5, OCTOBER 2006


A MEMS Photosynthetic Electrochemical Cell Powered by Subcellular Plant Photosystems
Kien Bang Lam, Eric A. Johnson, Mu Chiao, and Liwei Lin, Member, IEEE, ASME, Fellow
Abstract—A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) photosynthetic electrochemical cell was demonstrated that harnesses the subcellular thylakoid photosystems isolated from spinach cells to convert light energy into electricity. Subject to light intensity of 2000 photons/ 2 /s, it generated an open circuit 2 at voltage (OCV) of 470 mV and a current density of 1.1 5.2 . In the dark, the continued to yield power for a few minutes using reduced equivalents generated during illumination, 2 with a 1 load. The generating 330 mV OCV and 0.1 output level is comparable to other MEMS biological fuel cells previously reported. The biosolar cell was bulk-micromachined from silicon and Pyrex substrates and assembled like a fuel cell in an anode-PEM-cathode configuration. This biosolar cell could have potential to serve as a power source for micro-scale devices like remote sensors. [1359]

( PEC) m




A cm

A cm


Index Terms—Biological fuel cell, micropower source, photosynthesis, photosystems, solar cell.



E PRESENT a microelectrocmechanical systems (MEMS) photosynthetic electrochemical cell that directly harnesses subcellular photosystems isolated from plant cells to perform bioconversion of light energy into elechas potential application as a power source tricity. The for microscale and MEMS mobile devices such as remote distributed sensors [1], [2] and autonomous robots [3], [4]. This is the first demonstration of a MEMS PEC [5], [6], while previous work has concentrated on MEMS-based fuel cells [7], [8], microbial fuel cells [9], [10], and macro-scale PECs (reviewed later). The architecture of a macro-scale polymer electrolyte fuel cell was adapted to construct a MEMS micro-biofluidic device—with anode and cathode compartments bulk-micromachined in silicon and Pyrex substrates, to which reaction mixtures are delivered via bonded microfluidic needles. Previous macroscale PEC work is reviewed here since . Tanaka et al. it provides the basis for the present measured electrical output from cyanobacterium Anabaena
Manuscript received June 15, 2004; revised May 12, 2006. This work was supported in part by DARPA/MTO/BioFlips under Grant F30602-00-2-0566, by an ITRI Fellowship, and by the National Science Foundation under Grant ECS-0300542. Subject Editor A. J. Ricco. K. B. Lam and L. Lin are with the Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA (e-mail: kblam@ocf.berkeley. edu; E. A. Johnson is with the Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA (e-mail: M. Chiao is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada. Color versions of Figs. 1–9 are available online at Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JMEMS.2006.880296

variabiliis with HNQ as the redox mediator in both light and dark conditions [11], [12], concluding that their PEC generated electricity from both photosynthesis and catabolism of endogenous carbohydrates in the light and from catabolism alone in the dark. Yagishita et al. experimented with both A. variabilis and Synechococcus sp in their various PECs using HNQ as the mediator [13]–[18]. Output was 800 mV open , and 1.4 mW from a circuit voltage (OCV), 320 . Photoconversion efficiency ranged from PEC of area 7.2 3.3% under sustained illumination to 0.2% when subject to illuminated charge and dark discharge cycles. Tsujimura et al. also used Synechococcus and 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) as mediator to produce 800-mV open circuit voltage, , and 0.19 , with photoconversion effi0.4 ciency of 2% [19]. Whereas the previous PECs were powered by live whole-cell photosynthetic micro-organisms, Gross et al. demonstrated one of the earliest PECs using subcellular photosynthetic components [20]–[24]. They deposited either whole chloroplasts or isolated Photosystem I (PSI) particles onto one side (anode) of a cellulose triacetate filter. Under illumination and in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as the electron acceptor in the anode compartment, this PEC yielded 640 mV OCV, , and 1% efficiency. 2.4 Aizawa et al. immobilized manganese chlorophyll (MnChl) in a 4’-heptyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (HCB) liquid crystal film, which was attached to a Pt electrode and immersed in an alkaline solution [25]–[27]. Under irradiation, they found a negative potential shift of the electrode (anode). In contrast, when they immobilized magnesium chlorophyll (MgChl) in -( -methoxybenzylidene)- -butylaniline (MBBA) film an in an acidic solution, they found a positive potential shift (cathode)-which, when paired with the MnChl-HCB electrode, formed a PEC. In the pursuit of emulating photosynthetic membranes, various groups have isolated embedded reaction centers in phospholipids membranes. Skulachev et al. isolated reaction center complexes from Rhodospirillum rubrum and reconstituted them in proteoliposome planar phospholipids membranes. In the presence of certain redox mediators such as tetramethy- -phenylenediamine (TMPD), they measured a trans-membrane potential of about 0.2 V [28]–[30]. Dutton and his group did related work [31], [32]. Janzen showed that reaction centers isolated from photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26 and also were able dried as a film onto the semiconductor [33], generating 80 mV OCV to transfer electrons into . Illumination of chlorophyll produces in the and 0.5

1057-7157/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE

Allen and Crane demonstrated OCV and 16 an early PEC using isolated thylakoids [37].g. the electrons flow through the external load (i.e. (a) Chloroplast. the green chlorophylls) and electron transporters that are arranged in two arrays. an organelle inside plant cells. 1. From the anode. Simultaneously. At the terminus of PSI. 2. These networks are embedded in the membranes of structures known as thylakoids [Fig. H ) from the thylakoids and transports them to the anode. 1(b)]. where they reduce oxidant Fe(III) or O .1244 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS. With this in mind. 2. the electrons reduce into NADPH. 1(b)) [38]. This creates a proton electrochemical gradient across the membrane (a protonmotive force) that powers the ATP synthase motor to produce ATP. the universal biological energy molecule (Fig. (c) Light energy powers photosynthesis “Z-Scheme. thus forming the “synthesis” half of photosynthesis . NO. which in turn reside inside plant cells [Fig. the [38]. Fig. This splitting of releases electrons that then are transported from PSII to PSI along an electron transport chain composed of a series of membrane-bound enzyme complexes [38]. releasing electrons that are transported through the photosystems to reduce NADP into NADPH. II. Photosynthetic Electrochemical Cell Operation generates electrical power. . 15. electrons are transported through the photosystems in thylakoid membranes.. todriven phase of photosynthesis using the scheme shown in Fig. Under illumination. Redox mediator PMS “siphons” these electrons (and protons. 1(c)]. (b) Structures internal to chloroplasts. They then travel through an external load to the cathode. Photosynthesis Photosynthetic organisms such as plants and certain bacteria . In the present implementation of the thylakoids and reaction mixtures were prepared (Section III) in such a way that neither NADPH nor ATP is produced because they are not essential to operation. 1(c). 5. B. protons (H ) diffuse from the anode compartment across the PEM into the cathode compartment. The PMS “siphons” and protons being transported through the electrons the photosystems and transfers them to the anode (thus recovering PMS in the oxidized form). many of which occur in the subcellular photosystems (PSs) in higher plants. PSII and PSI) pumps protons membrane from outside the thylakoid to inside. in essence. 1(a)]. During photosynthesis.. Thylakoids were isolated from baby spinach—which interrupts the normal transport of electrons through the photosystems—and suspended in a buffer solution with the redox mediator phenazine methosulfate (PMS). Takahashi and Kukuchi proposed a galvanic cell in which: 1) the cathode compartment consisted of chlorophyll and .e. a biological electron carrier [Fig.. PSI and PSII (“Z-Scheme” of Fig. naphthoquinone coated on an electrode in a solution of and 2) the anode compartment of chlorophyll and anthrahydroquinone coated on an electrode in ferricyanide solution. however. THEORY A. electron transport through the photosystems across the thylakoid (i. OCTOBER 2006 molecule both a positive hole (that can accept an electron) and an excited electron (that can be donated). Haehnel This cell produced 0. which themselves are internal to organelles called chloroplasts. thylakoids have Photosystems I and II and ATP synthase embedded in their outer membranes. the pigments capture the energy of incident photons and funnel it to PSII to oxidize into .” which splits 2H O into O . Simultaneously. electrons that reduce Carbohydrates are the biological fuel on which all nonphotosynthetic life on earth depends [38] (1) Equation (1) comprises a complex series of reactions. by The harnessing electrons from the photosystems during the pho- Fig. The energy transferred to NADPH and ATP by this “photo”driven electron transport is then used to fuel the reduction of into carbohydrates by means of various anabolic pathways. These PSs are networks of light-absorbing pigments (e. releasing capture solar energy to power the splitting of to produce carbohydrates .25-mV OCV and 8 et al. constructed a galvanic cell using isolated chloroplasts and various redox mediators interacting with PSI within the chloroplasts [34]–[36]. Finally. They measured as much as 220 mV . VOL. the device to .

In the dark. 3(d) and 4(a)]. IV. (e) Compress PEM between two half-cells. 20 mM Tricine (pH 8. Fig. and Au wires were soldered onto the electrode pads. 3(e) and 4(b)]. Before use. upon being subject to photons/ /s. Low-stress nitride of 1300 was deposited by LPCVD on both sides of a Si wafer. [41]—yielding 2.05 Thylakoids were isolated from baby spinach using a procedure similar to [40]. When darkness was again imposed (with flow still on). enclosed a volume of about 0. After assembly. This thylakoid mixture was then di. 50 mM NaCl.1 mL/min in counter-flowing directions. which slide projector) calibrated to 2000 approximates the solar intensity during a cloudless. a 5 7 mm piece of Kapton tape was applied onto the Pyrex in the center of the chamber. In repeated experiments. Ferrocyanide is then oxidized by . as shown in Figs. All experiments were conducted at room temperature. OCV returned to 330 mV. sunny day. are barely visible. flow ports. Simultaneously. and bioreaction chamber [Fig. luted into 50 mM Tricine (pH 8. (d) Remove Kapton tape. Microsyringe needles (World Precision. after flow was turned on. 3. 3(d). OCV climbed to 330 mV after 4 min. 250 ID) were glued to the ports of each half-cell to facilitate inlet and outlet flow. Open Circuit Voltage. All chemicals were purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received. a Pyrex (7740) wafer was anodically bonded onto the front (polished) side of the Si wafer. The overall chemical reaction is (2) III. 2). the Nafion PEM had been prepared in 80 .0). where they reduce the oxidant ferricyanide Fe(III) into ferrocyanide Fe(II) or directly . (b) KOH-etch through wafer and strip nitride. The PEM and double-sided tape. 4 and 300 PMS to a final volume of 10 mL. Thus the bioreagents PMS and ferricyanide are theoretically constantly regenerated and not consumed.0). 183with double-sided Scotch tape applied between the Cr/Au surface and PEM as a bonding agent and fluidic seal [Figs. the anode and cathode reaction mixtures were at pumped through their respective chambers of the 0. (b) Fully-assembled biosolar cell [see Fig.: A MEMS PHOTOSYNTHETIC ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL 1245 Fig. Finally. the protons accumulating inside the anode compartment diffuse across the PEM into the cathode compartment. 3(a)]. and deionized water as described in [39]. . which were then formed by a throughwafer etch in KOH [Fig. PEM (Nafion N-117. OCV direct illumination of intensity 2000 sharply increased to and stabilized at 470 mV within 2 min. in an anode reaction mixture with 240 The cathode reaction mixture consisted of 20 mM potassium ferricyanide in deionized water. the anode and cathode reaction mixtures were stored in syringes wrapped in aluminum foil and kept in ice until used. 5(a). be powered) and arrive at the cathode.LAM et al. (a) Deposit LPCVD low-stress nitride and pattern wafer back side. RESULTS A. Current. with double-sided tape applied between Cr/Au and PEM. then. 5(b). Microfil 28 gauge. After preparation. During the experiments. 3(b)]. The purpose of the Kapton was to mask that area of Pyrex during the subsequent evaporation of Cr/Au (500/2000 thick) onto the Si backside [Fig. the maximum OCV under illumination with flow ranged from 440–480 mV (see also Fig. which resulted chlorophyll/mL. . Effect of Light Intensity The open circuit voltage (OCV) performance of the is shown in Fig. each bioreaction chamber (anode or cathode) . pressed between the half-cells. with an area of about 1 to the reaction chambers after final assembly (described later). Fig. Two lighting condi: complete darkness or direct tions were imposed on the illumination of the anode compartment by a light source (a photons/ /s. 4. and the Kapton tape was removed [Figs. (c) Anodically bond Pyrex wafer onto Si wafer front side. In control experiments in which either thylakoids or PMS was not added to the anode chamber reaction mixture. This Cr/Au film served accessible as the electrode surface. 3(c)]. which was then suspended in 400 mM sucrose. 3 and 4. The nitride was then patterned on the back side to define the electrode pads. the was assembled by sandwiching a thick) between 2 half-cells. ref. Microfabrication and assembly. and 10 mM NaCl. (a) Half-cell before assembly. FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENT The was fabricated and assembled in the configuration of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Evaporate Cr/Au 500/2000 . The Si-Pyrex stack was then diced into 1 2 cm half-cells. regenerating reduce ferricyanide (not shown in Fig. After stripping off the nitride in 49% HF. Then. Apply Kapton tape A on Pyrex in center of chamber.4 mg chlorophyll/mL. 3(e)].

Direct illumination negligible OCV of about 50–60 was measured (as also shown in Fig.1246 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS. Fig. Thus.7 .. Why was the OCV nonzero even when there was no light? We conjecture that because the anodic reaction mixture was prepared under ambient lighting conditions. Current density with load = 2000 mol photons/m /s. the OCV again declined because: 1) under the intense illumination PSII suffered photo-oxidative damage and lacked the necessary compensation mechanisms [42]. 6 shows the current density. 5. 7). which is consistent with intensity (2000 Fig. the OCV floated at about 60 mV (not shown). which is less than the peak voltage of 6.e. This result demonstrates that the output level can be modulated by incident light load reintensity. OCV declined from 330 to 280 mV as the reduced PMS was gradually oxidized in the anode compartment.2 Knowing the incident light intensity (2000 photons/ /s) (where is Planck’s constant and using the relation and is the frequency of light).1 in about 2 min under direct illumination. 15. As is characteristic of fuel cells [43]. 5. Effect of flow and light on OCV. direct illumination was switched on while flow was kept off. For example.01% at the peak voltage of 6. we calculated the efficiency of to be 0. 5(a) under the same lighting conditions. Flow of reaction mixtures through reaction chambers = 0:1. Fig. the highest power density of at 1. Moreover. For within 2 minutes. in Region 4 of Fig. 7. At time 0. causing OCV to climb back up to 320 mV—but only briefly. OCTOBER 2006 Fig. 7. The effect of light intensity on OCV is illustrated in Fig. fresh thylakoids with “active” (i. 7. Here.1 sistor. nondamaged) photosystems were . 6. Fig. B. Since these were the same conditions as Region 1. After flow was introduced (while still in the dark) and the both chambers were filled. and 2) with flow still off. voltage of 5.4 . before flow was turned on and while in the dark. with a 1 in the dark to 1. However. when the flow of “fresh” reaction mixtures was turned off while in the dark. it is consistent that OCV returned to 330 mV within 2 min. NO. Effect of Flow The flow of anode and cathode reaction mixtures through their respective chambers in the brings some noteworthy effects that are illustrated in Fig.1 was achieved at the operating 5.7 . 2) that had been oxidized in Region 2. 5(b). (b) OCV under half-intensity direct illumination (1000 mol photons/m /s). Power and Efficiency The performance of the over a range of current densities is characterized in Fig. R = 1 k . the photosynthetic reactions of the photosystems “recharged” the PMS (Fig. In Region 3 of Fig. the the electrical output of the was comparable to other . (a) Open circuit voltage (OCV) under high-intensity direct illumination (2000 mol photons/m /s): with and without thylakoids. 5(a). as shown in Region 2 of Fig. mediator. Finally. not being supplied to the was again subject to darkness. OCV climbed to 330 mV within 5 min (Region 1 in Fig. OCV reached only 370 mV under half-intensity illumination photons/ /s) but climbed to 440 mV under high (1000 photons/ /s). C. a tradeoff exists between operating voltage and power—power increases with current while operating voltage declines. 7. but the flow was the turned back on. VOL. a certain concentration of PMS would have already been photosynthetically reduced by thylakoids even beand subject to direct illufore it was pumped through the mination. 7. increased from 0. pumping an anode mixture with a certain conwould centration of already-reduced PMS through the produce a nonzero OCV. 8.

As a first-order estimate. : Transfer of Electrons From Photosystem I to : 2) characterizes the transfer of electrons from The quantity Photosystem I (PSI) to the oxidized form of PMS (6) .47 V.2).1 tude less than . Using (3a)–(3c). ESTIMATING OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE AND CURRENT . is absolute temperature. : Flux and Absorbance of Incident Photons: The 1) generultimate energy source for the current that the ates is from the flux of incident photons—that is. . is determined by taking the difference between the standard reduction potentials. we now Having discussed the performance of the describe simple first-order models for estimating open circuit voltage and current. This difference can partially be reconciled by accounting for the relative concentrations of oxidized/reduced PMS and . this is still a simplistic estimate that does not account for other factors such differences in pH and ionic concentrations between the two chambers. This model is shown in Fig. If it is assumed that most of the PMS is reduced by PSI (see Section V-B. Open Circuit Voltage As with conventional fuel cells. Thus. because the ferricyanide concentration is much greater than PMS. such that . 9. where the current density generated is represented as a series of photon or electron fluxes – superimposed on Fig. Each of these flux processes will now be described and its impact on current assessed. then it may be approximated that . Fig. of the anode and cathode half reactions We now present a simple first-order model to estimate the maximum current density that the can generate and to elucidate the major loss mechanisms that limit current density. though generally lower than larger-scale biological fuel cells [44]. it may be assumed that most of the ferricyanide remain in the oxidized state. assuming absorbs all of this photon flux for simplicity that the and using the fact that 1 electron is transported through the photosystems per 2 photons absorbed [Fig. B. and is the Faraday constant. so that using (4a). which is markedly less than the measured value of 0.LAM et al. Voltage and power density versus current density under direct illumination with flow. Current Fig. . losses must be occurring in one or more of the other flux quantities. Simple model of flux quantities. is the number of electrons in the redox reaction. the theoretical OCV . microfabricated biological fuel cells [6]. [9]. Since the maximum measured where is almost four orders of magnicurrent density of 1. a more realistic estimate of the actual OCV is (4b) which is a better approximation for the measured OCV of 0. V. F –F . Nonetheless. 8. 2. the open circuit voltage. Similarly. 2). we find the maximum possible current density as (5) (3a) (3b) (3c) Note that (3a) and (3b) compose the overall reaction (2).47 V. 1(c)] [38].: A MEMS PHOTOSYNTHETIC ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL 1247 ferricyanide/ferrocyanide in the respective chambers using the Nernst equation (4a) where is the gas constant. 9. to estimate maximum current the biosolar cell can generate (see Fig. A. with the result that . the direct illumination of .

2001. “Smart dust mote forerunners. and . is likely one of the factors that limits available oxidation by current. Switzerland. 2003. A. is calculated using a relationvolved in reaction (6).. ricated anode chamber bubbling would have significantly disrupted the flow of the bioreaction mixture. Pister. 2001. trons by These loss mechanisms are also responsible for the poor efficiency of 0. E. NO. (8) The typical concentration of dissolved in water is about . is . Hollar. as indicated by the high reduction potential of the reaction is within an order of magnitude of the 1. pp. Flynn. OCTOBER 2006 In (6). we expect that is likely not the bottleneck limiting the current. under lossless condiphotons/ /s. So we expect that to oxidize ferredoxin from PSI and that strongly with oxidizes even to a certain degree. [3] S. which can be conservatively approximated by the diffusivity of in water. we assume that all reduced PMS molecules that impinge the Cr/Au electrode surface donate also is not a major factor limiting their electrons. 5. Warneke and K. PMS and ferricyanide) and thylakoids onto the anode and cathode surface [47]. 357–360. we note that the concentration of the ferricyanide electron acceptor in the cathode chamber (20 mM) is much ) in greater than that of the PMS electron donator (300 the anode compartment. [49]. Berkeley.-A. and ship similar to (4). no facility was from the anode chamber (e. Under these assumptions. Last. pp. Finally. the tions and illumination of 2000 would be able to generate a theoretical maximum current den. : Transfer of Electrons From to Electrode: 5) To simplify the analysis. Furthermore. IEEE Conf.0 Because peak current density measured. C. “Solar powered 10 mg silicon robot. J. “Smart dust: Communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer.” Computer. A. by implemented to exclude bubbling) because the small. The experiments were performed in Prof. and in the dark the produce power using reduced equivalents generated during illumination. though initially attempted. is the Faraday constant. The result is that some electrons never make it to the electrode as current. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The devices presented in this paper were fabricated in the University of California (UC). and K. 15. which implies that the transfer of electrons from is highly favorable thermodynamically. Bellew. Interlaken. while PMS molecules are distributed throughout the anode chamber. Kyoto. we find that . REFERENCES [1] B. In this way. [48].” in Proc. the number of electrons inthe absolute temperature. flow rate. Microfabrication Laboratory. flat volume of the MEMS-fabmeant that. So we surmise that the kinetics in the cathode chamber do not significantly limit the current. vol.. we conclude that.01%. 44–51. 706–711. Work by Katz et al. The measured open circuit voltage under illucontinued to mination was 470 mV. the measured sity of about maximum of 1. IEEE Conf.g. we surmise that PMS diffusion is one of the major factors limiting current. primarily because of two loss mechanisms: (1) the “low” diffusion rate of electron-carrying PMS to the electrode surface and (2) the scavenging of elecfrom Photosystem I (ferredoxin) and reduced PMS. Melis’ photosynthesis laboratory in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at UC Berkeley. on enzymatic fuel cells has demonstrated certain immobilized biocatalysts that increase current density by two orders of magnitude and render the biocatalysts to be insensitive to electron scav[44]. and K. is the equilibrium constant of the reaction and is calculated using a form of the Nernst Equation [38]: (7) where is the gas constant. [2] B. Liebowitz. S. 3) : Oxidation of Ferredoxin or PMS Re by : Oxygen is a strong oxidant and easily combines with and to yield .2 under illumination falls short of the theoretical value. : Diffusion of to Electrode Surface: Since re4) to duced PMS carries the electrons. Microelectromechanical Systems . Japan. current. These current and OCV levels are comparable to other microfabricated biological fuel cells. . S. In addition. we that the apply Fick’s First Law (9) where is the diffusivity of PMS in solution. Thus.e. J. VI. Skipping the details. for example. the current density that can be sustained by diffusion is (10) .0 at 5. B. We anticipate being able reduce the effect of these loss mechanisms and thus increase output and efficiency by immobilizing biocatalysts (i. Pister. Warneke. we may affect the electrical output by optimizing illumination intensity. Microelectromechanical Systems . as already partially enging by demonstrated. 34. we assume for simplicity that all PMS are concentrated in a plane halfway between the Pyrex/Cr/Au electrode surface and the Nafion PEM. As a first-order approximation. CONCLUSION From the foregoing. VOL.1248 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS. Employing (9). pp. S. A. However. Pister. Despite this. which is comparable to the 300 of 5 competes PMS used in these experiments. and concentrations of the components in the anode and cathode reaction mixtures. J. the diffusion rate of the electrode surface strongly correlates with the current density can sustain.” in Proc. TherePSI to and that electron transfer to fore. yielding 330 mV OCV. M.

pp. Nelson and M. Biotechnol. Crane. A. Solid-State Lett. Ogawa. Haehnel. and V.” J. 1978. 85. B. and L. Chem. vol. [47] K. L. [9] M. Morgantown. 1998. and L. NAD+ Kien Bang Lam received the B. Ann Arbor. Previously.. and G. “Photoelectrochemical conversion using reaction-centre electrodes. E. and W. Johnson. Mueller. pp. and T. . . [38] D.D. 286.) Press. IEEE Conf. [42] E. Tech. A. 2000. CA: Univ. Chem. pp. degree in mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan. [21] R. 563–574. [11] K. Pan. G. Physiol. 383–386.” Renewable Energy. “Photosynthetic electron transport in higher plants. Technol. . A.” J. 1998. Lam. [45] ImmunoPure PMS (Product) . Natl. “Reconstitution de photochemically active reaction centers in planar phospholipid membranes. R. Hollar. I. M. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 117. and P. MI.” Nature. Lam. E. and T.” Solar Energy. Bhardwaj. and S. Mueller. 249–256. 23. Lam. L. Dearborn. Allen and A. Tsukahara.” J. Japan. Amer. Samuilov. P. Berkeley. Y. “Photoinhibition of photosystem ii.” in Proc. 1997. Acta. Kaulen. Packham. P. pp. A. Lin. Biotechnol.” J. Skulachev. 659–693. Willner. Photobiol. and D. milligram prototype robot from a three-chip process. A. Electrochem. “Effects of nafion impregnation on performance of pemfc electrodes. [12] K. L. [17] ——.” J.” J.. I. “A bio-solar cell powered by sub-cellular plant photosystems. 1185–1190. A. “Effects of light on the electrical output of bioelectrochemical fuel-cells containing anabaena variabilis M-2 mechanisms of the post-illumination burst. and L. and I. “Null potential voltammetry—An approach to the study of plant photosystem.K. [8] ——. 34.. pp. “Photosynthetic photoelectrochemical cell. “Reconstitution of biological molecular generators of electric current: Bacteriochlorophyll and plant chlorophyll complexes. pp. [31] N. 2003. A. K.. Tiede. [29] L. pp. Il’ina. D. Buckmann. vol. J. Kondrashin. CA. [13] T. “Bioelectrocatalytic self-assembled thylakoids for micro power and sensing applications. Acta. and E. vol. Biol. he was a Mechanical Engineer at Applied Materials in Santa Clara. Bioeng. Tanaka. 113–134.. Skulachev.” J. D. Dep. 219–222. Bioeng. New York: Worth. 35. Rockford. K. Eds. [33] A. D.” J. from 1997 to 1999. vol. pp. Ogi. “ -dependent enzyme electrodes: Electrical contact of cofactor-dependent enzymes and electrodes. [43] Fuel Cells: A Handbook . N. [6] K. vol. Kyoto. 6. [35] W. Y. Tanaka. EG&G Services. and I. I. [14] ——. K. pp. pp. and E. pp. “A miniature methanol/air polymer electrolyte fuel cell. 3693–3701. pp. “Investigations on a galvanic cell driven by photosynthetic electron transport. Healy. [26] ——. L.” in Handbook of Fuel Cells—Fundamentals. the M. 2003. Technol.” Proc. Drachev. 1071–1081. L. B. pp. 1993. CA. vol. and inhibitors on the current output of biofuel cells containing the photosynthetic organism synechococcus sp.” Photochem. T. 48. Co [30] E. Univ. Irwin. 1999. 2003. Tiede. L. 99. S. 1980. Ferment. “Effects of intensity of incident light and concentrations of synechococcus sp. Sci. in 1999. 1980. 9. 2000. Semenov. pp.” Electrochim. 1984. Winemiller. H. [48] A.. 23. 2003. Vielstich.. 1976. vol. U.” in Proc.” Photochem. 84–91. Berkeley.” Sens. Ann Arbor. D. A. Gross. pp. Sawayama. 1978. and H. Samuilov. V.” Bioelectrochem. 1979. A. Soc. pp. “Photoelectrochemical energy conversion system modeled on the photosynthetic process. Packham. vol. Deluga. 347–353. Amer. Kondrashin.” Electrochim. R. “Performance of photosynthetic celectrochemical cells using immobilized anabaena variabilis M-3 in discharge/culture cycles. 6339–6343. 110. A. [25] M. Haehnel. L. vol. 1061–1065. M. [44] E. Bhardwaj. 33. Berkeley (UCB). Biosci. vol.. [20] E. Gross.” Electrochim. Sci. Berg. A. B. 2001. 687–688... pp.D. [34] W. WV: U. Willner. Kondrashin. and E. IL. pp. Ogawa. Tao. 235–240. 1993. vol. vol. 2006. 35. “Photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution from water by a manganese chlorophyll-liquid crystal electrode. Chem. “Bioelectrochemical fuel cells operated by the cyanobacterium anabaena variabilis. 1982. 61. Katz. [27] ——. and L. 251. 2003. P. 2004. Comp. Acad. D. 1996. pp.” Electrochimica Acta. Suzuki. 1978. MN: Minnesota State Univ. L. 2002.” Biophysical J. vol.. L.” J. “Electrical wiring of glucose oxidase by reconstitution of FAD-modified monolayers assembled onto Au-electrodes. E. W. A.. Gross. “Photosynthetic bio-fuel cell using cyanobacteria. Biotechnol. Photobiol. 10321–10322. “A miniaturized microbial fuel cell.. Jasaitis.” Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C-A Journal of Biosciences. 7066–7071. Cox. pp. 59a–59a. 584–585. Smyrl. dissertation. 546–549. Heleg-Shabtai. J. Berkeley. “The photosynthetic photoelectrochemical cell using flavin mononucleotide as the electron acceptor.S. I. and 2-hydroxy-1. IEEE Conf. 220–223. Chem. Youngman. Barsky.S. Su. R. “Construction of a flash-activated cyclic electron transport system by using bacterial reaction centers and the ubiquinone-cytochrome b-c1/c segment of mitochondria. Jasaitis. CA. Willner. [41] S.4-naphthoquinone on the current output of photosynthetic electrochemical cell. 101–106. on Microelectromechanical Systems .” Nature. [23] R. 3. vol. [28] L. Soc.” Bioelectrochem. and P. Dutton. [7] S. 392–401. Photobiol. Fan. L. J..LAM et al. and an Intern at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Lin. 1976. Dancshazy. and T. [36] W. A. pp.. pp. Plant. “Reconstitution of biological molecular generators of electric current: Cytochrome oxidase. Plant Physiology: Photosynthesis Laboratory Protocol. K. 215–222. vol. 24. CA. “Generation of electric potential by reaction center complexes from Rhodospirillum rubrum. [18] ——. P. vol. Japan.. pp. Dept. and V. Biotechnol. A. 396–398. Hilton Head Island. 1981. L. C. A. Boca Raton. 2000. 1976. 210–214. E. Z. 1981. Bhardwaj. A. pp. 1997. Lam. M. 480–487. 9114–9119. Kashiwagi. A solar-powered. Chu. 355–381. E. 1981. 1985. Heupel. E. Shipway. F. [24] R.S. 42. Lee. pp. V. R. Rev. California Press. and B. SC. pp. Aro. [37] M. pp. A. vol. Lin.” Ann. pp. vol. Yagishita. Chiao. vol. pp.. Janzen. Packham. Gasteiger. pp. Hirano.” J. 1996. Chem. A. protein damage and turnover. Dutton. vol.” FEBS Lett. in mechanical engineering from UCB. 89–94. Acta. Energy/ Parsons. L. Andersson. 407–407. pp. “A micro photosynthetic electrochemical cell. “Effects of glucose addition and light on current outputs in photosynthetic electrochemical cells using synechocystis sp. and V. Aizawa. pp. “Miniature fuel cells fabricated on silicon substrates.. N. vol. M. Chiao. Tech. “Biochemical fuel cells.. IEEE Conf. and S. M. Haehnel and H.-A. M. and the Ph. Bioeng. [40] A. Horigome. Acta. Soc. K. 391–394. Lam. 1978. Skulachev. 2000.. Lin. “Photosynthetic bioelectrochemical cell utilizing cyanobacteria and water-generating oxidase. Inactivation.-I.. Lin. from 1996 to 1997. vol. and T. CRC Press. Bardea. 43. 958–961. “Photo-induced electron transfer of a chlorophyll-liquid crystal electrode to water. “A microfabricated microbial fuel cell. from 1999 to 2001. 251. Drachev. Biol. Chiao. 33. V. A. an Intern Researcher at Ford Research Laboratory. 29. Gross. pp. 1143. vol. 2002. “Biofuel-cells containing photosynthetic microorganisms. Yagishita.. 61. Winona (Winona State Univ. 28. 35. Virgin. 50. 1975. Plant and Microbial Biology 135: Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants Laboratory Manual. Drachev. CA. [5] K.. 1975. pp. [15] T. Eng. and K. Chichester... R. M. He is currently a Senior R&D Process Engineer with Intel Corporation. Microelectromechanical Systems . vol. Kyoto. Ph. Microelectromechanical Systems . pp. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California. 1978. 1993. vol. vol. [39] S. Katz. 7072–7076. in 1997. B.” Enzyme Microb. vol.” Photochem. Maastricht. “An FMN-photosystem I photovoltaic cell. Lamm. “A photosystem I-phenosafranine solar cell.” FEBS Lett..: A MEMS PHOTOSYNTHETIC ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL 1249 [4] S. [49] I.-C. [16] ——. P. vol. pp. from 1998 to 1999. [22] ——. 119. B. vol. Blonder. Kano. K. Biophys. [19] S. Chem. F. Hengstermann. 56. L. “Solar energy conversion by chloroplast photochemical cells. pp.” in Proc. 691–714. Kelley. A. K. and L. E. A. Technology and Applications. Chem. The Netherlands. [10] M.: Wiley. Wadano. F. Katz. [32] N. Hockheimer. P. Ed. Melis. Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Workshop . vol. L. in 2005. pp. a Graduate Student Researcher in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Michigan. vol. Pierce Chemical Company. 1980. Santa Clara. A. 655–664. Winona. 1988. B. [46] CRC Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. “On the current generated by a galvanic cell driven by photosynthetic electron transport. D. Ikeda.. Actuators B. 393–399. vol. FL. D. Tanaka. Tamamushi. vol. Inc.” AIChE J. Berkeley.” Electrochem. 5 ed. “Effects of light. 3rd. 77. vol.. 225–231. J. R. 2004.” in Proc. 3. Bioenerg. Elec. Jpn. Severina. 289. 118. vol. C. California. Chem. Pan.” Biochim. Pcc6714. 191–197. V.. Pan. Tsujimura.

S. before attending graduate school at Johns Hopkins University. in 1986. the University of Michigan. and is now Chancellor’s Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department and co-Director at the Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of California. The University of British Columbia. reinhardtii at the University of California. Dr. MD.S. 5. Inc. degrees from National Taiwan University. micro/nanosensors. KS. . His research interests are in design.S.D. His current research interests include design and fabrication of MEMS and nanodevices for biomedical applications.. He has been with the Department of Mechanical Engineering. patents in the area of MEMS. and micro/nanoactuators as well as mechanical issues in micro/nanosystems including heat transfer. and the M. Taiwan. where he is pursuing protein engineering of photosynthetic enzymes of C. CA. Berkeley (UCB). and an Assistant Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Kansas. He was an Associate Professor in the Institute of Applied Mechanics. degree in biology and the B. reinhardtii. and dynamics. degree in biochemistry in 2000. He is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow at Johns Hopkins University.S.1250 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS. and the Ph. and served as the founding Chairman of the Executive Committee from 2004–2005. San Jose. OCTOBER 2006 Eric A. he was with the Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center. degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of California. Baltimore. in 2002. Dr. he serves as a Subject Editor for the IEEE/ASME JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS and the North and South America Editor of Sensors and Actuators–A Physical. which he used to study the photosynthetic and hydrogen-producing metabolism of C. solid/fluid mechanics. Tier 2 program. where he received the Ph. working on MEMS sensors for automotive applications. 15. He has eight issued U. Ann Arbor (1996–1999). and Ph. Lin was the recipient of the 1998 National Science Foundation CAREER Award for research in MEMS Packaging and the 1999 ASME Journal of Heat Transfer Best Paper Award for his work on micro scale bubble formation. in 1994. modeling. Canada. University of California at Berkeley.S. From March 2003 to July 2003. he was awarded a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship in microbial biology. Berkeley. and fabrication of micro/nanostructures.A. Berkeley. Johnson received the B. 1991.D. Mu Chiao received the B. VOL. degree in power mechanical engineering from National Tsing Hua University. His research effort was on MEMS power source and nanowire/tube synthesis. Lawrence. NO. Lawrence.S. since 2003 as an Assistant Professor. respectively. Chiao is the recipient of the Canada Research Chairs. and M. Liwei Lin (S’92–M’93) received the B. Taiwan. He joined UCB in 1999. in 1996. he was a Senior MEMS Engineer with Intpax. and 1993. National Taiwan University. Taiwan (1994–1996). Currently.D. as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow. He worked as a Research Technician for Merck Research Laboratories. From August 2002 to February 2003. He led the effort to establish the MEMS division in ASME. In 2001.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful