. She is my first cousin. Each child received a penny. Comparison Preliminary Lesson." 'That' It is a Demonstrative Adjective. second line in this page. Second thoughts are best. little child might lead him. His first attempt was a failure. She was my first lore. Write out the following sentences." I I 2 3 2 3 Give me that large book. He has but little discretion. and draw one line under the Adjectives of (2ualit\'. Some * thief has stolen my watch. and three lines under the Adjectives of Relation (or Demonstrative Adjectives).) Look carefully at the definitions.' ' " He ' lent me ' his knife. Which J wine do you prefer? What." His a Possessive Pronominal Adjective or Possessive Adjective Pronoun. two lines under the Adjectives of Quantity. 169. This She word. little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. Some people like this loud music. Indicate what noun feach adjective belongs to.

monstrous. hearty.] virtues. cold. attached attributively to the noun most. joined predicatively to the noun men. quarrelsome.) describes the quality of a noun. state Examples. handsome. better.. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees : Exercise 38. tame. last. out certain virtues. " His numerous His A Demonstrative : won much esteem . richer. healthy.* [li points (or Pronominal) Adjective. happy. Parsing of Adjectives. nastiest. sad. virtues (§§ 89.) Those : —A qualifying the Demonstrative Adjective in the Plural Number. —An Adjective noun ' of Quality in the Positive Degree. crudest. justest. high. in the Comparative Degree. XXI.' (Much. gentlest. dull.tgo ENGLISH GRAMMAR. but does not describe or enumerate them. fresh. and to what noun 84). tenderer. clever.] virtues. blithe. fierce. worst. Write down Prettier. full.' (Rich.' it does not in the least alter the meaning of the noun. mightiest. slenderest. splendid. rich." These in the Plural Number. brightest. finest. of the following adjectives. lovely. merry. slower. gentler. red. § 85. ' An (See it If the smacks strongly of the blunder of saying that an adjective term is used.' It is joined* attributively to {or qualifies) the noun ' : — Numerous Much. common.' attached attributively to {or qualifies) the : An Adjective of Quantity. . It is [It describes the virtues spoken of. steeper. To parse an adjective state what Lessen.' [' These 'points to the men. more. tidiest. wittier. — sort of in what degree of comparison its it is. rudest. joined attributively to the noun ' men. big.) ' — " These men are richer than those. wealthier. this mistake must be carefully ' guarded against. Preliminary adjective it is.] It is in the Positive Degree. mad. noun jnen understood (see § 96). idle. Lastly. great. winsome. sprightlier.' to limit the application of a noun. richest. gay. rich.] : —A — Demonstrative Adjective Richer ' : An Adjective of Quality [it describes certain men]. near. beautiful. and is virtues.' adjective is often said to ' qualify a noun. This expression is legitimate only if the to qualify a noun' means 'to denote some quality of that for which the noun standi. more. : rudest. all three degrees of the following adjectives sweetest. gentle. or their substitutes Large. ' • phrase ' or As generally used. holy. handsomest. duller. it is attached either attributively or predicatively three degrees of comparison. &c. [It denotes how much esteem is spoken of. thereforo. bright. but does not describe or enumerate them.

He has gained many more prizes than his elder brother. B. He teaches at the large boys' school. ' ' ' ' . they must be parsed as Demonstrative Pronouns (not as Demonstrative Adjectives). which is here qualified by the demont strative adjective the X An article always belongs to some noun expressed or understood. Some persons are too hasty. Will that little boy have anymore fruit? Give me the other volume. The large linen-draper's shop at the comer is on fire. His few remaining acres were sold. A dense cloud hid the sun. * An adjective may be attached to a pronoun as well ' as to a noun. My younger sister is ill. The tall corporal's hat was knocked off. The wisest men are sometimes mistaken. She wore a large man's hat on her head. of the Neuter Gender.' ' " or Interrogative Adjective Pronoun. She is the prettiest of all my cousins. He is quite a ladies' man. Some careless person has upset the ink. The schools are well managed. Others (in the plural) is a Substantive Pronoun. Each boy shall have a great piece of cake. Will you have hot or cold milk? Which boy is the cleverest? Here is bread. Attend carefully to those examples where there is a noun in the possessive case. will you have some? No. Few and brief were the prayers we said. but does not describe it. and see which nouns the adjectives qualify (§§ 96. ' 191 Which hcmd will you have ? Which :— A Demonstrative Adjective noun hand. He took a three days' journey. One ' is an Indefinite Substantive Pronoun. He fitted a Chubb's patent lock to his desk. 97). \_ltpomfs interrogatively /^ a certain hand. which will you have? That is the ripest pear. Parse all the adjectives (including the articles) in Those in italics qualify a noun which is the following sentences. When ihis and that are not attached to a noun expressed or understood. My youngest brother has gained the second prize in his class. The little girls' frocks were torn. I went to see him one day lately. Give me the other hand. Every * one was quiet. Ripe apples are nicer than sour * ones. When no noun can be conveniently supplied with the adjective. or refer to its quantity. Your elder brother lost some money yesterday. He cropped the black horse's tail. Supply the noun when necessary. Give me some more meat. The girls' lessons are too long. girls' Exercise 38. The elder boys' behaviour was excellent. T/ies(' are my children. He keeps a large boys' school. A. I will not have atty. the adjective itself must be regarded as a substantive (§ 98J. Have you any other sisters ? Of these wines I prefer the red to the white.EXERCISES. 7Vta( is the least atonement he can make. and in the Nominative or Objective case (§ 145). I have done a good day's work.] It is joined attributively to the Exercise 37. Few men are his superiors. That little girl has no milk. The poor suffer more than the rich. Which of these books is yours? Where are the others ?+ John is //4if cleverest % in the class. You will know some day or oi/ier. Here are two books. I have had a whole day's anxiety. understood. He bought the handsomest lady's dress in the shop.

worthy. durable. dare you tell me that ? I cannot undertake this. I. shall How be content with that. for an infinitive mood . able.192 . This quite altered our plans. you will suffer for it. splendid. good. leader. and your father that will amuse him. popular. It would have been better for him if he had never known if it is convenient. sheriffj captain. XXII. to surrender . I This is the very coinage of your brain. simple. 329)- Exercise 40. hold my tongue about the matter. sweet. a gerund. broad. however difficult // may be. I will call upon you to-morrow I will help you if it is possible. monstrous. I think it best to // vexes me that he should act in this way. — Nature and formation of Abstract Nouns 314. obstinate. but he would not not see it. ' This and that are sometimes employed in a for a 2. mayor. temperate. long. slow. abundant. infirm. colonel. ' this. give it. Read these letters to His father threatened to disinherit him. poor. Abstract Nouns. is I Our duty to my claim. that man. martyr. but this I would not allow. jovial. often stands for an infinitive mood. sour. It is impossible to tell It grieved him to lose so much money. silent. jealous. wicked. sad. able. He does not frighten me by that. father. but I could obey the dictates of conscience. king. wide. for the act or fact stated in a sentence 4. Give the abstract nouns which correspond to the following adjectives : Pure. I can never believe that. . child. bad. for the gerund ' It or infinitive that denotes such an act or fact in an abstract form. but I could absolutely impossible. if it be not He said that the matter was self-evident. B. priest. Give the abstract nouns derived from the following nouns Friend. large. zz. Preliminary Lesson. pious. blue. State clearly what the words in sentences : italics stand for in the following not manage hoped to get here before noon. but I woi/td not consent to that. son. did not tell me. magistrate. or a sentence that is going to be used.' ' that. ihat brought him to his senses. sovereign. widow. If you do not give up these bad habits. white. believe it. infant. quick. . humble. what the result will be. man. useful. Exercise 39. innocent. : relation. it to me. meek. near. He thought of enlisting as a soldier. (§§ 32.' and ' it ' may or gerund with its adjuncts 3. wise. I think it very strange that he It is very likely that he will come to-morrow. ' ' ' similar manner. brief. red. We all knew that the attempt was hopeless. just. sharp. stand. He asked me There is a pen. dead. soft. distant. The demonstratives noun . italics in the fullovving Parse the words in sentences : That was a great disappointment to us. regent. It is of no use trying to help him. prudent. brilliant. To comply with your request is difficult. merry. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

F. acidity. . shrievalty venience piety . protect . strength. The We poverty o . . advance. displace . thrift . amplitude. declension. He aspired to enter the ranks of the sculptures over the porch are very fine. . absolve . ponderosity. justify. growth tilth decision coercion defence derision. Some poetry is hardly worth the fine arts. candour. health. dependence. wisdom. Form Abstract Nouns (not ending following verbs . The steeple is of immense height. grandeur. measure. are estrangement seclusion injection thought flight reflection conception adaptation . Painting was his chief pursuit. grandeur. seize . convene . fickleness. patience . suspend conceal steal . dearth. and explain the difference of meaning in each case Exercise : nobility. The vast field of nature is open reading. debase . suction . in -ing) corresponding to the deride Offend . depth. sonority. derange . pressure. invert . height . . prosperity. condescend . and two lines under those used in their concrete sense. judgment. infirmity. abstract. degrade . 193 Give the Adjectives from which the following Abstract Nouns : are derived Nobility. elegance. D. laughter. breadth. . destroy . proceed . dissect . strength . rigidity. sing. invent . suppleness elegance . move. insipidity. . exact . deceive . . . please . greenness. wisdom. height. complete . Nothing relieved of the height. steal. youth. composition. mayoralty . rascality . . valour. death. magnanimity. legibility. I bought a the solitude of his existence. . senility. Can you tell me the age of that child ? This has been the case to our gaze. ductility. uprightness . mortality weakness durability. soon reached the summit in all ages. That is the nature of the animal. Sculpture is one of He has the gift of poetry. acidity . sleepiness. deviate . weigh. action. C. conhumility . thieve . addition. durability. fix . . depart . and draw one under the nouns used in their adstraci sense. width. arrange . . elevation. crown . patience. E. Give the adjectives or nouns from which the following abstract nouns are formed — : Fickleness impertinence dependence . boredom . . He made a solitude and called it peace. treat . width. suppleness. girlhood. con^ tract . depth . stupidity. multiply .EXERCISES. Write out the following sentences. heroism. Intrusion . brevity . depress . . Give the verbs from which the following Abstract derived : Nouns . line 41. . splendid painting yesterday. . . erase. infirmity. hate. . These alms-houses are the refuge of old age and I admire nobility of character. interrogate . .

' ' . He went away. It ' "i answers the an Adverb of Place. Examples. • To modify a verb is to state some modt or condition. denoted by the verb is performed. " Whither ' ? adjective. Preliminary Lesson." it is Seldom answers Therefore " the question How often do we see him?' an Adverb of Time modifying the verb see. They Boon returned. We went thither. He went straightway." ' ' Too or is a word which shows to what degree that answers the question how bad ? Therefore Adverb of Degree. modifying the verb ' lives. I will go thither directly. She is upstairs. He always contradicts me. John often writes to us. — Nature and use of Adverbs.' ' ' is it is bad an ' ** He came yesterday Yesterday is the question ' When did he come ? '). or Adverbs of Time answer the is to be taken. Adverbs. modifying the verb ' came.' Exercise 42. The troops fought splendidly. Deal as in the above examples with each of the Adverbs in the following sentences : I saw him yesterday.' ^ * My uncle lives there. ' Manner * answer the question How ? ' Adverbs of Adverbs of Degree show to other adverb questions ' what degree or extent' the meaning of a verb. Now attend to me. They rode along together.' *' a word that shows when he came (or answers an it is We seldom see him. ' ' in or under which the action . adverb to which they are attached (§§ 259-265). We lay down to sleep." is Abruptly a word that shows how the mountain rises (or answers the question How does the mountain rise ')• Therefore it is an Adverb of Manner. The children played indoors. My friends live yonder. Mary plays beautifully. modifying the verb rises.'' ' " Thai is too bad. adjective. When ? ' ' How long ' ? ' ' How ' ' often ? ' Adverbs of ' ' Whence ? Place answer the questions Where ? Adverbs are usually said to modify* the verb." (or is There shows the place where my uncle lives question Where does my uncle live ').194 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. or The mountain rises abruptly from the plain. modifying the adjective bad. Therefore Adverb of Time. XXIII.

To parse an Adverb state to which class belongs. what its degree of comparison is (if it admits of comparison). That happened a year ago. ! much surprised. Exercise 47. of State the Degree of Comparison of each of the the following sentences. but Thomas reads better. I am very He walked backwards. brother came He is most attentive to his work. He works harder than ever. 4-1. or even standing by itself. XXIV. He is most careful in his conduct acted tnore prudently than his friend. giving the three degrees. John reads He My Exercise 45. He slept all night. very much obliged to you. Oh I am so tired. Parsing of Adverbs. The noun should be parsed often does duty for an adverb. last. He is a year older than I am. He is less restless to-day. He is far too extravagant. Day by day we magnify He comes bothering me day after day. I would sooner die. NounB used Lesson. rapidly. adjective. adjective or noun in the objective case with an Prelimmary some equivalent phrase. You speak too He is very learned. The project was monstrously foolish. I way. it of adverbs Exercise 48. or adverb it modities. soonest. I shall see you next week. He qjften comes here. Parse the Adverbs in Exercises 42 and 44. and point out what verb. He comes here four times a week. He walked yflr/z^^r than I did. Exercise 43. or adverb it modifies (§§ 274-276). He was an extremely wicked man. Make and ten containing adverbs ten sentences containing adverbs in the comin the superlative degree. — A Adverbially. adjective) some verb or adjective (§§370. They very soon returned. He comes oftener than ever. Exercise adverbs in italics in well. He was the least alarmed of all. I get up earlier than you. He is more composed. The children were here I would rather not go. 3 . Do not tell so many stories. I am almost penniless. I placed my hand thus. That poor man is the worst hurt. Parse the nouns in italics in the following sentences : time have I played with him. X95 Stand so. They get up very early. parative degree. Vou write worse than your brother. with its as being in the Adverbial Objective. He turned his head another Thee. I am I am much obliged to you. Make half a dozen sentences to illustrate the use each sort of adverb contained in the preceding examples.EXERCISES. This is many deg7-ees better than that. I have seen him many times. adjective. The bird is quite dead. and what verb. We have got thus far on our journey. or when taken 267). travelled all night. He Many a . modifying (either singly.

I have no ink. used with an adverbial force. Parse the words in italics in the following senences. He came sooner. He slept (?// niylit. He knows more than he tells. He travelled arrived post- XXV.^'' Here tnuck and 'more' are substantives. ' ' " Much has been revealed. When they are used as subjects or objects of verbs. come a day day and night. ' Exercise 48. and Adverbs reduced to the form of Adjectives. On the other hand. We have much He is ?nuch worse to-day. Adjectives used Adverbially. will you have a little ? He told me less than his brother. He is more con1 am much happier. The long and tlie short of it is. tented.' and more' is an adjective qualifying ' ' * money understood. but inoj'c remains behind. He is the best dressed thich and thin. modifying (i) a verb. or (more sitnply) as substantives. cause for thankfulness. brother." Here much is an adjective qualifying money. the substantival adjectives. I will follow you through He is my Ixst friend I did my best. ^// bloodless lay the untrodden snow. his brother has more. You know most about it. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. It is better now to parse as simple adverbs." Here '«(?'is an adverb modifying the adverb ' ' better. being impossible to supply These (like nouns) are often any particular noun with them. They once had the dative inflexion. '''/do not 'much'' ' is much admire him. I • 'No/ as an adverb. He is all powerful here.S. 1 have enough. He has lost a//. (2) an adjective. may be taken as the simple adverb 'na' = never (A. are used as substantives. carefully distinguishing the adjectives proper. ceedings. they should be parsed as substantival adjectives. could hear no more. Lesson. We hand and foot. . That is all nonsense. I He is_«o * wiser than before. .' " He has not much money . Here is some wine. '^ Here '•''He is no better. the subjects of the verbs that follow them." He is not much happier!'' an adverb. it especially those of Quantity. Do not let us hear ?nore of that. or after prepositions. Much remains to be done. and become identical in form with adjectives. Preliminary — Many them adjectives. many adverbs which once ended in -e have lost that inflexion. that I had uiy ]iains for nothing. In general I approve of his proMuch depends upon his answer. and the adverbs : — gave him ait I had. man in the room.). He has more ability than hi!. The town forth bound is ten viilcs distant.196 could not haste.

I have heard a little about that affair.' An adjective used as a substantive may still J be modified by an adverb. Preliminary Lesson. Come near the fire.{// over the yard. In That decision was right.' and therefore is a quantitative adjective attached to the noun. Rela- which they indicate. 278). He bought two mo)'e loaves. it is an adverb. I ne'er shall look upon his like again.' The sense is I will take in \ rtr/i/Z/^V). He swore like a trooper. He cut right future times he will be famous. is not any more diligent than he was before. I cannot say more. /// weeds thrive apace The The house is ill built. He is more to blame than I am. He is XXVI. through the helmet. You are very much in fault. O Lord. else* He was is but I Nobody there. ' in sufficient when it here an adverb modifying 'more./ one glass. We are near neighbours. meaning.) little reflection will . it is an adjective. when joined to a singular noun like glass. He was a very thunderbolt of war. The more part knew The more the merrier {§ 265. Will you lake some more wine. The construction of this sentence is our guide to that of the four "No" is ' ' ' : — ' A ' ' ' uext.' never') is an adverb modifying ' ' ' ' ' never used as an adverb. and I will take no less. He is no tnore contented than he used to be. modifying the verb will take. is little That expect not a a tnost lovely prospect. We have a choice between good and ///. ' ' ' more. t Enough a substantive. little gratitude. He is less restless than he was yesterday. There is but a step from the sublime to the ridiculous. That is the very least you can do.' 'nothing inferior in amount. He is pretty sure of the prize. 5). cry did knock against love John best. He was moi-e frightened than hurt. whole qidintiiy of trouble taken. You know best. no trouble in addltum [to what you have taken]. You must take me for better or worse. When it denotes that one ac'ii'n resembles another. The I A\y best friend. ' Words which they ' join (§§ 277. That is a pretty picture. and no (= A. earth turns i-ound. i9. He is a better writer than I am. tions * is ' Prepositions. He was discoursing about the true and the just. I am your equal. We were just starting. Enough has been done. He wears a round hat. Take no more H trouble. She not wherefore they were come together. — Nature and use of Prepositions. I cannot write a7ty better. more is equivalent to further. I will accept nothing less. let me hear some tnore.' except Else is always an adverb ' IS best taken as an adverb. I heard a// the speech. I did my best. Hear the right. Whoever is most diligent will meet with ?nost success." (Compare the German «o<:/i and the French encore.show that more could have no meaning as a quantitative adjective. I heard (Z /. abundance. He has «<? wtTcf ** sense than a goose. I ask {cixnpX more.' The next example is different . my very heart.S. They have money enough. have enough and to spare. Do not take more trouble. ' + When like ' ' ' ' . He sailed all round the world. I will not take any more. \ •s ziery tall. The future is hidden from our gaze. He is likeW my brother. ni. He He is no wiser than I. The corn was scattered . ' II Some ' ' ' is More does not measure the "i That is. I will take one more § glass. Such a round of pleasures is wearisome.' denotes personal resemblance. You are very kind. He ran all round the park. I We from him. Do your best. Jt This word is an adjective qualifying the substantive 'nothing.adverb. || have not meat enough. *• Here more does measure the whole quantity of ' sense.EXERCISES.W We heard nothing inore of him. More is here an .p little He shows but better.

books on the table." ' Over ' is a preposition governing the noun wall in the objective case. in A Exercise 50. it is a preposition.^ in the objective case. That comes after. "He Is afraid of me . We shall start the day after to-morrow.' the in the Parse the prepositions in the following sentences in above examples : Pick up the books on the floor. Do not lag behind. He departed before my arrival. Do not sit on the table. He cut " Three thousand a piece off\hc loaf The stick is loo long . " He leaped over the wall. The tub is full of water. Do not touch the all evil. We arrived the day before yesterday. walked along the road. ran after me. My father lives London. I saw Jane in the kitchen. I have in my hand a letter from my father. " ' I see a mouse on ' noun floor It shows the ' thefloor. person (me).' (mouse) to another (floor). ' ' C. People in trouble often go to him. Adverbs and Prepositions. walked by the river." ' Of is a preposition governing the pro' noun 'me' in the objective It shows the relation of an Exercise 49. 284). Grief at the loss of his money turned him crazy. ' ' On is and joining B. 51. cut a piece off. He spoke to me at the close of the meeting. The box was painted within and without. I will come by and by. it. A. I am anxious about liis safety. XXVII. Preliminary Lcsson. Come along. Make ten sentences in which a preposition shows the relation of a thing to a thing j ten in which it shows the relation ot an action to a thing . table. The storm passed by. We saw the men in armour. He works at the factory. I am weary of work. I rode inside the omnibus. I am fond of music. relation of one i/n'/t_g' a preposition governing the it to the noun * mouse. Parse the words in itahcs in the following sen- He got up behind.198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. afraid. She stayed within the house. same way as case. When (§§ there is no noun or pronoun governed by Exercise tences : it is an adverb 279. I told you all tliat before. and joining it to the adjective attribute (afraid) to ^. When it governs a noun or pro- noun. Pie rode outside. He spoke of me. blow on the head knocked him down. The love of money is the root of Dick rode to York. Examples.' It shows the relation of an act (leaping) to a thnig (wall). Tliere is a garden behind the house. and ten in which it shows the relation of an attribute to a thing. He We We .—ThQ same word is often used both as an adverb and as a preposition. Run routtd the The earth turns round. He shrank from the danger. and joining it to the verb leaped.

(§§ 194. will.EXERCISES. 195). iliary Infinitive Mood. and in the (simple) Infinitive Mood. Find a dozen words which may be used either as Adverbs or as Prepositions. " / 10 ill never forget yoit. depending on (or governed by) the verb ''may.' ' ' Go ' is a Transitive Verb."* so money come withal. dicative Mood. Present Tense and in the Singular Number and the Second Person. and in the [or the object of) the (simple) Infinitive will. I'll perfect him withal Exercise 52. and the Second Person to agree with its subject you. may. and make sentences to illustrate their use.' Mood. depending on (or and in the governed by) the verb " 'shall. Past Indefinite Tense. —A. in the Active Voice. Indi' Mood." "I must wait and watch withal. depending on " TJiou shall not steal.' « He did his duty. 199 " Nothing comes amiss. 184). Present Tense and in the Plural Number. to agree with ' its the Active Voice." ' Shalt cative ' is a defective (notional) verb . Nattire Shall.' in it * ' Withal. Infinitive (simple) Mood. to agree with its subject thou. t The so-called Potential Mood is a perfectly unnecessary invention. XXVIII. In. never precedes the word which placed :it the end of the sentence.^'' 'May' is a defective (notional) verb. . but is . Present Tense ' ' : — ' . and Number and the Third Person to agree with Active Voice. in the Active Voice. the Singular Numsubject /. in the Mood. in the Active Voice.'' You may go." 'Did' is a Indicative notional Transitive Verb." A defective (notional) verb Will and Indicative Mood.^'' " Her cause and yours. in the Active Voice. the Singular its subject ' He.' when used as a preposition. .' in in ' Forget verb ' : — A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice. governs. verbs (§ Mustf and can Examples.'' is 'Steal' a Transitive Verb. ducats we freely cope your courteous pains withal. The Preliminary Lesson. ber and First Person. and do and use of the Simple Infinitive as notional and as atixare always notional verbs.

way as the simple tense for which it is a substitute. The cry did J knock against my very heart." Here 'may a mere auxiliary of the Subjunctive Mood. Thus be treated as eiiuivalent to knocked.' " He will come presently Here 'will' ^ is a mere auxiliary of the future tense.' The verb does not itself constitute an emphatic form. I shall I will go with you. The compound form is emphatic only when an emphasis is laid upon the do. depart may be parsed separately. I dare not go back. I cannot do what I will. You would not have my help when you might. " / shall soon departs Here ' shall ' is an auxiliary (not a notional) verb. The notion of volition is entirely lost sight of. We will never yield When shall \ you see your brother? Wherewithal shall a young to threats. You need not stay.''' " Did you hear the rain f " ' ' In these examples ' do ' and ' did ' are mere auxiliaries. and specify in the case of the finite verbs whether they are used as notional or as auxiliary verbs : — can dance. nr else taken with the dependent infinitive. and the compound in the same. Does your father know of this? May I come in? Thou shalt not steal.' But then any form is emphatic when it is emphasized. He shall not know of it. He said that he did not choose to come. You may go. It does not assert that he is able or is pertnitted to vex me. I will do my best. He did what he could. You do assist does not differ in the least in sense from you assist. He will soon return. He durst not go home. or the compound phrase shall depart may be parsed as the future tense of the verb it ' ' 'depart' depends upon in the same manner depart. stay. He could not reply. It may be treated like shall' the last example. You must go directly. ' ' " He does this that he ' may -vex me. m " Yotc do assist the storm.2©0 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. "You do * assist the storm. He would not come when I called him. He says that he will not come. He said that he would not come. infinitive The simple ' ' in ' ' ' as The two verbs shall and the preceding examples. You might have gone an hour ago. and is in the Subjunctive Mood itself The notion of power or permission has altogether vanished. That boy shall be made to hold his tongue. We • When ' do ' is separately. You shall not have it. man cleanse his way ? 1 did not call yesterday lest I might seem intrusive. ' a mere auxiliary (whether emphatic or unemphatic) it may be parsed form may be parsed Did knock' may ' : . Parse all the verbs in the following sentences. + See \ 2IO. is Exercise 53. You need not be alarmed. They would keep on making a noise.' Sue the preceding examples. I could leap over that wall once.

To obey is useless to ask him. I shall be sorry /<? leave. the ' ' — " He thinks it better not to co7ne" Here ' it of the verb thinks.* I am happy to They are come to stay with us. forming the temporary subject of the verb is. is . He came to pay me some money. I was not prepared to hear that news. To work hard is the way to succeed. We We We Make ten sentences in which a gerundial infinitive the subject of a verb ten in which it is the object of a verb . Such a fellow is not fit to live. Help me io carry this. and Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood.' ' ' Exercise 54. I am delighted to see* you. to indicate its construction. in the Singular Number and Nominative Case. The and neuter pronoun * it' is often used as a temporary or pro- visional subject or object. 196). I am sorry to hear* that. to show that an infinitive is coming. He was rude enough to contradict * me. He did his best to ruin me. He dislikes to be kept waiting. I am glad to hear* it. does the work of an adverb.* The boys had a long task to do. . Active Voice. • In these cases the gerundial infinitive does the work of an adverb. tive. went up to the man to ask our way. found it imfind* you so much better." Here to meet is a transitive verb in the Present Indefinite Tense of the Infinitive Mood. It is // is easy to see that. forming the real subject of the verb is. The water is not fit to d?-ink. or infinitive — ' B. When it denotes the purpose or cause of an action or state. She was overjoyed to hear* of her son's return. " He ran to meet me. He hopes to hear from you soon. Sometimes it expressea the came of the state deoeted by the adjective.' and the infinitive to come ' is ' ' is the temporary object the real object. possible /<? go on. and modifies the preceding adjective. Exercise 55.EXERCISES. used wiih the force of an adverb modifying the verb 'ran. found it advisable to return." 'It' is a Neuter Demonstrative Pronoun of the Third Person. and ten in which it does the work of an adverb. The master called the boy to say his lesson. Nature and use of the gerundial with to' (§§ 194. 201 infini- Preliminary Lesson. " // is tiselcss to make the atte/npt. Parse the verbs in italics and the following sentences in the way indicated above : word ' it ' in the better than sacrifice.* He is too clever to make* such a mistake.' ' 'To make': in A Transitive Verb in the Active Voice.' and governing 'attempt' in the objective case. As it the subject or object of another verb it does the work of a substantive. He is anxious to do* his duty.

ought to be punished. There was a great deal of shouting and clapping of hands. J Forty and six years was this temple By sedulously doing his started before the rising of the sun.^'' Fanned is the Perfect (or Past) Participle ' qualifying the '' noun ' fire. ' Fanned by the wind.' My honou7'ed master bade me Honoured' is tell you this. the open plain. ' fan. Participles.' • When the verbal noun in -ing does not govern an object it may be treated as a simple abstract noun. Participles used absolutely 201. Gervmds and Prelimmary Lesson." the Perfect Participle of the verb 'honour. Thinking ' had belter be taken in such con. 5). He strode Seeing* man A We We We We My bowing right and left to his guests.and the Gerund. This must be treated as a compound gerund. we advanced into duty he gained the approbation of all. XXIX. I see a is believing.202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. riding on horseback. The I like reading history. tions as the Abstract Noun in -ing. he pressed my hand. taking a short cut. and draw one line under the Abstract Nouns in -ing j two lines under the Gerunds three lines under the imperfect (Active) participles : . were late in consequence of having lost+ at having succeeded -i* in his design. something wicked this way comes. — Study §§ 197-202. 202." 'smile. withdrew his demand.)i XXX. 370. By the noble partner you greet with great prediction of noble having. In keeping Thy commandments there is great reward.' used as an Adjective of Quality. 'Smiling' is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb qualifying the pronoun ' he. There is here a confusion between the Abstract Noun. the fire blazedfiercely. He is delighted fell in with a ship sailing to America. PreUminary ordinary (§§ '' Parsing of Participles.' to which it is of the verb joined attributively. Lesson. No good can come of your doing On some opposition being made he that. He was angry at my going away. It is impossible to construct the abstract noun in -j»^ with a past participle. up the hall quence of pricking his hand with a poisoned dagger. arrived there first through His conduct is in keeping with his professions. in building. I lay a thinking. "You do draw my spirits from me with new lamenting § ancient oversights " (Shaksp. — Participles proper. Exercise 56.' ' ' " Smiling faintly. our way. Write out the following sentences. He went to see the hunting of the snark. 282. Participles used as Qualitative Adjectives. Oblige me by all leaving the room. qualifying the noun master. excessive reading of novels is injurious. lying witness He hates lying. Quitting the forest. I like reading. He died in consepricking of my thumbs. § ' ' ' .struci Here a is a preposition {= at iir in).

you have done falcon. The The ship was built rack. He bought a deferred annuity. He was stretched stretched upon his bed. smilitig Morn. The general rode in front. Use of the verb Do. very well. the object of the transitive participle ' considering. of a certain act.EXERCISES. ' ' ' case.' ' ' . and separate the following sentences into two groups. * * ' ' j ' . He was children are famished. I plunged in. and preceded by a pipe and tabor. A A Exercise 58. t ' Did ' and hear may be parsed separately. the whole neighbourhood came out to meet their minister. Accoutred as I was. towerinjj in her pride of place. joined attributively to the ' ' noun ' Morn. The troops were surprised by the enemy. upon uneasy pallets stretching thee. was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed.' &c. Considering your age. Look at that smiling villain. The string is stretched too tight. Smiling scornfully. and hushed with buzzing night flies to thy slumber. Generally speaking he dines at home. The prisoner was starved to death. splendid charger. we will be with you to-morrow. XXXI. dressed in their fine clothes.' &c. The ship was built of iron. —The elements of an Interrogative sentence its ' same way as those of the declarative Compare Did you hear ? and 'I did hear t Who told you so ? and He told me so Whom did you meet ? and I met John. in the second class wft get a statement of the results of the act." Smiling is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb ' smile. I caught sight of the thief climbing in at the window. Parse the Participles in the following sentences : Hope deferred maketh the heart sick. wounded spirit who can bear? liest thou in smoky cribs. or taken together as equivalent to ' heard. one containing those in which the verb be and the perfect participle form a tense of the passive voice. The captives were already slain. Being apprised of our approach.' are related to each other in the sentence which would be ' complete answer. The poor man was hurt. mounted on a " Why rather. I was surprised by his behaviour. Interrogative and Negative Sentences. The poor man is badly hurt. " Considering all thitigs. than in the perfumed chambers of the great. Where do you live ? and I live there. ' ' ' ' ' ' * * In these we get a statement of the actual doing." Barring accidents.' " Hail." ' 203 sider. I am surprised that you do not see that.' Exercise 57. They were slain by order of the captain.' used as an ordinary Qualitative Adjective. Sleep.* the other containing those in which the participle is a mere qualitative adjective : upon the by contract.. Preliminary Lesson. he strode into the circle. he has done very well.' Considering is the Imperfect Active Participle of the verb 'conThings is a noun in the objective used absolutely (§ 282). Study § 214.

' ' ' ' ' . ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 'thou. — Study § 191. Take the answers them into the negative form.) Will you meet me there to-morrow? Did the man go away? Have the boys hurt themselves? Are you happy? brother do that? turn Exercise 60. or some adjective or adverb. and then XXXII. Exercise 61. Exercise 59. " Sentences. . Imperative Preliminary Lesson. and adverbs in the following Parse the verbs and the interrogative pronouns and sentences (§§ 152-154 270).' • an intransitive verb in the Active Voice. to the preceding questions.] . and then parse all the words in each : Have you any money? Did your Did you say so? Does your sister sing well? Will your father return tomorrow? Shall you be afraid to go? (See | 210. Go thou and do • likewise^ Go ' is Mood.204 . when it is an interrogative pronoun.' u. Give the complete sentences which are answers to the following questions. 'where governed by the preposition to or from. Imperative Second Person Singular. and the same numeral is placed after an interrogative pronoun and the preposition that governs it.a) is placed after those interrogative pronouns (or pronominal adjectives) which qualify the nouns that they precede. should be taken as doing duty for an interrogative pronoun. to agree with its subject Parse whose as an interrogative pronoun of common gender. in the possessive case depending on the noun 'pen. X In cases like this. full. [In the first few sentences (s) is put after the subject and (o) after the object of the verb. called me ? What (<?) did you say ? Which («) way is the shortest ? What did you eat for supper? On what (rt) day do you set out? Where (3) do (i) do you hope for (i) ? (2) are you writing to (2) ? you live (3) ? (4) far (4) did you walk ? {s) Who What (0) Whom How ? Which boy made that noise ? What author do you did you see ? On what day are you waiting for ? do you set out? Where did you find that book? Whither are you going? Whose * pen is this? What happened yesterday ? What comes ? next like best Whom Whom What ails you? In which house does your uncle live? What poet's writings please you most ? On what day do you set out ? When f will you t come ? t did you do that ? How t many persons were present ? often do you write home? t do you say that ? How t soon will you come ? Where J are you going to ? Where J do you come from ? How How Why Write answers to all the questions in this exercise in turn these answers into the negative form.u t Mind that an interrogative adverb modifies either the verb of the sentence in which it ' ' occurs. and after an interrogative adverb and the word that it modifies and (.







parsed in the same way, except that thou understood.
' '

agrees with a


nie sec that''

'Let and

a transitive verb in the Active Voice, Imperative second person plural, to agree with its subject understood.*


in the




is a transitive verb in the Active Voice, and in _the ' (simplej infinitive mood depending on (or governed by) the




Let me go. Let him see
cautious in



in the objective case,

governed by



Exercise Q^. Parse Come hither,

the words in the following sentences


boys ?t Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. it. Let me be Let us be spared this annoyance. Let us pray. the business. Do be quiet, boys.

XXXIII. Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.
Preliminary Lesson.

— Study



— 164.

He is iJian 'Who' is



beloved by


a Relative Pronoun, of the Masculine Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'man.' It is in the nominative case because it is the subject of the verb is beloved.' It joins the clause who is beloved by all to the noun man.'




" That


the lady luhose

husband you met yesterday."


a Relative Pronoun of the Feininine Gender in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent 'lady.' It is in the Possessive Case depending J on (or qualifying) the noun 'husband.' It joins the clause whose husband you mot yesterday to the noun lady.'




the matt

whom you


to see."

" }'ou



in the objective case, the object of the


'to see.'

have not brought mc the book that T asked you for." is a Relative Pronoun of the Neuter Gender, in the Singular Number and of the Third Person, to agree with its antecedent book.' It is in the objective case, governed by the preposition for.' It joins the clause that I asked you for' to the noun book.'







You is always a fcraviiiintical plural. Parse 'boys as a Vocative, or Nominative of Address. If who.<;e be treated as the possessive case of a substantive pronoun, it must be parsed t like a noun in the possessive If whose be regarded as on a par Vkfith ttiy, our, his, &c., it must be dealt with as an adjective.









The construction of a relative clause is word for word the same as that of the clause which results when a demonstrative pronoun, or the antecedent noun is substituted for the relative. Thus That I asked you for' is hke 'I asked you for it (or the book) ': 'Whose husband you met her husband yesterday.' y(?li met yesterday is lilce
' ' '

Exercise 63. Parse all the Relative Pronouns in the following sentences, and test the construction by substituting demonstratives for the I'elatives as in the above examples

painted that picture here is the pen which I gave you ? I who am poorer than you are, am contented. Thou, who wast my friend and guide, hast forsaken me. You, who have done the damage, must repair it. We who are well ofl should pity and help the poor. He is a man whose appearance is j repossessing. The boys whose w oik is finished may go out to play. He that is down need fear no fall. I will show you the horse which I bought yesterday. The picture which pleased you so much was painted by my brother. You have not brought me the volume that He is the yery man that I was speaking oi. Their soriows' 1 asked for. shall be multiplied that hasten after another God. It is that that grie\es me. " Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes, This that you tell me is incredible. which art my near'st and dearest enemy?" ''I am that very duke which was thrust from Milan." "Whosoever* hath, to him shall be given." " Eles.'-ed is he whosoever shal' not be offended in Me." He doth sin that doth belie the dead. Whose hatred is covered by deceit, his wickedness shall I e showtd before the whole congregation. Thty are but faint-hearted whose courage fails in time of danger. He to-day that .sheds his blocd with me shall be my brother. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married the man all tattered and torn, that kissed the maiden all forlorn, that milked the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed the dog if.ai worried the cat that killed the rat that ate lihe malt that lay in the house "that Jack built.'

The man whom you met
last year.



never saw the

The artist who man whom you speak ol.



Exercise 64. The antecedent of the neuter relative which is often the fact stated in a previous sentence, or the (implied) gerund or infinitive which expresses that act or fact in an abstract manner, as, " The king's two sons are stolen away and fled, which (namely, the fact that the king's two sons are stolen away and fled) puts upon them suspicion of the deed." State clearly what ii'/z/V// stands lor in the following sentences
' ' ' '

promised to follow my advice, which was the best thing he could do. "And, studied hard all the morning, after which we went for a walk. which is more than all these boasts cnn be, I am beloved of Hcrmia." *' I see thee still, and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood, which was not so " Thou didst smile, which raised in me an undergoing stomach (i.e. before." courage to otdurc).'"



Exercise 65.

Supply (and parse) the relative pronouns which are the following sentences (sec § 164).
that of the simple relatives.

• The parsing of these compound rel.itives does not differ from They should be described as compound, or indc/itiitc relatives.

Pay me the money you owe me.


You have not sent the goods I bought received the money I sent you ? That is the place I "I have a mind presages very man I was looking for. went to. me such thrift, that I should questionless be fortunate. " That is not the way Those are the very words he used. Is the task I set you finished yet ? I came. He is not the man I expected.

Have you You are the


a dozen sentences in

which a suppressed


may be

Exercise 66. When which accompanies and qualifies a noun, it should be parsed as a Conjunctive Pronominal Adjective.' It then generally refers to the 'general sense of the last sentence, but has no Parse which in the special antecedent in place of which it stands. following sentences
' '




I may be detained longer than I expect, in which case do not wait for rne. hope you will stay till Tuesday, on which day I expect my brother. He made a humble confession, by which means he averted his lather's displeasure.

Exercise 67. Supply the antecedents which are understood in the following examples




purse, steals trash.

"Who was





make fast. I may neither And whom he strikes, his

the thane, lives yet. clioose whom I would, nor refuse
cruel tushes slay.



"Whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted." I That is not what 1 sent dread what * is coming. I hear what you are saying. you for. You are telling me what is incredible. I cannot consent to t what you ask. That is just what I cannot understand. You have not done what Have you found what you were looking for ? What astonished you promised. me most was his imprudence. What pleases you will please me.
that, told

a falsehood.


Relative (or Conjunctive) Adverbs.

Prdiniinary Lesson.

— Study



— 265.
that clause to the predicate

Conjunctive adverbs modify a verb, adjective, or adverb in the
clause which they introduce,

and Join

of the principal clause.
If a conjunctive adverb is equivalent to a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition (§ 406) it joins its clause to the antecedent











* Parse ' w/wi" as a neuter Relative Pronoun relating to a suppressed antecedent, whenever the sense of the sentence remains the same if that ivhich is substituted for 'tt'hut.' + Mind that this preposition does not govern what (which is the object of to ask '), but its suppressed antecedent that.'







was not at home when you called. I shall see you when I return. He This lay where he had fallen. I will follow you whithersoever you go. Co Tell me the reason why you left the room. is the house where I live. bought Show me the shop where you back to the place whence you came. him whenever 1 can. Wherever he lives, he will be happy. I go to see that.

Exercise 69.
Herein do

ceded by prepositions for the adverbial compounds.

In the following sentences substitute pronouns pre(See § 146.)

Thereon I pawn my credit. She dares not I exercise myself. 1 will hereupon confess I discovery. heart accords thereto. am in love. Present to her a handl.erchief, and bid her dry her weeping eyes therewith. Whereunto shall I liken this generation ? Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? You take from me the means whereby I live.



Exercise 70.








long to


the truth of this at large.


food shall be withered roots

The earth is the Lord's and its and husks in which the acorn cradled. lulness. Take this chain, and bid my wife disburse the sum on the receipt
of it.

rrclivimary Lesson.

classification of




— —

Study the definition and


parse a conjunction state what Part of Speech it is, and of what class, and state what words or sentences it couples together. The pairs both— and,' either or,' and neither nor,' may be taken together and parsed as correlative and co-ordinative conjunctions, joining such Subordinative conjunctions usually and such words or sentences. join the clause which they introduce to the predicate of the principal The conjunction than joins its clause to the preceding clause. comparative adjective or adverb.
' '







Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences


He neither came nor sent an excuse. A. He is jioor, but he is contented. He went out quickly and slammed the door. He shot a hare and two rabbits. Both [ohn and Henry came to see me. I will both lay me down in peace and I can neither eat nor [can Either I am mistaken, or you are. [I will] sleep.
1] sleep.

He told me that he had no money. You I have heard that he said so. If I had seen him, I would have spoken to be inmished if you do that. He would not help me, though he knew that I was in need. Though hand join hand in hand, the wicked shall not be unjjunishcd. You will lose tlie Take heed lest you fall. He spoke loud that prize unless you work harder. My I might .hear him. I cannot give you' any money, for I have none. He is richer than his brother [is]. He comes brother is taller than you are. oftener than [lie] ever [came]. As that is the case, I will come.


He was sorry after he had said it. ye shall all likewise perish. There is not a man here that I can trust. They stayed in Paris until I will wait until you return. but are conjunctions when followed by a clause containing a finite verb with its subject : — John arrived after his brother. since. else { some. &c. bearing in mind that words like before^ after.' Exercise 75. I lent you that book the very that you might read You ought clause is lost that book that I lent hint. 2og Exercise 72. He does that that he may vex me. that he may deceive me. Come 7uhen I call you. There is nobody but me at home. I hear that he has ' to know that that t/iat '* Exercise 74. They that will be rich fall into temptation. He says that we shall never succeed. = XXXVI. and the latter from the adverbs which have no syntactical connecting force. therefore have I spoken. (§§ 192. are prepositions. when followed by a noun or pronoun in the objective case. Parse the word tliaf wherever following sentences. have not eaten since yesterday. 430. Pie walked before me. but We We I will stay. the second conjunctive. consequently he lost the prize.. Since you say so. 289. that you see at the beginning of the a conjunction. it. N'ow you are here.) — Mood * 1. t When 'as' is used twice over correlatively. I am afraid that he says that. (Look at §§ 144. That book is mine. I will go no^d<. He is man that I want. their money was spent.EXERCISES. 148. Exercise 73. Do not go before I come. You may go. They stayed nntil the next day. you may as well stay. left after the concert was over. Except ye repent. He has not smiled since his son died. &c. is rich. I believed. That is otherwise) I would give you true and also new. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. He wasted his time in play . He did not say that. &c. from the relative or conjunctive adverbs. because I told you that before. I must believe it. Nature and use of the Subjunctive 423. but merely refer by their meaning to something that has gone before carefully distinguishing the conjunctions : — He came because I called him. and tkeirfore lie is He is as t stingy as he never unhappy.) ^ it occurs in the Show me that picture. He left soon after came. He is contented. first 'as' is always de>itoitstraiivc. The Preliminary Lesson. I have no money.. Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. I . 5.00k at § 349. 145. the word ' Make five or six sentences to illustrate each use of that. He is very rich nevertheless he is unhappy. They will go away before night. Subjunctive Mood. tlie P . Play me the tune that I like so much. AH except John were present.

it could not do it when he trieil. He ivoid i I but died M\ hour before this chance. when there is no reference to any other event. he had knozvn of it. He would have been " Had I had just finished when you came in. it is possible that zDould have been in his power. He says that thnt he may vex mt. ha I heai-d \. X This use of and the other preterite-present verbs.e. not open the door when I knocked. This herb may be met with almost everywhere. yon zuould help me. If he If he had done it. they labour in vain that build it. I would have done it if I had If this 'Mere true he would not deny it. have come. • ' ' ' ' . Oh that it were with me as in days that are money. He would not tell me if 1 asked him. he He could not do that if he tried. Last winter However bad the weather roses might be found blooming at Christmas. ]mst. build the house. thing worse happen to you.//. merely to denote past time.2IO • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. He . use of a past form in relation to present ii/ne. it was a very did it.\\e news. he would have confessed it. I haa lived a blessed time. desei-ves to be punished. I luouldl were a weaver. could %\Vig psalms or anything. !>-en able. if angry after Exercise 73.e. more diligent. He would have open:d the door if you had knocked. or of a past perfect." It is past in form. I luould not believe it. He came that he might beg money of me. You should % ftot tell lies.'•/// have come U he had wished {i. it is possible that he was in the house.. he kept it all to himself. and yet it should is peculiar. in the indicative mood must be parsed as notional. I would givi it to you. referring to present time. It nmy be very strange {i. The boys would not be quiet when I begged them to be so. If I had any If he zvere to swear to it.Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. foolish one. ' indicative is used • ' May. If he did that he If he has betrayed his trust.. Take care that dinner Live temperately that you may live {\ 423) long. be ! A Exerciss 77. If yovL had sent for m% 1 woiild If you lucre generous. You may keep the book. he would take a walk every day. It may have been my fault {i. Make ten sentences in which the if^ and ten in which the subjunctive is used. and blister you all o'er. is one of the marks of the Subjunctive Mood : — Wju in IV* go. If he If he were to make such a reply it -would be very foolish. I did not see him. &c). If he had heard the news. not as auxiWary verbs See Seciion XXVIII. Eiercise 78. If that was his reply. Except the Lord Peace be to his ashes. He may\ liave been in the house.. It follows the analogy of ought is indicative. Parse the verbs in italics in the following sentences. but He would be angry if he kne^v of it. it is but it is quite true. he would seriously displease me.' 'would. He <:('///</ not be kinder if he were vay brother." He tvoidd open the door if you knocked. or expresses one of the subjunctive ideas. carefully distinguishing the moods and noting whether the verb relates The to what is actual fact. might be. it is very strange). He would not have kept it to himself. I will never forgive him. \ That is. You might have won the prize if you had been possible that it was my fault). I south-west blo7ii on ye. and explain in each case why the subjunctive is used : Beware lest someready for me by two o'clock.' &c.e. The old man might be seen daily sitting in the porch.

and to what they are attached. " Pie attempted to ascend the mountain without a guide. a vieiv which was supported by the summing-up of the judge. I trod upon his corns. depending on ' ' 'dog. description Apposition.im's must be parsed as a compound proper noun." my brother Willi. often used to represent the fact stated in a previous senthen stands in a kind of apposition to the sentence. at the end of the compound name. are responsible. One noun in the possessive is never put in apposition to another. Explain and parse the nouns : in italics in the fallowing examples The general made a vigorous onset on the left of the Hne. but the t>vo nouns are treated as a single cotnpoitnd name. a viamxuvre which distracted the enemy's attention from the main attack. — Nature and classification of Attributive (§§ Phrases that do the work of Adjectives. My brother Robert is expected.it Jaiu-. it is in apposition to and same number and words in case. the I'ope's Ui^inte. distinguish them carefully Exercise pronouns in : — • That is.* in Exercise sentences : 79. an accident for which I apologized. Fetch your luide Johii's spectacles. He energetically declared that he knew nothing about the matter . Adjuncts. his earliest friend. came to England. Preliminary Lesson.) Point out the attributive adjuncts of nouns and 81. provided Dtle case is the nominative or objective. the author of that report. Parse the itaUcs the following He has gone to see liis au. summing up and repeating its import in a single noun which serves as the antecedent to a relative as. 211 XXXVII. a — When in the noun is attached without a consaid to be junction to another noun or pronoun. It .' . You. In such a phrase as " My brother William's dog. that is. and the possessive inflexion is only put after the second of the two nouns. the following examples. The coun-." is A noun tence. Preliminary Lesson. Attributive Adjuncts. XXXVIII. and in each case state of what When two or more they consist. adjuncts are attached to the same noun. Pan- duir. to give a more complete of the it.EXERCISES. 362 -364. in the possessive case. He has alienated even you. a denial for which I was not prepared. Exercise 80.el for the defendant argued that there was no case to go before a jury . an act which nearly cost him his life. person is or thing meant.

e. returned. I saw a house to let further on.«£'/j' kind. Adjuncts.' and ' white ' are adjuncts of the noun robe.' ' clothed in a long white robe.) Exercise 82. Madam Sylvia entreated me to call. He will be none (= by nothing) the wiser. by a hit) He \f. adjective or adverb the adverbial adjuncts in italics in the following sentences are respectively attached A. He is in an ««/«/w. He came forth l)ound handX and/c?('/. without a preposition The A ' i before it. The book is worth a guinea. seedy. He is [by] a great deal % worse. Thus 'a. Leave of absence was refused him. constitutes an Adverbial Adjunct. IVhy did you Hcru) many persons were there ? find a truer friend ? Vou struck Tom mc with his fist. cousin Henry died last week. fo-morro7V. The friends of the prisoner are very rich. I am fond of reading. Come started early.muchX (i. ENGLISH GRAMMAR.212 John's coat . Fearing to be caught in the rain. Give me now leave to leave thee. brother is My A rattling storm came on. Whose hat did you take ? I bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. . Preliminary Lesson. lame. His right to adopt that course was challenged. A clothed * We A A XXXIX. borrowed William's big two-bladed knife. will : We quickly. Thus in the above sentences the attributive adjuncts are ' complex attributive adjunct walking in the garden. verbs. I am none the worse. That is This is the hour thatX (= at which) the reason tkat\ [=for which) I did it. You are to return I am to take you home. What X [== for wkat purpose) ntud \vt any further witness? Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that He came (= • in which) I loved it first. of tills itind may contain a noun which has adjuncts of its own att^ched to it. He is a little better to-day. In these examples a noun (or substantive pronoun) in the objective. He spoke eloquently. Go thctwayX (i. ' long. we This is no time for trifling. Adverbial Adjuncts. It is [by] many degrees j colder. adjectives or other adverbs. To save time let us walk I was given to tmdeistand that you had left town. He is worthy of your love. />y that -way)." &c. are iti fault. to see We me.Vv good temper. I have a great deal to say to you. friend in need is a friend indeed. by muck) richer than I am. Collect all the sentences in Exercise 48 which contain adverbial adjuncts. t were talking about your I shall brothtr. He is not a bill better (i. The prisoner's guilt is manifest. State to what verb. Nature and classification of Adverbial Words and phrases which do the work of Adverbs. He is worthy of admiration. a man walking * in the garden.e. You be glad to hear the ne7vs. man soon reached the top of the mountain. across the park. you go away? B.e. Do not talk fad. (§§ — by modifying 370-— 372. Where are i?x/ri?. I see My Tom's pony is in a long white robe came up to me. X He left the very day that X{— on 7vhich) I came. His right to the property was disputed.' t Select from Exercise st all the examples of the Gerundial Infinitive used adverbially. He obtained permission to go. and f'ltrascs that attributive adjunct consists of the adjective or participle tixel Iter with nil the words are attached to it. Vou are to blame.

be modified by adverbs as well as any other forms of the verb. Pass nie the salt. I am not disposed to sell the horse. ^^'c 213 d<jy. It rained all see your brother next 'ucck. The dead were refused burial. his nostrils spread. " Bloodshot The his eye. We were told our faults. I am fond of riding on horseback. than I am. live in constant fear. had nothing to do. are glad to see you. \>YOceeA. ' ' ' ' ' ' We * \ Come more Add Gerunds started very early. I am satisfied. C. am much We We We We Why . I am content to be silent. did you say that ? \N here were you on duty last night ? He comes here every day. rained every The wall isjifty feet high.' 84:. I They walked He advanced cap in hand. sentences state of what they consist. It day last week. I will paint jjv« a picture. The cloth is worth a guinea a yard. He slept an untroubled sltep. I will pay you your account soon. This flower blooms all the year barefoot. Wait a bit. I was asked hrgixen his past offences. Do wt' the favour of hearing Yl<i \s \\\ie his father. I cannot ride to-day. and then show what words are modified by the subordinate adjuncts which the entire group contains. gave the Iwy a book on his birthday. The horses being exhausted we covXd no\. On reaching home we found that the rest had arrived before us. adjective or adverb they are attached :— . will be here to-night. their great leader slain. My pony being lame. He is not like his sister. You are to come home directly. Lord Marmion's steed rushed by. He approached me dagger in hand. first Exercise We . He built a wall ten feet thick. I have fought a good fght. what I have to say. In the case of the following complex adverbial point out to what the oitire group of words is attached. He was promised a rocking-horse. What is the matter with you ? He is too ready to take offence. He was paid Point out the adverbial adjuncts in the following Exercise 83. E. the troops withdrew. He spoke unusually well. Do not talk so fast. You are spending your time to no purpose. I They speedy deliverance. return with welcome home from banishment. Six frozen 'cuinters spent. My object having been attained." the words about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday constitute an adverbial adjunct to the verb 'were talking' while to your brother' and yesterday are adjuncts of the verb happened. D. . quickly. He accompanied us most of the way. He prayed for a displeased with your conduct. were all talking of tiie accident. " were talking about the accident that happened to your brother yesterday. The battle oz'er.EXERCISES. this question. t I shall be glad to to these ra. Thus in. We cannot live our lives over again." adjuncts. He was his bill.* The rest must perish.iy examples all those in Exercise iq which contain an Indirect Object. There is a church a mile distant from the town. To reign is worth ambition. He is a year older They arrived yesterday. F. and to what verb. Housing and saddle bloody red. loose rein dangling from his head. roiitid. I shall went to the theatre last nig/tt.

Exercise 85. He gave hnii his best wine to drink.e. except those in the absolute construction. arc engaged wc have a rubber. Parsing Exercise 87. What is called the Cognate Object is really one kind of adverbial objective. I am greatness. He Exercise 86. He is too feeble to make adhered to his determination to make the attempt. We shall spend next tveck in London. Papa goes to London every (fay. He did nothing towards helping me out of my difficulties. He accomplished the task tries are very great. 2\ that is..e.) Parse the words in italics in the following sentences. haviour. You have displeased me l)y your behaviour. mind what he was about. the Objective Case used adverbially). I cannot walk a step farther. He shouted to the boys at the top of his voice. Every cvfuiug the day.2 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. and a dozen in which it forms an adverbial adjunct. The master praised the boy at the top of the class. I see him most days. A man addicted to self-indulgence will not rise to He is fond of angling. Do your duty to him. Nouns occurring and not go- verned by prepositions. are attributive adjuncts. (See §§ 370— 372. You should do your best to repair your fault by working harder. He spends every other day in London. What is my duty to my neighbour? He is useless. the window. Reliance on his promises behaviour of this kind. and which do the work of an adverb (see § 370. of Adverbial Adjuncts. I must express my displeasure at your befond of the pastime of angling. Most days are joyless to me. I am fond hear of your safe arrival. are adverbial adjuncts and show to what word each is attached. the half of every day in bed. 4). fuss What is the use of all this shot a great quantity of game on the moor. He spends have lost half sat up half the night. carefully distinguishing the adverbial objective from the other uses of that case : pay you next ivtrk. made up . That is a good stream for angling. must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective Case (i. I am looking at the man standing with his t)ack to of going to the theatre. He is not prone to We rely on your promise. I will We We We . He escaped by leaping over the ditch. which must (now) be parsed as being in the nominative absolute. about the matter? I am delighted to see you in good health. The place abounds in good Do you see that man on horseback? He has given up riding water to drink. by unflagging industry. We were The advantages of travelling in foreign counvexed by his rudeness to you. in adverbial phrases. We arrived an He was in too much haste to hour too late. In the following examples show which of the phrases of a preposition and a noun do the work of an adjective (see § 362. Make a dozen sentences in which a^ preposition followed by a noun or pronoun forms an attributive adjunct. on horseback. i. He is a man of great industry. XL. Every evening next week is engaged. the attempt.

these sayings. I do not believe cither's account of the matter. a certain number of mei:' . we started. Lead I cannot count the times I have told him that twenty times. Parse the following sentences. He must needs pass through Samaria He told me much of what liad happened. It came to pass about an eight days after. Some men (i. There were a dozen men there. wavThe horses having been harnessed. He needs strict oversight. It was built some % ten years ago. There was but a minute to spare. their great leader slain. else"^ he would not look so mysterious. need in this business ? What ! Did you not get my letter ? He wants to know the 7. Both John and I were present. He knows most about the matter. We went over dry fooi. He would liave said fno7-e if I had not stopped him.e. 2 . Intt you will never bend him. You must spend less money. ' It means it is X II ' • Enough may be a substantive. It is usually an adverb ' Some' had better be taken as an namely twenty. They sent for you. He lived ten years there. 471). He takes the medicine every three hours {\\ 173. He bought three score sheep {\\ 362. I have not tnuch time. have only four shillings left. He need not be afraid. Do comes next ? He has lost his We _what you please. He even insulted me to my face.sus. but Some here is not an adverb. He will have the expense and the trouble besides. Some twenty persons were present. t We have not enough to eat. Be 'iVell assured of that. Either road is difficult. The battle was fought on this || * Else + ' is always a mere adverb. They gave us trouble enough. that I have told him that. 54). I have somrwhat to say unto thee. I have not told you one //rtZ/'of what was said. It is not that he loves me more. Both brothers were All those present present.' adjective. Why! he is as rich as Croe. but that he fears me less. You must go. sir. ' Exercise 88. He is all powerful at court. I have nobody else to look to. He spoke to all but me. for you are sent for. and what did you do What need we any further witness ? What shall we next ? I am not 7vell. every evening next the ' 215 iveek. paying special attention to the constructions that are not obviously consistent with the rules: The multitude were of one mind (§ 376). my soul till I am ezh-nd with him.' never an adjective. The rest must perish. Who only son. Less . 2). We have other things to attend to. Exercise 89. All is lost. I would do it but that I am forbidden. Give him more air. ' either 'besides. He knows something about it. They have bread enough and to spare. tences Parse the words in italics in the following sen- :— He will have the expense besides all the trouble. Others may believe it.vky and the loherefore of everything.than that would have been enough. There is no one /'«/ pities him. I feel soniewhat indisposed. Well. only be quick about it. What shall we do next? He sat next meat dinner. We have wasted half the day. but I cannot. I will both lay me down in peace and sleep heard it. He sat up all night. He lived a hundred years (§ 362. left iiixt ([ay. 55 . You may break him. I am //'?// inclined to believe it. His needs will be well supplied. Parse "but 'in the last sentence. Come this way. Nothing can or shall content It is an ez'en chance. All save one perished.' or 'otherwise. I never drink either beer or wine. You are sent for. He I am mueh pleased with you.EXERCISES.

and see § 2S1. f all on board the ship. A The play. " When will your brother return to town. came indoors. Preliminary Lesson. My little brother has fallen ilown. Questions may be divided in a similar inanner.i If the subject be the interrogative ' who. Does your uncle the doctor know of this? Went not my spirit with thee ? Wlience did the author of that book get his materials ? Who in the world told you that? Why did you send the poor man away ? How many shillings have you in your purse ? • There is no occasion to supply ' of. Macb. if the predicate be Thus. and that quickly. Thy image doth appear in the rare semblance that % down {S/iaksp. II ' ' ' Divide the following sentences in a similar way . between the Difference Nature of a siinple sentence.ssuming the function Compare the following sentences. The I loved it first' (/(/. divided. last night.it.' P7-cd. and must be parsed as being in the Adverbial Objective.' being here the representative of a relative pronoun governed by a preposition. exercises may be taken for practice in parsing as well as S The examples in the following ' ' We ' ' ' m analysis. terrified rich old uncle has left him a large estate in Yorkshire.2l6 . ran away at full speed.' have an adverbial phrase a. subject.). is I an adverbial adjunct. + To jiarse quickly replace 'I'h. The construction wiirsometimes be clearer in the priinary division. He passed six months aboard the ship. The i'oys came home child has hurt himself. The horse. king with the Lords and Commons form the legislature {\ 377)' Who ' XLI. friends of that little boy have sent him to sea. I. of a preposition that by the whole of what it stands (or.' it had better come first . 3. ANALYSIS OP SENTENCES. When will return to town ? Stibj.'"' may be put first. logical Subject and Predicate. The owner of that estate fJismayed at the prospect they beat a retreat. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The children. . tired with intends to sell it. Divide the following sentences and the logical predicate : into the logical This naughty child has torn his clothes. Your brother. Leave the room I must see him. appetite that J he sits this instant.). Exercise § 90. Full many a flower is born to blush miseen. The passengers are side* the river. by the lightning. Simple Sentences. riseth from a feast with that keen. and the grammatical — Subject and Predicate. The John's parents have sent him to school.

(Good) water (for drinking) was scarce. the street) is on fire.EXERCISES. I shall most likely hear from you lo-morrow. Make (or find) dozen sentences § 388). (This) law. The handle of the pump in the yard is broken. Thus from " ha\e already heard the news. entered the yard. most unfau' manner been deprived of his rights. dependent sentence beginning with a demonstrative often occurs where the sense implies grammatical connection. simple means He has in the Exercise 92. (Disgusted t by so many acts of baseness) (the man's) friends (all) deserted hhn. meaning for that reason. So in Milton. In analysis and ^aisxu^ grammatical /'or}n is the The point in question has nothing to do with any servile imitation of Latin essential thing Grammar. (My brother John's) pony (A) man (carrying a great sack of flour) came into the has broken his leg.' So participles and participial phrases are (grammatically speaking) attributiz'c adjuncts . (the (My (The) house (on the other side of disgrace of our statute book) was repealed. * and separate the grammatical subject and its adjuncts (My) (poor) (little) brother has hurt himself." Here silent means although it was silent. He is of all enchantingly beloved.' Grammatically you can make nothing of afraid but an adjective. (The) (Chubb's) (patent) lock \\." We We We shall soon reach our destination. 'lake the following sentences and put with the subject in each the ivhole of tlie verb that belongs to it. The work will very proliahly be finished before night.o my desk) has been (Despairing t of success) ke picked. I had at last with infinite trouble surmounted the difficulty. an int The grammaticalfonit of a sentence often lags behind its logical hiifort. as '' I believed. Which boy knows his lessons? What poet's works please you most? What goods are most in A A demand ? What naughty little boy broke the window a ? Exercise 93. ''His meek aspect. yet spake. abandoned the undertaking. You will by these very stop his proceedings. and yet they often involve an advcrhial force . 217 Exercise 91." 'Therefore' is not aeonjunction.' and because they were disAdjectives may be used in the same way. The field is already being reaped. barn (The) (impudent) fellow (not being satisfied with my alms) began to abuse me.' or any confusion between participles and verbal nouns. Thus. John's account of the affair alarmed me. though the same notion o{ because clings to the expression. because he despaired of success. as here. in grammatical subject is enlarged (see what the enlargement consists. gusted. titere/otc have I spoken. The component parts of a compound tense are often separated by the intrusion of adverbial adjuncts. and state in which the each case of ' In the first few sentences the words or groups of words forming separate adjuncts are enclosed in brackets. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . Take the following sentences logical subject in each into the in the way shown in § 490. the leader halted. wrapped in a huge cloak. but a demonstrative adverb. died at their posts. The brave soldiers of the garrison The old church has fallen into ruins rich old uncle left him his property horseman. We shall in due time know all about it."' take " have heard. without the other words. silent.' 'Afraid of being betrayed into an ambuscade.' but grammatically it is nothing more than an adjective. poor little brother's) (pet) bird was shot. I have been all the morning trying to make out this problem.

" i.' Object : Attributive account of the proceedings. collect contiibutions. Then take the sentences in the first group and set down separately the object of the verb in each.2lS ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Have.-iko care in the analysis not to separate attributive words from the adverbial adjuncts that may be attached to them.' : — — ' told were greatly amused by his story. § In questions the subject is often so placed as to break the predicate (when it is a compound form of the verb) into two parts. and the several Thus John sent to us an amusing attributive adjuncts of the object. Deep drank Lord Marmion of the wave. On the top of the in the road. 3._. 'of the proadjuncts of Object: ceedings. Veryll few men could have done that. To do this jiroperly requires time. Considering his age he has done pretty his steps. C II I. one consisting of those in which there is a grammatical object of the predicate verb. were strenuously advised to turn back. write down : Take the sentences in the last three exercises. They shook the depths of the desert gloom with their hymns of holy chter. Remember that 'how' is an adverb. hill stinds a stone cross.^ work ? Everybody admires John's little sister.^t this phrase does not show where the act of seeing touk place. and Exercise sentences Give the complete analysis of the following Every finite verb in a sentence John's account of the affair alarmed me. We We Exercise 95. absence ? I desire nothing more ardently. 'An'. . The boys have been forbidden to enter the orchard. did you see at the concert ? The girl is admired by everybody.e. will not help you out of the difficulty. 4. give the complete ansiver to the question. He Have you read this author's last us a droll story about his brother. To see the construction properly. 2. the several adverbial adjuncts of the predicate in each. Crying Latin exercises during my To act thus will displease his father. the other consisting of those in which there is not a grammatical object. much money will be enough for you? What foolish notion possesses you? A little girl's voice was heard in the garden. Down came the rain. Exercise 94. cousin arrived last night. Thus ended a war * of ten years' My We Whom This ended that most unpleasant business.n follows the verb. He had the impudence to tell me to hold my tongue. horse fell down the head. has a subject. My . f I met some gipsies in my ramble. duration. A large dog's bark was ^^ || * Mind that the subject very ohe. Howl! well at the examination. Account. T Observe th. The master I saw a soldier on horseback. 96. He sent his hat round to rapidl)' turned round in the direction of the report. Who spoke last ? Whom did you hear at church this morning? Hoping to find an easier road. Separate the following sentences into two groups. My brother Henry told me J that. The man struck the poor little boy on The boys were rewarded for their diligence. praised the boy at the top of the class. we left our companions How did you find your way ? He used a stick to support at the brid. I saw the occurrence That lazy boy did not go out of doors all the through a gap in the wall.you heard the news? Have those little boys finished their morning. You say so to tease me. sentence with the next. t Contrast this Look at \ 370. 'amusing'.

predicates. Theie by Duncan. . Some ladies' dresses . Teach me He was taught Greek (§ 372) by his uncle.}: man talks! Which [horse] of these horses is to be sold? He eats his food like § a hog. What more do you wrath may find some wor^e way to our destruction. soinetimes rob their unsuspecting friends shamefully. 'Ago' is a shortened form of 'agone.ike ? Hero man had better be taken as the direct object. Prcliininary Lesson.' you may make Men of weak character. Who ever experienced anything like kindness at his hands? Who but a fool would talk like that ? What have you done with the money? What arrant nonsense that foolish was torn. Ship carries. the words in Exercises 94 and 96. " This He died a happy death. that too I told you* all that an Jiour agot. XLII. in weakest bodies. led astray by temptation. is here an adverb. Make a dozen other sentences and verbs of your own chooiing. with as many adjuncts. The Downward poor wren will fight. her young ones in her nest. and enlarging the subjects. a melancholy band.ittributive and adverbial. his silver skin laced with his golden Vjlood.EXERCISES. Men found. I return you * my best thanks. His lying fast asleep.' ' ' Birds Sister build. where they are wanted. We arrived. Boy lost. strongest works. — Nature (§§ Incomplete Predication 391 i§§ — 396). Conceit. I. Here shall be done a deed of dreadful return interrupted our game note. Thus.' 'Teach erring man|| to spurn the rage of gain. from Men rob. and construction of Verbs of Moile of analysing sen- tences in which they occur * \ 493. he sat. Parse all in a similar way with Exercise 99. thy statutes. Give me* a cup of tea. Loaf was bought. Verbs of Incomplete Predication. heard in the distance 219 The tall lady's An empty bird's silk nest was found. said. dress My cousin's were sold by auction.' The phrase objective) absolute. ' !Ex:sr3ise 97. they move. originally formed a nominative (or Look at \ 370. 4. against the owl. desire? Whom did you find walkiuij in the ijaiden? Whose umbrella did you take? Whose exercise has the fewest faults? The poor man's wife died He fell liead foremost into the ri\er. X Look. They advanced step by last nigh'. came. " Take thee * stei^. Horse threw. Forth at your eyes. Brother left. at § 371. Man struck. 498 — 500). Children went. as you can. your spirits wildly peep. We had a purpose to be his purveyor. of scusj as 'train' or 'instruct-' ' ' ' II ' ' teach'' having Lhc same kind .' The dead were refused burial (§ 372). subjects Exercise 93. He found his brother We have bought a pretty little calf a month old. Take the following pairs of subjects and verbs and btild up sentences by putting in objects. and objects.

deem this step very This measure rendered the plot abortive. Where are you ? Where have you been all the morning ? is He in the parlour. I am in doubt about that. § Exarcise 101. He called the man a liar.' become. He is considered a pretty good player.B. When the state that is the result of the action is denoted. The We are the man would die. The boys rushed shouting into the playground.. ready. or (better) by saying that the complement is in the predicative relation to the subject.' &c. Analyse the following sentences containing ObjecComplements of verbs of incomplete predications {^ 391. I am deliglited to see you. He is not thought a fool. When it is not accompanied by a complement of some sort. He felt tired. I am sure of pleasing He is insane. The boy was blamed for that. He became very rich in a short time.) ' ' Exercise 102. or (as it is sometimes called) the verb of exist jncc. You have made your hands dirty. 395) : He painted the wall white. We were delighted by the concert. time has been. imprudent. Analyse the following sentences containing SubjecComplements of verbs of Incomplete Predication — : are honest. I pronounce the wine We We . He stood rubbing his eyes. The children are half starved. as He is going I was saying He is gone He was struck.' ' . sweet. He is going away.) tion of ' Point out carefully the various uses of the verb in the following e. The verb to be is a verb of incomplete predication it is employed in making a compound tense of a verb in either the active or the passive voice. tive Exercise 100. They We you in this. He is named John. He became my friend.' ' . He was called an enthusiast by his friends. He stood silent (see § 391). He grew rich suddenly. This delay is trying to our patience. He is an honest man. He was elected Emperor. They made Henry king. The wine tastes got quite tired. Parse the preceding sentences. take the same case after them as before them.' {iV. The poor soldier is badly wounded. She looks very pretty.' But when used to form a tense of another verb. He is my cousin's friend. prisoner guilty.220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. the continuance. to be is a verb of complete predication. I am trying to do it. He sat twiddling his thumbs. it is usually called an Auxiliary Verb.— An adverb or adverbial phrase is not a complement. In such cases the compound form denotes the performance. He made us all merrj'. He cfjnsidcrs this course expedient. The air feels keen. tive Exercise 103. The prisoner was pronounced guilty of homicide.Kamples : Such things have been. He was called a fool for his pains. The jury pronounced the consider him a fine player. He was wounded by an arrow. (See § 374. That appears very plausible. the participle that follows is merely an adjective' of quality. I think him clever. They entered laughing. In accordance with 393 (which see) account for the case of the complement either by saying that the verbs be. The poor man was starve 1 to death. The dog ran away howling.' ' an action. that when the brains were out. or the comple- when ' .

. The cry sounded clear and shrill. These secontive dary complements. That cannot be allowed. He directed the man to wait. I We sing. They invited us to come. They urged us to come. are in the predicative Do not confound the object of a verb with relation to the subject. He spoke loud.) They can haste. I do so long to see him. That may perhaps be true. His voice sounded feebly. It grieved me sore. the audience laughing. They have not made the street wide enougii. He is not to be endured. Let fall thy blade on vulnerable crests. The people wept sore. have a good scolding. I forbid you to touch that. In sentences like '• How am I to do it ?" •' You are to be quiet." the infinitive is certainly adverbial. was bidden to stand aside. See whether the word in question denotes. I We must make must go home. are supposed to have lost their way. Parse the preceding sentences. He told the man to wait He asked me to come. complements are in reality in the Objective Relation to the verbs of incomplete J These predication. Show where the complementary infinitive has itself a complement. or to its complement.EXERCISES. Exercise 107. Nothing could be more unfortunate. Analyse the following sentences. He bade the man wait. in which the subjeccomplement is a verb in the infinitive mood (§ 394). That looks pretty. He set Let us pray. and in the attributive relation to the noun which is the object of the verb. as well as the primary ones.the condition of that which is spoken about. His voice sounded feeljle. I will depart. Exercise 105. Exercise 104. The bell sounded cracked. will They may be answered. They may take the money return shortly. shall You can be rewarded. They besought us to come to their help. He instructed the man to wait.^ (See § 396. The stones have made my lect * In parsing an infinitive mood of this sort it must be described as the complement of the verb of incomplete predication. I canThey . its complement. You ought to be more cautious. This kind of life to was considered He is believed to be mad. Exercise 103. Indeed [ did not say so. step be very imprudent. He ordered the man to wait. You might have found an easier way. He has travelled far and wide. carefully distinguishing those cases in which a verb is followed by a complejiicnt from those in which it is followed by an adverbial adjimct. (See § 493. or the manner in which an action is done. He is believed to have perished. Analyse the following sentences. write well. Analyse the following sentences containing Infinitive Complements.-hall not hear you. t In many of these constructions. excellent. He ought not to do this. He ought to pay me. * He made his horse canter. 221 He made the bear dance. this gerundial infinitive is scarcely distinguishable from an adverbial adjunct expressing purpose.) Show carefully whether adverbial adjuncts are to be attached to the verb cf incomplete predication. That He was ordered to sit down. They He is thought to have poisoned the man.

' In constructions of this sort the verb in the infinitive mood may be parsed as being the verb in an objective infinitive phrase.222 sore. heard the man say so.amc . having the preceding noun or pronoun in the objective case as its subject. I liket a knave to meet with his deserts. set it down as such. or provisional subject.c. The trees whispered soft and low.' and represented provisionally by 'it. I I never grant this forfeiture to hold. See note on § 395. Substantive Clauses. ' ' . late. and place after it the substantive clause as the real subject. Exercise 108. being either pronouns or adverbs. Preliminary Lesson. They came XLIII. When 'it' is employed as a temporary. Analyse the bcntences in the mode indicated in § 515. The bird sang The ship passed clear of the rock. t Here llu Infinitive phrase is governed by . between ' He made used as kind of the child cry ' ' between ' He made the rpan angry and ' He and He saw the child fall. ' * These objective complements distinction infinitive phrases are often scarcely distinguishable from infinitive moods but it will be seen on consideration that there is the £. Her voice clear. but that interrogative words do. He rubbed his This delay will make us late. The task go to Ireland.' In that case the analysis of the sentence will of course be different. In the example given in § 547 it is quite possible that we ought to regard 'this proud Sarazin to meete me as an infinitive phrase of the same kind u. I believet the man to be innocent. Analyse the following sentences containing ob- jective infinitive phrases — He heardt the wind roar through the I saw the thief try to pick a gentleman's pocket. &. I have heard Have you ever known+ the man confess trees. XLIV. In the following sentences a substantive clause (or noun-sentence. form. Exercise 109. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. The water runs clear. The water is frozen hard. + Notice that the meaning of this verb is quite complete in itself. He rubbed his face hard. remembering that the conjunction that does not enter into the structure of the clause which it introduces. — Study : § 397. feltt the air fan my cheek.1 preposition.<Sed as the (real) subject of chaunced. We wishf you to come to-morrow. as it is often termed) is the subject. and low to our ears. The whisper came soft sounds clear. Analyse the substantive clauses separately. It is too late forj the was too difficult forij: him to hope to succeed. [people] say that he is very rich. Complex Objective Phrases. and structure of substantive 401—405)." that there is found the man dead. The wind sits fair forj news to travellers to arrive to-night. face sore. The whole of the following phrase is the object of it. Complex Sentences. I expectedt the travellers to be here by this fault ? being in The duke will time. clauses (§§ — Nature.* Preliminary Lesson.

See § 403 and § 244. The idea that I can comply with his request fact that * To those who are acquainted with my larger grammar I need hardly observe mode of marking sentences has not been borrowed from the later works of others. That he said so is undeniable. or of a phrase equivalent to a would come. He told me he knew all about the matter. I swear I have no mind of feasting forth to-night. How I found the matter out is no concern of yours. or is used absolutely with a absolute : you say so is enough for me. (See § 512. I fear thou play'dst most foully for it. What does it signify he was justified in that proceeding. Deal with it as in the case of t that is. remembering that you have not got a complete substantive clause. He made it a condition that I should become security for the payment. Tell me what you think of all this. Tell me how the honour of addressing Mr. I shall succeed.) That he did the deed is quite certain. day that I saw him. He is confident that are resolved that that shall not occur again. it to be a disgrace that he had so utterly failed. Try if you can decipher that letter. 223 Before analysing the sentences in this and the succeeding Exercises. it Anon methought he went away JNlethinks he hath no drowning mark upon billows spoke.EXERCISES. ' ' . ' The that this It often does duty as a temporary or provisional object. He felt Try how far you can jump. note. Was on Tuesday that Exercise 110. Analyse the following sentences in which a substantive clause is in apposition to a noun." § ' If has here the force of whether*. or comes after a preposition participle. it is Thence that I to your assistance do It is how rich he is ? a question how far make love. I thought it J strange that he should leave without calling on me. like a nominative iS 404). Who How long I shall stay here is uncertain. I tliink I have Tell me who told you. that he knew We Exercise 111. thinks. can have told you that. How completely you are What signifies what weather we have ? mistaken can easily be shown. ' ' . Tell him I cannot see him to-day. puzzles me. t The introductory conjunction that' is often omitted. I know that handwriting. with all the adjuncts that may be attached to either of these. It is to-day. stantive clause transitive verb I is : Analyse the following sentences in which a sub" the object of a verb. It does not matter what he It is uncertain how long I shall stay. and then the subject substitute that clause for the it. or noun-sentence. The circumstance that he was present must not be disregarded. the wood began to him. first analyse the sentence without the substantive clause. It is very probable ihat he will not arrive not true that he said so. I am hopeful that he will soon get better. Smith? you are. What we are to do next is the question. It is uncertain what the result will be. I heard that he had arrived. What his capacity is signifies nothing. Methought the ? It was only yester- Methinkst move. draw a Une * under the entire set of words which form the substantive clause. Advise if§ this be worth attempting. unless it has a subject and a finite verb. I want to know when this old happened.

That depends upon how you did it. I must advance the colours of my love.' Is he a captain? He is sfl 'He is a fool. I came on the chance that I might find you at home.. bring him with you. see no sign that the fever stantive Analyse the following sentences. ? 165) often has a pronominal force. \ We are glad that you have come at last. can want the thought how monstrous it was for Malcolm and for Donalbain to kill their gracious father ? He sent me word that he would come anon. Nouns that do this may have a substantive clause after them. nothing me a something dear to thee. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. or as regards this. which may be described as an objective adjunct to the noun.e. go on without me. ' I convinced him 7vtt/t respect to tliis point. I would not believe the story but that you avouch it. in which an inaccompanied by an interrogative word supplies the place of a substantive clause beginning with an interrogative finitive : Note the omission of ' that. but more for that in low simplicity he lends out money gratis..' It is often used without any adverbial force. in which the SubClause forms an Adverbial Adjunct to a verb or adjective (like the Latin accusative of limitatioti. He could not get rid of the idea that I was his enemy. Provided that he consents.' ' Analyse the following sentences I : is abating." "So please my lord {i. Exercise 114. regard) that dinner time. or closer definition). In case I am not there. There was a rumour that the army had been defeated. That is a proof that he knows nothing about the matter. Transitive verbs govern an object.t'.dertook the business in the expectation that he would help me. I hate him for he is a Christian." You may go where you like so ' ) Exercise 112.' of wine.i2 4 is alisurJ." § That is I am sorry on this account. I am content. Analyse the following sentences ' ' : (= on the condition) that you are back by " For nothing hold me so it please thee hold {i. it may have a substantive clause in apposition to it. not because they are predicative words. but because they denote a tt'ansitive action. I will undertake the business. 'on the condition that it please my lord to quit the fine. He is desirous that I should return. I convinced him that he was mistaken. lie did this to the end that lie ni^^h. not brought your brother. and so strengthened form 'as' (also. I am persuaded that that is the wiser course. I Ui.' + ' ' ' * ' I drank a pint or so his is brother. as in I told you so. In case* you should see him. t 'I'hat is. we shall know what to do. Who ! The word so is only a substantive demonstrative pronoun t used adverbially.ivlnce me. Oh yet I do repent me of my fury that I did kill them. co. We welcomed these indications that spring was near. We are disappointed that you have Exercise 113. For that I love your daughter. Being essentially a substantive. Analyse the following sentences. He has obtained my consent that he should go to college. % I <im sorry that you are not well. I am certain that he never said so. Provided this report be confirmed.' The ' . There is no fear that he will fail.

He never knows when to go. — Nature. The rest {i. XLV. His behaviour is not such [Ijehaviour] as I like. • Remember that the Adjective Clause must contain a subject and a finite verb of its own. and a dozen in which it is omitted. Where to get puzzles nie. Unto l)ad causes swear such creatures as+ men doubt. Analyse the following sentences in which the Adjective Clauses have a Relative Adverb in place of a Relative Pronoun governed by a Preposition (§ 406). after sunset fadeth in the west. I know not how to thank you to How the money sufficiently. I am considering what I know not where to get food. and lastly analyse the adjective clause separately* : serpent that did sting thy father's life. and construction of Adjec- Clauses (§§ 406 Exercise 115. ' ' ' ' as it is is in the attributive relation to § The clause the complentent of the predicate in its own clause. Thy food shall be husks wherein the acorn cradled. and then analyse the sentences. The difficulty is how to get there. — Adjective Preliminary Lesson tive Clauses. In me thou seest the twilight of such day.. as.e. the gentleman to whom this park belongs ? Infected be the air whereon t they ride.' It must be t See § 162. You are welcome to my help. Exercise 118. This cloth is not such [cloth] as I asked for.EXERCISES. The ' Exercise cise 61. . What sad talk was that wherewith my brother held you in the cloister ? I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows. As' must be treated as equivalent to a relative pronoun. Deal in a similar way with the sentences in Exer- Exercise 117. 116. Underline the adjective clauses in each of the following sentences. and then analyse them. now wears his crown. I taught him how to do it. Thou speak'st to such a man that is no Vou fleering tell-tale. Whereon (=: on which) forms an adverbial adjunct to ride. X See § 165. 225 do it is the difficulty. to do next. such as§ it is. then analyse the entire sentence. will soon find such peace wliich it is not in the power of the world to give. repose ') is labour which is not used for you. I have not from your eyes that gentleness and show of love asj I was wont to have. the pressure of which nearly crushed him. 413). He had many heavy burdens to bear. form.Supply the relatives which are omitted in the sen- tences in Exercise 62. parsed as a compound adverb. Make (or find) a dozen sentences containing adjective clauses in which the relative is expressed.]. ' ' ' help. Do you know I saw the captain in whose ship you will sail. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word would harrow up thy soul. 411. Ihrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just.' and the quasi-relative ' as ' is .

is. Exercise 122. Exercise 120.236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Exercise 119. was the owl. which is a substantive What is interrogative when it cannot be replaced by that which (§ 409). You have only told me what I know I know what you said about me. was John. eitlier Exercise 121. was John who said so. and then parse the sentences : Repeat what you have just said. Do what you can in this business.' and analyse them. when used as the equivalents of relative pronouns governed by prepositions. You matter. You may supply the suppressed antecedents. and find out what is the already. Was that your brother who knocked at the door? Is that a scar that you have on your hand? It was a gun-shot that killed him. I cannot make out what you I do not understand what you are saying.' &c.so. I can remember the time when there were no houses here. The reason why you cannot succeed is evident.' a nominative absolute belonging to the adjective clause. " It (the person) " It (the — ' 'The handle towards my . He soon repented of what he had done." creature) that shrieked. must not dictate to me what I am to do. ' Exercise 123. ' ' Analyse the following sentences. I will show you the shop where I bought these apples. in which the Adjective Clauses are attached to (and explain) the neuter demonstrative It pronouns it. Analyse the following sentences. It was the owl that shrieked. the handle towards my hand ? That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold.* ? Who that thus cried It is a dagger which j Analyse the sentences in Exercise 65. * t That That ' t Tlie adjective hand is who said .' and the pronominal adverbs 'when. are saying. He knows well enough what he ought to do. have the same twofold use the adverbs.' 'where. carefully distinguishing the subtantive clauses from the adjective clauses. f was it the eye of cliildhood that fears a painted devil. Return to the place whence you came. and tJiis. Is this I see before me. that. ' ' clause. The pronouns 'who' and 'which. . having a relative force. Pray tell me what ails you. or treat the clauses as Adjective Clauses used substantively (§ 408). The word what sometimes introduces an adjective and sometimes an indirect question. Make (or find) a dozen sentences illustrating each use of what." clause 'which hand' is attached to this. clause. Go. I'his is what he did.. That is precisely what he ought to have done. is. Do you know the source whence he obtained this information? The fortress whither the defeated troops had fled was soon captured.

' to which a substantive clause beginning with 'that' was in apposition. &c. . up a Exercise 124. have an adverbial construction in their own clavises. treating the clauses containing a relative not as adjective clauses. S have here a nominative absolute. ivhithcr.. but as independent sentences as though and with a.* after execution. Tell me where he is. j they fell I the sick and died. Whom we raise we will make fast. what few vain marbles can. The omission of that gave to while a conjunctive force. — Nattire. Analyse the following sentences : 227 Find out who did that. in a similar Exercise 125. modifying the verb 'see. In parsing a sentence of this kind. when a loud clap of thunder warned us to quicken oiir steps. Tell me where Tell me why you are so angry. In London he made the acquaintance of my brother. Exercise 128. ' : — matter will re-word. I do they will arrive. Clauses (§§ Adverbial Sentences. you live. way with the sentences in Exercises XLVI. That is why* I did it. While he is here we * In the analysis supply an antecedent no'in. How.' ai)d joining the clause whei) I see you to the predicate ' wilj ' We ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' tejh' . first underlining you the Analyse (and parse) the following sentences. Analyse the following sentences. forming an adverbial adjunct io/eli. 416). which madness would gambol from. I delivered my letter. till.' § Remember that the conjimction or pronominal adverbs when. form. See where* he looks out of the window. When you durst do it. whom he visited frequently. then you know that till you told me.Prdbninary Lesson. This modest stone. but that the Conjunctions after.' By this tune we had traversed half the distance. Adverbial Clauses relating to Time (§ 1.' as a relative. I did not shall have no peace. That is where* I live. X Which is the object of denying. demonstrative pronoun were substituted for the relative (§ 413) ' . ivhere. when I see you. ' Here lies an honest man. which he read. not know when quarrel. 'when' should be described as a connective adverb. Sic. where we parted company. While has nothing to do with the relative pronoim. It is an old noun meaning 'time. May truly say. Next day they renewed the fight. We travelled together as far as Paris. never has an antecedent expressed. That is why* I am angry. and then analyse these \ clauses separately I will tell secret'l were a man. That is howt he always treats me. after the Adverbial Clauses. and structure of Adverbial 414—435). judgment hath repented o'er his doom. Deal 63 and 65. have no such force. while. Being shown into a grand apartment. which lasted till the evening. I could not make out whom he was alluding to. I knew when* seven justices could not take I have seen when. tjonoiirable ladies sought my love. before. which I denying.EXERCISES.

Analyse and parse the following sentences Where thou dwellest. I cannot tell you his age. How We 4. Do as I tell you [to do].' Each modifies the adjective in its demonstrative. He retired to his about that matter. The more he has. that he cannot so dark tl>at we cannot see.' and joining the adverbial clause (which is co-ordinate with so ') to the second far.' the clause explaining the indefinite meaning of the. Wherever lay where he fell.So' and the clause nrst ' The as ' is disclose' are co-ofdinate adverbial adjuncts of 'rose. Exercise 127. please. left the room as I 1 shall be gone before you are up. Take heed ye fall am tired that I is am ready to drop. the wider will be The longer I know him. as good as she is beautiful. • 'There' and /he clause 'where ' + t . he followed Seat yourselves wherever there is room. : I will follow you.' the ' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of wider. She is star shooteth from the sk)-. therefore in the shadow of Thy wings will I rejoice. you go. more.2 28 • ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Analyse and parse the following sentences : because I sent for him. for I do not know it. Whithersoever I went. so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. when thieves cannot be true to one another. is care that soil all be ready. A when He He entered. strative. He still Adverbial Clauses relating to Place (§ 417). the second demon§ Here the main clause is the second one. Adverbial Clauses relating to Cause. You may come whenever you 2.) The first modifies 'higher'. I will forgive him. He do not always write as we pronounce. 3. I will dwell. the village preacher's modest mansion rose. the second modifies 'wider. As he lias begged my pardon. because then it can do no harm. and Consequence (§ 421—423). Ex3rcise 129. always does as he promises [to do]. He so It weak is stand. He is aware that I did not come. He came He toils hard that he may get rich. What it.' 11 The demonstrative 'so' and the adverbial clause are co-ordinate adverbial adjuncts of ' ' ' ' ' II ' ' 'tired. the prospect. we had left plague [be] upon signifies asking. Exercise 128. Ho\v|| far the substance of my praise doth wrong this a bright shadow. Because Thou hast been my help. The§ higher you climb. so glides he in the night from Venus' eye. I'll charm there's not a soul to give you an answer? arrived after the air to give a sound while you peiform your antic round. sot it will lie. Take I I called own room lest on him that I might tell him that he might study quietly. the second relative. When I am determined I always listen to The fool is happy that he knows no reason. me. He such a liar that nobody believes him. into temptation.' as the tree falls are co-ordinate . Adverbial Clauses relating to Manner and Degree (§ 418). ' ' ' — _ clause. the less I like him.' How ' is a relative or connective adverb modifying far. the more he wants.' . Purpose.* where a few torn shrubs the place disclose. ' The first the' is relative. The second (See § 420.adverbial adjuncts of will lie. Analyse and parse the following sentences As the tree falls. Since you say so. There. I must believe it. He is asj : avaricious as his brother is generous.

229 5. shall be counselled I doubt not but to die a fair death for all this.' ' II If ' is omitted J 434. if I had known If you call you will see him.^ »_„^ Tell i) _ it. Do [he] what he can [do]. this day shall gentle his condition. Ihe construction is the same as if we had 'however cold I ' ' it is. J will do Whatever he may say. Adverbial Clauses relating to Condition. I wish i) > (2) the l)oy (I) would finish the task 2) I set him. I am not afraid of in the wife. Whenccsoever the money comes it is welcome.' but an attributive adjunct t Mind that ' ' ' ' ' of the verbal noun han:^in. wliat he will [say] he will ne\ er convince me. — Exercise 130.s construction with that of such a sentence as ' I believe whatever he J Aiialyse th. Whatever may be the consequence. and afterwards analysing it separately. 1 shall go out. if I escape hanging for killingt that rogue. I will not come your address. Say [he] \\hat 1 have said. Hypothetical and Concessive Clauses (§§ 424 434. for killing is not an adverbial aJjiuict of escape.s. him. I cu|i of sack be my poison. You will not succeed unless you try harder.EXERCISES. Be he ne'er so vile. Complex Subordinate Clauses. he cannot succeed without industry. whatever one does [find] of the family Cold§ as it is. An (=^ if ) I have not ballads made on you all. {St'e Exercise iii. 1 would have finished the work had it been .' which is in reality a substantive pronoun used adverbially. Were you my brother I could not do it for you. Do not confound tn. says. Analyse the following sentences : — I would have called on you. let a So* 1 lose not honour in seeking to augment it.' (\ 362. he never pleases tiie man. Analyse the sentences. \ Co!d is in reality the complement of the preJicite. _' when your (2) father died.). However great his abihties may be. Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish. The lady's fortune must not go out one may find comfort in the money. .. Underline the clauses in the way shown in § 514 and in the first few sentences : He said i) he would return 2) the book when he had read ^ (i). Big as he is. But ^' i) that my foot slipped 2) as I tui-ned the corner "^(^7""" ' * This construction consists of a substantive clause '[that] I lose not honour. first treating the substantive clause as a whole. 4.. possible. and sung to filthy tunes. Though unless you invite me. me how (I)- old you were 2) J. In the following sentences a substantive clause contains a subordinate clause within it." he construciinn in this and the following sentences is very peculiar. j I shall not believe him.' in apposition 'o the adverb 'so. XLVII. You will see him though 1 shall not [see him]. he is rich he is not contented. Had I kno\vn|| this I should have acted differently.. Ex3rcis3 131.) So has no adverbial relation to any word in the clause vhich it introduces.

The construction is the same broken by I say. I have . They fear what J yet they know must I have secret reasons which I forbear to mention because you are not follow.„ ^ 1 he construction will be best the nominative case.' . (2) •• is gone with her. observed the air is delicate first.230 I ENGLISH GRAMMAR. Analyse the following sentences which contain complex adverbial clauses I wrote l) to him 1 will not leave i) till I know 2) that he is out of danger. The man i) who does the best 2) that he can [do] deserves praise.) i) who care 2) not what they say. Analyse on similar principles the following senExercise 132. won the race. I think he will soon retrieve his Who told I should like to know how misfortunes if he sets to work with good-will.s (2) 2) that does not mind when he is spoken to. tences. whom you may say. (2) " My foolish rival i)" that her father likes (I) ii) 2) only for his possessions are so huge. he father will ask him where he has been. There are men <" (.atl I saw it. ^ they most breed and haunt. The house where Iiave only Exercise 133. : (I) ( 2) ' In analysis put I have • This clause breaks up the continuity of the substantive clause.' t 'What' is in :— 'they know [that] that nuist folJovv.=- observed* l) the air is . make him swear to keep for ever. you that I built the house which you see? He fears that his But that I told him who did it. Nor failed they to express how much they praised that for the general safety he despised his own. Now methinksyou teach me how a beggar I'll see if I can get my husband's ring.(2) 2) delicate. the subject of must. Fleance killed.' seen by substimting the jenjonstrative ' ' . ' . is mistaken. The time has been that when able to answer those of which I make no secret. should have Where (I). which contain complex adjective clauses The person i) who told 2) you that I said so. which I did should be answered. appears.t I I lived when I was in town has been pulled down. The right valiant Banquo walked the brains were out the man would die. A child i) : ^'^ . your friend found out where I live. who bears a glass which shows me many more.. . (2) I I should report that l) which — (I) (2) say 2) I saw. must be punished. .' t Observe that the substantive clause is as in: 'I say [th. if it pleases you. would never have known. The eighth too late. done what I told you I would do.

Our greatness will appear then most conspicuous when great things of small [things we can create. You will be punished if you do not come when you are called. It would be well if all men felt how surely ruin awaits those who al.] inured. These present no new features. Contracted FriUmijmry Lessofi. immediatelv because (i) 231 I shall I knew . are invaluable helpers. He yields neither t to force nor t to persuasion. be much obliged (2) i) if you will repeat the story 2) (2) which you have just heard. separately. Sentences. Men who see heard I clearly how you have. . each of which contains a subordinate clause containing a second. I will give you no more money till I see how you use what report. XLVIII. My day or night myself I make. when] prosperous [things] of adverse [things] we can create. (0 He soon left the house when he heard that I was coming. when] useful [things] of hurtful [things we can create. Test the accuracy of the following contracted sentences in the manner shown in analyse them separately 440 : then them up and You must either be quiet or [you must] leave the room. §§ 439. or [our purer essence. Our purer essence then will overcome the noxious vapour of these raging fires.use their gifts and powers.EXERCISES. * Exercise 135. Analyse the following sentences. whene'er I sleep or play. It was so hot in the valley that we could not endure the garments which we had found too thin when we were higher up among the mists. — Study carefully § : 440. he had not they ought to act when they meet with obstacles. 2) how anxious he was. portion of Hcither-^nar t Suppress the cciijutictive by substituting not—twt. which in its turn contains a third : I was grieved when I bore among if his neighbours. with the (§ omission of the conjunction that 436. when we know we have so many real ones to encounter. Don't let us make imaginary evils. how he had obtained the character which he know that he would never have spread such a believed what your brother told him. [will] not feel [the noxious vapour of these raging fires].) XLIX. I have not decided whether I will go • Two or three are filled up by way of example. He seldom drinks wine because he finds that it disagrees with him. 551 fill — 556. Compound Sentences. Exercise 134. The two or more co-ordinate sentences which make up the compound sentence simply have to be analysed joins them.

till he can fill up the ellipses when the elliptical sentences are dictated. He pursued. brandished by man that's of a woman born. have nothing to do with it. [Let the pupil study and practise these.. what pleasure I. That discovery relieves. " Wiles let them I may forgive. If ENGLISH GRAMMAR. king'). I'll shed my dear blood drop by drop in the dust.] Exercise 136. in the way indicated in the first few examples. or close ambition varnished "What praise could they receive. but + I will raise the down-trod ' • Which object of the verb ' taste ' to be repeated as the object of the verb ' know. but you will ruin yourself. which * who but feels can taste. and fell who fell. He looked as [he would look] if he could kill me. He is not so clever as his brother [is clever]. you pursue this course you will not injure me. and reason to restrain. or when they need. He stood aside so as [a man would stand aside] to let me pass. in default of my raising . Analyse the following sentences. shuddering fear. or he to Hecuba?" L. He looks as stupid as an owl [looks stupid]. Sentences containing Elliptical Clauses. He is as brave a man as [a brave man] ever lived.iuse." wine or beer? " Nor steel nor poison. wealth [is good] as [lie would tell me] if I did not know that before.' Feels' and 'thmks' are intransitive. but I will— King is an adverbial adjunct of 'will shed'. but I can never forget his ingratitude to me. weapons laugh " What's Hecuba to to scorn.) The boy played truant as [it is] usual. not now. Is but the more a fool. I'll shed my ' ' . — Study §§ 443. He was so kind as [a man would be kuul] to give me this book. malice domestic. I'd rather be a dog and bay the moon than He told me that wisdom is better than [I would soon be] such a Roman. The sense is — Leaving out the case that I will raise king (that is. I have as good a right to the money As [matters stand] for me. " Bad men boast their specious deeds on earth. He allowed no day to pass without either writing or declaiming aloud. He is a man in that degree\)X'XV^ in which degree brave a man ever lived. 557 — 564. nor that a bad we call. but could not overtake the retreating enemy. It is better to die than [it is good] to live in such misery." " Who wickedly is wise or madly brave." " Two principles in human nature reign." " Freely they stood who stood." you return come and tell me the news. Pirlimbtary Lesson. (That is. He grows worse and worse. first supplied the words that are understood. and die on mine own s^word ?" " Swords I smile at. self-love to such obedience paid? " " Nor this a good." him. I will as you [have a good right to th-^ money]." Roman fool. having grace. of a preposition ('but') followed by a substantive cl. from o'er with zeal.232 or not. Would you rather drink but thinks can know. the more a knave. I had rather die than [I would soon] endure such a disHe is better to-day than [he was well] yesterday. ' : — ' ' : ' ' dtar lilooJ ' iS:c. consisting t 'J'he whole phrase." urge. . t The logical intention of an attributive adjunct is often greater than its mere grammatical " (Although he is soj old as he is [old]." " See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow. As she sat in the old arm-chair she pondered with bitter grief over the past. which glory excites. and thought of the future with As the years went on. Unless you alter your conduct you will offend your friends and bring disgrace upon yourself... but scarcely removes my suspicions. 01 t ^'vs he is [old] he is hale and hearty. foreign levy." The full meaning here is force. scandals increased and multiplied. "Why should I play the contrive who need. nothing can When touch him further.

With other notes than to the Orphean lyre I sang of chaos and eternal night.EXERCISES. As to what fool as to do that. He recommended me as a person very fit for a travelling tutor. I am not such a As to your proposal. You are no Will you be so good as to lend me that knife ? worse off than your brother.). When he is best. Art thou not sensible to feeling as to sight. l)e at all. The full phrase is such as the following "As I were a shepherdess. If time improve our wit as well as wine. He has no redeeming qualities whatever [redeeming qualities there are]. He is better to-day than yesterday. say at what age a poet grows divine. . If I were as tedious as a king [is tedious]. Herein fortune shows herself more kind than is her custom For myself alone I would not be so ambitious as to wish myself much better. looked as if he could kill me. He is fonder of play than of work. I cannot assent to it. He is as tall a man as ever I saw. he is a little worse than a man and when he is worst. it passes belief. I should earn mere as a crossing-sweeper. See § 165. I should be piped and sung to. he cared not to can be worse than to dwell here ? Present fears are le^s than horrible imaginings. 233- An "Mortimer as high in the air as this unthankful king [is h'gh in the air].('. he is little better than a beast. Rev. The people of Paris are much fonder of strangers that have money than of those that have wit. More is due than more than all can pay. It is not so bad to suffer misfortune as to deserve it. He was wiser than to risk his money in that undertaking. I could find it* in my heart to bestow it all on your worship. What [will happen] if I don't tell you? His wages as + [he is] a labourer amount to twenty shillings a week. I would dance at maypoles " {Ben ycnsott^ Cynth. as 'twere a careless trifle. up the ellipses : Analyse the following sentences. He died as one that had been studied in his death to throw away the dearest thing he owed (= owned). For none made sweeter melody than did the ]70or blind boy.. About him all the sanctities of Heaven stcod thick as stars. He procured a room as near the prison as could conveniently be found. He is as a great a rascal as ever lived My feet are as cold as a stone. He accompanied me as far as to the end of the street. This construction is the counterpart (with a connective instead of a demonstrative adverb) i of the use of so' followed by a substantive clause to denote a condition or hypothesis (See Exercise 130). in supposing) I did it. Exsrcise 137. Take 'as as doing duty for a relative pronoun (= which blunder '). He told me that wisdom was better than weahh as if I did not know that before. The boy is more He is no happier than before. My pupil understood the art of guiding in money matters much better than I. but not so fond of play as of idleness. They dreaded not more the adventure than his voice forjjidding. having first filled Rather than be less. I never attend to such requests as that. his brother. This is better than if we had lost everything. 3'ou tell me. How could you make such a blunder as t [you made] to suppose (/. I speak not as in absolute fear of you. showing the construction of the real object ' to bestow. I am the veriest varlet that ever chewed with a tooth. + ' ' ' : * Provis^ional object. How could you make such a blunder as to suppose I did it ? None could be found so bold as to oppose him. What . 'twere not as good a deed as [to] drink [is a good deed] to turn frue man and leave these rogues.' &c. Wisdom is ofttimes nearer when we stoop than when we soar. but nf>t so strong. /. eis a dairy-wench. He spoke to me as if I were a He tliief. He is more agile than troublesome than ever. . IV.

which the subject here.234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. sight. 7. From yonder ivy-mantled tower The moping owl does to the moon complain Of such X as. flight. adjunct modifying 'air. MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 14. light through chinks that time has made. Molest her ancient. Here We The in cool grot and mossy cell rural fays and fairies dwell. 4. • I-ook carefully to see is t Supply 'those regions' (or something of that kind). 12. Beneath those rugged elms. His daily teachers had been woods and Love had he found Waiting till in huts where poor men lie.§ The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. % Take ' each — laid as a nominative absolute. sable mantle of the silent night Shut from the world the ever-joysome light. wand'ring near her secret bower. night 3. The soul's Lets in 6. The 9. j I. The last two lines form an adverbial t Supply ' persons. that yew-tree's shade. solitary reign. freighted clouds at anchor lie. Kicking his heels on the dewy sod. Or waked to extasy the living lyre. Lightly and brightly breaks away The morning from her mantle gray. And putting in order his reel and his rod. 10. new dark cottage. 11. by the side of the pool sat on a three-legged stool. he skirted still of that mighty hill.* Save t where the beetle wheels his droning And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. . The gallant The margin All alone tall king. heap. all 2. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the And all the air a solemn stillness holds. the west wind blows.' and take 'as as a ' ' relative pronoun (§ 164). battered and decayed. rills. 8. 13. A man 5.Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed. . Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid . Right sharp and quick the bells Rang out from Bristol town.

sable goddess. 15. taken at the flood. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word Would harrow up thy soul. we were base enough retire to desire it. His Hstless length at noontide would he stretch. When § I to sulphurous and tormenting flames Must render up myself. 17.* all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miseries.' Then 'which omitted' is a nominative absolute. We are not weak if we make a proper use of those means 26. Where shaggy forms o'er ice-built mountains roam. He that fights and runs away. t See § 529. § See § 406. I am forbid the secrets of my prison house. And pore upon the brook that babbles by. Thou art not so unkind As man's ingratitude. He He that that down need fear no low no pride. hour is almost come. bottomless perdition. modifying the verb is bound.t Thy tooth is not so keen. flaming. May live to fight another day. ' ' ' • Supply 'which' before 'omitted. If : 18. Night. 20. Our sport shall be to take what + they mistake. In climes 16. leads on to fortune Omitted. from the ethereal sky With hideous ruin and combustion down To 27. Blow. Him the Almighty Power Hurled headlong. My 24. |' .' See 5 524. But that II To tell 25. 22.). 'for retiring.. That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high. 21. it is now too late to from the contest is is {i. 1 Sec § 5C0. &c. from her ebon throne In rayless majesty now stretches forth Her leaden sceptre o'er a prostrate world. at the foot of yonder nodding beech. thou winter wind.EXERCISES. blow. The Muse has broke the twilight gloom To cheer the shiv'ring native's dull abode. which the God of nature hath placed in our power. There is a tide in the affairs of men Which. 23. Although thy breath be rude. beyond the solar road.' fall.e. 19. 235 There. Because thou art not seen.' and the whols lentence '[which] omitttd— m'series is a second adjective clause qualifying tide.

night descending. is my own.§ who knows. Lay not That^ not your 42. lets go by The important acting of your dread command. save Heaven? Do you not come your tardy son to chide.''** attain.t Their perfume take these again. never to himself hath said. evil that The men do h\es after them. 6. 43. lost. See § 520. When They I they do choose have the wisdom by their wit to freely lose. 32. would [that] you had won the fleece that he hath 35. See § 563. How his audit stands. man goes loose (see § 516). the proud scene was 31. . 38.236 28. that this 44. Ran 34. 33. I 30. 39.'' || 41.* That roots itself in ease on Lethe wharf. Who 'This 47. it ii II See § 521. trespass. That we would do. How dangerous is it When sorrows come. 45. So may I. Sec § 403. . my native land'. it 29. I freely told you [that] all the wealth [which] had lost.t 36. is The night long that never finds the day. 5. Would'st thou not stir in this. indirections find directions out. Now. That. Thus do we of wisdom and of reach With windlasses and with assays of bias By 37. but my madness speaks. ^ { . that flattering unction to your soul. they come not single spies. o'er. The great man down. Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed. 46. § 595. But in battalions. am content so thou wilt have so. 40. A is not a dependent clause. quotation t I! _ Sec Sec § 434. . must I have the half of anything that impart this same paper brings you. J you mark his favourite flies The poor advanced makes friends of enemies. merely a complex substantive. Breathes there the man with soul so dead. lapsed in time. I in these veins.See § 370. Miss that which one unworthicr may • § ** See § 367. blind Fortune leading me. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. When I did first my love to you. we should do when we would (§ 459). and passion.

growling at the gate. surest virtues thus from passions shoot. fonning an adverbial adjimct to make. 55. (§ 563). 49 He that claims either for himself or for another the honours of perfection. learn to bear. which I did make him swear to keep for ever. this will not suffice.' .EXERCISES. shadow 53. 56. 48. is * ' ' ' How' and is here relative or conjunctive. it must appear that malice bears down 54. will surely injure the reputation he designs to assist (§ 459)- 50.' Omit and entire clause ' that follows so. 237 Benighted wanderers the forest o'er Curse the saved candle and unopening door While the gaunt mastiff. she 58. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand. Wild 62. Repent t but you that you shall lose your friend. As fruits. nature's vigour working at the root. For May is on the lawn. doth appear you are a worthy judge. I'll see if I can get my husband's ring. Affrisfhts the beggar whom he longs to eat. 61. How* If far the substance of it.' ' in the analysis. 52. clause without if. Blithe Flora from her couch upstarts. for that. ' How—it' is co-ordinate with X § Nominative absolute. These honours peace to happy Britain brings. in underprizing my praise doth wrong the so far this shadow doth limp behind the substance. And he repents not that he pays your debt. . Herein Fortune shows herself more kind than is her cus- tom 57. . (^= whether). Whilst light and colours rise and fly Lives Newton's deathless memory (§ 551). You take my house when you do take the prop That doth sustain my house you take my life When you do take the means whereby I live. It truth. ungrateful to the planter's care. While from the purpling east departs The star that led the dawn. Their savage eyes§ turned to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music. 51. to the ' ' The ' so t an adverbial adjunct far' A hypothetical See § 397. if Your wnfe would give you little thanks were by to hear you make + the offer. 59. On The savage stocks inserted. 60.

mankind a shame. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. That now she knows Vi^'hen X I 66.' Supply the.§ posterity will treat thy name . through all life When Losing unblest life that made / Should* some notes we In days of boyhood meet our ear. Sigh. After ' do ' supply impart better precepts. Who And • scorn [that] a lad should teach his father having once been wrong will be so still.' t ' ' ' II ' ' ' ' . How sweet and fair [He] Who thinks that To Think how And buy a resemble her to thee she seems to be. And 65. Hypothetical clause without if modifying the verb ' ' breathes.relative that before I saw. Shall one whom|| Nature. hast at least bestowed one penny well.' Substantive clause in apposition to Before 'raise' repeat that I could. In my former days of bliss Her divine skill taught me this. Adieu E'en take the counsel which I gave you Or.conspired to form to be conspired not to form to admire. and me. Separate it into (i) 'Whom Nature Whom Nature . ! 69 first . to fortune. lovely rose Tell her that wastes her time . Oh how welcome breathes the strain Wakening thoughts that long have slept. rope. used to love ! Kindling former smiles again In fading eyes that long have wept 64.' The adverbial clause when . I'll follow them with all my heart. blind to wit and worth.' the suppressed subject of the imperative 'think. Prepares a dreadful jest for all mankind. Go. Fortune cannot change her mind. friends.' t § In apposition to 'thou. that future times may tell Thou 68.' Supply ' ' ' which ' before 'we used. while his Chloe. ' skill. Thatt from everything I saw I could some invention draw . Weds the rich dulness of some son of earth ? If this advice appear the worst. You'd think [that] no fools disgraced the former reign.' (2) admired. Why^ 70.' A contracted compound Adjective Clause. raise pleasure to her height Through the meanest object's sight. ! we rove.' 238 63.' this.' why ' as an interjection. Did ** not some grave examples yet remain. learning. to 67. better precepts if you can impart. dear.' TJ Talte •• Hypothetical clau&e without if. do.thee ' modifies 'seems. birth conspired To form not to admire but be admired.

' little use. Then A I too we hurt ourselves. though no 73. that may forget Thee in the crowd. 239 Had now ? use the man. to share his joyous sport. with grateful heart Called on the lovely wanderer who bestowed That timely light. 75. useful to the State. with love's familiar privilege decried the wealth that is your own. 74. . Among these rocks and stones methinks I see More than the heedless impress that belongs To lonely nature's casual work. While heard a thousand blended notes. 79. a fate attends on all I write. they say I bite. Who says in verse what others say in prose. is we stoop • In full t — 'You may suppose that the man ' ' That is \ A substantive is of the zeal of foals expressed in rhyme. In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. that refuse To flow. Checking the finer spirits. You have 80 Wisdom Than Verily. where Thou hast built For Thy own glory in the wilderness. oft-times nearer when when we soar. The nightly hunter. methinks. Of little And. But know we not that he who intermits task and duties of the day. soldier.' &c.f Besides. The zeal of fools offends at any time. in a grove I sate reclined. ancient times conspired to disallow 71. Cannot forget Thee here. "What then was new. In sooth. Up 'J'].* you may suppose. lifting a bright eye towards the crescent moon. when to defend single verse we quarrel with a friend. I will My lips. when purposes are lightly changed? The appointed 78.EXERCISES. Untunes full oft the pleasures of the day. Yet let me show a poet's of some weight. ThatjJ when I aim at praise. 76. what had been ancient 72.' clause in apposition to fate. Yet praise Thee with impassioned voice. But most of all the zeal of fools in rhyme.

386). "'Twas Love's mistake. (J Let each esteem other better than themselves Lives of the Poets' are reprinting (§ 175). Where was you all last night? ($ 374). 395). 14. walk (§^ 191. Good own voices were heard and not mean savings produce (^ 374). Tiiere are 23. 2. 20. He was one of the wisest men that has ever lived (J§ 447. 19. . 4. I do not like those kind of things. You did not ought to do that (§§ 184. 28. 9. The The effluvia was disgusting intention of these persons are uncertain (§ 374). he older than her? 487). at 6. 25. 10. FAULTY SENTENCES FOR CORRECTION. who fancied what feared" (§ 464). : You and me Let you and will take a I take a walk (§ 287). 7. Correct the following sentences. (§ Six months' interest are due 374). (J 57). In modern English two negatives destroy one another. 13. This is the greatest error of the rest (§ 109). (^ 175). He is (§ not one of those 24). 3. Every man and boy showed sound but order their their joy by clapping (§ their hands ($ I7S). ! 15. Neither John nor Henry were Either he or I are in fault ($ church (§ 386). 24. Having finished the chapter the volume was shut {^^ 351. "How No pale each worshipful and reverend guest Rise from a clergy or a city feast " (§ 175). 231). Is 12.240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 16. calves' head. 362). Everybody has their faults (^ 175). a better writer than (J me (J 487). 374). it 32. Nor want nor cold his course delay many ways of dressing a 386). giving reasons for each correction 1. 27. 17. 21. 8. 26. and not other men's opinions. is What sort of a man he ? all 31. great profit (§ 374). Are either of those pens yours? Johnson's ' 175). (§ 376). 22. constitute our respon- sibility (§ 374). 11. who interferes in matters that do not concern him 29. Neither of them are better than they ought to be Our own John is conscience. 30. What signifies promises without performance ? (^ 374). 18. 5.

Nothing but grave and serious studies delight him 374). I heard that from 67. 45. 43. 39. (§ Can you I can see neither 454). 51. has turned against m» a (§ 448. 241 (§ Homer There as well as Virgil were studied on the oanks of the Rhine (J 386J. Somebody whom four. (§ 287). The I fleet are under orders to blouses sail (§ 376). 47. Between you and he a great fool (§ 277).2. A hot and cold spring were found near each other love of drink is (§ 454). I. There is nothing to show who that belongs to (§ 277). He told John and I to I. all 49. him whom 2). he whom I treated like 450. . 36. 65. 60. 62. (§ A numerous party Shakspere is were assembled 376). 379). \Vhom do you a Such a think called on me yesterday ? (§ 379). 52. are put in the plural because they are father's many. 59. come with him is 287). 57. 64. man whom I think deserves encouragement ({ man as him would never say that (§ 487). He He is the most admired of the other dramatists {$ 109). Divide that cake 68. I forget (§ 484 ). Who He is do you think I met this morning ? (§ 366). 46. 38. What the use of you talking like that told me. 386). ij. I had treated like a brother. (§ 54. (§ wore a large and a very shabby hat see a red and white flag ? 454). 66. 48. somebody or between you other. 55. 34. 63. 58. and at his brother's lives were spared. Call at Smith's the bookseller's My friend. greater than any dramatist. 56. whom nor avarice nor pleasure are in fault (§ move Not you but John 374). (^ have read the second and third chapter eye nor listening ear an object find 454). I forget who (§ 487). (§ He was angry is me asking him the question ? 484). 386). is sometimes more than one auxiliary to a verb (J 374). 40. 69. The peasantry wears 376). 33. {§ 487). 35. 109). This injury has been done brother (§ me by my ($ friend. A versifier and poet are two different things (§ 454). The of all other follies the most pernicious (§ 72).EXERCISES. Who Men His can this letter be from? 61. (§ 41. 37. Nor {§ (J 44. 53. 3). 50. (§ Parliament have been prorogued 376). These kind of people are my abhorrence.

Sincerity as valuable. He The did no more than fact of you was his duty to is have done. A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture. 88. ? do men declare him it to (§ (§ be (J 394). 97. do not know who send {§ 366). 81. 82. He not only ought but shall do 440). This is the greatest misfortune that ever has or could (§ 44°)95. A nation has no right to violate the treaties they have made (§ 464). 74. 98. for 86. I little thought was him 394). New World 454). coldly this morning 393). 91. died Sept. (J She looked cold on her lover 393). I think I will be gone by the time you come 100. Nobody gives so is much trouble as he does. but for his wisdom (§ 440). {ii. He is not only famous for his riches. 76. He was hoped as rich or even richer than his father (J 440). I would like to see him (J§ 209. 84. 77. 1874 (§ 378). wish to cultivate a further acquaintance with you. Whom Who I feel do men say that he (§ 379). 85. 96.). 99. 72. 79. as knowledge (440). me that say so (§461). 83. 80. sings bettter than me it (§ 487). born Jan. 1824. 78. . and even more so. When will we get there? He has not yet began his (§§ 209. to immediately succeed. It is I that he fears (^ 461). 2io). 92. I cannot tell I I you how much to pains have been spent on him. Nobody She I in their senses would have done that (J 464).242 70. They seemed to be nearly dressed alike. 93. 87. have my aunt. 5. (§ He The raved like one out of their mind Atlantic separates the Old and lies 464). and my father's leave (^ 449). 464). 210). home when you it (§ called. 94. as well as read them in a book (§§ 464. 102. ENGLISH GRAMMAR. You have weakened instead of strengthened your case ({ 278). I 104. having said so enough me {§ 484). 103. 75. 386). I expected to have been at 105. Here John Brown. is ? 73. exercise i. (§ (§ 226). loi. These flowers smell very sweetly 393). 90. my uncle. (§ 89. happen to me Each It is strives to cheat the other in their own way (§§ 175. 71.

doom 123. The Thames is derived from the Latin Thamesis. lips with fire (§ 456). 133. (§ 362. parsimony are to avoided. . Valerie's was one of those impulsive. He made I 134. The centres of each compartment are ornamented with a star (§ 175). He wrote a moderately sized volume. but it lacked either grandeur or beauty. is 394). or shall be published 109. This dedication among each that has. another joke which she suppressed (§ 439). was going to have written him a letter. In reading you should sit as uprightly as possible. 120. I see the being than love her (§ 487). and goeth into the wilderness and seeketh that which is gone astray ? (§ 440). We trust that by supplying a genuine and most superior class of article. Let us not increase our hardships by dissensions 108. eager natures that longs for a confidante 112. 243 While walking in my garden. 128. voice inspire. 125. 129. It 127. {$ 440). These plantations are lain out by rule and line (§ 226). More than one emperor prided himself upon his skill as a swordsman (§ 456). The service was impressive. in 1 14. Regard is to be had to every one's circumstances. no. hallowed cell. an idea suddenly occurred to me. 121. No civil broils 118. Profusion as well as 124. and had bettter be you this much.EXERCISES. that length of days impose {§ 456). He drew a line of about six inches long I (§ 278). His younger days were spent get to France (§ England. He is a boy of nine years old {\ 287). 117. to increase the confidence so many years bestowed on Mr. 130. 366). no use talking so. 132. can tell did not hear. 126. 131. 113. When I get home I another as 119. may serve for almost any book is. waiting for an opportunity to 362. i). believe me yours truly. Hoping to hear 116. have since his death arose (§ 226). 111. 107. from you soon. 136. Doth he not leave the ninety and nine. 115. fair Let thee and Severe the my 122. B. humble one. whom nobody in the world loves O Thou my Who touched Isaiah's For ever in this I. M. 106. 135. J. healths and abilities. i). (§ Let the same be she that thou has appointed Of all men else I have avoided thee. dwell (§§ 287. other. (§ 456). He has only done that much of his task.

we beg leave to report. with a view to suggest the most suitable one for Public Schools. a. J. and its introduction into our Public Schools. that. Nov. The only Edition prepared as an Introductory Text Book to Mason''8 mason's Grammar. Co. N. The MILLEe'S neu^ Authorized SWIITON'S Grammar. Aylmer High School. Thomas. after fully comparing the various editions that have been recommended. and Mason's Text Miller's Edition is prepared as an introductory Text Book for Mason's Grammar.M. Cloth Extra. UNGOIIGE Qrammar.TO AVOID CONFUBtON. so that what is learned by a pupil in an elementary text-book will not have to be unlearned when the advanced book is used. McLEAN. Verbi^t are the same as in Book.A. ASK FOB MILLER'S SAINTON'S LANGUAGE LESSONS.A. we believe that " Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons" is best adapted to the wants of junior pupUs and would urge its authorization on the Government.. Manitoba. Town Inspector. BUTLEK. BY J. of Elgin Model School. a serious fault with many of the graded Public School Books. Moods. appointing the undersigned a Committee to consider the respective merits of different English Grammars. A. b. Head Master STEELE. — Carried unanimously. In Miller's Edition of Language Lessons The Definitions of tbe Parts of Speech are novir made identical witb General Treatment The Classlflcatlon of Pronouns. It " St. that the report be received and E*riee. '• A. St. MILLER. 1878. 30th.CAMPBELL.. is the recent examination Papers MIIiliGR'S STFINTOrV'S LANGUAGE LESSONS County of Elgin Teachers authorized by the Education Department of Ontario. B. is authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. SSc. Co. Thomas High School. was moved and seconded adopted. Inspector. ADAM MILLEIl & CO. F. McMillan. J. is adopted by the Schools of Montreal. A. Bet for admission to Miller's Edition contains all High Schools. M. . LESSONS. the authorized book for advanced classes for Public Schools. To the President and Association Members of the In accordance with a motion passed at the last regular meeting of the Association.

WOOD. PortHop«. W. Be careful ta ask for MILIER'S !»>TI>TeN.S. London. held at Brussels. and the book admirably helps the judicious teacher in making correct thinkers and ready readers and writers. Bxbridge. The arrangement of the subjects is logical and progressive. Windtor. Na. Manitoba. MILLER'S SWINTOH'S LANGUAGE LESSOHS.. Cobourg. classification and general treatment are extremely simple and satis' factory. A Provincial H. Bracebridge. Lindsay. May 17. since the definitions. Mitchell. 1st W. Miller's Swinton's Language Lessons is sively in nearly all the Principal Public Schools of Ontario. St. would save time by using it. Whitby. P. Trenton Falls. Schools of Winuiprg.' by McMillan. Beaforth. Eesolution passed unanimously by the Teachers' As sociation. John's.The New Inthorized Elementarj ((rammnr. 1878 " Resolved. Uamiltou. Heaford. as other editions are in the market. M. Perth. Among them are used excluand Model Ottawa. Thomas. and St. The definition's in " Miller's Swinton Language Lessons" are brief. Neiv Foiuidland. B. (North Huron). St. is the best introductory work on Grammar for Public School use. Bclle¥llle. All pupils who intend to enter a High School or to become students for Teachers' Certificates. Listowelt Adopted by the Protestant Schools of Blontreal and Levi College. Clinton. Brockville. Brantford. Catharines. Straihroy.)anee. CAESON.. Quebec. clear and exact. That the Teachers at this Convention are of opinion that Miller's Swinton Language Lessons. .. and leave little to be unlearned in after years. Model School. H. J." In my opinion the best introductory Text-book to Mason's Grammar.

Houston. KING. BICHABD LEWIS.. H. M. M. He immediately sent me Masoin. It Is an excellent and reliable work. S. definition and abundant illustrations without stereotyped rules thereby making the study even attractive. J. B. I. M. Incomparably the best text book for the senior classes of our high schools that has yet been ofCered to the Canadian public.A. M. OakviUe of three years ago I asked a grammar school nspectoi the old country to send me the best grammar publi bed there. Caledonia.. all BelleviUe and..A. P. With to De dMlrod. Newmarket. F. S. Of best. SIM. I consider Mason's the MORRISON. It has reached a twenty-first edition in and 1 have no doubt it -will meet with the same high apEngland preciation in this Province. H. in A. Cobourg Col.. B. • • • Mason'sGrammaris just such abook as many teachers have been hoping to see introduced into om: schools.. Loncok. 8. M. the grammars that I have seen..South Hastings. KNIGHT. AliEX. rank in M.. J.. Head Master. H. Kingston CoUegiate Institute. have ordered it to be used in tlie .. The chapter on the Analysis of diflBcult sentences is of itself sufficient to place the work far beyond any English grammar hitherto before the Canadian pubUc.. D. JOHN JOHNSTON.A. Principal. H.. M.C. Fellow of Unitbbsiit Colleob. Dufferin School Toronto. It will be well received by teachers and advanced pupils. MASON.A. I consider it by far best English grammar for high school purjioses that has yet "Mu«oa" and "Fleming" nothing more seeoia appeared.P.. C.D. H..MacHENBT. Ab a philosophical treatise its discussion of doubtful points anA Its excellent methods and definitions cannot fail to give it a high the school tiie estimation of the best judges of such works teachers of the country.M. PRICE Upwards 76 CENTS. High School.. P. its method being to teach the subject by explanation. S.A. — JOHN SHAW. liXJ). Mason's grammar will be found a most valuable class-book gs pecially for the instruction of advanced classes in English.M. Institute. UA.ENGLISH GKAMMAE BY C. a.. P.. H. Omemee. H. With Examina4iion Papers by W. I this school.. H. M.

A.-PERCENTAGE. ANALYSIS. PRICE. M. is worth BB a clerk or accountant 50 per cent more than the prodigy who can boast of having " gone " through his written arithmetic half a dozen times. of M. A boy who is conversEint with the principles of Mental Arithmetic. By J. . McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic. my J. 80c. D. Inspectoi High Schools. m DEACON. Provincial our Schools long ago. Dr.M. LL. unless what we call Mental Arithmetic is thoroughly and yatematicaUy pursued. -FUNDAMENTAL RULES.D . its its Simple In Schools. Picton.Mentel Arithmetic. varied in Prom THE WE8LEYAN. Dr. H. arrangement. McLellan's Mental Arithmetic contains a great number of useful problems well adapted to aevelop by regular gradations the thinking powers of the pupil. Dr. &C. is a credit to Canadians... Fart I. The laatio Halifax. J. B. it is the best book of its kind that I have examined. Nova Scotia. J. S. A. Port Hope. McLELLAN. H.B.A. Ont. Head Master Model and Its Public types of practical questions and sugggestive in methods.. A. M. 46C.. D. RATIO. CLABKE. and it supplies a long-felt \rant. FRACTIONS. McLeUan's Mental Arithmetic supplies a want that we shoiild have had supplied in W. After two woeka use of class I am convinced that it is the book with much superior to any of the American texts that have been used here both as to the grading of questiont and the style of the problems. GOGGIN. PART ll. PRICE. as given this little text-book. Nova Scotia. It is just what is wanted for "waking up mind" in the school room. A. PROPORTION. H. series bids fair to take a good place in seho- work. Same progress cannot be made in Mathematical work. Model School. Principal Ingersoll Model School. PART 1.. and to suggest similar examplea for the use of the t«aoher. DIMOCK.

A. Within one year the iOth thousand haa been issued. NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. By Thomas Kirkland. Intended as an Introductory Text-Book to Hamhlin Smith's Arithmetic. Toronto. Toronto. Authorized by the Council of Pnblio Instruction. Frio* 25 Cents.. Head Master Model School.A. Manitoba. ADAM MILLER & Co.. Authorized by the Council of Public Instruction. B. Prince Edward Island. 176 Faees. M.One of the most popular Text Books erer published. Adopted in many of the best Schools of Quebec.. Cloth Szfcra. Highly recommended by the leading Teachers of Ontario. . Adopted in a number of the Schools of Newfoundland. and William Scott. Science Master Normal School.

W.. and have no hesitation in saying that I consider it the best Elementary Arithmetic which I have yet seen. Head Master Provincial Model Nova Scotia. it (fcc. Cobourg. Head — — .. and William Scott.. this book with increasing pleasure and can in almost unqualified recomnaendation. a copious and well selected assortment of exercises. Science Master Normal School. By Thomas Kirkland.B. Since failures in Arithmetic are mainly due to a want of power in independent analysis to a lack of knowledge of the unitary method and of skill in its application this volume which discusses the ijroblems'on independent methods will be cordially welcomed by teachers.A. Arithmetic is pre-eminent if taught by logical methods and this work places it in the power of the younger classes to be benefitted by such methods. M. The young pupil. is led almost unconsciously to the great field of the unknown. I B. by a Btep. Normal School.B. Toronto. H. 2nd and 3rd of our schools. LL. terse. explanation. W. in the best eiamentary Arithmalao I have examined. as it offers. in addition to our present text-book.A. to Hajnblin Smith's Cloth Extra. B.. A. 176 Pages. I have examined your Elementary Arithmetic on the unitary system by Kii'kland and Scott.NEW ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC ON THE UNITARY METHOD. East Middleiex. Principal Essex Model and Windsor Central SchooL After a thorough perusal of the Elementary Arithmetic by jKirkland & Scott. Head Master Model School. DIMOCK. Master. well adapted for the purpose for which JOHN DBAENESS. Master Ottawa it is in- consider cended. have examined it speak of ooiuion. A very praiseworthy feature of the book is the large number of examples and problems pecuUar to so small a work. hitended as an Introdtictory Text-Book Arithmetic. Price 25 Cents. B. B. Model and Public Schools. The arrangement is natural and comprehensive. As a preparatory Arithrnetic 1 have not seen its equal. that makes his earlier arithmetical studies a pleasure and a profit. The Elementary Arithmetic by Kirkland and Scott I can heartily recommend to our teachers. Public I School Inspector. The questions are in clear. I have no hesitation in saying that it is better adapted to the schools of this country than any similar book that has come within the range of my twenty-seven years experience. attractive language.. As a discipline of the mind in tea-hing the pupil to think and reason. It is. D. Math. JAMES DUNCAN. Schools. SPKAGUE. W. MoKAY.A. my . a good arrangement and conciseness in definition and A. RIDDELL. It is admirably adapted to the requirements of grades Ist. ty the arrangement of the principles presented and the exercises laid down. Principal of Pictou Academy and Public Schools.

0. BL " Eaxnblin Smith's arithmetic seems very suitable to the neoe»« our public schools. A. Inspector of Sohoola. Inspector for Qaeen'a Co. B. Price. M..* . Head Master Model • Sohool. so that pupils may readily comprehend the questions and proceed to the solutions. ADAPTED TO CAMAOIAM CVKKSaCT BT THOMAS glRTTLAND. 0. Bsrrington.THREE EDITIONS SOLD —OF— IN SIX MONTHS HAMBLIN SMITH'S ARITHMETIC.A. 76 Cents. Manitoba. M. Ontario. "I ANDBEWS. Science Master School. DANAGH.A. of Balifax. as the examples have been mostly culled nrom Examination papers. complete and comprehensive. Gmnberland. indeed I may say that I have not seen any other work on tnis branch that is so specially ealculated to assist the student in passing with credit offlctal t*$ta. DOAl^TE. SOOTT. Toronto. The exercises are admirable. N. F.. M. Inspector of Schools. Authorieed hy Ihe Council of Public Inatruction. I Bball b« pleased to recommend its early introduction. Ontario- 4tli Edition. have much pleasure in certifying to the nperiority of the Canadian edition of Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic over any text book on that subject that has yet come under my notice. FROM NOVA Bities of SCOTIA. The author appears not to rely so much on set rules as upon explanations and the clearing of seeming obscurities. and ths examination papers are invaluable as aids to teachers in thorough training. Authorited by the Chief Supt. Nora Sootla." W. —"It has a value oandidatM preparing for public examination. A. They will also prove of great service to pupils desiroua of passing the grade tests. I cordially recommend its nse to all those desirous of obtaining an acquaintance with this branch of Dsefol knowledge.A. and Nonnal WM. QiMftMi Beeommended by the Senate of the Univ. I therefore think that Hamblin Smith's Arithmetic should to placed on the authorixed U»t of books for pabllo schooU.. for Hamblin Smith's Abithmbtio. B. AuthoriMed by th» Minitter of Edueatien.. N. Education. It if Eractical. The appendix and examlation papers are important and valuable features.

" '• Ci/ARKE Moses. Haldimand. I shall be happy to gee them in the bands of all my pupils. S. Head Master Erantford Central School. and P. so much out of place a textbook on this subject. and will he perused with pleasure and profit by many who are neither teachers nor pupils. •• ± am glad to see these brief serials authorized by the Minister of Education. Co. accuracy. They are clear and succinct in statement and convey a large amount of information. Wilkinsoh. M. DouGAN. •' — J. Brighton. M. W. S. rendering them particularly suitable for students. "I am quite conscientious in saying that it is one of the best digests of History that I have seen. High School pupils. I can. in binding. "The 'Epochs of English History' will be valuable aids in the preparation of pupils for the 2nd class and intermediate examinations. cordially recommend them to every teacher who wishes to make hlstoiy not an effort of memory alone. but a study of the grand sequence of cause and effect by which the facts in tha world's life have been created. Caledonia.. M. which united in so singularly excellent a manner.. and a clear comprehension of the logic of History.. It forms a valuable addition to the valuable collection of school books you have issued. B.A. Tou have done good service to Canadian students and teachers issuing a Canadian edition which. I should think their introduction into schools is much to be desired. MOEOAN.A. Schools. and shall. "The series is admirably adapted for the use of teachers. Ont. K.CREIGHTON'S EPOCHSOF ENGLISH HISTOHY tional Q. B. C." Am ROBT." s Wm. P. I am particularly pleased with their simplicity of style and fair method of stating occurrences. They have the advantage of confining the attention of the learner to definite periods. and the more advanced classes of our Public Schools. <3rand help these to the study of English History in its only raway hy epochs in the life of the English Nation and her in" Epochs of History'' mark an epoch in the study of iV* Btitutiona. N. Principal High School. Inspector. D. They are written in the most entertaining style. Mackintosh.A. and deserves especial commendation for giving just what the pupil ought to know without any extraneous matter." . It is remarkably clear and concise. Picton. I. " I have read them through carefully and consider them the best works on the subject for the use of schools that I have ever seen. Inspector. H. Orb. PL ATT. brevity. and tending in no small degree to nrn'note a better system of pursuing this important study. Hastings. and thus enabling him to master diificult historical subjects without attempt ing to digest and memorize too much at once." ' Wm. M. " led to express my admiration of the very concise and systematic method of arrangement adopted in them.A. Hamilton. Madoc. I shall introduce them in the schools here and encourage their use in those of the vicinity." G. M.A. P. and without any attempt at rhetorical flourishes. P.. S.." u R. H. "I have been for many years. Barrie. paper. S. H. Lindsay.. B. and have certainly never met with any sketch of the periods embraced by the two volumes of Epochs' you sent me. Johnson. an earnest student of History. including my University course. and typoby graphical execution is all that could be desired..

Inspector for Cnmberland. M. SMITH.. Education. thoroughbess of Beatty THOS. A.A. Schools.Keeping and Writing Master.. M. Authorized by the Minister of Education. Beoommended by tlie Covmcil of Public Instruction. P. with which the principles of bookkeeping are explained and illustrated. N.. for ve» k Treatise on Simolb and Double Entry Book-Keepino.. Beattt. Nova Scotia. Principal Ontario Commercial College." J. Schools. M.' kceping. Colchester County. " Several months ago we introduced Mason's English Grammar inte Manitoba College. S. S. and transactions therein contained. It is well adapted for use in the public schools. are plain and simple. the perspicuity of the instructions.. Inspector for Queen's Co.BEATTY By S.. Nova Scotia. S.A. N. while it is su£Bciently comprehensive for all practical purposes. Schools. Shelburne Co. Schools. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping is an admirable work. Supt.A. PRICE. and cannot but ai^mire the simplicity of the outline. Torontb. MORSE. Insp. HART. and Sauubl Clare. and its examples ample. the practical bearing of the transactions.M. Nova Scotia. H. HioH AND Public Schools. We . looking over this book have submitted it to the inspection of practical bookkeepers who agree with me in the propriety of recommending it as a school book. and now wc are introducing Beatty & Clare's Houkfind tbwn jmt what w« need in their respective sut^eeta. Nova Scotia.. JOHN AMBROSE. Belleville. Manitoba. Book. " Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping has had a careful perusal. A. its simplicity alone is sufScient to secure for the book a place in our schools throughout (he Dominion. Normal School. yet comprehensive and practical. and the varied commercial character of the whole work. Hants. vid have much pleasure in saying that the work is just what is wanted for boys who desire to acquire in a short time such knowledge as will fit them for business*" KEV. The definitions. Quebeo. T. " I am very much pleased with the aimplicity and & Clare's Bookkeeping. & IM CLARE'S lOOK-KEEPI m. Insp. "I have carefully looked over Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping." W. G. Ontario.. DOANE. D. Nova Scotia. Annapolis Co.. — " Besides D. ANDREWS. McGILLIVRAY. Co. L. 3rd Ed. FROM NOVA SCOTIA AND MANITOBA. AutJiorized by the Chief Supt. " I have examined Beatty & Clare's Bookkeeping and find it to be an excellent work. " I have looked into Beatty_& Clare's Bookkeeping. C. It commends itself to teachers as a text book and to all others desirous of acquiring a knowledge of this important branch. forms. DANAGH. Digby. C. Insp." myself. Insp. will recommend this work to any teacher or pupil preparing for examination. S. Winnipeg. A. Its directions are minute and to the point. - 70 CENTS. I Beaty & Clare's Bookkeeping. of Schools.


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