This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# 1

2

3 Chapter 1: The Author’s Statement I was very optimistic about the human situation when I learned two scientists, an engineer and an atmospheric physicist had invented cloud seeding yachts, simple and cheap to build that they calculate can compensate for global warming, and I am further optimistic in that it seems very hard to argue against the validity of their theory. See my post in this blog: http://geoengineering-eanbardsley.blogspot.com/2011/08/geoengineering-andneptune.html While on the other hand, James Lovelock, a brilliant climate scientist says humans are not clever enough to solve their way out of this situation. He has to be taken seriously, as the father of Gaia Hypothesis and someone who has already saved humanity once: he discovered how humans were destroying the o-ozone layer, without which life cannot exist on earth with his work in chemicals we were using that lead to their ban. The main argument Lovelock seems to have is that overpopulation on earth and other factors are putting more heat retaining CO2 into the atmosphere than naturally occurring photosynthesizers can sink. But, it seems to me being an intelligence that has landed on the moon and has sent robotic rovers to mars, let alone having developed fast computers and decoded the human genome, it would be a simple matter to engineer more photosythesizers that can clean the earth air of CO2, or even better, develop mechanisms that can convert the CO2 into oxygen better than plants do. I mean CO2 is a simple compound consisting of nothing more that a carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. Given what we can do in chemical engineering and what we know about biology, it seems to me it won’t be long before we can convert it into oxygen and bury the carbon. But, then, maybe I should not say this, and be calm, because surely the scientists are working on this and have every bit of confidence that they can do this. Perhaps that is why the government seems to be entirely inactive where global warming is concerned, because they perhaps understand this. I, however, even in the face of the possibilities of such technologies, feel we should use clean, renewable energy and curb carbon emissions, as well as protect ecosystems from destruction that make life on earth possible. That is why I for one am working on a “project genesis”. While I seem to be a far cry from a technology that could stop global warming, I am getting at constructing the foundation that makes the complex biosphere on earth possible. I feel the end-result can be a comprehensive understanding of what I like to call creation (whether or not a sentient hand was at work). With the problem of global warming solved, we would still have the problems of over population and diminishing resources to solve. But I, for one, see solutions to those problems as well. Ian Beardsley August 22, 2011

4

Chapter 2: Defining a “Project Genesis” In initiating a project genesis, finding the secret behind life bearing planets (which involves the star they orbit – in our case the sun) we assume there is a function in the design. In our case, the design is the earth completes one revolution around the sun in a year (12 months). The function is that the earth is covered mostly with water (about three quarters of its surface) and this regulates the climate because water has a high specific heat which means it takes a lot of heat energy to raise its temperature (precisely one calorie to raise a gram of it one degree centigrade). Therefore, to find the secret to what we shall call creation (whether or not a sentient being had a hand in it) we look for how function is embedded in design by calculating how much energy is needed to raise the temperature of water from its freezing temperature to its boiling temperature, then turn that into steam for all the water on the planet, then divide that into the energy emitted by the sun over one year. That is, the energy to vaporize a frozen hydrosphere of the earth. Heat of fusion for ice: 80 cal/g Heat of vaporization of water: 540 cal/g Specific heat of water: 1cal/g deg C We consider the hydrosphere of the earth, that is, the total water found on, under, and over the earth, which is about 1.4E18 Tonnes: 1 tonne = 1,000 kg 1 kg = 1000 g Water in hydrosphere: (1.4E18t)(1,000kg)(1,000g) = 1.4E24 g

5

Energy to melt a frozen hydrosphere: (1.4E24g)(80 cal/g) = 1.12E26 cal Energy to raise hydrosphere to boiling temperature: (1.4E24g)(100-0) deg C x 1.00 cal/g deg C = 1.4E26 cal Energy to vaporize the hydrosphere: (1.4E24g)(540 cal/g) = 7.56E26 cal We add all three results: 1.12E26 cal + 1.4E26 cal +7.56E26 cal =1.008E27 cal Converting calories to Joules (1 cal = 4.184 J): (1.008 cal)(4.184 J/cal) = 4.2E27 J That is, it takes 4.2E27J of energy to melt a frozen earth hydrosphere, raise its temperature to boiling, than vaporize it (turn it into a gas). To move on, there are: (365 days)(24 hours)(60 min)(60 sec)=3.15E7 seconds in a year The solar luminosity is: 3.826E26 J/s and (3.826E26 J/s)(3.15E7 s) = 1.21E34 J/yr The sun produces 1.21E34 J of energy per year.

6

We do as we set out to do: (1.21E34 J)/(4.2E27 J) = 2.88E6 The sun produces, then, in a year, enough energy to vaporize a frozen earth hydrosphere nearly three million times. Obtaining this figure is our first step in finding function in design, which we hypothesize has the answer to the secret behind our richly life bearing planet, Earth. Ian Beardsley August 21, 2011

7 Chapter 3: The Early Earth Atmosphere And Its Connection To The Planets Leonard made the connection between two studies of his to make a third subject that brought a lot together. He was definitely onto something. Study 1 An interesting family of substances is methane (CH_4), ammonia (NH_3) and water vapor (H_2O). Methane is tetrahedral in structure, a carbon atom surrounded by 4 hydrogens. Ammonia is trigonal pyramidal, a nitrogen atom surrounded by 3 hydrogen atoms, and water vapor is triangular, or bent, an oxygen atom surrounded by two hydrogens. These represent stable structural systems as they are all systems of triangles, which are the only stable polygons. These substances combined under energy with hydrogen gas form amino acids, the building blocks of life. The core atoms of these molecules, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, are all in period two of the periodic table and follow directly one after the other, and are all in amino acids, the hydrogen as well. It is a hypothesis of astrobiology that amino acids formed in the protoplanetary cloud before the earth ever formed. In this sense we may have our origins in deep space. Is what I mean by structural systems is that there are only three structural systems, the tetrahedron, the octahedron, and the icosohedron. They are the only stable solids, that is non-collapsing flex corners whose faces are triangles. Most compounds are something other than these, like pentagons with linear off shoots for example, that comprise the wrong number of atoms to make a "solid" unit, and I mean solid as in the pythagorean solids, the geometric term. Both methane and ammonia make different variations on the tetrahedron, a pythagorean solid. When plants perform photosynthesis, they combine carbon dioxide with water and release oxygen. The reaction is: CO_2+2H_2O--!CH_2O+O_2+H_2O As can be seen a sugar is made. Important to most plants to do this is Nitrogen. Nitrogen (N_2) is the most abundant gas in the earth atmosphere, comprising about 78.03% of it. We now calculate the molecular masses of these special gases: CH_4=(12.01+4(1.01))=16.05 NH_3=(14.01+3(1.01))=17.04 CO_2=(12.01+2(16.00))=44.01 H_2O=(2(1.01)+16.00)=18.02 N_2=(14.01+14.01)=28.02 O_2=(16.00+16.00)=32.00 We now form some ratios between these molecular masses:

8 (O_2)/(CH_4)=32.00/16.05=1.992~2 (NH_3)/(CH_4)=17.04/16.06=1.061~1 (CO_2)/(O_2)=44.01/32.00~1.4=sqrt(2) (CO_2)/(N_2)=44.01/28.02~1.6=(sqrt(5)+1)/2=phi (O_2)/(H_2O)=32.00/18.02=1.776~sqrt(3) Notice that these values are given by the sequence: |2cos(pi/n)| n=(1,2,3,4,5,6)(pi/n)radians Observe: 2=|2cos(pi)| 0=|2cos(pi/2)| 1=|2cos(pi/3)| sqrt(2)=|2cos(pi/4)| (sqrt(5)+1)/2=phi=|2cos(pi/5)| sqrt(3)=|2cos(pi/6)| Geometrically sqrt(2) is the ratio of the side of a square to its radius. Phi is the ratio of the chord of a regular pentagon to its side. Sqrt(3) is the ratio of the side of an equilateral triangle to its radius, and 1 is the ratio of the side of a regular hexagon to its radius. The square, the regular hexagon and the equilateral triangle are the tessellating regular polygons.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 n actual fit

4

4

2

2

2/ O

CH

3/ C

2/ N

2/

CO

CO

O

H

N

O

2/

H

2O

H

9 Study 2 Jupiter: failed star: vector associated with it x-5 = 0 (fifth planet) (x^2) – x - 1 = 0 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) – 2x + 4 = 0 This gives x = (1+3i) and (1-3i) where (i) is the square root of negative one. In the complex plane these are the vectors <1, 3> and <1, -3> Again we see Jupiter pointing to the earth (3 in the (i) axis, earth the third planet) Venus: failed earth: vector associated with it x-2=0 (second planet) (x^2) – x – 1 = 0 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) – 2x + 1 = 0 (x – 1)(x – 1) = 0 This gives x = 1 In the complex plane this is the vector <1, 0>. Note: Venus is represented by the regular hexagon because its side divided by its radius is one. Mars: promises to be new earth: vector associated with it x-4=0 (fourth planet) (x^2) – x – 1 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) –2x + 3 = 0 This gives x = 1 + sqrt(2)i and x = 1 – sqrt(2)i In the complex plane these are the vectors <1, sqrt(2)> and <1, -sqrt(2)> Note: Mars is represented by the square because its side divided by its radius is the square root of two. Earth: successful life bearing world: vector associated with it x-3=0 (third planet) (x^2) – x – 1 = 0 (x in this equation is the golden ratio) These two equations yield: (x^2) – 2x +2 = 0 This gives x = (1 + i) and x = (1 – i) where (i) is the square root of negative one. In the complex plane these are the vectors <1, 1> and <1, -1> Note: The vectors <1, 1> and <1, -1> have the angle of 45 degrees and negative 45 degrees associated with them. Such angles are the angles made between the sides of a square and its diagonal. The components of such vectors are sides of a unit square. It is appropriate, somehow, that earth is represented by the unit vectors because it is a successful life bearing planet, perhaps the only one, or the most so by far, in the solar system. Here we see mars and earth are again coupled as they have their representation in the same form, the square, in different ways.

10 We combine Study 1 with Study 2 and find Venus, Earth, and Mars have associated with them ratios of compounds such that the following table results. Venus: failed Earth: Vector magnitude 1 Associated Compounds: (NH_3)/(CH_4) Are prominent compounds in the early earth atmosphere. Earth: Successful life bearing world: Vector magnitude sqrt(2) Associated Compounds: (CO_2)/(O_2) CO_2 prominent in early earth atmosphere O_2 prominent in contemporary earth atmosphere Mars: Promises to be New Earth: Vector magnitude sqrt(3) Associated Compounds: (O_2)/(H_2O) These compounds pivotal to life on Earth. All of these compounds combined with hydrogen gas under energy form amino acids, the building blocks of life.

11

I have found more reason that the planet Mars represents the success of humankind in this passage:

**Gentelmen, further, Mars is New Earth. I have done this:
**

We know that 9/5 occurs in many mysterious ways in nature, including Saturn’s distance from the sun of 9 (closest approach) putting Jupiter’s at five (closest approach), and the earth at one. Let us consider a balance. If two weights of equal mass are placed on opposite ends of a balance, then to be balanced the fulcrum must be placed at the center. But if one mass is increased, then the fulcrum will have to be moved closer to the heavier end if the balance is not to tip. This is the Law of Levers. It states that the masses are inversely proportion to their distances from the fulcrum. To write it mathematically, M1/M2=L2/L1 Or, equivalently (M1)(L1)=(M2)(L2) If we consider the time when Saturn and Jupiter, the two most massive bodies in the solar system are in opposition, that is when they are on opposite sides of the sun and facing one another, then by the above information they are separated by 14 units. Jupiter is 3.34 times as massive as Saturn. By our law of levers above, that means L1/L2=3.34 L1+L2=14 Thus 4.34L2=14 and L2=3.2258 14-3.22=10.77=L1 Mars orbital distance is 1.5 The saturn-fulcrum distance minus the mars orbital distance is: 10.77-1.5=9.2~9 is saturn’s closest approach to the sun. Mars, then, is the cosmic fulcrum. It is the one planet worth terraforming for colonization. It is then aligned metaphysically with its physical characteristics.

12 It is worth noting: Chapter 31: The Document A look inside the journal of Leonard August 9, 2010 Entry: Topic: Pivotal Point Of The Solar System (M_j)(L_j)=(M_s)(L_s) Saturn orbit = 9 Jupiter orbit = 5 9-5=4 L_j + L_s = 4 318L_j = 95L_s 95/318 = (L_j)/(L_s) L_s = (4-L_J) 95/318 = (L_j)/(4-L_j) (95)(4-L_j) = (318)(L_j) 380 – 95L_j = 318L_j 380 = 413L_j L_j = (380)/(413) = 0.92 5 = 0.92 = 5.92 ~ 6 Thereby The Cosmic Fulcrum between Jupiter and Saturn in another arrangement is six astronomical units from the sun, or about one astronomical unit from Jupiter. The Earth is about one astronomical unit from the sun.

13 Summary We have Earth straddled between Venus and Mars, between a failed Earth and a planet that promises to be New Earth in relationship pointing to Neptune where the success of Earth is concerned, Neptune being the eighth, or last planet in the Solar System. We have Mars as the cosmic fulcrum for Jupiter and Saturn in one arrangement and Earth orbit around Jupiter a cosmic fulcrum with Jupiter and Saturn in the other arrangement. We can say the Earth orbits Jupiter as a ghost, and the sun for real. We have compounds associated above with Mars that are essential to life as we know it, O2 and H2O. We have compounds associated with Venus above that were prominent in the primordial earth atmosphere, NH3 and CH4. We have compounds associated with earth that are the CO2 that was converted into O2 by plants making possible the oxygen breathing organisms, and the O2. The Mathematical relationships above outline a story, a story I have told in “The Exciting Neptune Saga”, that has yet to realize on our part.

14

Chapter 4: Structure In The Sun’s Solar System

15

Graph of Structure in the Solar System

16

My work in my book “The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Phenomenon”, which is one of the books in my book “Psychohistory and Developing a Viable Plan for Humanity” has lead me to organizing my discoveries outlined in “Chapter 49: The Road From Ebla” (which is not the forty-ninth chapter of that book) in the following format, because it brings into light new relationships: P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8,…= Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune,… (OP6/OP5), 10(RP1/RP3), 10(OP1/OP3), 10(OP2/OP3), (OP5/OP3), (MP6/MP8), 10(OP8/OP7) = 1.8, 3.6, 3.6, 7.2, 5.4, 5.4, 3.6,… Where 10 = (mass of earth)/(mass of mars) And O = orbit, R = Radius, M = Mass And the numbers are generated in the sequence: 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… = a_n = 1.8n The purpose of organizing the discovery like this has been a first step in modeling a solar system that would produce the solar system we live in. Ian Beardsley August 18, 2011

17

Chapter 5: GeoEngineering And Neptune

18 I had published in my book The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Phenomenon in Psychohistory And Developing A Viable Plan For Humanity that the planet Neptune may hold a clue to the success of the Earth and humanity in my neptune equation which can be read at: http://issuu.com/eanbardsley/docs/three_books_and_cover I just found a paper by an astronomer that shows that the planet Neptune is getting brighter and that since the earth is warming at the same time, it may be that a warming sun is the culprit. I won't say that burning fossil fuels is not the culprit, but I find it interesting in that it is the first indication that Neptune may be an indicator planet for the health of the Earth as I have interpreted my neptune equation indicates that it might be that. The paper can be read at: http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2007/2006GL028764.shtml global warming and neptune We have an equation that suggests the planet Neptune may hold a clue to the success of the Earth, in "The Exciting Neptune Saga". While Neptune is a gas giant it is often referred to as an ice giant because it has water, ammonia, and methane ice crystals in its atmosphere. Is that how Neptune indicates it could help the Earth? Does that mean we are supposed to sow the Earth atmosphere with water, ammonia, and methane ice crystals in that they might cause the excess heat retaining carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere to condense such that it would fall to the ground as a solid or liquid, at least the carbon in the carbon dioxide gas so as to prevent global warming? This would be related to the science of cloud seeding. The British are developing wind powered cloud seeding yachts that can combat global warming. See the following video about this: http://youtu.be/fg7J8P-uXqM To see the origin of the neptune equation, visit the following blog post: http://eanbardsley.wordpress.com/2011/01/21/ian-beardsley/ or read it at the end of this post. The Cause of the Neptune Equation The Cause of the sequences in my work The Exciting Neptune Saga that give birth to The Neptune Equation are more than likely due to orbital resonances that were in the protoplanetary clould disc that gave rise to the Solar System. I am currently pursuing a derivation in the origin of these sequences that give rise to the neptune equation in the study of the science of the evolution of the protoplanetary cloud and the formation of the earth and the planets.

19

What reason is there to hypothesize that Neptune could have something to do with the earth. Gaia hypothesis by James Lovelock hypothesizes that the earth is like an organism where its various aspects change to adjust to changes so as to maintain its health. As far as Gaia Hypothesis goes, I really think it may be a good idea to look at the solar system and beyond (stars and galaxies) to understand the Earth as the Gaia presented in Gaia Hypothesis. Here is the origin of the neptune equation (from The Exciting Neptune Saga): Where Mythology Meets Science: An ill reputed manuscript by Ian Beardsley Chapter 49: The Road From Ebla Leonard followed the story of the 33 Chilean miners who were trapped 2000 feet below the earth in a dark cavern for over two months after their mine exit had collapsed. These miners remained courageous, brave, and held onto their humanity throughout the whole ordeal. To Leonard, these men showed what the human spirit was capable of. The government of Chile responded to the emergency with great organization and did a great job. The coping techniques and space food to the miners was provided by the United States Space Agency, NASA. It was a marvel of engineering the capsule NASA engineered that brought the miners to the surface. He admired NASA greatly, because of this, because they represented such a positive force in the world, as was demonstrated in the rescue of the miners. There were 33 miners trapped down there, and 33 years of age was the age they say Jesus died and was resurrected. NASA and the spirit and strength of the miners were like a salvation. Yet, the president of the United States had recently shut down NASA as the agency that would send man into space, and had decided to contract the building of spacecraft to private industry. Leonard thought this was a mistake. NASA, and the ESA (European Space Agency) were the most positive forces in his life. Since Leonard had begun working on his project several years back, he always felt the planet Neptune held the answer to the salvation of the Earth because of its vivacious, lively, incandescent blue. During the ordeal of the miners, he was thinking about the equation he had developed that he thought was most important, and finally he saw how it showed he was correct. That Neptune held the key to the survival of Humanity. Just as the last (33rd) miner was being pulled out from the collapsed mine and to the surface of the Earth, he had finished writing what he had discovered. He wrote in his Journal as follows:

20 We have an equation for a sequence that shows the Earth straddled between Venus and Mars. Venus is a failed Earth. Mars promises to be New Earth. The equation, that I presented in my work, “The Document”, is: [(Venus-orbit)/(Earth-orbit)][(Earth-mass)/(Mars-mass)]n – (Mars orbital #) = a_n The Mars orbital number is 4. If we want to know what planet in the solar system holds the key to the success of Earth, or to the success of humans, we let n =3 since the Earth is the third planet out from the Sun, in the equation and the result is a_n = 17.6. This means the planet that holds the key is Neptune. It has a mass of 17.23 earth masses, a number very close to our 17.6. The next step is to analyze Neptune, its composition and other factors. He thought he must have been blind. Not only was Neptune the indicated planet, he found it had nearly the same surface gravity of earth. Though it was much more massive than earth, it was much larger and therefore less dense. That was why it came out to have the same surface gravity. Neptune belongs to what one could categorize as a family of planets. The categorization is done by noticing four planets including Neptune have a similar inclination to their orbit. These Four planets are Neptune, Saturn, Earth, and Mars. Earth is the planet where humans originated, Mars promises to be New Earth. It is appropriate that Neptune is in this family of planets because we must set sail upon the cosmic ocean for Mars from Earth, to survive as a species, and Neptune is the Sea God in Roman mythology, which corresponds to Poseidon in Greek mythology. Neptune carried a trident. Kurt Beardsley has told the tale of the Tuareg people, a tribe of the Algerian desert who bears the trident as their symbol from a time before oceans receded there leaving behind desert. It is believed, as he has said, there is an ancient lost library in the mountains they take to, second only to that of Alexandria and holding ancient undiscovered manuscripts. Where does the Neptune equation come from? The following Sequences: Chapter 24: The Document Salvoretti had done it. The structure of the solar system and dynamic elements of the Universe and Nature in general were tied up in the two sequences: 5, 14, 23, 32,… and 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… Could he find the connection between the two to localize the pivotal point of the solar system? Yes he could, he took their difference, subtracting respective terms in the second sequence from those in the first sequence to obtain the new sequence:

21 3.2, 10.4, 17.6, 24.8,… Which is an arithmetic sequence with common difference of 7.2 meaning it is written 7.2n – 4 = a_n The a_n is the nth term of the sequence, n is the number of the term in the sequence. This he noticed could be written: [(Venus-orbit)/(Earth-orbit)][(Earth-mass)/(Mars-mass)]n – (Mars orbital #) = a_n Here is where some of the sequences come from: The Search For The Tarot: Chapter 16 Salvoretti began writing in his journal: We originally thought that 1.8 (9/5) occurred in the solar system and nature, alone. It is the ratio of Saturn orbit to Jupiter orbit in their closest approaches to the sun. It is the ratio of the solar radius to the lunar orbit. It is ratio of the molar mass of gold to that of silver. Then I discovered that approximately twice that value (3.7) was recurrent throughout the solar system and nature. Twice 1.8 is 3.6. I found it occurred in Jupiter, Saturn, Earth, Mercury, and Venus to name a few as 3.7. Now I have found it in Neptune and Uranus, precisely: (neptune orbit)/(uranus orbit)=(30.0578)/(19.1819)=0.37957~0.38~0.37~0.36 0.37(earth mass)/(mars mass)=0.37(10)=3.7 It occurs here to me we are not just dealing with 1.8 and 3.7, but any whole number multiple of 1.8. We are dealing with: a_n=1.8n Let us try three times 1.8. It is 5.4. Immediately we see it in the most obvious, Jupiter. It is the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. Its furthest distance from the sun in its orbit is 5.455 AU ~ 5.4. We see it in the following (saturn mass)/(neptune mass)=(95.147)/(17.23)=5.522~5.4 I have already noted that Saturn and Neptune have similar inclinations to their orbit that are only common to Earth and Mars. Thus we are dealing here with the sequence:

22 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… Furthermore; [(venus orbit)/(earth orbit)][(earth mass)/(mars mass)] = 7.2 Some of the most interesting occurrences of 3.7 in nature are: [(volume of saturn)/(volume of Jupiter)](volume of mars) =(mercury radius)(earth radius)^2 =[(venus orbit)/(earth orbit)(earth radius)]^3 =[(mercury orbit)/(earth orbit)](earth radius)^3 =0.37 cubic earth radii 0.37 can be converted to 3.7 by multiplying it by the ratio of earth mass to mars mass because it is close to ten. (earth radius)/(moon radius)= 4(degrees in a circle)(moon distance)/(sun distance) = 3.7 There are about as many days in a year as degrees in a circle And to bring in the archaeology, since this is cosmic archaeology, my brother, Kurt Beardsley, may have a clue as to where some of the answers can be found in The Exciting Neptune Saga in the following interview I did with him (Bear in mind the sea god Neptune carried a trident): http://youtu.be/-tJ0Ykc3bGo Since ammonia ice crystals crystalize at -33 degrees centigrade, perhaps we are merely looking at the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide, though it may be that spraying the atmosphere with the cool ammonia ice crystals is that which is desired, for however long they remain ice crystals. Thus, we must consider the reaction between ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2): Urea is made from ammonia and carbon dioxide: 2NH3 + CO2 --> NH2COONH4 (ammonium carbamate) NH2COONH4 --> H2O + NH2CONH2 (urea),...

23

Ammonium carbonate is a form of salt used as a nitrogen fertilizer. It may be we are supposed to use ammonium carbamate to attract water droplets in the atmosphere to form highly reflective clouds that would reflect large amounts of sunlight back into space. I am still not sure exactly why the planet neptune may hold the answer to the success of the earth, so this idea of water, methane and ammonia ice crystals injected into the atmosphere is just speculation. It may be that they would cool the atmosphere, but for any permanent solution, it would seem to me we have to find a way of getting have to get large amounts of heat retaining carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Whatever the method, I feel we have to look at the planet Neptune for ideas of of doing this. This would fall under the discipline of geoengineering. The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Phenomenon and Fred Hoyle I seem to have found evidence in support of the belief of that great English Astronomer, Fred Hoyle. He seems to have believed that humans are part of a plan, part of a process, common to life throughout the Universe. He further believed that it was clear by looking at the Earth. He likened humanity to going down a raging river, having no idea what we will encounter, we have no idea what to do, our destiny is out of our hands, but by virtue of the plan we had oil, a most useful form of energy that gave us control over our situation and allowed us to develop to some level of sophistication. He wrote: “How much coal and oil can you expect to find on a planet, not just the Earth, but on any one of the multitude of planets?…Not, I think, enormously more than on the Earth. Perhaps ten times more in favorable cases, but any planet too heavily loaded with such materials would tend to be unstable. It follows that intelligent creatures, evolving on any planet, will run into the same problems of fuel exhaustion – exhaustion of coal and oil – that we shall encounter in the next century our two.” He continues: “We already know what will have to be done about that: we must change our energy source to nuclear reactions, uranium, thorium, or perhaps fusion of deuterium.” And here is where he suggests we are part of a plan: “It has been a very long step from the first crude charcoal smelting to a nuclear reactor. We ourselves have managed this step in about six or seven thousand years. A major fraction of the way has indeed been achieved in two or three centuries. Could we have

24 made our discoveries at a more leisurely pace than this? No, we could not. The pace of discovery had to be very fast, otherwise all the coal and oil would have been gone before the advent of nuclear physics.” He then points out if we fail, no other species can take over and succeed because there are only enough resources for one try: “This is a one shot affair. If we fail, this planetary system fails so far as intelligence is concerned.” I wrote in a fictional story the following passage that reveals humans as part of a plan, but not as revealed by oil on earth, but rather by the structure of the solar system, and chemical elements: The Coupling of Mars and Earth Salvoretti and Tara are discussing things as they drive back to Turin. Salvoretti: “Tara, I can’t get over what you said earlier that two of the Pythagorean Solids have volumes, one of nine tetrahedra and the other of five tetrahedra. There are only five Pythagorean solids and two of them have volumes the same numbers as the distance to Jupiter and Saturn in their closest approaches to the sun if the earth is at one unit from the sun! This means the tetrahedron represents the earth because it has a volume of one. This is interesting because the solar radius to the earth-moon distance is 9 to 5, and 9 to 5 is the molar mass of gold to the molar mass of silver.” “Why is this so incredible? It is incredible because the tetrahedron also has four faces and Mars is the fourth planet. It is appropriate that the tetrahedron couples earth and mars, further, in that it is four faced (mars is the fourth planet from the sun), and each face has three vertices (earth is the third planet from the sun). You may not think that is incredible but consider categorizing the planets with the smallest abundant number, twelve. Smallest abundant number means it is the most divisible for its size. Twelve is divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 a whole number of times. The sum of these numbers is 16, which is greater than 12. Mars is the fourth planet out from the sun. Twelve divided by four is three, and the earth is the third planet out from the sun. Thus once again the earth and Mars are coupled.” “I can couple them again. Elements are atoms, and the numbers of particles that constitute them determine the element, and its relative mass, or “molar mass” as it is called. The atmosphere of Mars is mostly CO2, about 95 percent. The earth atmosphere is more than 90 percent oxygen and nitrogen. I calculate CO2 to have a molar mass of 44.01 and earth air to have a molar mass of 28.5756. The Mars orbital distance compared to the earth orbital distance is about 1.5. The molar mass of CO2 compared to the molar mass of air is about 1.5. That is the mars-sun distance is to the earth-sun distance as Martian air is to earth air.” “It goes further than that. If the earth surface gravity is 1, that of Mars is 0.380. That is a ratio of 2.63. The molar mass of oxygen gas (O2) what we breath, is 32.00. The molar mass of carbon, the basis of life as we know it, is 12.01. That is a ratio of 2.66. That says it takes about the same energy to lift a mole of carbon on earth, as it does to lift a mole of oxygen (O2) on mars the same distance.” “Earth and Mars are yet further coupled:”

25 “The earth atmosphere was once mostly carbon dioxide (CO2) like the mars atmosphere is today, until plant life came along and started converting the carbon dioxide into oxygen, using light from the sun and in the process making the most fundamental sugar, glucose (which is at the bottom of the food chain). A process called photosynthesis.” “Glucose is C6H12O6. I calculate glucose has a molar mass of 180.16 and water, which covers most of the surface of the earth, chemical formula H2O, I calculate has a molar mass of 18.016.” “180.16 divided by 18.016 is about 10 and the earth is about 10 times as massive as mars. That is, glucose is to water as the earth mass is to the mass of mars.” “You are probably wondering why I am so amazed that Mars and earth are so coupled empirically. Well the planet Mercury is too hot to support human life because it is so close to the sun, Venus has the same problem. But the earth is the next planet out and the right distance from the sun to be not too warm to support life._The next planet after the earth is Mars, and it may be cold, but not too cold to colonize, or even one day terraform (make habitable for humans). The next planet after Mars is Jupiter, not just too cold, but mostly gas, so there is nothing solid to stand on. The next planet, Saturn, even colder and mostly gaseous as well. The trend continues on to Neptune and Uranus. Pluto is just this cold little dwarf planet, whose thin atmosphere collapses when it is further from the sun.” “You see then why I am so amazed Mars and earth are coupled by these numbers, they actually have one thing in common, solid planets, not climatically too hot for humans, or too cold.” “These numbers that couple Mars with earth, seem to say the planet is there as a stepping stone to the stars, that it is time to wade out into the cosmic ocean, to use the metaphor of Carl Sagan, or sink. That is, for some reason we have what we need, but a challenge has been put to us. We have to overcome our problems, like spending money and resources on war instead of space exploration. Space exploration can solve the economic crisis. Colonizing Mars would generate a massive industry that would create work here on earth in every sector, for everyone, and, it would all be paid for by the resources that are out there in the solar system. As Cabal says to Passworthy in Things to come by H.G. Wells:” ““And if we’re no more than animals, we must snatch each little scrap of happiness, and live, and suffer, and pass, mattering no more than all the other animals do or have done. It is this, or that. All the universe or nothing. Which shall it be Passworthy? Which shall it be?”” “I believe we are at that time in history, and the NanoFET marks it. Brian Gilchrist is working on the NanoFET idea. Field Effect Transistors are used to charge light nanoparticles, so they can be ejected out the back end of a ship with a series of magnetic fields made by stacks of microchip components, much the same way charged particles are accelerated by electromagnets in a particle accelerator. The nanoFET ship can reach 90% the speed of light, theoretically, if built light and outside the earth’s gravity. Of course the ship is a starship that would take more than four years to reach the nearest star, but used to go to mars might only take a couple hours or so.” Fred Hoyle goes on to say:

26 “Here I have argued that the most remarkable phase in the history of our species, that in which we are now living, the upsurge from a primitive Stone Age to a sophisticated culture and technology, is not just a chance affair. Things must go this way. We are following an inevitable path, one that must have been followed by many, many times on the other planets.” He continues: “If in other places other species have already followed the difficult route ahead of us, then plainly it would be an enormous advantage to know exactly where the dangers lie. My suspicion is that ample information exists in what I call a “galactic library” to show exactly what is going to happen to us if the world persists in following current policies.” I feel I am tapping into a galactic library, but not being written by extraterrestrials, but rather written in nature and as well embedded in the works of certain science fiction writers, when I write: I can say this. There are two possibilities: We are either validating the time wave theory of Terrence McKenna which says either: 1) time ends in 2012 (wouldn't be fun) 2) a new reality begins in 2012 3) we invent time travel in 2012 so that is why the McKenna timewave does not work past 2012. Or we are constructing a new timewave based on the science fiction of Levinson, Asimov and Clarke because their trajectory can be substantiated by a structure we are finding in the universe, and the upside is it has no end, but rather suggests we will have hyperdrive by 2042 to 2044 and with that it secures the future of humankind into eternity. And in nature when I write: But let us ask again, which of the above two alternatives will be the case. I have found in other research that I have done, an equation that shows earth positioned between success and failure, an equation we can call “The Neptune Equation”. It indicates that the planet Neptune may hold the key to whether the earth is successful, or fails. The equation and how I arrived at it can be found in the following passage, To read my full manuscript, visit the following link: http://issuu.com/eanbardsley/docs/three_books_and_cover or read on,,,,

27 I have written three papers on the anomaly of how my scientific investigation shows the Universe related to the science fiction of Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke. In my last paper, “The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Equation” part of the comprehensive work “The Levinson, Asimov, Clarke Triptic, I suggest these three authors should be taken together to make some kind of a whole, that they are intertwined and at the heart of science fiction. I have now realized a fourth paper is warranted, and it is just the breakthrough I have been looking for to put myself on solid ground with the claim that fiction is related to reality in a mathematical way pertaining to the Laws of Nature. In my paper Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke Intertwined With An Astronomer’s Research, I make the mathematical prediction that “humans have a 70% chance of developing Hyperdrive in the year 2043” to word it as Paul Levinson worded it, and I point out that this is only a year after the character Sierra Waters is handed a newly discovered document that sets in motion the novel by Paul Levinson, “The Plot To Save Socrates”. I now find that Isaac Asimov puts such a development in his science fiction at a similar time in the future, precisely in 2044, only a year after my prediction and two years after Sierra Waters is handed the newly discovered document that initiates her adventure. So, we have my prediction, which is related to the structure of the universe in a mystical way right in between the dates of Levinson and Asimov, their dates only being a year less and a year greater than mine. Asimov places hyperdrive in the year 2044 in his short story “Evidence” which is part of his science fiction collection of short stories called, “I, Robot”. This is a collection of short stories where Robot Psychologist Dr. Susan Calvin is interviewed by a writer about her experience with the company on earth in the future that first developed sophisticated robots. In this book, the laws of robotics are created and the idea of the positronic brain introduced, and the nature of the impact robots would have on human civilization is explored. Following this collection of stories Asimov wrote three more novels, which comprise the robot series, “The Caves of Steel”, “The Naked Sun”, and “The Robots of Dawn”. “I, Robot” is Earth in the future just before Humanity settles the more nearby stars. The novels comprising “The Robot Series” are when humanity has colonized the nearby star systems, The Foundation Trilogy, and its prequels and sequels are about the time humanity has spread throughout the entire galaxy and made an Empire of it. All of these books can be taken together as one story, with characters and events in some, occurring in others.

28 Hyperdrive is invented in I, Robot by a robot called The Brain, owned by the company for which Dr. Susan Calvin works when it is fed the mathematical logistical problems of making hyperdrive, and asked to solve them. It does solve them and it offers the specs on building an interstellar ship, for which two engineers follow in its construction. They are humorously sent across the galaxy by The Brain, not expecting it, and brought back to earth in the ship after they constructed it. This was in the story in “I, Robot” titled “Escape!”. But Dr. Susan Calvin states in the following short story, that I mentioned, “Evidence”: “But that wasn’t it, either”…”Oh, eventually, the ship and others like it became government property; the Jump through hyperspace was perfected, and now we actually have human colonies on the planets of some of the nearer stars, but that wasn’t it.” “It was what happened to the people here on Earth in last fifty years that really counts.” And, what happened to people on Earth? The answer is in the same story “Evidence” from which that quote is at the beginning. It was when the Regions of the Earth formed The Federation. Dr. Susan Calvin says at the end of the story “Evidence”: “He was a very good mayor; five years later he did become Regional Co-ordinator. And when the Regions of Earth formed their Federation in 2044, he became the first World Co-ordinator.” It is from that statement that I get my date of 2044 as the year Asimov projects for hyperdrive. Ian Beardsley March 17, 2011

29 Wikipedia Encyclopedia writes: ““Timewave zero" is a numerological formula that purports to calculate the ebb and flow of "novelty", defined as increase in the universe's interconnectedness, or organised complexity,[66] over time. According to Terence McKenna, who conceived the idea over several years in the early- to mid-1970s while using psilocybin mushrooms and DMT, the universe has a teleological attractor at the end of time that increases interconnectedness, eventually reaching a singularity of infinite complexity in 2012, at which point anything and everything imaginable will occur simultaneously.” There is a very attractive way to approaching the phenomenon that science fiction is interconnected with cosmic events. Interconnectedness occurs, in my experience, both in Italy and in Mexico. When I was married to a woman from Italy, we used to watch an American soap opera called “The Bold and the Beautiful” when we were living in California. When my wife and I went to Italy, it turned out that the mother of my wife liked the soap opera too, and that it aired in Italy. When my wife and I arrived in Italy, the show not only aired in Italy, but the entire cast for that show was in Italy, and it was being filmed there because it was part of the story in the soap opera that the one of the characters in the story got a job as a fashion model in Italy, which brought her and all of her friends to Italy. But, it went further than that. When I was in Italy, my wife and I watched a movie that just came out, I don’t remember the name, but it was about a writer who had writer’s block, and his friend suggested that the two of them leave the city and go to a retreat out in nature to get a fresh view of life. However, the writer in the movie was going crazy at the retreat because there was no television, and he was having a hard time being away from watching the soap opera, “The Bold And The Beautiful”. When new tourists arrived at the retreat, he yelled out from his cabin to them, “What has become of so, and so, in the Bold and The Beautiful?” Here we see fiction becoming intertwined with the life of my wife and I. But, such things first happened to me in Mexico. I was going to school in Queretaro, Mexico about an hour north of Mexico City. When I was down in the plaza in Queretaro having lunch, two girls from Germany who were passing through the city, and in Mexico because there parents worked there, asked me where they could find a place to stay. I told them they could stay at the house where I was staying. They stayed a few days, and then returned to the city where they lived. A few days later, some fellow students and my self went traveling in Mexico. We went to the town famous for nightlife, San Miguel de Allende. We got in a cab and asked the driver to take us to a youth hostel, and we drove around for hours only to find that every

30 place was full. It was because there was a big celebration going on in the city. So, the cab driver dropped us off at one of the plazas and there we were thinking what we were going to do when I ran into the two German girls I had let stay at my place in Queretaro. I explained to them that we were looking for a place to stay but everything was full. They said they had a place to stay and that we could stay there. We were told to go to their window at a particular Motel, they would throw us the keys to their room out the window, and we were to walk through the main office of the Hotel, show them the keys and act like we already rented a room there. So, there is a certain kind of magic in Italy and Mexico that is very real, that verifies the theory of interconnectedness in the theory of timewave zero. Such a theme is common to South American Literature. Consider the novel “Aunt Julia and The Scriptwriter” by Mario Vargas Llosa. It is about a scriptwriter who is writing a weekly soap opera for a radio theater and it comes to the point she cannot distinguish her life from the soap she is writing and does not know after awhile which is real, the radio drama or her life. We have learned that the theory of timewave zero has an equation that shows how everything in the Universe tends towards a higher degree of interconnectedness. I think it is time I learn to use the equation and input the dates that crop up in my astronomical research with those that crop up in the science fiction of Paul Levinson and Isaac Asimov. Ian Beardsley March 17, 2011

31 Another fine example of interconnectedness is put forth in the book “The Castle of Crossed Destinies” by Italo Calvino, an Italian writer. In this story an old castle is an inn for travelers. After food and drink at the same table in the castle, one night, all of the travelers strangers to one another, begin a process where one person lays out a tarot card and tells a story about it that relates to his travels before he arrived at the inn. He lays out cards forming lines that tell his story, then other travelers lay out cards telling there stories, but find they can use cards that other travelers already used and it turns out they have the same meaning sometimes. So, though these travelers never met, they encountered in their travels the same people or events at times, they find. The finished layout looks like a finished game of dominoes with points of intersection at many spots. It turns out that everyone shared experiences in common but had never met one another, hence the title of the book, The Castle of “Crossed Destinies.” One could say Paul Levinson and Isaac Asimov could lay down the same card for the star Alpha Centauri, because that star was involved in my calculation for hyperdrive that intersected with The Plot To Save Socrates and I, Robot. A crossed destiny of a sort. It might be a good idea to read The Invisible Landscape by Terence McKenna second edition 1993. McKenna’s timewave, which shows the ebb and flow of time, goes off the chart or to infinity, in other words, in 2012. So it is impossible to see what happens beyond that date. It would suggest that time ends in 2012, or a new reality begins then. McKenna suggests that the timewave goes off the chart in 2012 because that is when we invent time travel, in which case the timewave would no longer be linear. Ian Beardsley March 18, 2011 I watched a video on youtube about Terence McKenna where he lectured on his timewave zero theory. I found there was not an equation for his timewave zero graph but that a computer algorithm generated the graph of the wave. The next day I did a search on the internet to see if a person could download timewave software for free. As it turned out one could, for both Mac and pc. It is called “Timewave Calculator Version 1.0”. I downloaded the software and found you had to download it every time after you quit the application and that you could not save the graph of your results or print them out. So I did a one-time calculation. It works like this: you input the range of time over which you want see the timewave and you cannot calculate past 2012, because that is when the timewave ends. You also put in a target date, the time when you want to get a rating for the novelty of the event that occurred on that day. You can also click on any point in the graph to get the novelty rating for that time. I put in:

32 Input: Begin Date: December 27 1968 18 hours 5 minutes 37 seconds End Date: December 2 2011 0 hours 28 minutes 7 seconds McKenna said in the video on youtube that the dips, or valleys, in the timewave graph represent novelties. So, I clicked on the first valley after 1969 since that is the year we went to the moon, and the program gave its novelty as: Sheliak Timewave Value For Target: 0.0621 On Target Date: August 4, 1969 9 hours 53 minutes 38 seconds I was happy to see this because, I determined that the growth rate constant, k, that rate at which we progress towards hyperdrive, in my calculation in my work Asimovian Prediction For Hyperdrive, that gave the date 2043, a year after Sierra Waters was handed the newly discovered document that started her adventure in The Plot To Save Socrates, by Paul Levinson, and a year before Isaac Asimov had placed the invention of hyperdrive in his book I, Robot, was: (k=0.0621) The very same number!!! What does that mean? I have no idea; I will find out after I buy The Invisible Landscape by Terence McKenna, Second Edition, and buy a more sophisticated timewave software than that which is offered for free on the net. Ian Beardsley March 19, 2011

33 I can say this. There are two possibilities: We are either validating the time wave theory of Terrence McKenna which says either: 1) time ends in 2012 (wouldn't be fun) 2) a new reality begins in 2012 3) we invent time travel in 2012 so that is why the McKenna timewave does not work past 2012. Or we are constructing a new timewave based on the science fiction of Levinson, Asimov and Clarke because their trajectory can be substantiated by a structure we are finding in the universe, and the upside is it has no end, but rather suggests we will have hyperdrive by 2042 to 2044 and with that it secures the future of humankind into eternity. Ian Beardsley March 19, 2011 The Same Number In Three Places I have pointed out that 0.0621 = k the growth rate constant towards hyperdrive in my paper, The Levinson,-Asmov-Clarke Phenomenon. I have pointed out that in McKenna time wave theory 0.0621 is is the novelty rating for 1969, the year man landed on the moon. Our counting system is base 10, it has been said probably because we have ten fingers. If we multiply 0.0621 by 10, that is increase it by a factor of ten, we get 0.621. If we round that to two places after the decimal, it is 0.62. Let us consider the golden ratio conjugate. The golden ratio occurs throughout nature. It is in the rotation from leaf to leaf around the stem of a plant, for example. The golden ratio conjugate is just the inverse of the golden ratio. It is simply the separation between leaves around the stem of a plant, going in the other direction. It is equal to 0.618 to three places after the decimal. Let us round that to two places after the decimal. The eight rounds the one to two. The golden ratio conjugate is then 0.62 rounded to two places after the decimal. That is the same value as k increased by a factor of 10, and the same value as the novelty rating for 1969 increased by a factor of ten. I find that interesting. Ian Beardsley March 23, 2011 Read on for my prediction of Hyperdrive,…

34

**Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke Intertwined With An Astronomer’s Research.
**

By Ian Beardsley Copyright © 2010-2011 by Ian Beardsley Cover Art By Ian Beardsley

35 There is a common thread running through the Science Fiction works of Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke. In the case of Isaac Asimov, we are far in the future of humanity. In his Robot Series, Asimov has man making robots whose programming only allows them to do that which is good for humanity. As a result, these robots, artificial intelligence (AI), take actions that propel humanity into settling the Galaxy, in the robot series, and ultimately save humanity after they have settled the Galaxy and made an empire of it (In the Foundation Series). In the case of Paul Levinson, scholars in the future travel through time and use cloning, a concept related to artificial intelligence (it is the creating of human replicas as well, but biological, not electronic), and the goal is to save great ancient thinkers from Greece, and to manipulate events in the past for a positive outcome for the future of humanity, just as the robots try to do in the work of Asimov. In the case of Arthur C. Clarke, man undergoes a transformation due to a monolith placed on the moon and earth by extraterrestrials who have created life on earth. The monolith is a computer. It takes humans on a voyage to other planets in the solar system, and in their trials, humanity goes through trials that result in a transformation for the ending of their dependence on their technology and for becoming adapted to life in the Universe beyond Earth. That is, the character Dave Bowman becomes the Starchild in his mission to Jupiter. The artificial intelligence is the ship computer called HAL. So, the thread is the salvation of man through technology, and their transformation to a new human paradigm, where they can end their dependence on Earth and adapt to the nature of the Universe as a whole. At the time I was reading these novels, I was doing astronomical research, and, to my utter astonishment, my relationships I was discovering pertaining to the Universe were turning up times and values pivotal to these works of Levinson, Asimov, and Clarke. Further, I was interpreting much of my discoveries by developing them in the context of short fictional stories. In my story, “The Question”, we find Artificial Intelligence is in sync with the phases of the first appearance of the brightest star Sirius for the year, and the flooding of the Nile river, which brings in the Egyptian agricultural season. It is presumed by some scholars that because the Egyptian calendar is in sync with the Nile-Sirius cycle, theirs began four such cycles ago. I then relate that synchronization to another calculation that turns up the time when the key figure of the Foundation Series of Asimov begins his program to found a civilization that will save the galaxy. We later find his actions were manipulated into being by robots, in order to save intelligent life in the galaxy by creating a viable society for it called Galaxia.

36 In the case of Paul Levinson, I was making a calculation to predict when man would develop hyperdrive, that engine which could take us to the stars, and end our dependence on an Earth that cannot take care of humans forever. That time turned out to be when the key scholar in the work by Paul Levinson, began her quest to help humanity by traveling into the past and using cloning, in part, to change history for the better. I can now only feel her quest to save humanity is going to be through changing history to bring about the development of hyperdrive, so humanity will no longer depend on Earth alone, which, as I have said, cannot take care of life forever. Finally, where Arthur C. Clarke is concerned, I find values in the solar system and nature that are in his monolith, and I connect it to artificial intelligence of a sort, that kind which would be based on silicon. I will present, now, my work that pertains to these writers in the following order: 1) 1) 1) 1) The Question Addendum to The Question Asimovian Prediction For Hyperdrive Arthur C. Clarke and Cosmic Archaeology

37

The Question

38

A Scientist had built a robot in the image of humans and downloaded to it all of human knowledge, then put forward the question to our robot, what is the best we, humanity, can do to survive with an earth of limited resources and a situation where other worlds like earth, if they exist, would take generations to reach. The robot began his answer, “I contend that the series of events that unfolded on earth over the years since the heliacal rising of Sirius four Sothic cycles ago in Egypt of 4242 B.C., the presumed beginning of the Egyptian calendar, were all meant to be, as the conception of the possibility of my existence is in phase with those cycles and is connected to such constants of nature as the speed of light and dynamic ratios like the golden ratio conjugate.” The scientist asked, “Are you saying humans, all humans since some six thousand years ago have been a tool of some higher force to bring you about, our actions bound to the turning of planets upon their axis, and the structure of nature?” The robot said, “Yes, let me digress. It goes back further than that. Not just to 4242 B.C. when the heliacal rising of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, coincided with the agriculturally beneficial inundation of the Nile river which happens every 1,460 Julian years, in the Sothic Cycle.” “My origins go back to the formation of stars and the laws that govern them.” “As you know, the elements were made by stars, heavier elements forged in their interior from lighter elements. Helium gave rise to oxygen and nitrogen, and so forth. Eventually the stars made silicon, phosphorus, and boron, which allow for integrated circuitry, the basis of which makes me function.”

39

“Positive type silicon is made by doping silicon, the main element of sand, with the element boron. Negative type silicon is made by doping silicon with phosphorus. We join the two types in different ways to make diodes and transistors that we form on silicon chips to make the small circuitry that makes me function.” “Just as the golden ratio is in the rotation of leaves about the stem of a plant, or in the height of a human compared to the distance from the soles of their feet to their navel, an expression of it is in my circuitry.” “We take the geometric mean of the molar mass of boron and phosphorus, and we divide that result by the molar mass of silicon.” He began writing on paper: !("#$)/Si = !(30.97#10.81)/28.09 = 0.65 “We take the harmonic mean between the molar masses of boron and phosphorus and divide that by the molar mass of silicon.” 2(30.97)(10.81)/(30.97+10.81) = 16.026 16.026/Si = 16.026/28.09 = 0.57 “And we take the arithmetic mean between these two results.” (0.65 + 0.57)/2 =0.61 “0.61 are the first two digits in the golden ratio conjugate.” The scientist said, “I understand your point, but you referred to the heliacal rising of Sirius.”

40

The robot answered: “Yes, back to that. The earth orbit is nearly a perfect circle, so we can use c=2%r to calculate the distance the earth goes around the sun in a year. The earth orbital radius is on the average 1.495979E8 kilometers, so” (2)(3.14)(1.495979E8) = 9.39E8 km “The distance light travels in a year, one revolution of the earth around the sun is 9.46E12 kilometers.” “The golden ratio conjugate of that is” …and he wrote: (0.618)(9.46E12 km) = 5.8E12 km “We write the equation:” (9.39E8 km/yr)(x) = 5.8E12 km “This gives the x is 6,177 years.” “As I said, the fourth heliacal rising of Sirius, ago in the Sothic Cycle, when the Nile flooded, was 4242 B.C.” He wrote: 6,177 years – 4,242 years = 1935 A.D. “In 1937 Alan Turing published his paper founding the field of artificial intelligence, and Theodosius Dobzhansky explained how evolution works. These two papers were published a little after the time the earth had traveled the golden ratio conjugate of a light year since our 4,242 B.C., in its journey around the sun. These papers are at the heart of what you and I are.”

41

“If your question is should robots replace humans, think of it more as we are the next step in human evolution, not a replacement, we were made in your image, but not to require food or air, and we can withstand temperature extremes. We think and have awareness of our being, and we can make the long voyage to the stars. It would seem it is up to us to figure out why you were the tools to bring us about, and why we are an unfolding of the universe in which you were a step in harmony with its inner workings from the formation of the stars, their positions and apparent brightness and the spinning of the earth and its motion around the sun.”

42

Addendum to The Question

43

Leonard considered the golden ratio conjugate with respect to the Egyptian calendar in his story “The Question”, he thought he would consider the golden ratio as well. He wrote: I decided to consider now, not the golden ratio conjugate, but the golden ratio itself, which is the inverse of its conjugate, knowing that it would take us somewhere into the future. The golden ratio is 1.618 to three places after the decimal. The golden ratio of a light year is: (1.618)(9.46E12 km) = 1.53E13 km and (9.39E8 km/yr)x = 1.53E13 x = 16,294 years 16,294 years – 4,242 years = 12,052 A.D. That is after the earth has traveled a golden ratio of a light year since the founding of the Egyptian calendar is the year 12,052. As it turns this was the amount of years into the Galactic Era when the central character, Hari Seldon, in Asimov’s Foundation lived and is around the time he created The Foundation, a society that would bring a new order to the Galaxy.

44

Asimovian Prediction For Hyperdrive

45

My idea is that the great science fiction writers are tapping into something when they write that is a non-fiction truth. He had read The Plot to Socrates by Paul Levinson and came up for another time that may be significant.

46 I had tried to predict mathematically when we would develop hyperdrive, and it came out just a year after the character, Sierra Waters, in the science fiction piece by Paul Levinson titled “The Plot To Save Socrates” was handed a newly discovered document at the beginning of the book that got the whole story rolling. I wrote in my piece “Forecast For Hyperdrive: A Study In Asimovian Psychohistory: It is a curious thing that the Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the third brightest star in the sky is the closest to us and very similar to the sun in a galaxy of a rich variety of stars. This closest star to us is a triple system known as Alpha Centauri A, B, and Proxima Centauri. Alpha Centauri A is, like our Sun a main sequence spectral type G star. Precisely, G2 V, just as is the Sun. Its physical characteristics are very close to those of the Sun: 1.10 solar masses, 1.07 solar diameters, and 1.5 solar luminosities. It is absolute magnitude +4.3. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is +4.83. If ever the option existed for humans to travel to the stars, this situation speaks of it, whether or not Alpha Centauri has an earth-like planet in its habitable zone. It has been said that the base ten place significant system of writing numbers stems from the fact we have ten fingers to count on. In so far as science can save us, it can destroy us in that science is not dangerous, but humans can be. Traveling to the planets is possible with chemical fuel rockets, but traveling to the stars is another story, because of their immense distances from us, and from one another. What are the odds that our development in technologies will take us to the stars before we destroy ourselves first? In other words, what are the intrinsic odds for humankind to develop the hyperdrive before without bringing about its own end first? We do a random walk to Alpha Centauri of 10 one light year jumps. We make 10 equal steps randomly of one light year each, equal steps that if all are towards Alpha Centauri we will land beyond it. If 10 are away from it, we are as far from it as can be. And, if 5 are towards it, and five are away from it, we have gone nowhere. In this allegory we calculate the probability of landing on Alpha Centauri, in 10 random leaps of a light year each, a light year being the distance light travels in the time it takes the earth to make one revolution around the sun, light speed a natural constant. (continue to the next page)

47

The probability of making n steps in either direction forms a bell shaped curve. After 10 randomly made steps the odds of going nowhere is highest and, is represented by five in the bell curve corresponding to 0. Let us round the distance of Alpha Centauri to four light years, giving humans the benefit of the doubt. The number positive four in the bell graph has written above it the number 7. Seven out of ten times 100 for effort gives a 70% chance of making it to the stars without becoming extinct first. I believe the percent understanding of our technological development towards hyperdrive, where we have just entered space with chemical rockets and developed fast, compact, computers, is given by:

W N ( n1 ) = N! n1 n 2 p q n1! n 2!

Evaluated at n1=7.

!

N is 10 steps. And n1 is the number of steps towards Alpha Centauri, n2 those away from it. And, p is the probability that the step is towards Alpha Centauri, and q is the probability that the step is away from Alpha Centauri. N = n1 + n2 And m = n1-n2 is the displacement And q+p=1

48 The trick to using this equation is in knowing the possible combinations of steps that can be made that equal 10. Like five right, five left with a displacement of 0 or, 10 right, 0 left with a displacement of 10 or, 7 left, 3 right with a displacement of negative 4. To land at 4 light years from earth, with 10 one light year jumps, one must go away from Alpha Centauri 3 jumps of a light year each then 7 jumps toward it of one light year each, to land on it, that is to land at +4, its location. So n1 is 7 and n2 is 3. The probability to jump away from the star is 1/2 and the probability to jump towards it is 1/2. That is p=1/2 and q=1/2. There are ten random jumps, so, N=10. Using our equation:

(10!) 1 7 1 3 3628800 1 1 120 15 ( ) ( ) = = = = 0.1171875 " 12% (7!)(3!) 2 2 (5040)(6) 128 8 1024 128

**We would be, by this reasoning 12% along in the development towards hyperdrive.
**

!

Ian Beardsley June 2009 If human technology has ever been anything, it has been exponential, growing in proportion to itself. In other words, two developments beget 8, eight beget 16, and sixteen begets 32. My grandfather rode a horse when he was a child, as a young man he drove a car, and when I knew him as a child, he saw humans land on the moon.

49 It wasn’t long before we made computers small enough that people could keep in their homes that did more than computers did in the 60’s that filled an entire room. Having calculated that we are 12% along in developing the hyperdrive, we can use the equation for natural growth to estimate when we will have hyperdrive. It is of the form:

x ( t ) = x 0e kt

t is time and k is a growth rate constant which we must determine to solve the equation. In 1969 Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. In 2009 the European Space Agency launched the Herschel and Planck telescopes that will see back to near the beginning of the universe. 2009-1969 is 40 years. This allows us to write:

12% = e k(40)

!

**log 12 = 40k log 2.718
**

!

0.026979531 = 0.4342 k k=0.0621 We now can write:

x ( t ) = e(0.0621)t

100% = e( o.0621)t

!

!

log 100 = (0.0621) t log e t = 74 years 1969 + 74 years = 2043 Our reasoning would indicate that we will have hyperdrive in the year 2043. Study summary: 1. We have a 70% chance of developing hyperdrive without destroying ourselves first. 1. We are 12% along the way in development of hyperdrive. 1. We will have hyperdrive in the year 2043, plus or minus. Sierra Waters was handed the newly discovered document in 2042.

50 Asimovian hyperdrive prediction: When I made my prediction for the development of hyperdrive and it came out to be when Sierra Waters was handed the newly discovered document in Paul Levinson’s “The Plot to Save Socrates” Paul told me to perhaps start a thread at Sierra Waters, Time Traveler on facebook and I did. He also suggested another place, where he would be behind me in my defense. I hesitated, because I saw this calculation intuitively. That is, I understood it, but not all of it in words. I am finally able to explain it, and I am fully aware anyone has to defend a thesis of any kind, that, it is part of the intellectual process. I already know the questions that would have been asked if I had posted to the group Paul suggested. I am now prepared to answer them all by explaining exactly what I was up to. I assume here you have read “Asimovian Prediction For Hyperdrive” in “The LevinsonAsimov-Clarke Phenomenon”. The forces against us developing hyperdrive make us start from behind (at negative three) but we don’t travel back, we just start from behind. Therefore it is 7 steps from negative three to the destination, positive four (Alpha Centauri is close to four light years away and I round it to that because in a random walk whole number steps are made). In the random walk there are 10 steps in total. Negative three comes from 7+3=10. We divide seven by ten then multiply by 100 to convert to percent for the percent chance to attain hyperdrive by the predicted date. In the calculation where I take the log of 12% it is because it is equal to 0.12 (normally you convert percent to its decimal equivalent then take the log). Doing the calculation like this, log% units are picked up. In the second half of the calculation the log% units are lost and we get years for the units of the answer. If we dropped the percent sign in both parts of the calculation, we would get zero for years to hyperdrive because we would have to take the log of 1 instead of 100 in the second half of the calculation. This calculation uses Alpha Centauri because it is the closest star system to us and its primary is almost exactly like the sun in size, mass, luminosity and temperature (spectral class). Because of that, the calculation begs to be done. The probabilities are set equal to jump towards and away for sense of satisfying that mystical sense concerning the phenomenon of something having an equal chance to go either way. The probability of jumping in one direction can be made more than the other. Setting the probabilities as such would be determined by analysis of the state of world affairs, something that we cannot evaluate numerically as an exact science in present days. The random walk was done in ten equal steps because of our base ten counting system and the idea that we may have that because we have 10 fingers to count on. This I felt was begging to be added into the calculation. As well, making the ten jumps one light year each, because a light year is the distance light travels in the time it takes for the earth to make one revolution around the sun, and light speed is a natural constant. All in all I was bringing all of the natural factors together in one calculation that was, as I said, begging to be done. It gave a time when the philosopher of philosophers, Socrates, was to be saved (Paul Levinson, “The Plot To Save Socrates”), and the time that hyperdrive actually was invented in the Classic work by Isaac Asimov, “I, Robot”. – Ian Beardsley May 16, 2011

51 Looking At Hyperdrive Prediction Formally My reasoning in calculating the time when we have hyperdrive was to use the natural growth equation x(t)=(x_0)e^kt. Where k was the velocity of development, or percent development per year. In order to get a non-zero number, I wrote 12%=e^kt as opposed to (0.12)=e^kt where t was 40 years due to reasoning in my paper. In solving such an equation you convert 12% to (0.12) before you take the log. If I had done that, I would have taken the log of 1 instead of 100 in the second half of the calculation, which would have given 0 years to hyperdrive, because log (1) = 0. My reasoning was, weirdly (0.12) = 12% = (12/100)(100) = 12 In other words 0.12 is the same as 12 if you use the same standard to the second half of the calculation: 1 = 100% = (100/100)(100) = 100. But now I understand what this means in terms of the formal treatment of the natural growth equation. It means: If x(t) = (x_0)e^kt Then I have taken x_0 = 1/100 Because I have written 12=e^kt instead of (0.12) = e^kt Which makes sense, because x_0 is the starting point in development. So, in other words 1/100 = x_0 means landing on the moons was the first step out of 100. Perfect. I had simply let x_0 =1 because I wanted to make our growth grow as e, exponentially, because e is a natural constant. This worked because I had increased the left side of the equation by a factor of 100 in both instances. The two methods are equivalent and give the same answer, but approaching this formally gives a better understanding of what is going on. This gives a year after Sierra Waters is handed the manuscript that starts her adventure in “The Plot To Save Socrates” by Paul Levinson (which I was coincidentally reading at the time of doing the calculation) and a year before the time Asimov projects for hyperdrive in “I, Robot”, which I was coincidentally reading at the time. – Ian Beardsley June 2, 2011

52

Arthur C. Clarke and Cosmic Archaeology

53 Monolith Arthur C. Clarke's monolith turned out to be a computer put on Earth by extraterrestrials and The Moon to give us an evolutionary nudge when we needed it and to monitor us. It had the dimensions of 1 by 4 by 9, the squares of 1, 2, and 3. 1+4 = 5. The height is 9. I have found that 9/5 (which is 1.8) occurs throughout nature in the areas held most sacred to man down through history, the sun, the moon, gold, silver, water and air: 1. If we compare the mass of air to the mass of water and increase that by a factor of the human body temperature to the freezing temperature of water, we get a value that is 9 compared to 5, which is 1.8. 2. If we compare the mass of an atom of gold to an atom of silver, it is 9 compared to 5 (comparing their molar masses). 3. If we compare the radius of the sun, that is the distance from its center to its surface, to the distance from the center of the earth to the center of the moon, it is 9 compared to five. 9 compared to 5 is nine fifths (9/5) which is equal to 1.8 Glancing at my data tables and find that if we take the distance of the planet Saturn to the sun as 9 (closest approach), then the distance to the planet Jupiter from the sun is five (closest approach). In fact this way of measuring distances puts the earth exactly at 1 unit from the sun. This is interesting, because Jupiter and Saturn, aside from being the "middle children" of the solar system, planets 5 and 6 of a planetary family of 9 or 10 depending on whether or not you consider the asteroid belt a planet that did not form, and anything found beyond Pluto a planetoid, these planets carry the majority of mass of the solar system, significantly, and thus embody most of the dynamics of its formation. I have also found that the basis of computers and AI (artificial intelligence), which is doped silicon, has the golden ratio in the means of its components. The golden ratio is recurrent throughout life because of the dynamics it has to offer. Doped is silicon, phosphorus, and boron. These are naturally occurring elements, made by nature, namely forged in stars. If P is phosphorus, B is Boron, and Si is silicon (geometric mean by Si): sqrt(P*B)/Si=sqrt(30.97*10.81)/(28.09)=0.65 and let us take the harmonic mean between phosphorus and boron and divide it by silicon: (2*(30.97*10.81)/(30.97+10.81))/28.09 =0.57

54 Now let us take the arithmetic mean of these two numbers: (0.65+0.57)/2=0.61 which are the first two digits in the golden ratio. The golden ratio is 1.618 to three decimal places. Notice that the 2nd and third digits after the decimal are 1 and 8, the two digits in 9/5. The 1 and 6 add up to 7, the average of nine and five, the 6 minus the one is our five, and, the eight plus the one is our nine. So essentially, we have connected the monolith of Arthur C. Clarke with nature, and computers and artificial intelligence, integrated circuits, transistors, diodes (doped silicon), with the monolith.

55 Conclusion The Science Fiction of Paul Levinson, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C. Clarke are tied up in Humans making Humans, whether robots or clones, for the purpose of saving humanity. And my astronomical discoveries as I go through life making them, seem to be tied up in their stories.

56 Water: Appendix 1 In beginning to build a project genesis, the term borrowed from a Star Trek movie, where we try to find the secret to life enriched star systems, the Earth being the only planet we know of so far like this, we have to look at both the physical, and the biological, or organic in other words. The physical can be the temperature of the sun, the distance of the earth from the sun, the mass of the earth (which determines the strength of its gravity) and the biological can be the chemistry that makes life possible, as in the chemical composition of DNA, metabolism, homeostasis or the structure of the fundamental units of life, the cell. It can go beyond this to bacteria in the soil that fixes nitrogen for plants to use and how the physical interacts with life to support it, and how the various populations of organisms interact together to support one another. These latter concepts would be the study of ecosystems. At the heart of a project genesis, is life, and the single most important substance to make life as we know it possible, is water (H2O). Therefore nothing can be more important to a project genesis than understanding what water does that makes life possible and how it does it. Let us look at the first: 1. Water Is Solvent: It allows compounds to separate and therefore for reactions to occur. The cells that make up life are aqueous solutions as well as the ocean. That is to say they are full of dissolved compounds. The dissolved substances in the ocean are necessary for aquatic organisms to take up. 1. Water Is Cohesive And Adhesive: This allows vessels present in both animals (blood vessels, arteries, and veins) and plants (roots, trunks, stems) to transport dissolved materials. 1. Water Has A High Surface Tension: This allows small debris to rest on top of water without sinking, providing food for organisms that live near its surface. 1. Water Has A High Specific Heat: This allows the earth to absorb a lot of heat without heating up, regulating the climate for conditions favorable to life. 1. Water Is Less Dense When It Freezes: Normally when a substance is frozen it becomes denser, but when water freezes it expands, therefore water in its solid state floats on water in its liquid state. If ice did not float on water, but rather sank, all bodies of water on earth would turn to ice all the way through at freezing temperatures, making life on earth impossible. Let us look at how water does it: Water is a polar molecule that does hydrogen bonding. That is we speak of elements combining to make neutral molecules. But the water molecule (written H2O) has an excess positivity in each hydrogen atom, and an excess negativity in its oxygen atom, causing attractivity between water molecules themselves, and attractiveness to other ions.

57

The Universality Of Genesis: Appendix 2 It is the author’s belief that life as it is structured on earth makes the optimum use of the naturally occurring elements provided by the universe and as such would be the same as on earth throughout the universe, for the most part – if not completely – even though other models have been presented. An example of this is that life on earth is carbon based, and carbon is the lightest, least complex element having four valence electrons, which allows it to form in long chains. Another example would be that methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen gas combined under energy form amino acids, the building blocks of life, and all of these, except the hydrogen, are systems of triangles while being made of the lightest elements at the top of the periodic table of elements and systems of triangles are the most stable structures. Such examples can be further related, for photosynthesis, and metabolic functions in the living cells of both plants and animals to the structure of ecosystems on earth that make life possible. That is, there is a good chance a project genesis for earth would apply throughout the universe, or, at least, throughout most of the universe. Ian Beardsley August 27, 2011

58 Organic Matter: Appendix 3 To clarify a project genesis it is necessary to define organic matter since it is that thing which distinguishes life chemistry from physical chemistry. Organic matter is any of a hydrocarbon skeletal chain combined with a functional group. The hydrocarbons can occur in chains, branches, or rings of carbon double or single bonded to other carbon atoms and single bonded to hydrogen atoms. The functional group can consist of any of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur atoms most of the time.

59 Entry: Topic: Molar Masses: Appendix 4 Earth air is about 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. We can treat both as diatomic molecules. The molar mass of nitrogen gas (N2) is 2(14.01) and the molar mass of oxygen gas (O2) is 2(16.00). So Earth Air = 2[(16.00)(0.21) + (14.01)(0.78)] = 28.5756 The martian atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide (CO2). This gives: CO2 = (12.01) + 2(16.00) = 44.01 The average orbital distance of mars from the sun compared to the average orbital distance of the earth from the sun is 1.5 and 44.01 divided by 28.5756 is 1.5, or 3/2 in other words. Is what this says is that, the mars-sun distance is to the earth-sun distance as martian air is to earth air. The earth atmosphere was once mostly carbon dioxide (CO2) like the mars atmosphere is today, until plant life came along and started converting the carbon dioxide into oxygen, using light from the sun and in the process making the most fundamental sugar, glucose (which is at the bottom of the food chain). A process called photosynthesis. Well glucose is C6H12O6, which gives a molar mass of: C6H12O6 = 6(12.01) + 12(1.008) + 6(16.00) = 180.16 And water (H2O) covers most of earth and is essential to life, its molar mass is: H2O = 2(1.008) + (16.00) = 18.016 180.16 divided by 18.016 is about 10 and the earth is about 10 times as massive as mars. That is, glucose is to water as the earth is to mars.

60 Mathematical Formulae: Appendix 5 Formulas Derived from the Parallelogram Remarks. Squares and rectangles are parallelograms that have four sides the same length, or two sides the same length. We can determine area by measuring it either in unit triangles or unit squares. Both are fine because they both are equal sided, equal angled geometries that tessellate. With unit triangles, the areas of the regular polygons that tessellate have whole number areas. Unit squares are usually chosen to measure area.

Having chosen the unit square with which to measure area, we notice that the area of a rectangle is base times height because the rows determine the amount of columns and the columns determine the amount of rows. Thus for a rectangle we have:

A=bh

Drawing in the diagonal of a rectangle we create two right triangles, that by symmetry are congruent. Each right triangle therefore occupies half the area, and from the above formula we conclude that the area of a right triangle is one half base times height:

A=(1/2)bh

By drawing in the altitude of a triangle, we make two right triangles and applying the above formula we find that it holds for all triangles in general.

We draw a regular hexagon, or any regular polygon, and draw in all of its radii, thus breaking it up into congruent triangles. We draw in the apothem of each triangle, and using our formula for the area of triangles we find that its area is one half apothem times perimeter, where the perimeter is the sum of its sides:

61 A=(1/2)ap

A circle is a regular polygon with an infinite amount of infitesimal sides. If the sides of a regular polygon are increased indefinitely, the apothem becomes the radius of a circle, and the perimeter becomes the circumference of a circle. Replace a with r, the radius, and p with c, the circumference, and we have the formula for the area of a circle:

A=(1/2)rc

We define the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter as pi. That is pi=c/D. Since the diameter is twice the radius, pi=c/2r. Therefore c=2(pi)r and the equation for the area of a circle becomes:

A=(pi)r^2

(More derived from the parallelogram)

Divide rectangles into four quadrants, and show that

A. (x+a)(x+b)=(x^2)+(a+b)x+ab B. (x+a)(x+a)=(x^2)+2ax+(a^2) A. Gives us a way to factor quadratic expressions. B. Gives us a way to solve quadratic equations. (Notice that the last term is the square of one half the middle coefficient.)

Remember that a square is a special case of a rectangle.

62 There are four interesting squares to complete.

1) The area of a rectangle is 100. The length is equal to 5 more than the width multiplied by 3. Calculate the width and the length. 2) Solve the general expression for a quadratic equation, a(x^2)+bx+c=0 3) Find the golden ratio, a/b, such that a/b=b/c and a=b+c. 4) The position of a particle is given by x=vt+(1/2)at^2. Find t.

Show that for a right triangle (a^2)=(b^2)+(c^2) where a is the hypotenuse, b and c are legs. It can be done by inscribing a square in a square such that four right triangles are made.

Use the Pythagorean theorem to show that the equation of a circle centered at the origin is given by r^2=x^2+y^2 where r is the radius of the circle and x and y the orthogonal coordinates.

Derive the equation of a straight line: y=mx+b by defining the slope of the line as the change in vertical distance per change in horizontal distance.

Triangles All polygons can be broken up into triangles. Because of that we can use triangles to determine the area of any polygon. Theorems Branch 1 1. If in a triangle a line is drawn parallel to the base, then the lines on both sides of the line are proportional. 2. From (1) we can prove that: If two triangles are mutually equiangular, they are similar.

63 3. From (2) we can prove that: If in a right triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the base to the right angle, then the two triangles on either side of the perpendicular, are similar to one another and to the whole. 4. From (3) we can prove the Pythagorean theorem. Theorems Branch 2 1. Draw two intersecting lines and show that opposite angles are equal. 2. Draw two parallel lines with one intersecting both. Use the fact that opposite angles are equal to show that alternate interior angles are equal. 3. Inscribe a triangle in two parallel lines such that its base is part of one of the lines and the apex meets with the other. Use the fact that alternate interior angles are equal to show that the sum of the angles in a triangle are two right angles, or 180 degrees. Theorems Branch 3 1. Any triangle can be solved given two sides and the included angle. c^2=a^2+b^2-2abcos(C) 2. Given two angles and a side of a triangle, the other two sides can be found. a/sin(A)=b/sin(B)=c/sin(C) 3.Given two sides and the included angle of a triangle you can find its area, K. K=(1/2)bc(sin(A)) 4.Given three sides of a triangle, the area can be found by using the formulas in (1) and (3). Question: what do parallelograms and triangles have in common? Answer: They can both be used to add vectors.

64 Trigonometry When a line bisects another so as to form two equal angles on either side, the angles are called right angles. It is customary to divide a circle into 360 equal units called degrees, so that a right angle, one fourth of the way around a circle, is 90 degrees. The angle in radians is the intercepted arc of the circle, divided by its radius, from which we see that in the unit circle 360 degrees is 2(pi)radians, and we can relate degrees to radians as follows: Degrees/180 degrees=Radians/pi radians An angle is merely the measure of separation between two lines that meet at a point. The trigonometric functions are defined as follows: cos x=side adjacent/hypotenuse sin x=side opposite/hypotenuse tan x=side opposite/side adjacent

csc x=1/sin x sec x=1/cos x cot x=1/tan x We consider the square and the triangle, and find with them we can determine the trigonometric function of some important angles. Square (draw in the diagonal): cos 45 degrees =1/sqrt(2)=sqrt(2)/2 Equilateral triangle (draw in the altitude): cos 30 degrees=sqrt(3)/2; cos 60 degrees=1/2 Using the above formula for converting degrees to radians and vice versa:

30 degrees=(pi)/6 radians; 60 degrees=(pi)/3 radians. The regular hexagon and pi

65 Tessellating equilateral triangles we find we can make a regular hexagon, which also tessellates. Making a regular hexagon like this we find two sides of an equilateral triangle make radii of the regular hexagon, and the remaining side of the equilateral triangle makes a side of the regular hexagon. All of the sides of an equilateral triangle being the same, we can conclude that the regular hexagon has its sides equal in length to its radii. If we inscribe a regular hexagon in a circle, we notice its perimeter is nearly the same as that of the circle, and its radius is the same as that of the circle. If we consider a unit regular hexagon, that is, one with side lengths of one, then its perimeter is six, and its radius is one. Its diameter is therefore two, and six divided by two is three. This is close to the value of pi, clearly, by looking at a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. The sum of the angles in a polygon Draw a polygon. It need not be regular and can have any number of sides. Draw in the radii. The sum of the angles at the center is four right angles, or 360 degrees. The sum of the angles of all the triangles formed by the sides of the polygon and the radii taken together are the number of sides, n, of the polygon times two right angles, or 180 degrees. The sum of the angles of the polygon are that of the triangles minus the angles at its center, or A, the sum of the angles of the polygon equals n(180 degrees)-360 degrees, or A=180 degrees(n-2) With a rectangular coordinate system you need only two numbers to specify a point, but with a triangular coordinate system --- three axes separated by 120 degrees -- you need three. However, a triangular coordinates system makes use of only 3 directions, whereas a rectangular one makes use of 4. A rectangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest numbers, and a triangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest directions for its axes. The rectangular coordinate system is determined by a square and the triangular coordinate system by an equilateral triangle.

66

67

68

69

**Genesis Project Is A Different Approach To Science
**

Genesis Project is not science in the traditional sense. That is, it is not researching how to bit by bit construct a living world, but rather is the search for the secret hidden in nature that instantaneously, and spontaneously brings a world overflowing with life into existence. The reason being is that a living world is what sustains humans. I have already had some success with this approach. See my book Genesis Project 01 at: http://issuu.com/eanbardsley/docs/genesis_project_01 Ian Beardsley September 8, 2011

70 Chapter 1 The construction of a Genesis Project consists of three parts: 1. Since all life is constructed of the same four molecules – carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleotides – we must bring about their organization through a process of hyper-evolution, induced evolution, or, in other words create the seed for an induced-hyper-artificial selection. I use the word “hyper” because these four molecules organized themselves through a process of natural selection over a period of billions of years. We want to plant a seed on a dead planet that triggers the organization of these molecules into the myriad varieties of life, so as to instantly create the ecosystems that make life possible. 2. In order to construct these molecules, we must make sure that the selected dead planet has the substances methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen gas, for it has been shown that combined under energy, these molecules form amino acids which make up the protein molecules listed above in part one. 3. We find a planet that has a primarily silicon crust, like the earth has and if it does not already have water, we can use the method invented by Arthur C. Clarke in 2061 Odyssey Three where a space cowboy hauls comets with his ship, and lets them loose to crash into a dead planet making an impact crater that fills with water from the ice that made up that comet in part, or 4. We find the secret to generating a planet with mainly silicon crust, and water if not in orbit around a main sequence hydrogen-fusing-into-helium star like the sun of our own generation. In the author’s point of view, everything is a Genesis Project from cooking in the kitchen to working in the garden, because it is creating the conditions that support life. The author further feels nothing is more important than creating worlds that support life, that have life, because life cannot exist without other forms of life on the same world, and the reason is if we can make planets abundant in the life that supports humans we don’t rely on searching for other such worlds that are at un-surmountable distances from us, currently, and more than likely like a needle in a hay-stack, and even then, otherwise occupied by other life. Ian Beardsley September 5, 2011

71

Chapter 2: The Heart Of Biology Peptides are amino acids bound by a so-called peptide bond. Polypeptides are chains of peptides. They make proteins. The sequence of the amino acids determine the function of a protein, and, the behavior of the amino acid is determined by the functional group attached to the hydrocarbon skeletal chain, or ring. The instructions for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is given by DNA, which is a double helix with paired adenine and thymine and paired guanine and cytosine. There are three pairs per nucleotide and their sequence is called genes. A replica of DNA exists in every cell of an organism; the instructions for each type of cell are determined by which parts of the DNA are turned on and which parts are turned off. Ian Beardsley September 2, 2011

72

Chapter 3: Ecosystems Bestowing life upon inanimate matter is one matter and is a matter for nuclear chemistry. The naturally occurring elements, such as aluminum, gold, tin, silver, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are fundamental units defined by the number of subatomic particles that constitute them. They can be combined to make compounds, and the compounds can be taken apart in a chemical reaction by applying heat or mixing them, and once combined the compounds can be reduced to elements, but the reduction stops there; that is the realm of physical chemistry. If one wants to break elements down further, into subatomic particles, which would be protons, electrons and neutrons, or combine protons, electrons, and neutrons into elements such as gold or silver, that is a matter of nuclear chemistry and requires much greater energies.

Elements are atoms, and if one wanted to take apart the element silicon, he would have to split the atom into its parts, the protons, electrons and neutrons. This would be the process of fission. If one wanted to then take these subatomic particles and put them together into the element carbon, one would have to perform nuclear fusion, which is the process by which the sun makes energy, only fusing hydrogen into the heavier helium. It takes a great deal of energy for the sun to do this, which is provided by its gravity, which is strong enough to do this because the sun is so massive. We have yet been able to make a tabletop fusion reactor that could do this precisely because the energy required to do it is more than we can currently manage in the laboratory. In a genesis project, taking apart silicon and reorganizing its parts into carbon would be necessary, because dead worlds are often made of silicon, and carbon is needed to make organic compounds. But let us turn our attention away from this aspect of a genesis project and turn our attention to the subject of ecosystems. In order to understand ecosystems we have to understand the most sacred law of physics: conservation of energy. We have to understand that energy can neither be created nor destroyed and that it always goes from a form of

73

usable to unusable. There is a set amount of energy in the universe and as it is used, less energy exists and it can never be replenished, unless energy can be supplied by a source from outside the system one is considering. In the case of the earth that outside source is the sun. It is the primary source that supplies all life with the energy it needs through the complex cycles that make up our ecosystems. Let us look at what energy is. In physics there are two types of energies: potential and kinetic. Potential energy can be understood like this: If I move a mass m, say a stone, a height h against a gravitational attraction of g it will have a potential energy of the quantity mgh. If I let it fall from the height h, that potential energy will convert itself into kinetic energy, or energy of motion in other words. That energy of motion can be described by the quantity m, of velocity v, and is given by (1/2)mv^2. It would follow that as the stone falls its potential energy decreases because its height decreases, and its kinetic energy increases because it has been falling a longer amount of time. We would conclude, then, that the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy equals a constant quantity of energy. That is what is meant by energy is conserved: as kinetic energy is gained potential energy is lost such that the energy of the system is constant. We would write then that: (mgy) + (1/2)mv^2 = C Where y is the height at any given moment and C is a constant. In this case C is mgh the maximum amount of energy or the potential energy before the stone was dropped from a height h. We can the write: (mgy) + (1/2)mv^2 = mgh If the stone was dropped from a height where h is 10 meters, and we know earth gravity is 9.8 m/s^2, and the mass of the stone is 3 kilograms, then mgh = (3)(9.8)(10)= 294 Joules where joules is energy in the kilogrammeters-seconds system. We can then write: (mgy) + (1/2)mv^2 = 294 Joules If we take y to be zero, that is the potential energy has converted completely to kinetic energy, then the term mgy vanishes and we have: (1/2)mv^2 = 294 Joules or v^2 = (2)(294 Joules)/(3 kilograms)= 196

74

Thus v = 14 meters per second. That is the velocity of a stone dropped from 10 meters when it hits the ground. The energy that gave the stone this velocity when it hit the ground was determined by how high the person in question lifted the stone against gravity and how massive the stone was. Once it fell the energy was spent and could not be created again unless energy was supplied from outside the system to restore it to its initial height. The energy from outside the system is the energy a person spends in lifting it to a potential. Ecosystems are like that. Ecosystems are communities of life interdependent on one another and their physical environment. Just like the falling stone they have a potential energy that is lost as they carry out their functional parts, and almost all of the energy from outside the ecological system that keeps it going comes from the Sun. Light from the sun is energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. We know this if we stand in the sun because we feel that it warms us: heat is another form of energy. But it is not energy that animals can use to move about, they require chemical energy, like carbohydrates, or sugars in other words. Light can be converted into chemical energy, just like the potential energy of a stone can be converted into kinetic energy. Light provides the energy for plants to break apart water molecules and carbon dioxide gas that is in the air, and recombine it into a carbohydrate like sugar. No energy is created just switched from the form of radiation to chemical energy, a form of energy that can be stored in the plant as starch and eaten by an animal like a rabbit and that he can use to go about his daily activities. The rabbit can use this energy to make proteins, what we call meat, and it can be eaten by humans to fuel their metabolisms and make them active. The plants use the sugars they made, to fuel their metabolic needs as well, so ultimately all of our energy comes from the sun. Plants in making carbohydrates, or sugars, using energy from the sun, make the oxygen as well that humans need to burn the sugars they eat. The humans, in the process of using the oxygen, exhale carbon dioxide gas that the plants need to carry out the process of making the sugars, and oxygen all animals, including humans, need. We see the sun powers everything. It even powers the evaporation of water, in renewing water in the water cycle, and plants need nitrogen fixing bacteria, single cellular organisms that live in the

75

soil to fix nitrogen from the air so plants can carry out the processes that all of life needs. These are just a few of the elements that make ecosystems work, but we see the entire ecosystem needs to exist for life to exist.

76

Chapter 4: The Living Cell – An Overview

One of the things that is common to all life is that it is cellular. Some life is single cellular and other life is multicellular. Bacteria are single cells. Cells are microscopic units full of components just like on a larger scale a human has many components, a heart, a liver, a pancreas, that work together to make the entire body work, each component, or organ, with a different function. Different kinds of cells have different functions. Cells make up tissue as collections of cells, such as cells that make up a heart, or a liver, or a pancreas. There are two kinds of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Their difference is that prokaryotic cells don’t have their nucleus housed by a membrane. Plants and animals are made up of eukaryotic cells. The nucleus of each cell houses DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid). DNA contains encoded sequences of molecules and is the command center for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes in the cell, which are surrounded by cytoplasm, a semi fluid that fills the cell. Messenger RNA (mRNA) are molecules that are a mirror image of the DNA in the nucleus. It leaves the nucleus through a pore and specifies the DNA orders for the sequencing of the amino acids in protein synthesis. The components of a cell are called organelles. The spoken of nucleus, and ribosomes are organelles. An important organelle is the mitochondria. The mitochondrion break down food nutrients such as carbohydrates to produce ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) which carries energy in the cell to synthesize molecules in the cell and cause muscle contraction so animals can move their appendages.

77

All cells reproduce by dividing to make living copies of them selves. While cells are living units, the molecules that make them up are not.

78

Chapter 5: Design, Synergetics, And Evolution

Nature produces life that is extraordinarily well designed for the purpose of functioning optimally to survive. Buckminster Fuller wrote in his book Synergetics: “Universe is technology – the most comprehensively complex technology. Human organisms are Universe’s most complex local technologies… “Humans cannot shrink and return into the womb as yet unfertilized ova. Humanity can only evolve toward cosmic totality, which in turn can only be evolvingly regenerated through newborn humanity,” Let us discuss this passage. A fine example of extraordinary design in nature is in the organization of leaves around the stem of a plant. Let us say that so many millions of years ago, perhaps billions of years ago, a plant had the leaf below the top leaf rotated one half of the way around the stem. Let us suppose this pattern continued so that the leaf below the second leaf was rotated one half the way around the stem. That would put it directly below top leaf. That is one half the way around the stem twice is one half plus one half equals one, or one complete rotation around the stem. Let us assume this pattern continued all of the way down the plant stem. It would mean every two leaves down the stem a leaf would be directly below another. That would mean many leaves would have the sunlight to them blocked and this would interfere with the sunlight it needs to do photosynthesis, the process by which a plant uses energy from the sun to make the sugars it needs to sustain itself, and the animals that thrive off of eating those sugars once they are made into starch. This would be an example of poor design.

79

But we can imagine a much better design for leaf organization around a stem. Let us say sometime much later plants came to have their leaves organized around a stem such that they were only rotated one fourth of the way around the stem. This would mean there would be as many as four leaves organized around the stem before one was placed directly below another. This would be much better for the success of the plant, for it could gather more energy in the form of light each day than the plant that had each successive leaf rotated one half of the way around the stem. We can now ask is there an even better scenario than the onefourth scheme. There does exist an optimal design. The problem is that if the leaves are always rotated by a fraction that is the ratio of two whole numbers, like 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and so on, there will always come a point where the pattern repeats itself and a leaf will be placed directly below another. But there exist ratios that are termed in mathematics irrational. These are ratios than cannot be expressed in terms of two whole numbers. Pi is one such number. Where one half is 0.5, and 1/4 is 0.25, an irrational number is written, such as pi: 3.141… Where the three dots indicate the numbers after the decimal go on forever (that is there are an infinite amount of numbers after the decimal). One may ask, how can we ever use the number pi, which is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter? That is if pi has an infinite number of digits, how can one put the number in their calculator if it only holds nine digits? The answer is simply that our mathematical system uses place significant notation, which means each place after the decimal represents the number in that place reduced by a factor of ten from the slot previous to it, so each successive number is less significant. That is in the value 3.141 the first one after the decimal has the value one tenth. The four in the second place after the decimal is four one hundredths.

80

The one in the third place after the decimal is one out of a thousand. So we know pi is very close to three. This is a result of our base 10 counting system. We count to nine then write one-zero as ten, one-one as eleven, one-two as twelve, and so one. If we have three figures, such as in the number 100, then by place significant notation we know that the number one in the first place represents one hundred, the zero in the second place means no tens, and the zero in the third place means no ones. The point we are trying to make is that because pi is irrational, it never divides out; therefore it cannot be written as the ratio of two whole numbers and never repeats. That is why we hear of people through history calculating pi to so many places after the decimal. At first the Ancient Greeks inscribed a regular polygon inside a circle, like a regular hexagon, a six sided figure, each side with straight lines and calculated its perimeter saying it was close to the circumference of a circle, and dividing it by the diameter of a circle to get the first digit of pi, but, to get the next digit, they had to move up to the regular octagon, which had eight sides and was thus closer to the actual circumference of a circle, and the process went on quite tediously until after a week of work they had pi to twenty odd places after the decimal. Today we use such algorithms for computers that might after a year calculate pi to several million places after the decimal. But the importance of a number that never divides out, that never repeats, that is irrational, where optimal design in nature is concerned is that, to get back to rotating leaves around the stem of a plant, is that if one rotates the leaves around the stem of a plant by a ratio that never divides out, then one leaf never occurs directly below another, and the leaves would then be able to collect the most sunlight possible through out a day. This is in fact the scenario we see today in plant design. Each leaf is rotated from the one above around the stem by a value that cannot repeat, by a ratio that is the most irrational of all ratios, and

81

is therefore the least repetitive, and thereby provides what is called “closest packing”, The Golden Ratio, which is written: 1.618… Again the dots after the eight mean the numbers after the decimal continue infinitely, but each successive number has less significance than the one before it. But just as 0.25 can be written 1/4, the golden ratio (also called phi) can be written as a finite combination of numbers and operations called closed form. Let us derive the golden ratio in closed form, so that we can understand just what the significance of this value is. We draw a line and divide it into two parts such that one part is longer than the other. We ask just how do we divide the line such the ratio of the whole line divided by the larger part is the same as the larger part divided by the smaller part. That is the whole line of length a is to the larger part of the line b, as the larger part of the line is to the smaller part of the line c. Mathematically, that is to say that:

a b = b c a is b !

and

a =b+c

!

**the golden ratio and
**

c = a "b

ac = b 2

!

!

a2 a a2 a a2 a 1 5 a( a " b) = b 2 a 2 " ab = b 2 a 2 " ab " b 2 = 0 2 " " 1 = 0 2 " = 1 2 " + = ! b b b b b b 4 4

! !

!

!

!

!

82

# a 1 &2 5 % " ( = $ b 2' 4

a 1 5 " =± b 2 2 a 5 +1 = b 2

!

!

!

This is the extraordinary design we find in nature. We see such a “comprehensively complex technology” as such an incredibly successful design and we think that there has to be an intelligent designer behind nature, behind the creation of life, hence the theory of Intelligent Design, but the appearance of intelligent design can be explained by the theory of evolution. Take for example our plant with leaves rotated around it, spiraling down the stem such that each of the leaves receive the most sunlight. Consider that millions of years ago, the leaves spiraled around the plant stem such that each was rotated around the stem by one fourth of a complete circle from the one above it. Then let us say one of the genes by a genetic fluke was born with a mutation that instructed leaves to rotate around the stem in increments of the golden ratio. Let us say that several plants had this mutation, and they bread with one another producing more that did the same. Such plants would receive more sunlight, function better, and have a better chance of surviving than the plants that had their leaves rotated around the stem in increments of one fourth. The latter plants would not be able to compete with the former, the new modified species, in the struggle to survive, would succeed while the former died out. This is the mechanism of evolution that Charles Darwin called “Natural Selection”. Or let use say that this new species separated from the other, while the other went on its own merry way to survive better in another niche.

83

This would account for the diversification of species. As Charles Darwin wrote: “Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved.” And what does Fuller mean when he says humans can only evolve towards cosmic totality. Well, if modifications are only selected for, for good design, then the mechanism of natural selection only results in progress over time. As is said in Mexico: Derecha como la fletcha (straight ahead like the arrow) However, natural selection can explain the varieties and modifications of species from one simple form, but how did that first single cell of life form from non-living substances, that gave birth to everything that followed. Just how that happened is not known to science. But science does not claim to be the truth. It is a construct, the best truth for the moment, because it is, as Carl Sagan said “self correcting” always revising itself as more data comes in, as more hypothesis come in. Just what is meant by a construction?

Science is one of many possible constructions. When I talk about energy, or power, or any unit in physics, I am really speaking about a construction of units mass, length and time. Energy we call joules, but that is force times distance, and force is mass times acceleration, where acceleration is distance per time squared. Time squared is multiplying time by itself once. So energy, just as anything, is a particular combination of mass, length, and

84

time. What are mass length and time? Physics is built upon Newton's foundation, which uses: velocity = distance/time which yields: distance = velocity x time time = distance/velocity

Mass is inertia, or the ability to resist motion. The more of it, the more it resists motion. So we measure it by its resistance to a force applied. If all concepts in physics, such as impulse, power, force, momentum, and energy can be reduced to different combinations of mass, length, and time then to claim physics puts forward the truth we have to know what mass, length, and time are. But when it gets right down to it, a meter is the length of rod in a glass case in England to which all other rulers are cut, a kilogram is the weight of a sample of lead in a glass case in England to which all weights on a balance are measured, and seconds are defined as so many divisions of the time it takes for the Earth to go around the sun once. All things stop there, because we don’t know anything about what these lengths, masses, and times are, they would require other methods to explain them, and those methods other methods to explain them in an infinite regression. After all, it was the Ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes who said at some point we have to stop arguing or we will argue forever. However, there is some indication that arguments can prove fruitful. In geometry we have definitions such as a line is the shortest distance between two points, axioms which are rules, postulates which are self-evident, and theorems which are proved from postulates, definitions and other theorems. It is in the postulate that geometry has its success. If I can prove a theorem from several postulates then I can say it has some kind of truth, because the postulates on which it is based are self-evident. I mean who would not be satisfied with the postulate if two triangles are the same as a third, then they are the same as one another?

85

But this does not get at the real significance of the meaning physics has. The real purpose of physics, or science in general, is to find unity in nature with the simplest expression. That is if through finding hidden likenesses between all seemingly different things in nature, and representing them all in a simple expression, all of the complexities of the Universe, then suddenly I can hold the entire universe in my head as one simple idea, that I can manipulate to my advantage. Let us take a look at such an achievement in Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation. It would not be of much use if I said the gravity of the moon is proportional to the number of the craters it has, whereas the gravity of the earth is proportional to the number of mountains it has, and the gravity of the sun is determined by how hot it is. But if I said, as Newton said, the force of gravity between any two bodies is directly proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distances between them, then I have one idea that works for all bodies in the universe, whether planets, moons (natural satellites) or suns (stars). He wrote his law as such:

F =G m1m2 r2

!

Where F is force, m1 is body one, m2 is body 2 and r is their separation.

86

Let us look at the beauty in his reasoning. The force is due to the mass therefore the force of attraction is directly proportional to the masses, but it weakens with distance and by its square since the force is spread out over a greater area with more distance (see the inverse square law). G in the equation is a constant of proportionality determined by experiment. The law has been tested and proven for many instances and has been good enough to land men on the moon, and put satellites in orbit. Wouldn’t it be grand if humans found one equation that explained gravity, and electromagnetism in one expression for all instances throughout the universe? In a sense, one law that encompasses everything has been stated. It was stated in 1746 by the French natural philosopher, Maupertuis. He wrote: “The laws of movement and of rest deduced from this principle being precisely the same as those observed in nature, we can admire the application of it to all phenomena. The movement of animals, the vegetative growth of plants…are only its consequences; and the spectacle of the universe becomes so much the grander, so much more beautiful, the worthier of its Author, when one knows that a small number of laws, most wisely established, suffice for all movements.” We demonstrate the principle of least action in the laws of reflection and refraction. We find that the law of reflection is that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection and that the law of refraction is:

sin " c = sin # v

**Where alpha is the angle of incidence of a ray of light, and beta is
**

!

87

the angle of refraction and c is the speed of light in air and v is the speed of light in water. By the principle of least action the light will take the path of least distance between A and B off a point P in the case of reflection and it will take the path of least time from A to B in the case of refraction.

88

Reflection of a ray of light off a mirror

89

d = d1 + d2 f ( x) = d( x ) ! !

f ( x ) = a 2 + x 2 + b 2 + (c " x ) 2

!

We take the derivative of f(x) and set it equal to zero to find where the shortest (minimum) path occurs.

a2 + x 2 b 2 + (c " x ) 2 x c"x f '( x ) = " =0 d1 d2 x c"x = d1 d2 cos " = cos # " =# f '( x ) = x + (c " x )( "1)

!

! !

!

The shortest path from A to B off the mirror (path of least action) is if the angle of incidence equals the angle reflection, which is exactly what happens in experiment.

90

Refraction of light in water

91

t( x) =

x 2 + a2 b2 + (s " x)2 + c v dt 2x 2( s " x )( "1) = + dx 2c x 2 + a 2 2v b 2 + ( s " x ) 2

!

**By the principle of least action dt/dx=0:
**

!

x (s " x ) = d1 (c ) d2 (v )

!

sin " sin # = c v

sin " c = sin # v

!

!

This is the law of refraction as given by the principle of least action.

92

Unity in nature may be what we seek to discover, but unity in knowledge will serve us better as an approach to science. Edward O. Wilson addresses the concept in his book Consilience, which means unity of knowledge. It is the process by where scientists in different fields move between fields without loss of information. That is an atmospheric scientist may be needed by a biologist and a biologist may be needed by an atmospheric scientist, that is they may need to collaborate with one another in a single project. The object is for the atmospheric scientist to share his understanding of oxygen as it pertains to the atmosphere with a biologist who understands oxygen in terms of plant photosynthesis, and for the biologist to share his understanding of oxygen as it pertains to photosynthesis with the atmospheric scientist who understands oxygen in terms of the atmosphere, with the goal of this process leading to biology and atmospheric science becoming one field. If all scientists strive to do this, then one day science will become one field and thereby be much more effective. Let us look at why this is. Buckminster Fuller pointed out that when an apple is thrown in a pond, that nature does not call a meeting between departments for the event to use chemistries water, physics wave and the biologist’s apple. That is a true science cannot consist of specialized fields and truly hope to say anything truly useful about nature, for nature does not know the borders we create. He further tells us that specialization results in disciplines that become inaccessible but to a handful of people and this ultimately alienates the public and is at the root of all war. Of course Fuller had the remedy. He essentially made a reorganization of natural investigation that achieved much more with more with much less. For instance, he took the tetrahedron, or four-faced pyramid and made it the fundamental unit, and showed if it had a volume of one, then the rest of the solids had whole number volumes.

93

I will conclude with design, evolution, unity in knowledge, unity in nature, and philosophy of science are some very connected concepts that are at the crux of human progress.

94 Chapter 6: Calculating a Functional Star System Entry: Topic: Blue Stars We will find the energy required to move the earth of mass m, from the surface of the sun under its gravity, to its current orbit of one astronomical unit, the sun of mass M. The energy given to move something against gravity is given by the Work, W: Work = W = F ds F is Force. In the case of the sun and earth, we use Newton’s Universal Law of Gravity:

GMm r2 We integrate from R to r (from the radius of the sun to the orbit of earth): F= ! W =

# F " dr = $

GMm r

G is the universal constant of gravity.

!

G = 6.672E-08 in dyn-centimeter squared-per second squared And, M = 1.989E33 grams And m = 5.976E27 grams And R =6.9599E10 centimeters And r = 1.495979E13 centimeters Evaluating the integral for work, W:

GMm = (6.672 E " 08)(1.989 E 33)(5.976 E 27)

**Which is equal to 7.93E53
**

!

(7.93E53)/(6.9599E10) = 1.14E43 ergs (7.93E53)/(1.495979E13) = 5.30E40 ergs 1.14E43 – 5.30E40 = 1.13E43 ergs 1 erg = 1E-07 joules The final answer is 1.13E36 Joules of energy to move earth from the sun to its orbit.

95 We now calculate how many times brighter the sun has to be to equal the annual output of energy (luminosity) of what we just calculated, the energy to move the earth from the surface of the sun to its current orbit. Seconds in a year: (365 days)(24 hours)(60 minutes)(60 seconds) = 3.15E7 Solar luminosity is: 3.826E26 J/s (3.826E26 J/s)(3.15E7 s) = 1.21E34 J/yr (1.2E34)x = 1.13E36 J And, x = 94.2 The sun must be 94.2 times as luminous for its annual output in energy to equal the energy required to move the earth from its surface to its current orbit. We calculated that an object has to be about 94 times as luminous as the sun to have an annual output in energy over a year, that equals the energy required to move the earth from the surface of the sun to its orbit, and there are 92 naturally occurring elements as of yet, a number close to the factor of 94. Let us round that luminosity to 94 solar luminosities, and calculate the absolute magnitude of such an object. 2.512 x = 94 x log 2.512 = log 94

!

0.4x = 1.973 x = 4.93 The sun has an absolute magnitude of 4.83 which is about five. The absolute magnitude of our object is 4.93 steps in magnitude brighter than the sun, which is about five magnitudes brighter than the sun. Five steps brighter is five minus five, which gives our object an absolute magnitude of zero. Thus the system of the ancients has a zero magnitude related so elegantly to the number of the naturally occurring elements and the energy required to move the earth from the sun to earth orbit. A zero absolute magnitude object is a star of spectral class B on the main sequence. That is its color is blue.

96 The habitable zone of a planet is the orbital distance from a star that allows water to exist as a liquid. Since our zero magnitude star is about 94 times more luminous than the sun, as I have calculated it, the habitable zone for a planet around this zero magnitude star is further from it than the earth is from the sun. Luminosity, or the amount of light given off by a star decreases as the square of the distance from the star (see the inverse square law). Since this magnitude zero star is about 94 times brighter than the sun, and there is some play in the habitable zone, we can, for ease of calculation, and elegance, say our star is 100 times more luminous than the sun. Since ten squared is 100 the habitable zone around our blue, spectral class B, zero magnitude star is 10 astronomical units from it. This puts the orbit of a planet around the star at the same distance Saturn is from the sun. The stars on the main sequence form an S shaped curve where luminosity increases with mass. The sun is exactly in the middle of this curve, an average, yellow star of spectral class G. The relationship from a sample of many stars shows that mass, M is related to luminosity, L as follows:

L = M 3.5

! !

We can find the mass of our zero magnitude star with this: 100 = M 3.5 log 100 = 3.5 log M (2)/(3.5) = log M 0.57 = log M

M = 10 0.57 = 3.7

**Our zero magnitude, blue, spectral class B star is 3.7 solar masses.
**

!

The mass of the sun in grams is: 1.989E33 g This means our zero magnitude blue, spectral class B star has a mass of: (1.989E33 g)(3.7 solar masses) = 7.36E33 grams

97 We can use Kepler’s third law of planetary motion for circular orbits to calculate the year of a planet in circular orbit around our zero magnitude, spectral class B, blue star. It is:

T = 2"

r3 GM

!

Where T is the orbital period, or year of the planet in question, and r is its orbital distance from the star, G is the universal constant of gravitation, and M is the mass of the star the body is orbiting.

2" = 2(3.141) = 6.282

r = 10 astronomical units

!

**1 astronomical unit is 1.5E13 cm (1.5E13 cm)(10 astronomical units) = (1.5E14 cm)
**

r 3 = 3.375 E 42

**G=6.672E-8 (dyn cm squared)/(g squared)
**

!

r3 3.375 E 42 = = 6.87E15 GM (6.672 E " 8)(7.36 E 33)

) 6.87 E15 = 8.3E 7 seconds

!

!

(8.3E7 seconds)(6.282) = 5.2E8 seconds (5.2E8 seconds)/(60 seconds) = 8.67E6 minutes (8.67E6 minutes)/(60 minutes) = 1.445E5 hours (1.445E5 hours)/(24 hours) = 6.025E3 days (6.02E3E3 days)/(365.25 days) = 16.48 earth years The orbit of the planet around our zero magnitude, spectral class B, blue star is 16.48 earth years. The closest orbital period to this in our solar system is that of Jupiter at 11.86 years. That of Saturn is 29.5 earth years.

98 Stars are approximate blackbody radiators, where a blackbody is that which absorbs all incoming radiation, and emits the maximum amount of radiation for its temperature. We ask, according the laws of blackbodies, given the luminosity of an absolute magnitude zero star, and its surface temperature, what is its radius. The color index of a star (B-V) 100 times more luminous than the sun is on an H-R diagram, -0.12, which corresponds to many absolute zero magnitude zero stars, and surface temperature of 13,000 degrees Kelvin. Temperature of a star is related to its power radiated per unit surface by the Stefan-Boltzmann law:

2 R " Ts % " L % 2 =$ ' $ ' Rs # T & # Ls & 1

!

Where R is the radius of the star, R subscript S is the radius of the sun, T subscript S is the temperature of the sun in degrees Kelvin, T is the temperature of star in degrees Kelvin, L is the luminosity of the star, and L subscript S is the luminosity of the sun. We have:

1

**(5800 /13,000) 2 (2.512 4.83 ) 2 =
**

(0.199)(9.2) = 1.8 solar radii

!

We have used the temperature of the sun 5800 degrees Kelvin and 4.83 – 0 = 4.83 where 4.83 is the absolute magnitude of the sun. Our absolute magnitude zero main sequence star is 1.8 times larger than the sun. We have said that a star on the main sequence of 100 solar luminosities is close to an absolute magnitude zero star. Just how close is it? We use: E1/E2 = 2.512^-(0-4.83) = 2.512^4.83 Where E1 is the luminosity of the star, and E2 is the luminosity of the sun, 4.83 is the absolute magnitude of the sun. This gives: E1 = 85.525E2 Or in other words, an absolute magnitude zero star is 85.525 solar luminosities. This is very close to our 100 solar luminosities considering a star can be more than a million solar luminosities

99 I believe zero magnitude stars on the main sequence are important, if not off the main sequence, in that they are connected to our star, the sun, through the number of naturally occurring elements, the earth orbital period, and the amount of energy it would take to move the earth from the sun to its orbit. Such stars, or plus or minus one magnitude of brightness, are of spectral class A to spectral class B. They are important because the sun is important, as it is a star in which a life bearing planet, the earth, has formed. I believe Saturn is important, because it is at an orbital distance from the sun that is in my projected habitable zone for a zero magnitude star, on the main sequence. Because of this, I feel it is no coincidence that Saturn has rings. What we have here, in this work, is a clue to the secret of origins, in particular to the structure that allows for life. The absolute magnitude of a star is its luminosity at a set distance from the observer, which has been set at 10 parsecs. One parsec is 3.26 light years, where a light year is the distance light travels in one year, or in the time it takes the earth to make one revolution around the sun, in other words. A parsec is also the parallax of a star measured by displacing oneself by an astronomical unit, where an astronomical unit is the average distance of the earth from the sun, in its nearly circular orbit. This corresponds to a parallax angle of one arc second. My belief is if you want to get at what nature is, don’t worry about being right on in many aspects of work, because in art a circle unclosed is a circle closed by the concept in art they call closure, a nature of the way the human eye works with the mind. Is what we are seeing here is the rough sketch of nature, the idea. We have said an absolute magnitude zero star has 85.525 solar luminosities and that it is convenient to call it 100 solar luminosities at times. We average the two values: (85.525+100)/2 = 92.7625 There are exactly 92 naturally occurring elements. This average is extremely close to that. We use this fact in our genesis project.

100 Mathematical Formulae: Appendix 1 Formulas Derived from the Parallelogram Remarks. Squares and rectangles are parallelograms that have four sides the same length, or two sides the same length. We can determine area by measuring it either in unit triangles or unit squares. Both are fine because they both are equal sided, equal angled geometries that tessellate. With unit triangles, the areas of the regular polygons that tessellate have whole number areas. Unit squares are usually chosen to measure area.

Having chosen the unit square with which to measure area, we notice that the area of a rectangle is base times height because the rows determine the amount of columns and the columns determine the amount of rows. Thus for a rectangle we have:

A=bh

Drawing in the diagonal of a rectangle we create two right triangles, that by symmetry are congruent. Each right triangle therefore occupies half the area, and from the above formula we conclude that the area of a right triangle is one half base times height:

A=(1/2)bh

By drawing in the altitude of a triangle, we make two right triangles and applying the above formula we find that it holds for all triangles in general.

We draw a regular hexagon, or any regular polygon, and draw in all of its radii, thus breaking it up into congruent triangles. We draw in the apothem of each triangle, and using our formula for the area of triangles we find that its area is one half apothem times perimeter, where the perimeter is the sum of its sides:

101 A=(1/2)ap

A circle is a regular polygon with an infinite amount of infitesimal sides. If the sides of a regular polygon are increased indefinitely, the apothem becomes the radius of a circle, and the perimeter becomes the circumference of a circle. Replace a with r, the radius, and p with c, the circumference, and we have the formula for the area of a circle:

A=(1/2)rc

We define the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter as pi. That is pi=c/D. Since the diameter is twice the radius, pi=c/2r. Therefore c=2(pi)r and the equation for the area of a circle becomes:

A=(pi)r^2

(More derived from the parallelogram)

Divide rectangles into four quadrants, and show that

A. (x+a)(x+b)=(x^2)+(a+b)x+ab B. (x+a)(x+a)=(x^2)+2ax+(a^2) A. Gives us a way to factor quadratic expressions. B. Gives us a way to solve quadratic equations. (Notice that the last term is the square of one half the middle coefficient.)

Remember that a square is a special case of a rectangle.

102 There are four interesting squares to complete.

1) The area of a rectangle is 100. The length is equal to 5 more than the width multiplied by 3. Calculate the width and the length. 2) Solve the general expression for a quadratic equation, a(x^2)+bx+c=0 3) Find the golden ratio, a/b, such that a/b=b/c and a=b+c. 4) The position of a particle is given by x=vt+(1/2)at^2. Find t.

Show that for a right triangle (a^2)=(b^2)+(c^2) where a is the hypotenuse, b and c are legs. It can be done by inscribing a square in a square such that four right triangles are made.

Use the Pythagorean theorem to show that the equation of a circle centered at the origin is given by r^2=x^2+y^2 where r is the radius of the circle and x and y the orthogonal coordinates.

Derive the equation of a straight line: y=mx+b by defining the slope of the line as the change in vertical distance per change in horizontal distance.

Triangles All polygons can be broken up into triangles. Because of that we can use triangles to determine the area of any polygon. Theorems Branch 1 1. If in a triangle a line is drawn parallel to the base, then the lines on both sides of the line are proportional. 2. From (1) we can prove that: If two triangles are mutually equiangular, they are similar.

103 3. From (2) we can prove that: If in a right triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the base to the right angle, then the two triangles on either side of the perpendicular, are similar to one another and to the whole. 4. From (3) we can prove the Pythagorean theorem. Theorems Branch 2 1. Draw two intersecting lines and show that opposite angles are equal. 2. Draw two parallel lines with one intersecting both. Use the fact that opposite angles are equal to show that alternate interior angles are equal. 3. Inscribe a triangle in two parallel lines such that its base is part of one of the lines and the apex meets with the other. Use the fact that alternate interior angles are equal to show that the sum of the angles in a triangle are two right angles, or 180 degrees. Theorems Branch 3 1. Any triangle can be solved given two sides and the included angle. c^2=a^2+b^2-2abcos(C) 2. Given two angles and a side of a triangle, the other two sides can be found. a/sin(A)=b/sin(B)=c/sin(C) 3.Given two sides and the included angle of a triangle you can find its area, K. K=(1/2)bc(sin(A)) 4.Given three sides of a triangle, the area can be found by using the formulas in (1) and (3). Question: what do parallelograms and triangles have in common? Answer: They can both be used to add vectors.

104 Trigonometry When a line bisects another so as to form two equal angles on either side, the angles are called right angles. It is customary to divide a circle into 360 equal units called degrees, so that a right angle, one fourth of the way around a circle, is 90 degrees. The angle in radians is the intercepted arc of the circle, divided by its radius, from which we see that in the unit circle 360 degrees is 2(pi)radians, and we can relate degrees to radians as follows: Degrees/180 degrees=Radians/pi radians An angle is merely the measure of separation between two lines that meet at a point. The trigonometric functions are defined as follows: cos x=side adjacent/hypotenuse sin x=side opposite/hypotenuse tan x=side opposite/side adjacent

csc x=1/sin x sec x=1/cos x cot x=1/tan x We consider the square and the triangle, and find with them we can determine the trigonometric function of some important angles. Square (draw in the diagonal): cos 45 degrees =1/sqrt(2)=sqrt(2)/2 Equilateral triangle (draw in the altitude): cos 30 degrees=sqrt(3)/2; cos 60 degrees=1/2 Using the above formula for converting degrees to radians and vice versa:

30 degrees=(pi)/6 radians; 60 degrees=(pi)/3 radians. The regular hexagon and pi

105 Tessellating equilateral triangles we find we can make a regular hexagon, which also tessellates. Making a regular hexagon like this we find two sides of an equilateral triangle make radii of the regular hexagon, and the remaining side of the equilateral triangle makes a side of the regular hexagon. All of the sides of an equilateral triangle being the same, we can conclude that the regular hexagon has its sides equal in length to its radii. If we inscribe a regular hexagon in a circle, we notice its perimeter is nearly the same as that of the circle, and its radius is the same as that of the circle. If we consider a unit regular hexagon, that is, one with side lengths of one, then its perimeter is six, and its radius is one. Its diameter is therefore two, and six divided by two is three. This is close to the value of pi, clearly, by looking at a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. The sum of the angles in a polygon Draw a polygon. It need not be regular and can have any number of sides. Draw in the radii. The sum of the angles at the center is four right angles, or 360 degrees. The sum of the angles of all the triangles formed by the sides of the polygon and the radii taken together are the number of sides, n, of the polygon times two right angles, or 180 degrees. The sum of the angles of the polygon are that of the triangles minus the angles at its center, or A, the sum of the angles of the polygon equals n(180 degrees)-360 degrees, or A=180 degrees(n-2) With a rectangular coordinate system you need only two numbers to specify a point, but with a triangular coordinate system --- three axes separated by 120 degrees -- you need three. However, a triangular coordinates system makes use of only 3 directions, whereas a rectangular one makes use of 4. A rectangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest numbers, and a triangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest directions for its axes. The rectangular coordinate system is determined by a square and the triangular coordinate system by an equilateral triangle.

106

107

108 Chapter One: The Unification Of Pi and Phi by Nine-Fifths I have often spoken of nine-fifths (9/5) as pivotal to the solar system and nature. It is in the ratio of the orbit of saturn to that of jupiter in their closest approaches to the sun. It is in the ratio of the solar radius to the moon's orbit around earth. It is in the molar mass of gold to the molar mass of silver. I have shown that the sequence 1.8n = a_n where each successive number is a whole number multiple of 1.8 which is nine-fifths, is a sequence that is pivotal to the structure of the solar system. Two of the most important numbers in mathematics are pi and the golden ratio (phi). pi =3.141 and phi phi = 1.618 I have just noticed if we add respective digits after the decimal in one number to the other, we get: 141 + 618 = 759 In 759 we have the nine of nine fifths and the five of nine-fifths, and the 7 is the average of 9 and five. That is: (9+5)/2= 14/2 = 7 We determine the golden angle by multiplying 1.618 by 360 the degrees in a circle: 1.618(360) = 582.48 We subtract 360: 582.48-360 = 222.48 360-222.48 = 137.52 = the golden angle The golden angle is angle leaves rotate around the stem of a plant as you go down it. We determine the nine-fifths angle: 1.8(360) = 648 360/72 = 5 That means if leaves were to rotate around the stem of a plant by the nine-fifths angle, their position would repeat every five times. This frequency of five brings to mind a statement by the Russian scientist Shubnikov: 648-360 = 288 and 288-360=72

109 “As to the alive organisms, we have not for them such theory, which could answer the question what kinds of symmetry are compatible or incompatible to existence of living material. But we can note here that remarkable fact that among the representatives of the alive nature the pentagonal symmetry meets more often.” The Nine-Fifths angle is then 72 degrees. This is the separation between petals in a most popular flower petal arrangement: that one in which we see five petals around the stem. Pentagonal symmetry is five-fold. It would appear 9/5 (1.8) brings together pi the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, and phi, the golden ratio, in a most stunning way. Ian Beardsley September 21, 2011

110

Chapter Two: Planetary Tilt in Genesis Project Earth, Mars, Neptune, and Saturn have a tilt to their orbital plane of close to 26.565 degrees. This value as shown below in the diagram is the intersection of nine-fifths and the golden ratio. We hypothesize that such an angle is required for a life-enriched planet. Angle A is close to the separation between the vectors (5,1) and (5,-1) which is close to

the earth tilt. Next chapter shows them derived from nine-fifths (1.8).

111 Chapter Three: The Intersection Of Nine Fifths And The Golden Ratio

In an effort to generate 4 from the golden ratio and 9/5 in connection with the earth and the 22-card cycle of the tarot we begin by finding the equation whose solution is the golden ratio. The golden ratio, or phi, as it is called, is the ratio such that the whole to the greater part is the same as the greater part to the lesser. That is a/b must be the same as b/c if a=b+c. Thus we have the two equations: 1. a/b=b/c 2. a=b+c From 1 we have: ac=b^2 From 2 we have: c=a-b These two yield: a(a-b)=b^2 Which can be written: (a^2)-ab=b^2 Or,( a^2)-ab-b^2=0 If we divide the last through by b^2, we get: ((a/b)^2)-(a/b)-1=0 This last is a quadratic in a/b. a/b is the golden ratio and can be found by completing the square. Letting a/b=x, our equation becomes: 3. ( x^2)-x-1=0 We will not solve equation 3 for the golden ratio but will proceed to consider 9/5. The sequence has been presented: 5,14,23,32,41,50,59…

112

Where we begin with five and add nine to each successive term. It has been noted that the sum of the digits of each term is five. Thus this sequence embodies the principle of (9/5) a ratio I have found to exist throughout nature from atoms of gold and silver, to the moon and the sun, to water, and air, to the human body temperature and freezing temperature of water, to the very structure of the solar system itself. The above sequence is an arithmetic sequence, the nth term of which is predicted by: 4. a_n=5+9(n-1) 5. a_n=9n-4 (equivalently) Since the earth is the third planet, then n=3 yields: 9(3)-4=27-4=23 As it so happens, 23 is the 9th prime number, and represents the earth. We write, from 5: 6. 23=9x-4 7. 27=9x 8. 9x-27=0 We equate equation 8 with equation 3: 9x-27=(x^2)-x-1 To find the intersection of 9/5 and the golden ratio at earth orbit, and get: 9. ( x^2)-10x+26=0 Equation 9 can be solved with the quadratic equation and has the solutions, (5+i),(5-i).

113

These are two complex numbers with real parts 5 and 5, and imaginary parts sqrt(-1) and -sqrt(-1). They are vectors whose sum is: (5,1)+(5,-1)=(10,0) And whose points are separated by: |(5+i)-(5-i)|=2i With a modulus of sqrt(5^2+1^2)=sqrt(26) This generates the triangle with height 5 and base 2i or complex number 5+2i. The Mandelbrot set is the iteration of a function of complex numbers that generates the fractal given by: F(z)=(z^2)+c If the seed is zero and c is our 5+2i Then F(0)=((0)^2)+5+2i=5+2i And F(5+2i)=(5+2i)(5+2i)+5+2i= 26+22i We have generated our 22 cards of the tarot, and our four in that 26-22=4, from 9/5 and the golden ratio.

114

Furthermore 22=> 2+2=4 and 26=>6-2=4 We have generated four, three times as well, and 3 times four is twelve. Also, 22+26=48 and 48/4=12. 12 is the smallest abundant number. Four will always represent for me, the fourth planet mars, the one in our solar system that can be terraformed to support human life. Humans have always liked to quarter things: four directions, north, south, east, and west. Or the Cartesian co-ordinate system in mathematics, used to locate a point with two perpendicularly intersecting axes making four quadrants. It is easy to learn, and effective as it is based on the square because it a regular tessellator. (Tessellate means can tile a surface without leaving gaps, regular that all sides and angles in the shape are congruent.) Likewise nature likes to quarter things. The Earth is rotated to the plane of its orbit by 23.5 degrees. This means on summer solstice, the Sun is directly over-head at noon, the earth receiving the full potency of the Sun’s rays, at this latitude. This is La Paz Baja California, Mazatlan Mexico, and Gujarat India. What nature is doing here, is that which Man likes, and uses, and does so because it is practical. 22.5 degrees is the quarter of a way around a half semi-circle, there is only a one-degree discrepancy.

115

To find when and where the Earth passes through the intersection of 9/5 and golden ratio, which we have shown are (5+i) and (5-i), we use: a = arctan (y/x) when x>0 a =arctan y/x + pi when x<0 from x+iy = r(cos(a) + isin(a)) r=sqrt(x^2+y^2) x=5, y=1 yields arctan 1/5 = arctan 0.2 = 11.3099 degrees and for (5-i) we have -11.3099 degrees Earth year is 365.25 days x/365.25=11.3099/360 x360=(365.25)(11.3099)=4130.940975 x=11.47483604 days

116

Taking winter solstice (December 22) to be our zero point the earth passes through (5+i) on January 2, and (5-i) on December 10. Note: Since 5+i and 5-i have real and imaginary components, the imaginary component refers to an element at this location in a parallel universe, or tachyon universe as it is called, where mass is negative and travels backwards in time. We as of yet do not know how to penetrate such a plane. Also, keep in mind there is no such thing as absolute space, so 5+i and 5-i are in a frame of reference where the sun is taken as not moving (i.e. the earth is moving with the sun around the galaxy, the galaxy through the universe, and the universe in the multiverse, as so on, the list goes without end. Motion can only be taken as relative (Einstein, special relativity).

In Orbit Around Earth, Visitors From Another Planet Speak

Alien one: “The vector (10,0) or the “10 fingered nothing”. In an otherwise infinite universe, only with our 10 fingers do we have any hope of surviving. What are the elements of this vector? They are

5+i

and

5"i

!

There are five fingers on each hand, and, i is "1 , the ! imaginary number. In other words, life is not the least bit real, it is a dream.”

! !

Alien two: “Their planet orbits a star they call the sun, whose radius is 6.9599E10 cm, and orbiting them is a moon at 3.84E10 cm. That is a ratio of 9 to 5, the same as the ratio of gold to silver in molar mass.”

117

Alien one: “Gold is the most conductive metal at extreme temperatures, silver, is the most conductive at comfortable life sustaining temperatures.” Alien two: “Their moon perfectly eclipses The Sun, as seen from their planet. 9 to 5 also happens to be the comparison of the orbit of their ringed planet to the orbit of their largest planet. They call them Saturn and Jupiter respectively.” Alien one: “The planet that can be colonized to sustain life is the fourth planet out from the Sun. They call it Mars.” Alien two: “Aha! The intersection of the golden ratio and nine-fifths at earth orbit becomes important, because of their Tarot and the fractal they call “The Mandelbrot Set.” Alien one: “Tarot, sir?” Alien two: “Their system of divination with numbered cards, bearing images from aspects of their world.” Alien one: “The complex number 26+22i can also be important because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and there are 22 letters in the Hebrew alphabet.”

We say the earth moves from (5-i) to (5+i) from December 10 to January 2 using December 22 as solstice and the zero point. Moving from (5-i) to (5+i) is shown to be 2(11.3099) = 22.6 degrees. This is the separation between the vectors (5.1) and (5,-1).

118

**Chapter Four: My Calculations of Nine-Fifths in Nature
**

calculation of air: Air=2[(16.00)(0.21)+(14.01)(0.78)]=28.5756 using molar masses of oxygen and nitrogen, and their percent concentration by mass or percentages of diatomic particles at ground level (the two are the same). I further find it interesting that Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system is the fifth planet out of a total of nine planets, another emphasis on 9/5 in the most basic of ways, in nature. DATA

molar _ mass _ of _ air human _ body _ temerature Au solar _ radius 9 " = = = molar _ mass _ of _ water freezing _ temperature _ of _ water Ag earth # moon _ dis tan ce 5

**{(28.5756)/(18.016)}{(310)/(273)}=(197.0/107.9)=1.8 = 9/5
**

!

and EM/SR=3.84E10cm/6.9599E10cm=0.55 EM=earth-moon distance SR=solar radius Au = Gold = 196.97 Ag = Silver = 107.87 Au/Ag= 1.8 =9/5 I found a validation for my calculation of Air by Hansen of NASA

119 I think this is an incredible thing. By having a seven day week (the Torah) we are able to have twelve four week months where twelve is the most divisible number by whole numbers, for its size. Like this there are twelve new moons between the time it takes for the Earth to go about the sun once, or close to it. There are 13, but the thirteenth new moon does not complete, so there are closer to twelve but(12/13)100=92% accuracy. I did a little number juggling and found that, Earth-moon distance: 3.84E10cm=R Earth-sun distance: 1.496E13cm=r Earth radius: 6.38E8cm=E_r Moon radius: 1.738E8cm=M_r (E_r)/(M_r)=11/3 r/R=4675/12 ((E_r)(r))/((M_r)(R)(360))=4 This last equation is significant because, 360 are the degrees in a circle and 4 weeks is a complete revolution of the moon about the earth more or less (time between new moons). 360 degrees are convenient for the units in which to divide a circle, because of its divisible properties. (i.e. it is divisible by 120, 60, 45, 30, and 90, into whole numbers, which are the angles in special triangles.) What this last equation says is that the radius of the earth compared to the radius of the moon, by a factor of the earth-sun distance compared to the earth-moon distance, is equal to 360 times four. It just so happens that after four 360 degree rotations of the earth around the sun, we have a leap year to make the whole calendar work!!! Also, 360 plus 4 is close to the Earth year. (364/365)100=99.7% accuracy. If you consider that the Earth, Moon and Sun formed from a cloud of gas and dust under its own gravity over perhaps billions of years, this is quite an extraordinary arrangement to have occurred.

120

Chapter Five: About The Saga Gaia Hypothesis says the physical aspects of Earth interact with the biological aspects of Earth to maintain such a system that taken as a whole is Gaia. It further tells us humans are a part of Gaia and if humans have become bad for Gaia in some way, Gaia will eliminate humans to adjust the system for its own good. I believe, from my work in “The Exciting Neptune Saga”, that the planet Neptune holds a clue as to what humans need to do to counter their negative effects on Gaia. The Exciting Neptune Saga by Ian Beardsley differs from The Space Odyssey series of Arthur C. Clarke in that it is not about the planet Jupiter and the birth of a new life bearing star system in our solar system. It is about the planet Neptune and how it holds the key to the success of humanity and the planet Earth.

When I show that the earth orbits Jupiter as a ghost (Genesis Project 01), this is interesting because in 2001 A Space Odyssey, David Bowman encounters a ghostly reproduction of the Earth at Jupiter, before it converts into a sun called Lucipher to its moon Europa. Jupiter is often called a failed star, or failed sun in other words.

Becoming a spacefaring civilization is, in my point of view, more a social and political problem than a technological one. If the people were to get behind their governments with such aspirations, and the governments were to use resources wisely while managing things for the well being of the people, the technology would come of its own accord. It is already advancing at astonishing rates. It is the purpose of this work to find reason to go into space that can be presented to society, to get them behind the goal of the settlement of the solar system, and even behind the goal of going to the stars, both of which would have immense returns.

121

This work also strives to find the secret behind life sustaining star systems so as to create, maintain, and rejuvenate them. Such an endeavor could be called a “project genesis”.

122

**Chapter Six: The Pointing Of The Planets
**

I have shown how Jupiter and Saturn point to the Earth, because with Saturn at about 9 units from the sun in its closest approach, and Jupiter at about five units with its closest approach to the sun, that puts the earth at about one unit from the sun, and, that, further, nine-fifths is the ratio of the solar radius to the lunar orbit of the moon around the earth, as well as the ratio of the molar mass of gold to that of silver. It should also be mentioned that 9 and 5 are volumes of two of the five regular solids in terms of the regular solid the tetrahedron having a volume of one in Buckminster Fuller’s Synergetics. I then show that the earth, in turn, points to Neptune through Venus and Mars in the Neptune Equation. I wrote: He wrote in his Journal as follows: We have an equation for a sequence that shows the Earth straddled between Venus and Mars. Venus is a failed Earth. Mars promises to be New Earth. The equation, that I presented in my work, “The Document”, is: [(Venus-orbit)/(Earth-orbit)][(Earth-mass)/(Mars-mass)]n – (Mars orbital #) = a_n The Mars orbital number is 4. If we want to know what planet in the solar system holds the key to the success of Earth, or to the success of humans, we let n =3 since the Earth is the third planet out from the Sun, in the equation and the result is a_n = 17.6. This means the planet that holds the key is Neptune. It has a mass of 17.23 earth masses, a number very close to our 17.6. The next step is to analyze Neptune, its composition and other factors. He thought he must have been blind. Not only was Neptune the indicated planet, he found it had nearly the same surface gravity of earth. Though it was much more massive than earth, it was much larger and therefore less dense. That was why it came out to have the same surface gravity. The Neptune Equation is derived by considering 9/5, which is 1.8. I wrote the following: Salvoretti had done it. The structure of the solar system and dynamic elements of the Universe and Nature in general were tied up in the

123

two sequences: 5, 14, 23, 32,… and 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… Could he find the connection between the two to localize the pivotal point of the solar system? Yes he could, he took their difference, subtracting respective terms in the second sequence from those in the first sequence to obtain the new sequence: 3.2, 10.4, 17.6, 24.8,… Which is an arithmetic sequence with common difference of 7.2 meaning it is written 7.2n – 4 = a_n The a_n is the nth term of the sequence, n is the number of the term in the sequence. This he noticed could be written: [(Venus-orbit)/(Earth-orbit)][(Earth-mass)/(Mars-mass)]n – (Mars orbital #) = a_n There was good reason write these sequences from what I wrote here: We originally thought that 1.8 (9/5) occurred in the solar system and nature, alone. It is the ratio of Saturn orbit to Jupiter orbit in their closest approaches to the sun. It is the ratio of the solar radius to the lunar orbit. It is ratio of the molar mass of gold to that of silver. Then I discovered that approximately twice that value (3.7) was recurrent throughout the solar system and nature. Twice 1.8 is 3.6. I found it occurred in Jupiter, Saturn, Earth, Mercury, and Venus to name a few as 3.7. Now I have found it in Neptune and Uranus, precisely: (neptune orbit)/(Uranus orbit)= (30.0578)/(19.1819)=0.37957~0.38~0.37~0.36

124

0.37(earth mass)/(mars mass)=0.37(10)=3.7 It occurs here to me we are not just dealing with 1.8 and 3.7, but any whole number multiple of 1.8. We are dealing with: a_n=1.8n Let us try three times 1.8. It is 5.4. Immediately we see it in the most obvious, Jupiter. It is the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. Its furthest distance from the sun in its orbit is 5.455 AU ~ 5.4. We see it in the following (saturn mass)/(neptune mass)=(95.147)/(17.23)=5.522~5.4 I have already noted that Saturn and Neptune have similar inclinations to their orbit that are only common to Earth and Mars. Thus, we are dealing here with the sequence: 1.8, 3.6, 5.4, 7.2,… Furthermore; [(venus orbit)/(earth orbit)][(earth mass)/(mars mass)] = 7.2 Some of the most interesting occurrences of 3.7 in nature are: [(volume of saturn)/(volume of Jupiter)](volume of mars) =(mercury radius)(earth radius)^2 =[(venus orbit)/(earth orbit)(earth radius)]^3 =[(mercury orbit)/(earth orbit)](earth radius)^3 =0.37 cubic earth radii 0.37 can be converted to 3.7 by multiplying it by the ratio of earth mass to mars mass because it is close to ten. (earth radius)/(moon radius)= 4(degrees in a circle)(moon distance)/(sun distance)

125

= 3.7 There are about as many days in a year as degrees in a circle. When I say that the earth points to Neptune through mars and Venus, we might as well say it points to Neptune and Uranus, because I have found they are coupled, which can be seen by that which I wrote here: I calculate that though Neptune is more massive than Uranus, its volume is less such that their products are close to equivalent. In math: N_v = volume of Neptune N_m = mass of Neptune U_v = volume of Uranus U_m = mass of Uranus (N_v)(N_m) = (U_v)(U_m) This is appropriate, because these two planets are similar in size, mass, and composition and are not just gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter, but are also the two ice giants.

126

I now sit here reading the science fiction work Plutonia. Naturally, I begin to think about the planet Pluto, or what some astronomers today consider a planet, and the only sphere I have yet to consider. However, right off the bat is it not obvious that Neptune and Uranus point to Pluto if you know the history of Pluto? It is this: The Astronomer, Urbain Verrier in the 1840’s predicted the existence of Neptune because of perturbations in the Orbit of Uranus. More observations coming lead to the idea that Neptune alone could not be the cause. A ninth planet was searched for, and finally confirmed in 1930. This completes a journey through the solar system that tells a story with meaning, but is only the beginning of our investigations, because the sci-fi book Plutonia, by Vladimir Obruchev is about an arctic expedition where scientists find in the Arctic an opening in the earth to a warm, lush world warmed by a ball of heat at the center of the earth called Pluto. I know of those who believe that the future for humanity is not in space, but in something they call “project genesis” from a star trek movie, wherein lush, sustainable ecosystems are created beneath the earth by hollowing it out in places. Whether or not such a thing is feasible, does not matter to me. I find myself at project genesis in the sense that we try to understand how to create and maintain habitable ecosystems indefinitely. Ian Beardsley April 22, 2011

127

**Chapter Seven: The Discoveries Presented So Far
**

3.7 recurrent throughout nature

volume _ of _ saturn (volume _ of _ mars) = volume _ of _ jupiter

**( mercury _ radius)(earth _ radius) 2 =
**

!

**[(venus _ orbit / earth _ orbit )(earth _ radius)]3 =
**

( mercury _ orbit / earth _ orbit )(earth _ radius) 3 =

0.37 cubic earth radii

earth _ radius moon _ dis tan ce = 4(deg rees _ in _ circle) = moon _ radius sun _ dis tan ce

!

!

!

3.7

!

L = M 3.5

**L=100 solar luminosities is a zero magnitude star
**

! 100 = M 3.5

**log 100 = 3.5 log M
**

!

2/3.5 =log M 0.57 = log M M = 3.7 solar masses

**A 2 Saturn _ orbit 9 = = nP Jupiter _ orbit 5
**

n = 4 = mars orbit number

!

**128 A = area of a 3 by 4 rectangle Number of 3 by 4 rectangles in a 6 by 8 rectangle = n = 4 P=perimeter inscribed in a 6 by 8 rectangle = 20 (3,4,5) is first Pythagorean triplet
**

molar _ mass _ of _ air human _ body _ temerature Au solar _ radius 9 " = = = molar _ mass _ of _ water freezing _ temperature _ of _ water Ag earth # moon _ dis tan ce 5

!

0.37 can be converted to 3.7 by multiplying it by the ratio of earth mass to mars mass because it is close to ten.

129

Chapter Eight: How I Made My Discoveries How did I determine the equation: [(volume of saturn)/(volume of Jupiter)](volume of mars) =(mercury radius)(earth radius)^2 =[(venus orbit)/(earth orbit)(earth radius)]^3 =[(mercury orbit)/(earth orbit)](earth radius)^3 =0.37 cubic earth radii Where 0.37 can be converted to 3.7 by multiplying it by the ratio of earth mass to mars mass because it is close to ten. It fell on my lap by considering following passages I wrote in 2007: Nine-fifths (9/5) is embodied by the famous Pythagorean theorem. It is in the first Pythagorean triplet (3,4,5). The Pythagorean theorem, which states the relationship between two sides of a right triangle with its hypotenuse is used to calculate the distance between two points in a plane, or space, given their coordinates in a rectangular coordinate system. It states that one side squared plus the other side squared equals the hypotenuse squared. (3,4,5) is the first triplet that satisfies this relationship. That is 3, squared plus 4 squared equals 5 squared. 3 squared is our 9, 4 squared is 16, and our 5 is squared to make 25. (3^2+4^2=5^2). Nine is also the five plus the four. This allows us to associate an angle with nine-fifths, by way of the triangle the triplet

130

describes, and, to find a geometric, or pictorial significance of the ratio. The ancient Egyptians, associated much significance with this triplet, constructing the King’s chamber in the Great Pyramid with these proportions. Geometric Significance Of nine-fifths, the cosmic equation. By the Pythagorean theorem We have x^2+y^2=h^2 The first Pythagorean triplet is (3,4,5) And x=4, y=3, h=5 If A= area of 3 by 4 rectangle P= perimeter inscribed in 6 by 8 rectangle = 20 And, n= number of 3 by 4 rectangles in a 6 by 8 rectangle. Then, (A^2)/nP = 9/5 That which we have here is a cosmic equation not just for the solar system, but that holds for the atomic world and biological intricacies of life. If we imagine the solar system formed from protoplanetary disc around sun, bodies forming from particles and then herding smaller particles to make distribution of planets as we know them today, I think this

131

equation hold for evolutionary dynamics of solar system and nuclear chemistry dictated by stars to make elements. This picture outlined above will yield much dynamics upon analysis. A^2=area squared=P*P*P*P=P^4 P=perimeter Number = n Then since A^2/P= P^3= volume Volume/n=9/5 Saturn orbit (closest approach to the sun) =9 astronomical units Jupiter orbit (closest approach to the sun)= 5 astronomical units 4th planet = mars We have: Volume = (Saturn/Jupiter)Mars Saturn and Jupiter are the most massive planets in the solar system. Mars is the planet that can be colonized by humans. I have shown that they represent the sacred volume. April 6 2000 these three planets ushered in the second millennium forming a circle by the moon, 9 degrees across.

132

Calculation of Sacred Volume E_r=1= Earth radius M_r=0.532= Mars radius J_r= 11.27= Jupiter radius S_r=9.44= Saturn radius V = 4/3 (pi)r^3 = 4/3(3.1)(11.27)^3= 5996 =4/3(3.1)(9.44)^3= 3524 =4/3((3.1)(0.532)^3= 0.6307 Volume = (Saturn/Jupiter)mars = 3524/5996(0.6307) = 0.37 cubic earth radii Approximately the same number as mercury radius and mercury distance from sun in earth units (Earth radii and Astronomical Units).

133

Sacred Volume Analyzed, Sacred Length Obtained, Dynamic Structure Of Solar System Revealed. I calculated the sacred volume to be 0.37 cubic earth radii, which I have noticed coincides with mercury distance from the sun, and mercury radius in earth units. Since volume is in cubic unit lengths, and radii and distances in earth radii and earth-sun distances, we take the cube root of our sacred volume to get the length of one side of a cube with the sacred volume. It is 0.72 earth radii. We will call it the sacred length, it is the venus-sun distance in earth units (astronomical units), where venus is the planet after mercury, or the second planet.

134

Summary of Sacred Volume I have found nine-fifths (9/5), which is equal to 1.8 in the most sacred aspects to man, gold, silver, moon, sun, water, air, human body temperature, and have have derived from this sacred ratio, or cosmic number, the cosmic volume by expressing it geometrically. That sacred volume is: (Saturn/Jupiter)mars=0.37 cubic earth radii Where Saturn and Jupiter are the most massive planets in the solar system, and Mars is the planet that can be colonized by humans. Taking the cube root of 0.37 gives the sacred length, it is equal to the distance of the planet Venus from the sun in earth units (astronomical units), which is the second planet (0.72 Astronomical Units). The 0.37 is the mercury-sun distance in earth units, and the mercury radius in earth units. Mercury is the first planet. Saturn is at 9 earth units (astronomical units) in its closest approach to the sun, Jupiter at five.

135

Chapter Nine: Two Stories That Want To Be Told

136

Story 1 Two brothers, one an alchemist the other an astronomer, met for lunch. The waiter said to them, “Right this way, a table for two.” Sydney, the astronomer, said “Thank you”, Ralph, the alchemist said to Sydney, “You don’t mind if I sit by the window.” Sydney said, “Not at all, after all you have always said I am in the dark.” Ralph answered, “Yes, all of that reason, and skepticism, leaves no room for intuition.” They both sat down. Ralph said, “Sydney, I have been working on a new project and have had to do a little astronomical research to develop it. As you know, I understand the principles of chemistry, as an alchemist, but the difference is I am not doing science with it, but am going through a process of spiritual development when I mix chemicals, you on the other hand do experiments to build a body of knowledge that might be used to support a hypothesis about nature.” Sydney answered “Yes, and as an astronomer I understand chemistry, why don’t you as an alchemist, study astrology?” Ralph said, “I have considered it, no better place to start than to start picking your brain about the heavens.” Sydney answered, “O.K. What do you want to know?”

137

Ralph put the question to him, “Galaxies are collections of stars that formed out of giant gas clouds, and planets are spherical masses that form around stars. The stars are very far apart, and the planets orbit close into the stars, the stars are extremely far apart, but the stars and their planets are not, is that right? Sydney said, “Yes, more or less.” Ralph continued, “So the planets orbiting the Sun, which is one star amid the billions in the galaxy, could have no connection with the other stars?” Sydney said, “That is right.” Ralph went on, “Then don’t you find it funny that the closest star to us, is the third brightest star in the sky and the earth is the third planet?” Sydney answered, “It must be a coincidence, they happen all the time in science.” Ralph said, “Then let us go on with this reasoning. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and the largest, most massive planet, and, the star Sirius is the fifth nearest star, and also the brightest star in the sky.” Sydney said, “That is interesting, I didn’t know that.” Ralph continued, “Now, I am going to get astrological. The constellation Bootes is known as “the boatman”, and the brightest star in that constellation is Arcturus, which happens to be the fourth brightest star in the sky. The fourth planet is Mars.”

138

Sydney said, “Yes, and so?” Ralph answered, “Well, Mars is the planet we can terraform, that is make habitable for human life because the inner planets are too close to the sun making them too hot, and the outer planets beyond Mars aren’t entirely solid, they are gas giants, so we must, it would seem, set sail upon the cosmic ocean for Mars.” Sydney said, “Well that all sounds very mystical, though living on a planet of limited resources, and increasing population, we must one day colonize Mars.” Ralph said, “I thought you might say something like that, and I couldn’t agree more in my own way, but I have found chemical indications that we must head for Mars. It is as if it was put there for us to solve the problems we would eventually encounter.” Sydney asked, “In what way?” Ralph answered, “Well the different elements are made out of varying numbers of identical particles, the number determines the element, and the different elements can be combined in different ways to make different compounds, like the elements sodium and chlorine combine to make salt.” Sydney answered, “Yes, and…” Ralph said, “…And we can associate with any element a relative mass by comparing the same number of atoms that constitute that element. It is called the molar mass.” Sydney said, “Right.”

139

Ralph went on, “Here is what I have found. Earth air is about 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. We can treat both as diatomic molecules. The molar mass of nitrogen gas (N2) is 2(14.01) and the molar mass of oxygen gas (O2) is 2(16.00). So,” (and he wrote on a napkin): Earth Air = 2[(16.00)(0.21) + (14.01)(0.78)] = 28.5756 “The martian atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide (CO2). This gives:” CO2 = (12.01) + 2(16.00) = 44.01 “The average orbital distance of mars from the sun compared to the average orbital distance of the earth from the sun is 1.5 and 44.01 divided by 28.5756 is 1.5, or 3/2 in other words. Is what this says is that, the mars-sun distance is to the earth-sun distance as martian air is to earth air.” Sydney said, “Interesting, but a little mystical for me.” Ralph said, “Maybe it will sound a little less mystical if I show you more.” Sydney said, “Go on, I would like to see it.” Ralph said, “O.K., here is what I have got. The earth atmosphere was once mostly carbon dioxide (CO2) like the mars atmosphere is today, until plant life came along and started converting the carbon dioxide into oxygen, using light from the sun and in the process making the most fundamental sugar, glucose (which is at the bottom of the food chain). A process called photosynthesis.”

140

Sydney answered, “O.K., I am no biologist, but it sounds good to me.” Ralph continued, “Well glucose is C6H12O6, which gives a molar mass of,” (and he wrote on the napkin): C6H12O6 = 6(12.01) + 12(1.008) + 6(16.00) = 180.16 “And water (H2O) covers most of earth and is essential to life, its molar mass is:” H2O = 2(1.008) + (16.00) = 18.016 “180.16 divided by 18.016 is about 10 and the earth is about 10 times as massive as mars. That is, glucose is to water as the earth is to mars.” Sydney said, “I don’t know, there has to be some sort of explanation, the formation of the solar system is complicated and highly theoretical. These relative masses sorting themselves out like this must have something to do with the dynamics of condensation and angular momentum. Think of a bucket of stones, pebbles, and sand being swung in a circle by a rope tied to the handle. The centripetal force sends the more massive stones to the bottom of the bucket, the lighter sand rests on top, with the pebbles in between.” Ralph broke in, “Or human destiny is tied up in the structure of nature.”

141

Story 2 “Hi Frank, thanks for making it down here, I really appreciate you pulling away from your work at the observatory. I am so glad you could get down here so quick, we really need an astronomer, and I think what I am going to show you will have made your visit worthwhile.” Frank asked, “What do you have Jane?” She began, “We unearthed these writings on clay tablets in a dig in Eastern Turkey. I have just finished translating it from the ancient Aramaic it was written in, we think it to be some 2,500 to 3000 years old. It seems to be astrological, I hope you brought along one of your handbooks of astronomy and astrophysics with you like I asked.” Frank said, “Yes I did, can I see the manuscript?” Jane said, “Yes, of course, here it is.” Frank took the translation and began reading. It read: I am Salgon, tribal astrologer for the small tribe who call themselves Canai, and reside in the valley we call Hathal. It is my job to provide spiritual and agricultural guidance to my people who number 732 this year, for the benefit of their life after this world and for their prosperity in present times. This involves using my knowledge of the heavens, as we believe our destinies can be read in the stars, and we know the seasons are related to the positions of the stars, sun, moon and planets. I have taken it upon myself to predict the sizes of the moon and earth, their separation, and, ours with the sun, given what I believe they must be from my connection with divine design. That is things

142

must be a certain way given the creator would only make nature according that, which is divine. An example of this is the moon can rise in the east full one night, diminish in size each night rising later, until it disappears, and then starts growing until it is full again, in cycles that last about thirty days. On the other hand as the seasons go from cold, to warmer, then to hot, and cooler again and back to cold, the sun moves across the sky from south to north, and back to south again, in a cycle that lasts about 365 days. The 365-day cycle of the sun corresponds closely to 12 of the 30day cycles of the moon. Twelve is to my people the most important number, it is 2 six times, 3 four times. I now begin my prediction of the moon, earth and sun. They are spheres whose distance from their centers to edges will be considered, at least in the case of earth and moon. The most divine expression that can be formed is a proportion, where a proportion is the statement that one quantity is to a second quantity as a third quantity is to a fourth. I will therefore say the earth radius is to the moon radius, as the moon distance is to the sun distance, the latter ratio increased by 360 four times. We increase by 360 four times because we divide the circle into 360 units as those are 60 six times, 60 being the measure in separation between lines of a triangle of all sides the same, and 360 being 90 four times, 90 being the separation between lines in the square which has all sides the same, as well as 360 is close to the 365 day cycle of the sun.

143

I say four times 360, because four times 365 and one part in four is exactly the days of 4 cycles of the sun from south to north and back south again. I further write this in the belief that the actual sizes and distances of the moon and sun will one day be known, and thereby the future will verify what I have derived based on how things must be when the hand of the creator is at work. Frank finished reading and said to Jane, “Well Jane, I will write down in the form of a mathematical equation, what the manuscript says in words, and plug in the numbers. It is:” (Earth Radius)/(Moon Radius) = 360(4)(Moon Distance)/(Sun Distance) “The earth radius to moon radius is 11/3 and 360 times 4 is one thousand four hundred and forty. The moon distance to the sun distance is 12/4675, so” (11/3) = (1440)(12/4675) = 3.7 = (17280/4675) =3.7 “His relationship holds perfectly, if you round the numbers to the first place after the decimal, which is really quite remarkable. The writers reverence for nature seems to be derived from simple shapes and basic principles as were to the extent of what was known so long ago, when the truth is that the origin of the size of the moon and earth, their separation and ours with the sun, are tied up in numerous involved factors. The moon may have been a body captured by earth gravity, or, may have formed as a body that broke off the earth early in its formation when it was less solid. The orbital distances of the earth and moon have so many factors involved, the mechanics are so complicated that even our most sophisticated math cannot predict their values, even really be modeled accurately with computers.”

144

Jane said, “His reverence for the number 12 for the reasons he said, what can you say about that?” Frank answered, “He seems to be having an inkling to the fact that 12 is the smallest abundant number. An abundant number is a number whose divisors, except for itself, add up to a value greater than it. That is 12 is divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 a whole number of times and 1+2+3+4+6 = 16 which is greater than 12.” Jane said, “Whatever the case, the implications of this discovery are more than just interesting, they have deep philosophical implications, from what you have explained to me and I am going to have a lot of fun trying to figure out how to present this.” Frank said, “If anything, it shows you can work backwards and get somewhere, that is how I would approach this. In other words, the universe means something, so lets make the model on that, and verify it afterwards. He simply attributes nature is elegant to a creator, when really elegance may simply be what works, through evolution. That is if it doesn’t work, it doesn’t survive, what is left is what works, and it may be that what works is what we see as elegant.”

145 Chapter 10: Choosing One Star Out of The Billions Leonard knew Alpha Centauri was the closest star system to earth, and that it was a triple system some 4.2 light years away. He also knew the primary, Alpha Centauri A, was a G2V main sequence star, which makes it the same kind of star as the Sun; similar in size, luminosity, and temperature. He noted that as seen from the Earth, the star had an apparent magnitude of zero. He had found that stars of absolute magnitude zero on the main sequence, which are blue and hotter than the sun, were important. He knew that the sun had an absolute magnitude of 4.83, which was its brightness from ten parsecs. He knew a parsec was important because it was the parallax of an object given by the earth-sun separation. In addition, he knew 10 was important, because humans have 10 fingers, and that probably had something to do with the base 10 counting system. Again, he began to see the importance in main sequence stars of apparent magnitude zero. Therefore, he asked, how far should a zero absolute magnitude main sequence star be from the earth to appear the same as the brightness of the sun at 10 parsecs from the earth? He rounded the absolute magnitude of the sun to five. A difference in five magnitudes is 100 solar luminosities. Absolute magnitude zero stars were close to 100 solar luminosities. To reduce the brightness of a star 100 times what it was at 10 parsecs meant by the inverse square law it had to be 10 times further away, because 10 squared is 100. His hypothetical star was then 100 parsecs distant. He knew a parsec was 3.26 light years, so it was then 326 light years from him. The galaxy had some two hundred billon stars in it and was some 100 to 200 thousand light years across and some 1000 light years thick Therefore, he had to choose a constellation. Since Perseus was the radiant of the most spectacular meteor shower on earth whose maximum was around August 12 (called the Perseid Meteor Shower), he went to the Bright Star Catalogue and looked under the listings for Perseus for a star that met his criteria. The star that came up was called HD 26961, which had apparent magnitude of 4.60 close enough to the absolute magnitude of the sun of 4.83, an absolute magnitude of –0.35, close enough to zero, a distance from earth of 318 light years, close to his 326 light years projected in his calculation, and a spectral class of A2V, the roman numeral V meant main sequence, or a “normal star” like the sun, on the curve right up the middle of an HR Diagram an S shaped curve that had on either side of it Red Giants and White Dwarfs, which are off the main sequence, the HR diagram being a sort of plot of luminosity of stars versus their temperature. When Alien one and Alien two gave him his space ship, this was where he would go after visiting Ursa Major, the nearest star cluster. Leonard made the following table and entered it in his journal:

146

147 Mathematical Formulae: Appendix 1 Formulas Derived from the Parallelogram Remarks. Squares and rectangles are parallelograms that have four sides the same length, or two sides the same length. We can determine area by measuring it either in unit triangles or unit squares. Both are fine because they both are equal sided, equal angled geometries that tessellate. With unit triangles, the areas of the regular polygons that tessellate have whole number areas. Unit squares are usually chosen to measure area.

Having chosen the unit square with which to measure area, we notice that the area of a rectangle is base times height because the rows determine the amount of columns and the columns determine the amount of rows. Thus for a rectangle we have:

A=bh

Drawing in the diagonal of a rectangle we create two right triangles, that by symmetry are congruent. Each right triangle therefore occupies half the area, and from the above formula we conclude that the area of a right triangle is one half base times height:

A=(1/2)bh

By drawing in the altitude of a triangle, we make two right triangles and applying the above formula we find that it holds for all triangles in general.

We draw a regular hexagon, or any regular polygon, and draw in all of its radii, thus breaking it up into congruent triangles. We draw in the apothem of each triangle, and using our formula for the area of triangles we find that its area is one half apothem times perimeter, where the perimeter is the sum of its sides:

148 A=(1/2)ap

A circle is a regular polygon with an infinite amount of infitesimal sides. If the sides of a regular polygon are increased indefinitely, the apothem becomes the radius of a circle, and the perimeter becomes the circumference of a circle. Replace a with r, the radius, and p with c, the circumference, and we have the formula for the area of a circle:

A=(1/2)rc

We define the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter as pi. That is pi=c/D. Since the diameter is twice the radius, pi=c/2r. Therefore c=2(pi)r and the equation for the area of a circle becomes:

A=(pi)r^2

(More derived from the parallelogram)

Divide rectangles into four quadrants, and show that

A. (x+a)(x+b)=(x^2)+(a+b)x+ab B. (x+a)(x+a)=(x^2)+2ax+(a^2) A. Gives us a way to factor quadratic expressions. B. Gives us a way to solve quadratic equations. (Notice that the last term is the square of one half the middle coefficient.)

Remember that a square is a special case of a rectangle.

149 There are four interesting squares to complete.

1) The area of a rectangle is 100. The length is equal to 5 more than the width multiplied by 3. Calculate the width and the length. 2) Solve the general expression for a quadratic equation, a(x^2)+bx+c=0 3) Find the golden ratio, a/b, such that a/b=b/c and a=b+c. 4) The position of a particle is given by x=vt+(1/2)at^2. Find t.

Show that for a right triangle (a^2)=(b^2)+(c^2) where a is the hypotenuse, b and c are legs. It can be done by inscribing a square in a square such that four right triangles are made.

Use the Pythagorean theorem to show that the equation of a circle centered at the origin is given by r^2=x^2+y^2 where r is the radius of the circle and x and y the orthogonal coordinates.

Derive the equation of a straight line: y=mx+b by defining the slope of the line as the change in vertical distance per change in horizontal distance.

Triangles All polygons can be broken up into triangles. Because of that we can use triangles to determine the area of any polygon. Theorems Branch 1 1. If in a triangle a line is drawn parallel to the base, then the lines on both sides of the line are proportional. 2. From (1) we can prove that: If two triangles are mutually equiangular, they are similar.

150 3. From (2) we can prove that: If in a right triangle a perpendicular is drawn from the base to the right angle, then the two triangles on either side of the perpendicular, are similar to one another and to the whole. 4. From (3) we can prove the Pythagorean theorem. Theorems Branch 2 1. Draw two intersecting lines and show that opposite angles are equal. 2. Draw two parallel lines with one intersecting both. Use the fact that opposite angles are equal to show that alternate interior angles are equal. 3. Inscribe a triangle in two parallel lines such that its base is part of one of the lines and the apex meets with the other. Use the fact that alternate interior angles are equal to show that the sum of the angles in a triangle are two right angles, or 180 degrees. Theorems Branch 3 1. Any triangle can be solved given two sides and the included angle. c^2=a^2+b^2-2abcos(C) 2. Given two angles and a side of a triangle, the other two sides can be found. a/sin(A)=b/sin(B)=c/sin(C) 3.Given two sides and the included angle of a triangle you can find its area, K. K=(1/2)bc(sin(A)) 4.Given three sides of a triangle, the area can be found by using the formulas in (1) and (3). Question: what do parallelograms and triangles have in common? Answer: They can both be used to add vectors.

151 Trigonometry When a line bisects another so as to form two equal angles on either side, the angles are called right angles. It is customary to divide a circle into 360 equal units called degrees, so that a right angle, one fourth of the way around a circle, is 90 degrees. The angle in radians is the intercepted arc of the circle, divided by its radius, from which we see that in the unit circle 360 degrees is 2(pi)radians, and we can relate degrees to radians as follows: Degrees/180 degrees=Radians/pi radians An angle is merely the measure of separation between two lines that meet at a point. The trigonometric functions are defined as follows: cos x=side adjacent/hypotenuse sin x=side opposite/hypotenuse tan x=side opposite/side adjacent

csc x=1/sin x sec x=1/cos x cot x=1/tan x We consider the square and the triangle, and find with them we can determine the trigonometric function of some important angles. Square (draw in the diagonal): cos 45 degrees =1/sqrt(2)=sqrt(2)/2 Equilateral triangle (draw in the altitude): cos 30 degrees=sqrt(3)/2; cos 60 degrees=1/2 Using the above formula for converting degrees to radians and vice versa:

30 degrees=(pi)/6 radians; 60 degrees=(pi)/3 radians. The regular hexagon and pi

152 Tessellating equilateral triangles we find we can make a regular hexagon, which also tessellates. Making a regular hexagon like this we find two sides of an equilateral triangle make radii of the regular hexagon, and the remaining side of the equilateral triangle makes a side of the regular hexagon. All of the sides of an equilateral triangle being the same, we can conclude that the regular hexagon has its sides equal in length to its radii. If we inscribe a regular hexagon in a circle, we notice its perimeter is nearly the same as that of the circle, and its radius is the same as that of the circle. If we consider a unit regular hexagon, that is, one with side lengths of one, then its perimeter is six, and its radius is one. Its diameter is therefore two, and six divided by two is three. This is close to the value of pi, clearly, by looking at a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. The sum of the angles in a polygon Draw a polygon. It need not be regular and can have any number of sides. Draw in the radii. The sum of the angles at the center is four right angles, or 360 degrees. The sum of the angles of all the triangles formed by the sides of the polygon and the radii taken together are the number of sides, n, of the polygon times two right angles, or 180 degrees. The sum of the angles of the polygon are that of the triangles minus the angles at its center, or A, the sum of the angles of the polygon equals n(180 degrees)-360 degrees, or A=180 degrees(n-2) With a rectangular coordinate system you need only two numbers to specify a point, but with a triangular coordinate system --- three axes separated by 120 degrees -- you need three. However, a triangular coordinates system makes use of only 3 directions, whereas a rectangular one makes use of 4. A rectangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest numbers, and a triangular coordinate system is optimal in that it can specify a point in the plane with the fewest directions for its axes. The rectangular coordinate system is determined by a square and the triangular coordinate system by an equilateral triangle.

153

154

The Mystical Elements Of The Genesis Project

155

Seeds Seeing the movie "Pirates" I there saw a ship with the sea god Neptune, trident in hand, mounted to the front. Years later this image seemed to say it meant something pertaining to the Universe and the Planet Neptune. My astronomical research indeed, years later, ended at that planet, with my Neptune equation. Finally, as I had not made any progress for a while, another image struck me. It was when I saw a book called "Plutonia" in the personal library of Paul Levinson, in a movie about his book, "Behind The Plot to Save Socrates". Its age, and reddish-pink cover reminded me of my book "The Levinson-Asimov-Clarke Phenomenon", as it is a funky cover designed by myself of a rocket traveling in a pink Universe. My Book itself is, in part, about Paul Levinson's "Plot To Save Socrates". And because Plutonia derives from Pluto, which is a planet, one I had yet to consider in the research for this project, it is about Plutonia. My book, so far, ends in a phenomenon linking Levinson, Asimov, and Clarke, to the timewave theory of Terence McKenna, which was inspired by his taking hallucinogenic psilocybin mushrooms in a jungle in South America under Shamanistic instruction. After researching the work Plutonia at wikipedia, I found Plutonia is not just a science fiction novel by a Russian Scientist, written in 1915, but is a type of hallucinogenic psilocybin mushroom called psilocybin plutonia (common name “magic mushrooms”). Since timewave is about interconnectedness, and so is my book, I thought I would post this occurrence here. Since interconnectedness arises in my research pertaining to Paul Levinson's "The Plot To Save Socrates", and his book is about time travel, I am beginning to understand why: interconnectedness has everything to do with time. Ian Beardsley April 17, 2011

156

April 20, 2011 “Plutonia” arrived in the mail April 20, 2011. I started reading it on that day. The book begins with a team of four scientists leaving Moscow for an Arctic expedition on April 20 (the same date). I am right in phase with their adventure. I also ordered The Silk Code by Paul Levinson on April 20, 2011, realizing after having received an e-mail from Amazon.com that it shipped out on April 20 that this book was in sync with “Plutonia”, I ordered The Silk Code because Paul Levinson’s “Plot To Save Socrates” was part of the “fiction-reality entanglement” I had been experiencing.

157

Archimedes Plutonium

Having finished the book “Plutonia” which lead me to consider the last planet “Pluto”, among other things already mentioned, I decided to post my work to the discussion group sci.astro, a google group. Something I had postponed for years, and thought maybe would not be a good idea at all do to the given the nature of this work. Immediately posted above my work was the work of an author whose pen name is Archimedes Plutonium. This immediately gave me another aspect of the word Pluto. In his theory, called The Atom Totality Theory, he shows that the element 231 Plutonium describes the myriad aspects of the Universe. Precisely, the numbers of electron shells, and subshells of that isotope of plutonium provide ratios that describe approximations to the value of pi, euler’s number e, the background radiation of the universe, the fine structure constant and an explanation for the imaginary number, i. Furthermore, I found it interesting that the isotope of plutonium that does this is 231, because not only does my work bear a connection to the book “Plutonia”, it also bears a connection to 2001: A Space Odyssey and its sequels because the monolith in that book has proportions that are the squares of 1, 2, and 3 which I have explained relate to my discovery of 9/5 throughout nature and 1, 2, 3 are the digits in 231 Plutonium. Once again, the time that I do specific works and read other works, I find my life entangled with literature, no doubt from my trips to Mexico and Italy, whose literature is often based on this phenomenon that is a part of life in those countries. The thing is to find my way out of it, and approach academics from that methodology I practiced while a student at The University of Oregon and working at the state observatory. Perhaps then I can see my work in a new light, one where it is a part of me as opposed to me being a part of it. Ian Beardsley May 16, 2011

158

Interconnectedness

There is a very attractive way to approaching the phenomenon that science fiction is interconnected with cosmic events. Interconnectedness occurs, in my experience, both in Italy and in Mexico.

When I was married to a woman from Italy, we used to watch an American soap opera called “The Bold and the Beautiful” when we were living in California. When my wife and I went to Italy, it turned out that the mother of my wife liked the soap opera too, and that it aired in Italy. When my wife and I arrived in Italy, the show not only aired in Italy, but the entire cast for that show was in Italy, and it was being filmed there because it was part of the story in the soap opera that the one of the characters in the story got a job as a fashion model in Italy, which brought her and all of her friends to Italy. But, it went further than that. When I was in Italy, my wife and I watched a movie that just came out, I don’t remember the name, but it was about a writer who had writer’s block, and his friend suggested that the two of them leave the city and go to a retreat out in nature to get a fresh view of life. However, the writer in the movie was going crazy at the retreat because there was no television, and he was having a hard time being away from watching the soap opera, “The Bold And The Beautiful”. When new tourists arrived at the retreat, he yelled out from his cabin to them, “What has become of so, and so, in the Bold and The Beautiful?” Here we see fiction becoming intertwined with the life of my wife and I. But, such things first happened to me in Mexico. I was going to school in Queretaro, Mexico about an hour north of Mexico City. When I was down in the plaza in Queretaro having lunch, two girls from Germany who were passing through the city, and in Mexico because there parents worked there, asked me where they could find a place to stay. I told them they could stay at the house where I was staying. They stayed a few days, and then returned to the city where they lived.

159

A few days later, some fellow students and my self went traveling in Mexico. We went to the town famous for nightlife, San Miguel de Allende. We got in a cab and asked the driver to take us to a youth hostel, and we drove around for hours only to find that every place was full. It was because there was a big celebration going on in the city. So, the cab driver dropped us off at one of the plazas and there we were thinking what we were going to do when I ran into the two German girls I had let stay at my place in Queretaro. I explained to them that we were looking for a place to stay but everything was full. They said they had a place to stay and that we could stay there. We were told to go to their window at a particular Motel, they would throw us the keys to their room out the window, and we were to walk through the main office of the Hotel, show them the keys and act like we already rented a room there. So, there is a certain kind of magic in Italy and Mexico that is very real, that verifies the theory of interconnectedness in the theory of timewave zero. Such a theme is common to South American Literature. Consider the novel “Aunt Julia and The Scriptwriter” by Mario Vargas Llosa. It is about a scriptwriter who is writing a weekly soap opera for a radio theater and it comes to the point she cannot distinguish her life from the soap she is writing and does not know after awhile which is real, the radio drama or her life. Another fine example of interconnectedness is put forth in the book “The Castle of Crossed Destinies” by Italo Calvino, an Italian writer. In this story an old castle is an inn for travelers. After food and drink at the same table in the castle, one night, all of the travelers strangers to one another, begin a process where one person lays out a tarot card and tells a story about it that relates to his travels before he arrived at the in. He lays out cards forming lines that tell his story, then other travelers lay out cards telling there stories, but find they can use cards that other travelers already used and it turns out they have the same meaning sometimes. So, though these travelers never met, they encountered in their travels the same people or events at times, they find. The finished layout looks like a finished game of dominoes with points of intersection at many spots. It turns out that everyone shared experiences in common but had never met one another, hence the title of the book, “The Castle of “Crossed Destinies.”

160

Papers in which I am listed as co-author (Beardsley I.S.) •

• • 1986 _Kemp J. C.; Henson G. D.; Kraus D. J.; Carroll L. C.; Beardsley I. S.; Takagishi K.; Jugaku J.; Matsuoka M.; Leibowitz E. M.; Mazeh T.; Mendelson H._SS 433: A 6 year photometric record_Astrophys. J. 305, 805 (1986) • Department of Physics, University of Oregon • 1986 _Kemp J. C.; Henson G. D.; Kraus D. J.; Beardsley I. S.; Carroll L. C.; Duncan D. K._Variable polarization and activity in Arcturus_Astrophys. J. Lett. 301, L35 (1986) • Department of Physics, University of Oregon • 1986 _Kemp J. C.; Henson G. D.; Kraus D. J.; Beardsley J. S.; Carroll L. C.; Ake T. B.; Simon T.; Collins G. W._Epsilon Aurigae: Polarization, light curves, and geometry of the 1982–1983 eclipse_Astrophys. J. Lett. 300, L11 (1986) Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene

161