Modern Language Association (MLA) Style is commonly used for academic writing in a wide range of subjects and disciplines, particularly in the arts and humanities. These guidelines are based on the 7th edition of the handbook, 2009. In general:

     

Most citations include 4 key elements: (1) author's name, (2) title or source, (3) publication information, and (4) format of publication. Italicize titles of larger works, such as books or magazines; use quotation marks for titles within larger works (book chapter, article title, poem). Follow elements with a period and one space. Citations are double-spaced throughout with a ½” hanging indent. Order the Works Cited list alphabetically by the first element in the citation, usually the author. Consult the MLA Handbook (available at the reference desk) or the writing guide at for more examples. Try NoodleBib, an online citation composer tool provided by your library (good for creating and organizing Works Cited lists). This guide includes citation examples for:
Print Sources: Books (p1), Encyclopedias (p2), Articles (p3) | Online Sources: Web sites & Databases (p4) Audiovisual and Other Non-Print Sources (p5) | In-Text Notes (p5) | Formatting (p6)


Anatomy of a Print Book Citation
Below is a citation for a book with a single author, which contains five elements: author, title, publication information, date, and publication medium. Consult the title page and the back of the title page for citation information.
Author, last name first Title, italicized or underlined Edition statement, include if 2nd edition or later

Fishman, Steven. The Copyright Handbook: What Every Writer Needs to Know. 10th ed.
Hanging indent, ½ inch

Berkeley: Nolo, 2008. Print.

Publication medium (format)

Place of publication, followed by colon and one space

Publication date Publisher, often abbreviated

By a single author

Obama, Barack. The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown, 2006. Print.

Two authors

Newman, Janet, and John Clarke. Publics, Politics, and Power: Remaking the Public in Public Services. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2009. Print.

Page 1 of 6

General encyclopedia article Subject encyclopedia article Marquis. 4. 4 vols. Ned. Craig A. "Personal Financial Planning. Print.” Journal of Marriage and Family 71. Sherrin. 2005 ed. Robin Broad. “Punk Rock: The Art of Noise. Westport. McKeown. 5 vols. Detroit: Thomson Gale. ed. Unknown author MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. John J. Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations. Essay or Chapter within a collection or anthology Sweeney.” The World Book Encyclopedia. et al. Print. Article in a multivolume work not in alphabetical order Entire reference work Patterson. and Catherine Keller. Ecospirit: Religions and Philosophies for the Earth. 2009: 33.. New York: Fordham UP. et al. and Kerry Brown. Page 2 of 6 . 2008.. Vol. Information Systems: Creating Business Value. 2005. Laurel. Print. th Collection produced by an editor Kearns. Giles.” Global Backlash: Citizen Initiatives in a Just World Economy. Encyclopedias 4B A simplified citation is commonly used for well-known general encyclopedias. 7 ed. Piercy. Print. Print. New York: Mod. 2009. Robert E. 2006. 3rd ed. “What’s a Banker Worth?” Time 9 Nov. “Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families. Linsun. Wild China: Natural Wonders of the World’s Most Enigmatic Land. 2009. Hoboken: Wiley. Assn. CT: Greenwood Press. Joel. “Influenza. Justin. Print. Lang. Print. Three authors Huber. Great Barrington: Berkshire. Print. Print. Print. 2008. 2002. Mark W.B. Rob. 2007. Berkshire Encyclopedia of China. 131-56. Print.1 (2009): 61-79. 47-50. and Patrick K. More than three authors Badger. 5B( Articles Journal article White. “The New Internationalism. eds. Used two or more volumes of a multivolume work Cheng. New Haven: Yale UP.. Lerner. Include volume or page number(s) only if the articles are not in alphabetical order. Rebecca M.. Article in a weekly publication Fox. cont. 2007.” Greenwood Encyclopedia of Rock History. Include publication information for subject encyclopedias. Oxford: Oxford UP. Print. MD: Rowman & Littlefield." Encyclopedia of Business and Finance. eds. Lanham. Ed.Books.

30 Nov. publisher or sponsor (if unavailable. title of the article or page within the web site (in quotes). SocINDEX with Full Text. 2009: 57-8. New York Times 1 Nov. Hal. the medium (Web). 2009. last name first Fox. and Kevin D. Book or movie review Pols. Stephen. double quotes italicized or underlined Complete date of publication Database name and starting page number Database publisher Below is a citation for an online magazine article from a research database.Articles. the date you accessed the site. Enclose it in angle brackets following the date of access. and Justin Mayo. 11 Nov. Print. include the volume and issue number and the publication year. Kate. include the complete date of publication. Title of the article in Title of the periodical. Haggerty. “Sure. 2009: 146-51. 2009.   For magazine and newspaper citations. Eric.d. Include the URL only when the reader cannot locate the source without it or when your instructor requires it.). and page number(s). Date of access Publication medium (format) Web Sites and Databases 6B Include author (if named). Jennifer R. document date or date of the last revision (if unavailable. Web. "A Final Verdict on the Presidential Salute. Print. Bernton. Salon Media Group. Article in a monthly publication Newspaper article Levy. Editorial Winfrey. Hanging indent. Proquest Research Library. 2009. 2009. Web. 15 Nov. Magazine article from publisher’s web site Newspaper article from publisher’s web site Harding. Pryne. Journal article from a research database Whitson. use n. 2008: 44+. Print.” Seattle Times 10 Sept. Page 3 of 6 ." Economy & Society 37. “Logging and Landslides: What Went Wrong?” Seattle Times. Web.. 13 July 2008. 5 May 2009. It’s Violent. For journal citations. 2009: A1+.p. Seattle Times. Time 26 Oct. Print.4 (2008): 572-94. Author. cont. But Can You Dance To It?” Salon. 25 Nov. Spike Jonze. Ebsco. ProQuest. “Kill the 401(k)?” Time 15 Dec. “Why Investment Giant Jilted Tacoma for Seattle. dir. Mary. "Who’s Running Twitter?" Wired Nov. article title. name of the web site (italics).). use N. “Let the Wild Rumpus Start!” Rev. O ONLINE SOURCES Anatomy of an Online Periodical Article Citation Standard elements for a periodical article are: author’s name." Identity Theft and the Care of the Virtual Self.” Editorial. issue date. ½ inch Web. Carey. Justin. periodical name. of Where the Wild Things Are. 2009: WK10.

Web. 2008. no date Video Audio Interview Pasold.. N. Detroit: Greenhaven Press. 2005. Web. 10 Nov. no author A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans & the U. "Paris Architecture Explained.” YouTube. Museum of Mod. McLaughlin.p. James. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 June 2009. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. 25 June 2009. Perry Castenada Library Map Collection.p.S. Web.” Map. Web. et al. 2009. 1940. Web. Simon. Oxford: Oxford UP. Web. n. Bartleby. 1907. 2009. “Did You Know 4. Smithsonian National Museum of American History. 2009. By Drew Diamond and Deirdre Mead Weiss. Art.” Current Controversies: Food. PBS.d. Personal web page Federal government publication Belinoff. Web. Natl. Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair. 2009.Web sites and Databases. no publisher or sponsor. n. Map “Afghanistan-Pakistan Administrative Divisions. Tacoma. 2009. of Community Oriented Policing Services. Univ. Part of an online book De Maupassant. 2009. 2009. Public Radio. 17 Nov. Encyclopedia “Language. 2009. “Affordable Organic Food Is Not Sustainable. Constitution. Frida.” Interview with Terry Gross. 30 Sept. Essay from a research database Joyner. Robert. 2009. 2 Sept. Deanne Belinoff: visual artist.. 14 Sept.0. cont. Web. “The Necklace. Academic Edition. 2009. 30 Sept. 1990-2001. Web. Jan Grover. Page or article within a web site. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. 2009. 14 Sept. Blog post Owens. XPLANE. Moral Value and Human Diversity. Fresh Air. Dept. New York.d. Deanne. Brander Matthews. 11 Nov. Page 4 of 6 . Lisa. Great Books Online. Web. “Rescuing Katrina’s Four-Legged Victims. Art work Kahlo. Web. United States. “What Newspaper Cartoonists Can Learn from Web Comics. Entire web site.. NetLibrary. Community Policing: Looking to Tomorrow. 6 July 2009. 5 Nov. Dept of Justice. Ed. 16 Aug. Entire online book Audi. Web. 2007. of Texas. 2009. 25 Nov. 2009.” Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Web. Margaret. KPLU." Paris Notes.” MediaShift. 28 Apr. 29 July 2009.” The Short Story. Guy. New York: American Book Co. N.

2001. use an abbreviated version of the work's title as listed in the entry on the Works Cited page. Music recording (song from a CD) Personal Interview Jackson.” Thriller. 1932. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. Bill. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2008. performer. An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional ("Wordsworth Is A Loser" 100). 8 Jan. 17 Oct. or director (if available). date (if unknown use>. Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).” Prod. The Complete Poetical Works of William Wordsworth. not in the text of your sentence. title.AUDIOVISUAL & OTHER NON-PRINT SOURCES In general. Gates. in Weisman 259). it is difficult to predict the extent to which the cochlear implant will make a significant difference for deaf children. Film (VHS or DVD) What the Bleep Do We (K)now!? Dir. Other elements vary depending on the type of material. William. 2009. Marcela Gaviria. PBS. Personal Interview.english. With research showing varying results. so refer to the MLA Handbook. For the following citation: Wordsworth. Frontline. Television program “The Medicated Child.    The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase. Show page number(s) in the parentheses. Page 5 of 6 . as is the case with many web sources. Quote 1 Quote 2 No author Two authors Indirect quote All examples from: OWL Online Writing Lab <http://owl. Morgan Spurlock. Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers. IN-TEXT NOTES The author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or idea is taken must appear in the text. KCTS. manufacturer or distributor. Paraphrase Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). If there is no author to cite. Epic. and medium. CD. no number can be listed in the parenthetical reference. citations for AV materials should include composer. DVD. and they don't do that well" (qtd. Michael.). “Beat It. If there are no page numbers. Television. 2004. See the MLA Handbook for more examples. (Christiansen & Leigh 318).purdue. Seattle.

and select Hanging. Choose the Indents and Spacing | Phone: 206. 2. set the amount of space for the hanging indent (. Highlight the entire citation. Seattle Central Community College Library Web: seattlecentral. In the By box. 3. To turn off automatic underlining for Web addresses 1. In the Indentation section.587. and then click Word Options. Click AutoCorrect Options. 4. 3. . NOTES Last updated Fall2009.FORMATTING CITATIONS in MICROSOFT WORD To format hanging indentation 1. 2.5” is the default. and then click the AutoFormat As You Type tab.5421 Page 6 of 6 . find the Special list. then right click and select Paragraph. Click the Microsoft Office Button Click Proofing. Clear the Internet and network paths with hyperlinks check box. and appropriate here).

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