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1st President of the Philippines
In office March 22, 1897 – April 1, 1901 Prime Minister Vice President Succeeded by Born Died Political party Spouse(s) Profession Religion Signature Apolinario Mabini (Jan 21 - May 7, 1899) Pedro Paterno (May 7 - Nov 13, 1899) Mariano Trías (1897) Manuel Quezon March 23, 1869[n 1] Cavite El Viejo, Philippines(now Kawit) February 6, 1964 (aged 94) Quezon City, Philippines Katipunan Hilaria del Rosario(1896–1921) María Agoncillo(1882–1963) Soldier, Manager, Teacher Revolutionary Roman Catholicism Emilio Aguinaldo's signature
and the longest-lived (having survived to age 94). 1869[– February 6. . politician. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's president. 1964) was a Filipino general. Aguinaldo became the Philippines' first President. and independence leader. and the subsequent Philippine-American War that resistedAmerican occupation. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain.Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22.
Emilio "Orange" Aguinaldo IV. Jr. which he quit on his third year to return home instead to help his widowed mother manage their farm. Cesar Virata. Gen.. a granddaughter served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1979 to 1992.'s daughter. María and Cristina) Hilaria Aguinaldo died because of leprosy. as he was popularly called. Emilio Aguinaldo. Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera. Miguel Aguinaldo. Emilio Aguinaldo III. 1895. Carmen. Gen. eldest son and Councilor of Imus. They had five children (Miguel. At the age of 28. Descendants Several of Aguinaldo's descendants became prominent political figures in their own right: Baldomero Aguinaldo. Jr. as members of theChinese-Tagalog mestizo minority. Aguinaldo's granddaughter and Emilio Aguinaldo. Cavite. Gen. changing the designation of town head from gobernadorcillo to capitan municipal effective 1895. first cousin and leader of the Philippine Revolution. Personal life His first marriage was in 1896 with Hilaria Del Rosario (1877–1921). Aguinaldo's son. In 1880. becoming the first person to hold the title of capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo. Emilio Jr. they enjoyed relative wealth and power. a grandnephew and served as Prime Minister of the Philippines from 1981 to 1986. travelling as far south as the Sulu Archipelago. Aguinaldo's grandson. Miong. theMaura Law was passed to reorganize town governments with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous. and. the most progressive barrio of Cavite El Viejo. He also engaged in inter-island shipping. Aguinaldo was elected town head.. As a young boy he received education from his great-aunt and later attended the town's elementary school. he took up his secondary course education at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. On January 1. great-grandson and served as Vice Mayor of Kawit. . His second wife was María Agoncillo (1882–1963). was elected cabeza de barangay of Binakayan. Emilio Aguinaldo was born on March 23. In 1893. Cavite province His father was gobernadorcillo (town head). Cavite. Consuelo Aguinaldo.Early life Family The seventh of eight children of Carlos Aguinaldo y Jamir and Trinidad Famy y Valero (1820–1916). 1869 in Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). He held this position serving for his town-mates for eight years.
Jr. Aguinaldo's great-grand-nephew. Emilio Aguinaldo V. an attached agency of the Philippine National Oil Corporation. Gen. Federico Poblete. Aguinaldo's great-great-grandson and grandson of Miguel Aguinaldo. Canada. Served as municipal councilor in Imus. Lito Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo's son. father of Emilio Aguinaldo V and former councilor of Imus. Aguinaldo's great grandson and Representative of 1st District of Cavite. Eduardo Dizon. Gen.. Delfin Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo's grandson. The youngest. Mayor of Kawit. . also went on to become a police officer in Toronto. Cavite. Joseph Emilio Abaya. Cavite. Gen. Aguinaldo's great grandson and president of Alternative Fuels Corp. Gen. Such as the awarding of the Philippine Military Academy Aguinaldo Saber Award.. Gen. Cavite. Aguinaldo's great-grandson. and uncle of Emilio Aguinaldo IV. Gen. First Filipino Police Officer in Toronto. Aguinaldo's great-granddaughter and TV reporter. Sandra Aguinaldo. Gen. son of Emilio Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo's great-grandson and curator. Canada Ryo Aguinaldo. Gen. Eduardo Dizon. Angelo Aguinaldo. Gen. Reynaldo Aguinaldo. Jr. Gen. Cavite. Emiliana. His Great Grandchildren are elusive to the public eye and continue to support Aguinaldo's traditions. Peter Abaya. Aguinaldo's grandson and served as Mayor of Kawit. currently continues to confer the award. His son.
In 1894. temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area. . dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force. The Cavite rebels then made overtures about establishing a revolutionary government in place of the Katipunan. headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo. in honor of Mary Magdalene. Bonifacio declared the Convention null and void. While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare. was also called Magdalo. However. ]Though Bonifacio already considered the Katipunan to be a government. and sought to return to his power base in Morong (present-day Rizal). 1897. Their absence contributed to Bonifacio's defeat.K. Cavite on March 22.K. Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo. Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles. the Magdiwang. in San Juan del Monte (now part of Metro Manila). His local chapter of the Katipunan.Philippine Revolution Main article: Philippine Revolution The flag of the K. Bonifacio lost the leadership to Aguinaldo. The Katipunan revolt against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896. a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio. Even this was questioned by an Aguinaldo supporter.K. claiming Bonifacio had not the necessary schooling for the job. and was elected instead to the office of Secretary of the Interior. Conflict between the Magdalo and another Cavite Katipunan faction. Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive due to lack of arms..K. Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan or the K. Insulted. led to Bonifacio's intervention in the province. he acquiesced and presided over elections held during the Tejeros Convention in Tejeros. Away from his power base.
convicted of treason. President of the Council of War the death sentence. and sentenced to death. After some vacillation. in a mock trial which lasted one day. Cavite. but cancelled his commutation order after being convinced by Generial Manuel Noriel. . and others prominent in his government that the sentence must stand.] At Aguinaldo's orders. about four kilometers west of Maragondon. Aguinaldo commuted the death sentence. Andres and Procopio Bonifacio were executed by firing squad on May 10. 1897 at Mount Hulog. Bonifacio and his brothers were arrested and.Bonifacio refused to recognize the revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo and attempted to reassert his authority. accusing the Aguinaldo faction of treason and by issuing orders contravening orders issued by the Aguinaldo faction.
was deposited into Hong Kong banks. Aguinaldo reorganized his revolutionary government into the "Supreme Council of the Nation". eventually forcing Aguinaldo's forces to retreat to the mountains. While in exile. $400. On December 23. Under the pact. One revolutionary general who remained in the Philippines. Spanish officials continued to arrest and imprison Filipinos suspected of having been involved in the rebellion. 1898. war broke out between Spain and the United States. . In April 1898. Francisco Makabulos. representing the first installment of the indemnity. In the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1. The consequence of this disregard of the pact by both sides was the resurgence of the revolution. Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government in exchange for amnesty and "$800. established a Central Executive Committee to serve as a provisional revolutionary government "until a general government of the Republic in these islands shall again be established.000 (Mexican)" (Aguinaldo's description of the amount) as an indemnity. 1887. Aguinaldo promptly resumed command of revolutionary forces and besieged Manila. Aguinaldo and other Katipunan officials departed for Hong Kong to enter voluntary exile." Meanwhile.000. Emilio Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. the American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Deweyengaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron.Biak-na-Bato Main article: Pact of Biak-na-Bato Spanish pressure intensified. and blockaded Manila. The documents were signed on December 14 and 15.] Dewey provided transport to return Aguinaldo to the Philippines.
Presidency Main article: First Philippine Republic The insurgent First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21. These were Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. 1899 in Malolos. Bulacan and endured until the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23. Isabela. . 1901 in Palanan. which effectively dissolved the First Republic. Thereafter. Administration and Cabinet President Aguinaldo had two cabinets in the year 1899. Aguinaldo appointed two premiers in his tenure. the war situation resulted in his ruling by decree.
November 13. 1899 January 21 . Enrique Mendiola. War taxes were levied and voluntary contributions were solicited.May 7.OFFICE President Vice-President Prime Minister NAME Emilio Aguinaldo Mariano Trias Apolinario Mabini Pedro Paterno TERM 1897–1901 1897 January 21 . 1899 1899 1899 May 7 . Malolos. .May 7.May 7. 1899 May 7 . The Filipino educator. as well as a complete A. save those upon cockfighting and other amusements. surveying. 1899 May 7 .November 13. It offered courses in agriculture. President Aguinaldo ordered schools open. 1899 January 21 . and commerce. Customs duties were established.May 7.May 7. 1899 May 7 .November 13.November 13.November 13.May 7. 1899 January 21 . A national loan was launched. 1898. The same was done with the existing taxes. 1899 January 21 . Bulacan on September 15. The Malolos Congress continued its sessions and accomplished certain positive tasks.B course.November 13. The Spanish fiscal system was provisionally retained. founded the "Instituto de Burgos" and were appointed by the Director of Public Instruction. 1899 May 7 . 1899 Minister of Finance Mariano Trias Hugo Ilagan Minister of the Interior Teodoro Sandico Severino de las Alas Minister of War Baldomero Aguinaldo Mariano Trias Minister of Welfare Gracio Gonzaga Minister of Foreign Affairs Apolinario Mabini Felipe Buencamino Minister of Public Instruction Aguedo Velarde Minister of Public Works and Communications Maximo Paterno Minister of Agriculture.Elementary education was made compulsory and free. Industry and Commerce León María Guerrero Domestic Programs Opening of the Malolos Congress at the Barasoain Church. 1899 May 7 . 1899 January 21 .
Without Luna's military expertise. a telegram from Aguinaldo was received by Gen. asking him to proceed to Cabanatuan.On October 1898. Three days later (June 5). Del Pilar was killed in the battle along with 52 others of the defending force. when Luna arrived. After Luna's assassination. on March 23. In November 1899. Couses offered were Medicine. Aguinaldo and his staff fled northwards from the advancing Americans.Pharmacy. Isabela. Philippine American War Main article: Philippine-American War Aguinaldo boarding USS Vicksburgfollowing his capture in 1901. Antonio Luna. to Palanan. On June 2. and the Malolos government had to move from one place to another. A picked force of 60 men under General Gregorio del Pilar fought a heroic battle at Tirad Pass against a much larger American force to delay the American advance to ensure Emilio Aguinaldo's escape.S. Less than two years later. then retreated to northern Luzon with the Americans on his trail. 1901. he was succeeded by León María Guererro. and open fighting soon broke out between American troops and pro-independence Filipinos. then stabbed to death by Aguinaldo's men. he was shot. Later. Aguinaldo was captured at his headquarters in Paanan by U. The President of the Philippines appointed the professors thereof. and Notary Public. Surgery. 1899. he learned Aguinaldo was not at the appointed place. Nueva Ecija for a meeting at the Cabanatuan Church Convent. Aguinaldo led resistance to the Americans. On the night of February 4. where he established a new headquarters. The first to occupy this position was Joaquín Gonzales. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city. a Filipino was shot by an American sentry. a disciplinarian and brilliant general and looming rival in the military hierarchy. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine-American War. However. They. no investigation was made. with the help of Macabebe trackers. Luna was later buried in the churchyard. in turn. 1899. Filipino forces encountered disaster everywhere. General Frederick Funston. chose the University rector. treachery was afoot. The American task force . As Luna was about to depart. Aguinaldo assumed command of the Filipino forces. and Luna's assassins were never punished. a government decree fixed the opening date of the "Universidad Literia".
On July 30. During the American occupation.S forces in Lipa. President Theodore Roosevelt. After Aguinaldo's surrender. All wars of independence have been obliged to suffer terrible tests]" General Malvar surrendered to U. . Aguinaldo organized the Asociación de los Veteranos de la Revolución (Association of Veterans of the Revolution).gained access to Aguinaldo's camp by pretending to be captured prisoners. 1901. formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines. Batangas on April 16. "Forward. 1901. Post-Presidency U.S. Aguinaldo was confined at Malacanang Palace in what is today's State Dining Room. 1935.S. Territorial Period Main article: History of the Philippines (1898-1946) Aguinaldo and Quezon during Flag Day.. some Filipino commanders continued the revolution. On April 19. . Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States. The war was formally ended by a unilateral proclamation of general amnesty by U. General Miguel Malvar issued a manifesto saying. without ever turning back. which worked to secure pensions for its members and made arrangements for them to buy land on installment from the government. 1902..
he ran for president in the Philippine presidential election." After the Americans retook the Philippines. and briefly jailed. but lost by a landslide to fiery Spanish mestizoManuel L. Aguinaldo was arrested along with several others accused of collaboration with the Japanese. The two men formally reconciled in 1941. when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in preparation for Philippine independence. Douglas MacArthur onCorregidor to surrender in order to "spare the innocence of the Filipino youth. Following this. issuing articles and infamous radio addresses in support of the Japanese—including a radio appeal to Gen. making speeches. In 1935. in accordance with the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934. when President Quezon moved Flag Day to June 12. where he served a full term. During the Japanese occupation. Aguinaldo retired from public life for many years. 1919. He returned to retirement soon after. .The display of the Philippine flag was declared illegal by the Sedition Act of 1907. to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence. In 1950. President Elpidio Quirino appointed Aguinaldo as a member of the Council of State. Honoris Causa. Quezon. Aguinaldo was 77 when the United States Government fully recognized Philippine independence in the Treaty of Manila. he cooperated with the Japanese. by the University of the Philippines in 1953. 1935. Aguinaldo transformed his home in Kawit into a monument to the flag. and History of the Philippines (1986-present) Emilio Aguinaldo is depicted on the front of the5-peso bill (phased out but still considered legal tender). He was released by presidential amnesty. History of the Philippines (1965-1986). As of 2010. his home still stands and is known as the Aguinaldo Shrine. the revolution and the declaration of Independence. This law was repealed on October 30. Post-American era See also: History of the Philippines (1946-1965). dedicating his time and attention to veteran soldiers' "interests and welfare." He was made an honorary Doctor of Laws.
" In 1985.In 1962. at the Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. Death Aguinaldo died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on February 6. The back of the bill features the declaration of the Philippine independence on June 12. he had donated his lot and his mansion to the government. Aguinaldo rose from his sickbed to attend the celebration of independence 64 years after he declared it. 1898 . President Diosdado Macapagal changed the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. 1964. This property now serves as a shrine to "perpetuate the spirit of the Revolution of 1896. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas made a new 5-peso bill depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front of the bill. A year before his death.
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