BL 48

.S33 1893
,

fli

Schleiermacher 1768-1834. On Oi religion

Friedrich,

ON RELIGION
SPEECHES TO ITS CULTURED DESPISERS

BY

FRIEDBICH

SCHLEIERMACHER

TRANSLATED, WITH INTRODUCTION, BY

JOHN OMAN,

B.D.

LONDON

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &
1893

CO., Ltd.

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD

.

. .CONTENTS... . Church and Religion.. I I Page Preface Introduction vii ix y v^ First Speech —Defence —The Nature of Religion . 1 Second Speech 26 119 '^ ^ Third Speech Fourth —The Cultivation Speech —Association in of Eeligion . or Priesthood 146 y Fifth Speech —The Religions 210 266 Epilogue The First Edition Index 275 285 .

.

though unfamiliar. he considered. so far as I it time. that this interest. it know. But. I have been deeply impressed with the truth of Friedrich Schlegel's saying. and our literature. » » I- In making this translation. in the latter. may be found in our philosophy. Traces of the the most characteristic product.PEE FACE. can hardly be acknowledged as natural to our native tongue. of which it is book claims more than a merely philosophical may well be thought that I should have done something more to give it an English accent. that the modern literature. My to excuse for imposing upon the reader the necessity of a second translation in thought. Seeing. or the reader be left and the author be manipulated. had it been his native tongue. of making a good translation : either the author must be left alone as far as possible and the reader be made to approach. Word. our theology. In philosophical . does not thought. the "Whole. In the former case. had he learned the language of the translation .Spirit for aspects of the world we feel and seem know. I hope that. used broadly for immediate knowledge. is now translated for now begin to enter into English movement at least. this though in several languages. as he would have written. the. Intuition. in their connections. the work is translated as we believe the author would have done it. they are not incomprehensible. and the All. is only one. Though the first work. must be found in Schleiermacher's own opinion. then. There are two ways.

viii PREFACE. M. and to my friend. even by the most patient Germans. the language of the translation must be bent to the language of the works. and that it be borne in mind that they are not meant to elucidate the text. for revising the proofs and for many suggestions in the translation. lie thougbt the former method alone practicable. . My thanks are due to Professor Calderwood for encouragement in the work. For a more careful study of the book. and I would direct the reader's attention to the summary in the Appendix of its first form.. Mr. but rather to expand or modify it into harmony with later positions. Still I would fain believe Second Speech. 1893. G. Alnwick. which is very much simpler. wisdom and science of the author are not to be transformed and subjected to the wildest caprice. If the As original. W. except the first half of the Further.A. I might suggest that in the first reading the Explanations be omitted. Alexander. That section is acknowledged. I have not been bold attempt. to be obscure. the book is not beyond measure difficult. this rule that enough to we have not yet any example of a breach of encourages imitation. make the that. I have sought to make the Index helpful.

it has been more commented upon during the last twenty years than ever before. and on the quintessence of his theology. this the English reader. on his relation to Christianity by Otto Ritschl. In As Germany itself. a by a text. " the " Speeches on Eeligion were first published in 1799 this translation is in one sense exceedingly belated. lowed.'^ This was followed " by two very elaborate articles on the Speeches by '^ Lipsius in the '^ Jahrbiicher flir protestantische Theologie/^ wherein he drew attention to the very material changes in the various editions. Since then treatises have appeared on the idea of religion in the different editions by Braasch.INTEODUCTION. which is all that has yet In 1874 Ritschl published a treatise on seen the light. which gave the first edition in the and the changes in foot-notes. '* Schleiermacher's Speeches on Heligion and their influence on the Evangelical Church of Germany. but it would be difficult to learn from any English book the place it to \ . Under various titles it may be found mentioned in certain learned treatises. In 1879 Piinjer made this apparent critical edition. at least the first In 1870 Dilthey^s Life of Schleiermacher folvolume of it. by Locke. In 1868 Schenkel's Sketch of Schleiermacher'sLife and Character was published. however. book should attain the classic position of being Why a subject for other books may well need to be explained severely hostile criticism. on Schleiermacher's conception of Individuality by Frohne.

Tower Many but I estimates. We have still with us the unity of the church. for they are a true reflection of that age of ferment. He was a churchman whose grand Zeller. says of him. we see. The reason is The most earnest and thorough students of this period have either had a wholly philosophical or a wholly literary interest. Yet it may be questioned whether. those cultured despisers of religion. mination '' to the new time. the place of religion in life. Even to such a profound student of the time as Professor Adamson. being the out- and religious movements of the time. any book of the period has had such a great and lasting effect. in parti-coloured combination with the theologian who ended in mysticism. the relation state. that he was the greatest theologian of the Protestant Church since the Reformation. and the thoughts of it roll across the pages of this book as a mixture of mist and broad sunof Babel. the non-christian religions. of the literary. word^ and for the latter Goethe. As we try to recall those dim opponents. philosophical come Schleiermacher ' is simply a philosopher who stopped short at Spinoza. This book. the historian of . in the closing years of the century. * Greek philosophy. a class of men engaged in high hope upon *^an intellectual both. of church and the essential nature of religion. has very naturally fallen between. For the former Hegel spoke the last occupies not far to seek. this of book not only may be of Schleiermacher himself. of their patriotism which was to be the object and their religion. after Kant's Critique and Goethe's Wilhelm Meister. Its very faults have a certain importance.X INTRODUCTION. Yet the interest and value of this book must now be " IlluIt marks the transition from the chiefly historical. It was a great and not very lucid time.'' shine. eitlier in / theology or pHlosopliy. found in German writers. inspiration. and it is certainly no question that it foreshadows the problems chiefly discussed among us to-day as is done by no other book of that time.

who ascribes to Schleiermacher a place second to none in awaking the patriotism of his native land for the " He became the great struggle with Napoleon. forming the heart by the understanding and the understanding by the heart. intercourse he exerted a wide and useful influence on countless minds.'^ "We Lipsius in his articles says. his way of regarding the theory of perception is as epoch-making in the religious sphere as Kant's ' Critique of Reason in the sphere of philosophy/' ' Treitschke. but still free from many of their limitations. a gifted and resistance. the greatest of all our theologians since the Reformation.' '' " more than to Neander./ INTRODUCTION. renovator of our theology. xi liberal constitution of the ideas of the union of the Protestant confessions. fruitful seeds. who quotes the above. cal regeneration He lent his of aid in the work In personal Prussia and Germany. and he led in a new era in the knowledge of of the politi- Greek philosophy.^ ^ Ueberweg. in announcing Schleiermacher's death. and largely unfinished form is more capable than any other post-Kantian philosophy of such a development as might remedy the defects of other systems. and who passed through Schleiermacher to a more definite Christian standpoint. says. little ^^ However much or however may ultimately remain of Schleiermacher's peculiar world of thought. and even yet no German theologian arrives at V inward liberty who has not settled accounts with . of a more Church. says system in its far inferior in it is Schleiermacher's formal perfection to Hegel's or Herbart's. of the rights of science and of religious individuality will force their way despite all He was a preacher of mark. who ascribed to the Speeches other influence his conversion from Judaism to any Christianity. have now lost a man from whom will be dated henceforth a new era in the history of theology. said. He was a philosopher who without a perfected system sowed most effective religious teacher. awakening in is many a new / intellectual life. the historian of Germany in the Nineteenth Century.

" Probably that phrase sums up the defects of the book as well as possible it stirs emotions which it does not always says. '^ Sclileiermaclier's ideas. it is a revelation of the individuality of its author. and he succeeded in keepino. Bub " He that l^h-G adds. he was a through and through cultured spirit. but none had by the same fortunate variety of life and indomitable perseverance been able to come into such general contact with the thoughts and feelings both of the learned and of the people. the preacher." ^ movement. or Of all criticisms on this book. begat me had no bread for me. able testimonies is evangelist and lie missionary organizer. sickness was allowed to interfere with his work. a quite unusual degree Schleiermacher lived his philosophy.his promise to reveal the sacred secrets of his deepest xmpulses even better than he was aware. There were more learned men. but in the larger knowledge which consists in insight and assimilation. none is profounder more helpful for its interpretation than Friedrich Schlegel's truly German is " verdict. . The " Speeches. he was nor adept.xii INTRODUCTION." its defects. but. Beyond That the ground both of its excellence and any book probably that ever was writ- In ten. He was an Not even early riser and a diligent employer of his time. and men of greater faculty in various directions. Probably one of the most remarkfrom Claus Harms.one when this book appeared. the various influences of his age. His most original doctrine was his conception of individuality. wherein his countrymen excel. he had" felt. probably more than any man alive at that time. it He even despised himself when he allowed to depress his . however. At marshalling great masses of detail. Though he was only thirty. as a German puts it. In the technical sense of the word he was not a profound scholar. he has had few equals. It is a work of infinite subjectivity. gave him an impulse to an eternal satisfy. and it was not a mere doctrine with him but an ideal of life.

He was constitutionally disqualified for understanding his son and Schleiermacher's relation to him was probably the first germ of his doctrine of individuality which claims respect for the natural character even of the youngest. feeling developed in him. ^linked ^ each to each by natural piety. '* I preached as an years. spirits or xiii damp his ardour. was compelled X But the circumstances of his life had done even more \ than his studies to give breadth and character to his mind. in a letter to his son. despite doubt and change. he says. It was during a walk with my father. were. colic. we must reckon the piety of his home and his education among the Moravians." he said. his memory not being readily retentive.INTRODUCTION. Schleiermacher's father grew up amid these strange " For twelve doings with doubts he never dared to utter. He acquired slowly. was the never again allowed me to -se sight of it. an earnest conscientious man who had some marvellous experiences among certain enthusiasts on the Lower Ehine. he believed. Schleiermacher's heredi- tary gifts did not come to him from his father but from his grandfather. evidently having accepted Kant's . " actual unbeliever .' His father was a chaplain of the Reformed Church to a regiment in Silesia. Chief among the influences that moulded him. but from that very cause he to profounder reflection and deeper interest. He himself ascribed to them the largest place in determining his opinions and moulding his character. or any similar ill. This grandfather was one of the last persons in Germany to be publicly charged with witchcraft. and ^' " I it was not the daughter of theology/' can recall its first stirrings. A person who had the un- fortunate custom of sleeping too much he thought more to be pitied than one who suffered from toothache.'' All his later years. pale countenance. who first Piety. Even the description of his person as under middle height. light blue eyes and prominent nose might have been applied to his grandson.

lie dealt with his son's aberrations in the most uncompromising. it was only after time had mellowed him that he entered insight. yet into kindlier and closer relations with his son." he says in a letter.'' And after all his wanderings. was only fourteen. Yet the . Consequently. and resolved to remain always among the Brethren. again. leaves in her letters the most beautiful impressions of piety. however. After a time. incurred chieflv in book buying. She. Before his son's birth he seems to have returned to the orthodox faith. Schleier- macber's mother. All his life he was burdened witb debt. and his advice to his son is full of practical wisdom and position that he leaves the impression of being dogmatic and even domineering. and unstable. He had wide interests and read extensively. there is not throughout Christendom in our day a form of public worship that expresses more worthily or awakens more thoroughly the spirit of true Christian piety. and goodness.xiv INTRODUCTION. year before ber death. and in tbe notes he openly acknowledges his admiration for their institutions. he believed he had found peace. At all events. The Moravians were at ^' ot *ime doing for Germany what the Methodists were doing for England." he had become a '^ Moravian Yet his sojourn among them was not without much outward and inward conflict. obstinate. J^riedrich had been placed in the school of the Moravip^n JJrethren in Upper Lusatia. concerning their love feasts. / *^ ^' Yerily. He strove hard for the supernatural experiences known as intercourse with Jesus. it was a preacher's duty to support tlie moral law by appealing to the ordinary faith of the people. died when her son. denunciatory way. though it were only to work at a trade. His early letters are strongly marked by the peculiar phraseology of the Brethren. borzi in 1 768. wisdom. Amid barren Deism and argumentative orthodoxy they maintained a distinctively A religious spirit. Traces of their influence are everywhere apparent in tbis book. he felt again of a higher order.

and even when prevailing opinions were controverted. The attempts of their teachers to hedge in this mental activity.'' he says. " The increase of liberty . there was always a feeling that the other side had not been heard. The Illumination had been working in Germany for about twenty years. Albertini. In 1787." This was enough to let them know that there was a large world of thought outside. Among the first." an able periodical that looked at '^ life from the standpoint of Kant . and was now everywhere prevalent. In his seventeenth year he was transferred. to the seminary at Barby. '^ seemed to loosen the fetters ^' of the mind . Schleiermacher felt that he also mnst be gone. and soon by manifold departure the poor club was scattered to the winds. botanizing in a green hear from other jacket. which was at that time the University of the Brethren. xv Halle professor who was cliarged with. We quarters of pleasant days spent in the woods. if all his doubts were not to harden into absolute unbelief. Their suspicion and their attempts at discipline only hastened the catastrophe. This was the ground of his choice^ for he believed that if ever he was to reach a/f . and he asks his sister to hint to his father that his purse has caught consumption from fruit. his father.JXTRODUCTION. was not quite extinguished. he entered Halle as a student. after overcoming much bitter opposition from Halle was then at the height of its fame. along with his bosom friend. they obtained such books as Wieland's poems and Goethe's "Werther. and all the zeal of the Moravian teachers could not stop the chinks whereby the flood was entering. only inox eased their suspicion that their doubts could not be answered by better means . and was almost entirely dominated by the spirit of the Illumination.'' spirits formed themselves into a They read the *' Jena Literaturzeitung. and again he calls this period " the first number of brilliant blossoming time of the mind/' A " club. and from a friendly one-eyed man" in Zerbst.

Schleiermacher was a very bad attender at lectures and never perhaps entered much into the spirit of the University. and he had the worst opinion of the coarseness of his fellowHis circumstances also were of the worst. and he spirit. he wrote a treatise on the idea of the Highest Good. a professor of philosophy. to whom he afterconflict wards dedicated this book. . a Swede. was not without an influence on his views of Scripture exegesis. This youth. rendered social intercourse somewhat trying for a proud Yet he could never be without a friend. sporting with Amaryllis in preference But Schleiermacher was to burning the midnight oil. investigation and the patient y interrogation of all witnesses and of all parties. Semler. may be left undecided of the Illumination ideal. must be by hearing everything that could be During his two years' stay in Halle." he says "that examination and prevailing ideas. in a letter to his father.' Even before leaving Halle. is the only means for attaining sufficient certainty. named Gustav von Brinkmann. which students. without injury to his peace and " a pretty accurate happiness. where he sat till two in the morning. found one in a fellow-student from Barby. for he led him to the careful study of Kant's Critique. indeed. summary : In Halle none of the theological professors impressed him greatly. he of the said against it. and above all for setting a fast boundary between that on which a man must take a side and that which. wherein he tries to settle matters with Kant. Bat the frightful he had just come through still depressed his spirits. If truth be told. he studied. not pursuing subjects but seeking truth for ^ life and death. But in the garret in his uncle's house. Eberhard.xvf^W V fuller laitli. however. who has been called the father of the critical study of the Scriptures. was a marvellous result of Moravian training. may be considered a decisive influence in his life. but Semler was now old and much troubled by disputes. came entirely under the influence " I have always believed. it INTRODUCTION.

earnest man. His father. and I it. Already his own world of thought was taking shape. raised the needful money and not before time. Brinkmann. the brother of his mother. xvii persuaded that more than any man he lived laborious days. fitted than being make a . were hardly decent enough for To some extent the iron had at this time Drossen. see what I have become and to he encountered the very best an upright. With all his faults. and deeply interested in all questions of human progress. reading such' books as came his way. by his larger knowledge of the world. less for the candidate's to clothes. and at all events he could have house-room while he was preparing for his theological examination. effective in his pastoral work. who had married again. who had Halle and was now settled as pastor at Drossen near Frankfort on the Oder. and stimulated by the loves and poesies of friend Brinkchiefly mann he had thoughts that he did not think of revealing to and come his uncle in spite of their free and affectionate intercourse. In his house for a whole year Schleiermacher studied and thought. he says. having dim thoughts of authorship. sible Of this uncle. " would that I had so availed myself of his friendship as to be able to say in lieu of all praise. he had revised Kant to some definite conclusions about him.INTRODUCTION. and corrected and copied his love-letters for him and admired his endless poetical compositions. he finally went to Berlin to pass his examination in theology. With anything but liking for the business. After two years' study his father's willingness left acquaintances that might prove useful. was and ability to support him were both exhausted. Yain efforts were made to obtain a situation as family tutor. much the right impression on the authorities in Berlin." him owe In this uncle type of the theological spirit of the Illumination. Hopes were entertained of posleft at this period a useful friend. and nothing was but to go once more to uncle Stubenrauch.

an earnest. this part of the undertaking was exceedingly badly done. another dangerous possession for the enlightened understanding. entered his soul. part. which memory of his own Wedike.'* Finally. At that time the eyes of all the civilized world were turned towards the revolution in France. Good like a Dohna. a situation was obtained for him.^ was a proverb in East Prussia. the second daughter of the family. ' observe gratefully/^ says his biographer. He was slight deformity had been a situation. Schleiermacher pondered youth. however. At Schlobitten he found a simple and sincere piety along with genuine refinement. relatives and acquaintances ^ of his uncle. and then became his duty to make himself agreeable to persons with ecclesiastical patronage. thoughtful. highly respectable moderates for the most Aunt Stubenrauch's urgent advice notwithstanding." The love of art also was awakened in him. a neighbouring pastor. but above all in long solitary walks he came to understand himself. patriotic man. which he believed lasted as long as was good for him and no longer. he spe^^ ascribes this service. For the first time he felt the influence of cultured female society. won a knowledge of true manly worth.xviii INTRODUCTION. poor and not very well. a beautiful fellowship ennobled shone all the more in contrast to the by freedom. of life now opened for the student. He became tutor A new phase ' in the family of Count Dohna of Schlobitten. an experience which he marks '' With a knowledge of the female heart I as an epoch. . She has taken it with her cially into eternity and it will not I hope be the least that her beautiful existence has accomplished. this matter one generation after another in " We " how in Germany improves by practice. and his made a ground for refusing him it But the examinations were successfully passed. who died young. was of great help to him.' Above all he saw in the family life of which the wise and capable mother was the ' head." To Friedrike.

giving his whole sympathy to the popular side. In Schlobitten he parted with the Illumination. It was dangerous ground in the house of a Prussian nobleman. Even when in 1793 Louis XVI. but rout. and began his own development. he could find no additional horror in the fact that the head that had been severed. was anointed. when he was paid double. Wherefore. and especially on the position of family tutors. Finally and spoke words which he dimly desired to withdraw. not merely with passionate earnestness. amid many tokens of good-will from every side. with argument and eloquence which put the irate Count to Yet the crisis came on education. he had come to the conclusion that nothing can guarantee complete tolerance but the entire separation of the two. that his employer Count lost all self-control much wrong. but the did himself a 2 . The tutor had different views. his sermons and in a fragment on the ''Value of Life. which were sustained by a very strong sense of selfrespect and of duty to his pupils. xix deeply on the matter.INTRODUCTION. but traces of them all. dim foreshadowings in feeling rather than in thought. Schleiermacher departed with his heart almost breaking. This shows how far he had departed from the Illumination ideal which considered the church simply an institution for the moral education of the people. great reserve of A somewhat through irascible sarcastic his utterance for also occasionally cropped the respect his superiors. though he regretted the cruelty. None of his doctrines were yet clear. was executed. not politics. The Count had his own ideas on education. and not least from the Count himself. His uncle feared evil results and thought the clergy would starve. but only able to say. but which the tutor assured him would only make their relations more unpleasant if he did.' which he wrote at this time and had some thoughts of On the question of church and state especially publishing. more especially as he defended his conviction. can be traced in his letters.

and in six months he went to be curate to a relative at Landsberg on the Warthe. in spite of small conflicts with the authorities about educational matters to which he had Books were difficult to obtain. but he thought the more. especially with his sister Charlotte. which at times recalls Kant rather At the same time it is apparent that he has been making a deeper study of Christianity and reTwo years passed flecting on his relation to its Founder. spondence with friends. moderates ' of When his relative Schumann died. and his father. along with his patron Sack. who now began to understand him. While at Schlobitten. the models of the respectable that time. and had already begun his method of careful mental preparation without writing. made his days unhappy. discipline. he entered on his career as an translating. and was by the in the ecclesiastical states caused to early days of Napoleon. who was still among the Moravians. here peacefully and happily. from which he never afterwards departed. which happened about the close of these years. This change much consoled him after his father's death. which his short sight prevented him from dealing with. the congregation . zealously devoted himself." After a few months in Drossen.XX INTRODUCTION. by Finally. As a preacher he at once took his place. author. His sermons of this period are marked by great moral earnestness. but from the course of events evils it received confirmation in France. the religious suggested to fixed him by the Moravian system. where the friendly influence of his relative Sack obtained for him a Utter lack of position in an educational institution. he had discovered his vocation as a preacher. Blair's ^ Sermons. of first nepliew had more faitli in tlie power This position was doubtless sentiment. he went to Berlin. crowded " like flies on when the Germany of Germany princes the bleeding wounds of their the country. and was more diligent in correthan Jesus Christ.

and as a political develop- ment was hardly theological aspect. In its directly . the movement never assumed the same spirit of opposition to the church. xxi asked of the authorities in Berlin that Schleiermacher should be appointed. of wisdom and goodness of religious possible. immortality and the necessity moral motives. the Enlightenment. or as it ' courage to use your own understandings. In England it culminated in the Freethinkers. Schleiermacher was appointed preacher at the Charite Institute in Berlin. and in the form of Deism was in direct antagonism to the prevailing Christian faith. September. it took an almost exclusively Its creed consisted of a personal God full . ideas for theological aspect.INTRODUCTION. In Germany.' was not a purely theological movement. the movement became Rationalism. but less earnest. and utilitarianism in morals. the belief in Scripture as containing a revelation already implicit in man's mind. he entered upon his work. It is peculiarly the movement of the Eighteenth Century. The consequence was individualism in politics. As compensation. cautious type of Rationalist. " might better be translated. Kant defines it as " man's emergence from self-caused v pupilage. ." and he gives its watch-word as sa^ere aude. sensationalism in philosophy. and the place was given to his uncle Stubenrauch. Berlin had hitherto been the chosen ation^ In home of all the Illumin- and the leading preachers were of the highly in Scotland respectable. much to the old man's sorrow. but he was considered too young_. In France the same movement under Voltaire was not only more hostile to Christianity. 1796. Rousseau carried the same teaching into social and political questions and the " Gospel of Jean. have The Illumination. Its essential feature was a demand for a reason for everything from the standpoint of the individual. which in practice came to mean the discovery of its own abstractions in the written word. ^ at least.Jacques " was the creed of the Revolution. as the moderate/ known.

with his maxim. if conscience had might as it had right. church had been extended to every department of life. easy-going optimism. in the same abstract way. and self-satisfaction. within the Limits of mere Reason. the time." An action was not moral according to its consequences. from another he is the foundatiou of the new He sought to found again the old Illumination time. of all men. the mere moral law ought to carry its own authority.' Now the rights of research were established. men wrought * over their heads. and the deeper needs of man were fast becoming incomprehensible. But this good was more than counterbalanced by its its shallowness. that all this is only a reflection of morality. its . Understanding argument the only proof. but. frivohty and was the final test. introduced a more earnest spirit into His true fore-runner was Butler. it would absolutely ^' '*• govern the world. Religion was reduced to a few commonplaces. in the world.'^ good will alone excepted. From one point of view Kant is the coping-stone of this movement. If men were what they should be. and the church was directed to its own sphere and only in complete ignorance of history can it be maintained that this did not happen to the eminent profit of : both. everything finally being reduced to ethics and metaphysics. ^' Religion theology. The authority of the nonage." makes religion simply a handmaid of morality.'' There is nothing absolutely good Kant said. Chiefly by allegorizing. at the beginning of his '* Critique "a of Practical Reason. In with the sword of Damocles all research. this In so far as it Enlightenment ^was the end of man's was inevitable and right. but . he weaves the dogmas of Christianity into his system. to remedy the defect.xxii INTRODUCTION. '^ Yet Kant. His book. God was a scientific abstraction aspiration succumbed to utter paltriness . the idea of a Lawgiver and an Yet it is never to be forgotten all-seeing Eye is useful.

man. and takes his place as a thing in itself. he did not come out quite unspotted Schleiermacher. For ten years Schleiermacher had been constantly renewing his study of Kant. history. may earnestness that still Kant made be doubtful. at least rescued his soul from deadly peril and. In Plato Schleiermacher found the substance of Kant's Of late years also he had made a more earnest teaching. and had departed considerably from his theory of perception. man by the freedom of his will is rooted in the Whether real world. Already he had rejected his proof of the and Freedom and God. Spinoza was only Jacobins work. universal truth and law. the critical philosophy will ultimately be found to have circumnavigated the world of thought. wherein points. but the greater moral possible for his time is now a matter of.is purely phenomenal. He found his style of exposition barbarous and he was annoyed by his misunderstandings not only of others. but he had World of life is ^ firmly settled with himself that the blessedness within and that the end of life is not happiness but the fulfilment of By this study of Kant. Still he kept continually ^ ' gnawing at him. Such literature as he had hitherto been had read was mostly of an . while all consciousness . though from intercourse with the Romanticists. held firm ground in the law of reason. careful study of this great writer. according to the law from which it sprang. or to be simply a larger and more barren and dangerous excursion into polar seas. known to him through study of Aristotle. but he was already a devoted admirer and and among his papers of this time is found a very pupil. but of himself. but in is is xxiii not social uttered by reason the universal element Finally. This law an abstraction from experience of personal and requirement.INTRODUCTION. this nature his life he corrects Jacobi's views on some important In severe studies of spent. in the midst of the overweening individualism of his contemporaries.

and having a mind of unusual receptivity. A wit said that the veterinary institute opposite was a place where dogs were treated like men. laborious There were but vain and Wilhelm. was. brilliant and genius. with and the great literary movement tliat began Lessingj and was now culminating in Goethe and the young Romance. was a leader in this world . Many Jewish families especially had become rich. V The famous Wednesday Club was just beginning. Berlin was already the seat of the conflict between the old classical and the new Bomantic schools. before he settled in Berlin. Being excluded from all public concerns. of the new School met there. but united the two irritable now by a common purpose. . she was among those who made what was called a house. quick. wonderfully discordant spirits minds. being beautiful. astonishment of his friends he loved his work. and Soon all the leading Schleiermacher became a member. Berlin of late had increased largely in population and in material prosperity. the orderly. while the Charite His was a place where men were treated like dogs. he soon became her most intimate friend. Henrietta Herz. to known him and not deeply interesting. Their ambition was to have literary gatherings. whose power of translation was almost and the younger Friedrich. they devoted themselves to society. the wife of the most famous Jewish physician in the town. Schleiermacher was introduced to the Romanticists by Alexander Dohna. as a preacher was circumscribed and he had no scope sphere Yet to the for any other kind of activity in his office. the eldest son of the Count of Schlobitten. Schleiermacher was introduced at one of her gatherings and. having the very best recommendation in Alexander Dohna. he was almost in felicity. Schlegels. and sociality was laboured for as a fine art. little earlier time. and with the abounding literary intercourse now open to him. His position at the Charite was not the happiest.xxiv INTRODUCTION.

Tieck. friendship. eternally active whole. The true intellectual father of the School his /^ i^ Nature he regarded as a beautiful. Wilhelm Meister was their ideal. the Universe itself The germ much — / one glorious. progressive whole. constant intercourse and devoted y influence of the Romantic School when he wrote this book. ful discovery and death is her device for having more life. By critical resolve they determined to be the uncritical tion of the individual ^olian harp of every feeling. with bis fancy gleaming from bis eager face. the place of intuition.-c^ out upheaval or interruption. was Schleiermacher^s bosom friend. of of Schleiermacher's thought is here the importance of the individual. the " ^^ At Schlegers instigation There is Speeches were written. everything a revelation of the Universe. "Alexander conquered Persia. attractive^ restless xxv but superficial and unstable. a graphic scene in Schleiermacher's letters of Schlegel making him register a solemn vow of literary activity in the presence of friends who had gathered macher was to celebrate his therefore. because he was Alexander the son of Philip.^' Her greatest production all is man. wbo died at twenty-five.INTRODUCTION. a doctrine . The cultiva-/ was the high end of life. He is most worthy of rightly study. and even entertained celebrates in this book. but apprehended Herder carried Goethe's thought into history. Friedrich ' thoughts of literary partnership. a profound and pious soul. He preferred insight to argument. wbom Scbleiermacber bimself and others of less note. and Novalis. was there. Schlegel For a time they lodged together. and Wackenroder. and an individual thing to anabstraction. human culture. powerfully by under the Schleierbirthday. with'' Life is Nature^s most beauti.^' yet withal there is a grand and even progress of reality in its place deserves to be by loving observation. What with Goethe was art with the younger generation was criticism. Of these. and was Goeth e.

The literary companions were the cultured despisers to whom he addressed himself. think again all human experience." says Steffens. but. tQ The impress observed. Germany was at its lowest degradation. Perhaps their contempt for established institutions coloured his idea of / Their exaltation of feeling. \) literary chiaroscuro. as he himself deep that no changes could remove it. described as the church. led to such ardent and careful historical research as is altogether without parallel. Their artistic sense most was so y He sought to make nearly resembled his religious sense. imagination was everything. Politically. y wMcli with such men as Friedrich Schlegel did not mean else than a rejection of the command^ Let a man himself." The great end was to have an artistic appreciation of everything.xxvi INTRODUCTION. Finally. was religion and patriotism in one. Schleiermacher himself. But Schleiermacher's previous philosophical discipline and earnest thinking out of his own position raised him far above the ordinary standpoint of the Romantic School. therefore. Understanding was nothing. *^ '* whosoever Speeches/^ Schelling said. but interest. would sell the understanding of the world for a singularly small much V' This desire to sympathetically equivalent in imagination. their models determined the style of this book. For their idea of individuality he laid a philosophical and Their historical research gave him warrant religious basis. joined to led to his view of religion. " We " sought. Moravianism. for claiming a high value for positive religions. on reading the . and the only unity in the empire was the new literature. though he complains that the want of the artistic sense was his worst limitation.' deny They were all enthusiasts for the modern the principle of which they considered not beauty literature. them regard the Universe as the great work of art. to rear an intellectual Tower of Babel. it of the School is more marked in the first edition than in the later form of this work. that all men might behold. Art.

therefore there must be a God. to instructed eyes at least. and goodness and happiness must ultimately be one. '" ^^ Kant is his starting-point. known as the world and God. the lines converge to one point it is the Finally. you learn that there is a spider underneath that spins the web. and was pained that no one was able to discover it and. He did not accept ^ . Schleiermacher was conscious of his system. and more scientifically expressed.INTRO D UCTION. : These concentric at all lines are : bound together by cross-threads : they are categories of judgment. it was elaborated. question : What is this skein what we are conscious of and His answer was to conceive it very much as a ? The elements out of which it is composed spider's web. but has circumnavigated every lake from which it might have come. the conscious I. By thought you cannot get it. and what are its ' . By his help we can trace the growth of the system which underlies this work. and are called the manifold of sense. but by the claims of morality. to which it is attached." Dilthey. The claims of the definite intervals outside of moral law demand free-will that must be noumenal not phenomenal. just no more. with careful toil. and he interprets him some. and stout beams outside. Of this synthetic unity skein alone you are conscious. xxvii would produce anything of tlie kind must have made the profoundest philosophical studies. as it were by shaking the net. Kant asked himself this changed. according to a definite scheme.m ^ ^ what after the manner of Fichte. it is closely interwoven both with argument and with appeal. but the main outlines were never . laws of self-consciousness. has not only indicated every rivulet that trickled into the stream of Schleiermacher's thought. Schleiermacher rejected this proof. float in promiscuously. Lines converge at definite [jangles this is time and space. They are spun into a net. filled in. Subsequently. or he must have written it under blind divine inspiration. of apperception.

and not merely receptive. this was apt to and diversities of mean was wrong who was different from Johann Theoretically. The study of Plato and Leibnitz seems to have suggested to him that reason Leibnitz^s itself might be the source of monads he regarded as an importaindividuality. free-will the mind is creative. Yet the Spinozism of Schleiermacher is more in form than substance. and he held that the Good does not But for him also thought is activity^ involve happiness. in their and his distinction between things observed relations. nothing but the universal element The in deadly struggle with all that is individual. From Kant's practical philosophy he accepted with unwavering conviction the view that the moral law is the utterance of reason. We also find his doctrine of the immanence of the Infinite in the finite.Spirit. to be established It is in opposition to all accidents of life character. and that the highest good is is to live in harmony with. but an exhibition of it. reason. tion from Fairyland. and things as seen suh specie seternitatis. ^.xxviii INTRODUCTION. yet they served to make him see that the individual might be such a copy of the Universe as to be not merely a part of it. a sectijon arbitrarily cut out of the Universe. it came more and more to mean that the individual reason was simply the universal reason selflimited. He had long and earnestly been studying Spinoza. except as the outcome of the nature apart from external compulsion. To Fichte reason in life. that everyone Gottlieb Fichte. But to Spinoza the individual was merely a delusion of the imagination. In his conception of the Universe Spinoza's distinction between natura naturans and natura naturaia re-appears. ^ For many years it did not occur to Schleiermacher to question the position that reason is the identical element in all men. Practically. natura naturans being the World. while the motive of 'all . ideal of reason was one for all men. and acknowledged a large debt to him.

This division that is not is found throughout the Universe. but all our experience goes back to the point where our own activity and the activity of Universe are in contact and mutual understanding. This activity divides itself. does not make it less a whole in itself. we cannot tell. Rather it must. That is the touch of our spirits with the Universe whereby. The fact that the individual is thus a part of one vast whole^ however. reality for the The Universe. xxix ScMeiermaclier's speculatiou was to find individual as a whole within a whole. but parallelism and interaction. for all its life consists in being acted upon by the Universe and acting upon the Universe again. and the supernatural and the natural in religion. then woven into an There are thus no hard drawn lines in inseparable cord. as it spun for a moment apart. we reach a mystic point beyond which we cannot go. uniting Thus the Universe again re-acting upon the Universe. yet known in His works. but division is not separation. like the touch of lips that love. By what means the Universe acts upon us. whether by special noumena or directly. but which is the source of all our knowledge. The threads are. Perception therefore rests not on reasoned knowledge but on V . before it could in such circumstances maintain an existence. is the union of knowledge and even He is only being. in accordance with the new philosophy. have a principle fashioning its individuwhat comes to it from the Universe and ality. there are large mutual understandings. The spiritual and sensuous in again are co-ordinate in morals. the individual were nothing. Spirit and body are not one. but it weaves all its activities together. and the individual are equally real. was conceived as infinitely active. yet life they are nothing separate. In this part of Schleiermacher's doctrine there are distinct traces of Schelling. Without the reality of the Universe. This is the source and the type of all experience. God indeed separation. were.' INTRODUCTION. By going back in thought. the Universe.

organized ever In the same way. There is no evidence that Schleiermacher studied Berkeley. is a product and v representation of the Infinite. not find are only permutations and combinations . and a human organism of animal organization. all variety being variety of degree we Positive qualitatively. quantitatively. and exhibits it in a special form as It contains the general character of the Universe well. Similarly each man is a characteristic presentation like his body. it was talking with God. It a product of the same laws that made any organism. the Infinite. . Jacobi^ whom soul. wrought out with infinite variety of detail in every part. but Berkeley's influence J on the thought of Germany of that time. a transaction with the Universe and therefore a religious act. The chief difference is that Berkeley regarded experience as wholly given. character of humanity. in constant interaction with The Universe is like a great work of art. having leading ideas running through the whole. The conscious individual. Similarly a particular It embraces the general nationality is an individuality. Yet they all consist of one material. more elaborately by one set of same spiritual matter and the same spiritual laws This have organized the individual mind. Schleiermacher makes the individual mind share in the manufacture of it. the laws. explains how Schleiermacher only distinguished individuals religions of the same elements. is of his people. An animal organism a characteristic presentation of organic life. Mankind for example is an individuality exhibiting the Universe. To Berkeley also perception was a religious act. though indirect was much larger than is usually acknowledged. but the]-e are many resemblances to Berkeley. and the form also in which it is embodied. is kindred Schleiermacher always reverenced as a apparent in this. Man's is spirit in this respect is The body is part of the material world. therefore.XXX belief it is INTRODUCTION.

All the products of a Universe which elements of his experience. he may begin at the other end with the . and above all by the present . Another distinguished from All his man is equally imaginative. having in infinity. y y and travel backwards towards This is the aim of religion. Again. would just Whether by naturally have scientific and moral interests. the Universe. if carried far enough. were there not obstructions. This is the aim of science. Quality is explained quantitatively.INTRODUCTION.man for example is another by the prominence of his imagination. starting from the common elements of reason. as a product and representation of the Universe in ceaseless interaction with it. may have while all the others may be The three aims. He may y different parts of his experience to one another by discovering their casual and other connections. but his other faculties are grouped differently. have connections therefore endeavour to refer the and relations. as every man. the religious man who has once had a feeling and intuition of the Universe can reach from every experience. As every perception is an interaction of the whole distinct phenomena of life. proceed to carry out the purpose of the Universe by applying them in accordance with his own nature and circumstances. miglit call it the atomic theory of the individual. elements each of which may be prominent. having many variously grouped. he may take himself as an inde- pendent manifestation of the Universe. Finally. and. This is the aim of morals. conscious individual. we should finally reach the Universe. xxxi and position. the Universe were not hindered external or internal observation. being is a whole. And if the sense it would naturally reach this intuition. itself We a certain One . Universe with our whole being. But men are hindered by mechanical burdens. other faculties are grouped round it. Again imaginations may differ in kind. and the reason that this can be accomplished is that we are dealing with a production of the Infinite.

" Schleiermacher himself said. How it shall define not yet apparent and is a question of science. which should be inspired by religion. This purpose is much more distinctly the aim of the first than of the second ^ edition. but it may be fear feebly changing to love. religion has is and fallen into evil repute. all that can be thought is only possible to be thought because in some find We that our souls are sense it is ourselves already. Nay. " a rule. and everything from fear to the perfect love which makes us feel we are one with the Universe without a doubting or a is jarring note. Whatsoever any man has thought or felt comes to us as our thought and feeling.xxxii INTRODUCTION. sense. howitself in idea is ever dimly. and is fitted in turn to adorn it. Simply by setting religion by itself. is As knowledge only recollection. but already there is a life of feeling. if omission that made not by actual perpetration. satisfies men with a narrower object than the Universe.'" He somewhat exemplifies his own '' As judgment. Before we were conscious only of paint. part Because this has been obscured or forgotten. now. By reflection we best awake to this larger an epitome of all mankind. but as essentially a of human nature as either knowledge or action. Fear unmixed it cannot be. neither metaphysics nor morals. conscience are implicit in feeling. Schleiermacher hopes to fulfil the task he has set himself of awaking a new regard for religion. o-s how knowledge and . Plato expressed it. Eeligion therefore sense and taste for the Infinite. we perceive the picture.* Ourselves and all that all we know only exhibit one Universe. Even art. and how it shall affect our actions is a question of ethics . This waking of the sense for the Universe is the larger life. worldly-wise calculating type of education. at least by an He did not show others perpetrate it. one age only knows how to meet the errors of its predecessor by committing another error.

The vaster the variety of religious emotion the better. but by had already emancipated itself from authority and morals was seeking an authority of its own. schools where the pupil seeks the master. There ^ should. just as an artist exhibits his own art to awake the' sense for art in his pupils. But this artistic conception of religion is not merely a simile to explain the nature of religion. be as fluid as The visible church does not consist of religious persons but of persons seeking religion. It was necessary. must not be forgotten that he held no act of the mind An activity of the mind is marked single and distinct. it appears also in ^ his conception of the church. having the sense b . He does not show the ground of his own contention in later life Yet it that religion must rest on truth and freedom. even at times found speaking as if one feeling might correspond to two ideas. and that indifference to religion was indifference to the profoundest element in man evident in some way among all science peoples. In Europe both science and morals had been nurtured Christianfty. and the visible societies should ^ possible. and only by He is ^^ ^ surely the prominent element in religion is feeling. though how people could seek religion without. and one sense for the Universe be represented by different conceptions of God. therefore. All a master can do is to exhibit his own religion.INTRODUCTION. Religion cannot be conveyed by instruction. according to affinity. therefore. because the Infinite is best . and departs to another according to need. the element that is most prominent in it. be only one church that one may learn more from those most different from him. tliey xxxiii mast be if it is immediately given by tlie Universe.^ shown by the multitude and variety of its productions. and each individual is the more likely to find what will so harmonize with himself as to awake his own sense. in some degree. to say that there was a religious element in man not affected by either.

xxxiv INTRODUCTION. custom office. But there is also a apparently reason in his theory for making the visible society what Strauss has called " a merely infusorial life. Each religion is not distinguished by the quantity of religious matter. and hopes for little good till. awakened The members of the for it. though in the notes he acknowledges that the church contains more religious should. against the abstract jejune spirit of the The polemic Illumination applied to religion the same principle that had already been -accepted by the younger generation in literature. The supreme foe of religion is death. be an organization. the masters in a divine art. but by the special form in which the . it is overturned. He calls attention to assemblies where no one man is priest by man speaks who has the inspiration. because it has misled the church in its own work. or till some other institution is allowed to grow up alongside of it. fluence in religion. he does not explain. therefore. In all this the pupil of the Moravians is manifest. shall be the priests. not indeed to exercise official authority. Evils were inevitable in this as in ail human afi*airs. Wheresoever there is The state has been an evil inactivity there is hope. and subjected it to an authority to which no art can submit without disaster. Here Schleiermacher's doctrine of individuality found application. He takes the most pessimistic view of the state church. being infinite. the Universe. Speech has probably had more influence of various kinds than any part of the book. true church. he never altered his description of the visible church in the text. but the state has fixed the evils and made them permanent. in so far as it The last is people than he had thought and the communion of the pious. must have a principle of individualization. but any and formality must be its chief foes. Wherefore. Religion. Hence. assemblies of Moravians. but by native superiority to have large respect and influence. by a revolution. The state did not create the evils.'^ Religion seeks only one system.

and ev^en in later Christianity he never fully acknowledged. The were repelled by the pantheistic expressions in the book^ which were more prominent in the first edition than in its later form. marvelled wish to be a preacher of Christianity. distinguish a positive would mean in respect of Judaism he seeks fruitful show. with my will. historical Though inadequate. '^ the Hence. Sack. '' " were at first little known to the theoSpeeches The adherents of the old rationalistic school logical world. not religions.In his conception of Christianity his Moravian education appears. selected." and the prevailing Christian note is sadness.'^ /* b 2 . and I shall never. to ^'^ why he should Schleiermacher ' replied. virtuous and earnest soul can fill. of In Moravianism the doctrine of the total depravity reconciliation by grace overshadowed all else. I hold the position of a preacher the noblest that a truly religious. life he preached almost exclusively from the New Testament.INTRO D UCTION. and its attitude ceaseless polemic against the difference between actuality universal resistance of Whole and the way and the religious idea. matter is xxxv The same religious matter appears in organized. is What to this grouped around it. but the fundamental intuition. by any superiority but by some need or some insight of the people and the age that believe it. The relation of this central intuition of Christianity to its historical beginning and subsequent historical development is in the first edition very slight. exchange it with any other. the fundamental view of Christianity is man and all things finite to the unity of the the Deity treats this resistance. and the mode in all which the rest religion. But we shall better understand the changes in the second edition its when we know Schleiermacher's life up till appearance in 1806. there is deep and The relation of Judaism to insight. to whom Schleiermacher felt it his duty still acknowledge his authorship. The historical Christ seems at times only to be the discoverer and originator.

the banker Yeit. Schlegel was always in want of money. glorification. the The offence of ^' book to increased by the it. Fichte. ''' enthusiasm. thought the book preno more. Schlegel had caused Dorothea. ethical But already Schleiermacher had had in the narrowest sense. Schlegel showed himself utterlv base and selfish in the whole matter. intuition and feeling accorded with this vein. and soon the / Christianity of the Middle Ages was the chief object of Already Schleiermacher was in opposition. but Schleiermacher strove through it all to believe in him. such proofs of Schlegel's unreliableness as even his self- devoted friendship which gives him the high distinction of being the only person in the circle in whose sacrificing letters Dilthey has found no duplicity. Novalis that the papacy was the corruption. a man whose nature was nothing but ethical. older school in antiquity was passing. ^^ have made religion the order of the Novalis wrote many poems under the immediate day/' *^ Speeches. but when it was done he urged Schlegel to marry her." Imagination utterly failed . not the telling perfection of Catholicism. and the new school The new religion of were deep in the Middle Ages. But in -the Tlie elder Kantians. the daughter of Mendelssohn. macher sought to avert the separation. Confidential Letters on Lucinde church party was '^ which followed Already Schleiermacher and Schlegel had drifted far apart. and troubled it V now gathered at Jena. such as Schiller^ tentious and barren." Already the interest of the inspiration of the Romantic circle. was unable to pass. but the artistic admiration for Catholicism continued till many members of the Romantic School found their u" way this into the Church of Rome. always at least after he had drained his friends. Schleierto separate from her husband. Schlegel had wonderful gifts of adapHe had even maintained for a time a friendship with tation. it created a great Novalis and Schlegel/' Caroline Schlegel wrote Schleiermacher. and in his desire for funds he wrote a novel " Lucinde.xxxvi INTROD UCTION.

of those writings. and to fill xxxvii Dorothea. ia his remonstrating with him. He Monologues. purity. tended to re-establish him ecclesias- Yet it was another matter that drove him from Berlin. described as a ^public exhibition/ But necessities were urgent. he also found in the book his own theory that the union of soul and body is *' " Letters/' necessary for a complete human life.INTRO D UCTION. and partly of the spirit of a time when Fichte is Even all institutions were in the crucible. after she had separated from her husband. being matters of caprice. it through But neither were known to be tically. him. Schleiermacher did not escape the spirit of the time. to his wife's care.'* which '' moral philosophy as the " Speeches developed his religious philosophy. and Schleiermacher. He very unwillingly The criticism had been more prudery than consented. The current ideas of marriage were partly the result of the corrupt society of the Berlin that had grown up around the court of Frederick the Great. he wrought his views into his . so far as they his. Dorothea straightway turned round and besought Schleiermacher to do something to defend her husband. bore traces of being on a bad text. and Schlegel published his book. but his though a good commentary. At once a storm of adverse criticism arose. and Schleiermacher hated all unreality.'' Once more occupied his developes his Schleiermacher stood largely alone. He also wrote upon the Jewish question. found recommending Dorothea Veit. in a desecration of book lie set forth his relation with way which Dorothea herself considered a the temple of love. With a subhim from seeing practical tilty that frequently prevented but which kept all his aberrations from consequences. and urging that all civil privileges should be accorded them in order that they might not mind in writing his " be led to endanger Christianity by embracing indifference. opposing the desire to convert the Jews to a nominal Christianity.

sufficient motive. freedom of belief and action. away in the far north-east on the Baltic Sea. when he met Eleonore in an assembly. with the utmost difficulty in obtaining the materials for " Outlines of study. was an emphatic hindrance to the was a duty. but Dilthey says an immoral man. separation Here we find the weakness of all his early philosophizHe was excessively short-sighted. the wife of a pastor in had made an unhappy marriage. and had a To him an idea was a student's way of looking at life. however. " God has been good both to you and me. almost stimulus of literary companionship. he accepted Sack's urgent offer to leave Berlin for a pastorate at Stolpe. largely in the spirit of He would have union. the Fourth Speech of this book. long after. all entirely without the Existing The moderns ideal. of him was weak. Finally he advised divorce. he offered marriage. he went up to her and said. the sensuous side ing. He also wrote on church reform.^' In much affliction of body as well as mind. Griinow was not only somewhat of a boor towards his wife. seemed to him all to aim at one uniformity of without any acknowledgment of individuality. Eleonore. not uniformity. system. practical result. and when no other prospect was open for Eleonore. mankind. and though Schleiermacher passed through a very bitter struggle. development of the soul. this theorizing came to a Eleonore Griinow. himself. he wrote in Stolpe his Theories of Morals. Even with Berlin. To leave her absolutely free. Eleonore finally resolved to continue to bear her burden. The diminished external dignity of churchmen he considered . and the ideal a sufficient standard and he was utterly ignorant of how much was needed to restrain ." Plato alone he spared. Schleiermacher began by giving sympathy and good advice. He tlien lield that V but where marriage where there was no true union.xxxviii INTROD UCTION. he was of student^s habits.

breaking faith with Schleiermacher and the publisher in the Berlin manner. and ho began to approve himself as a teacher and to be recognized as a power in the pulpit. and for the first time paid price for his work. The nature and value into the of the many changes introduced text have long been under discussion.INTRODUCTION. but as that idlers. Finally he It had been was occupied with the translation of Plato. He could wish another career to is be open for all who do not love the calling. he would exclude " blockheads.be University Reformed preacher was an innovation. without fear of rank or prejudice. he issued the second edition of this book. turned The discussion on the author's . therefore. responsibilities. when political disasters were falling upon his country. and he had published a small volume of sermons. as was the case especially with persons of a lower social rank. Piinjer seems to consider them chiefly a marring of the original work. Lipsius thinks many valuable things in the first edition are dropped. the publisher. begun in partnership with Schlcgel. in 1806. ••• xxxix He wished to see matters so arranged that no one good. it was an additional inducement that he was also to. every man shall speak the truth performers as he sees it. A Gradually however matters were arranged. especially the use of intuition in religion. the University service was long postponed on various pretexts. and preacher. feeling alone having largely taken has largely its place. When a professorship at Halle was offered to him. his friend Schleiermacher set himself to most offensive the task alone. but practically Schlegel did nothing. and accepted the Reimer. should be tempted to enter the ministry as an easy way of getting a livelihood. yet he grants many improvements. '' ! and Above all. not possible. him a reasonable During all this time his chief interest had been in his preaching and his instruction of the young. At this stage.

and men are not merely Christians when they have His view. it was less troubled by artificial theory.x\ ' INTRODUCTION. some changes. the psychological process was more justly conceived. Christ is not merely the originator of the Christian intuition of the world. apprehensions Braasch defends Schleiermacher's own view of the The later presentations are explained by the changes. The artistic paraphernalia are is to be in a position to recognize us. The later editions are only Pantheistic in a very general way. It was clearer. Finally. The most various views are defended. religion being the artistic sense applied to the Universe. that is entirely Christian and opposed ^to Pantheism. " or " Spinozism/' and his relation to historiPantheism cal Christianity. the hesitation to ascribe personality to God is more marked. hand Ritschl finds characteristic inconsistency. Schleiermacher began as a Pantheist. but on the is less other hand the relation of religion to dogma and discipline justly conceived. the sense for religion. Lipsius gives a very full and elaborate comparison of the various editions. On the one Schleiermacher regards the Universe simply as a work of art. I men whose whole interest was This will certainly explain I The time had quite passed. The first edition had elements in it that made it the outer court by which Schleiermacher himself and with him all modern theology . entered into the Holy of Holies of Christianity. but has a fundamental relation to a state of things that can only end with time. and new mishad to be guarded against. . has found his place not only in Above all the author Protestantism. is shown simply a device for awaking in in art. Christianity is Christianity but in not now a transitory form. which necessarily involves Pantheism on the other his doctrine of individuality gives a value to the individual as a whole within a whole. and ended in the same •way. but He is the centre of all mediation and to have the Christian view He by His place when the changes are explained simply Again difference of audience.

is use for the new race of readers and thinkers was to be doubted. and the /\/ effusiveness of the first edition. he believes to be unchanged. his "way of thinking had reached the form in which. First. he is entitled to a hearing on his own Yet is not necessarily the best judge." Though every man mental progress. bears the impress of the period which gave But so utterly had the time changed that its it birth. is the mark. however. he has drifted out of the Eomantic circle. and the most detect the difference. Wherefore. of the untrained beginner. who does not know the limits of the language he has to deal with and who cannot succeed in presenting an The essential meaning and object as clearly as he sees it. The colour of the time in which it was written he neither could nor would remove. and chiefly concerning the relation of ^' But what I would willingly religion and philosophy. xli tlie same thoroTiglily successful attempt to formulate better The author's of fundamental problems. But he grew perhaps more than any man with the growing superficial. especially the gush about . reader cannot fail to age. and if we allow the ripening and clarifying process to involve a considerable change of spiritual attitude we may accept his estimate. purpose and even in the preface to the third edition he says that already. when this book was first written.e. Three points of difference between the Halle theological professor of 1806 and the member of the Wednesday Club of 1799 make themselves apparent. The book. all too strongly impressed on the whole book.INTRODUCTION. he says. it has since remained. Yet he might not now withhold it_. with the exception of what in every man years ripen and clarify.^' of the book. original conception own view given in the dedication to Brinkmann. have quite removed^ had it been possible. having once given it to the public. he has only altered details that might cause mis- understandings. the main outlines of Schleiermacher's thought seem to have remained unchanged. i.

" but had quite other misconceptions to guard To the Illumination God was not only outside of against. reached by understanding and useful for persuading to moral action. Yet even here it is evident that it is hesitation and not . was his message.xlii IN TROD UCTION. and that the lack of the artistic sense is his most marked limitation. Away with your dogmas altogether. liimself are erased or For the same cause he moderates some figures of speech and softens many statements. In opposition to the Deistic view of God. He was a person who the world but outside of man. is feeling which gives reality to knowof theory. notably his confession that he wished to do homage to the goddess of art. but in the fact that the Halle prof essor calmly said I will expound the relations of science. without much reference either Yet the excessive difficulty in the to knowing or acting. and the mixture is a conglomerate of somewhat confused nature. DO place to. Dogmas were abstractions." Except through the world without and the world of 1806 within there is no knowledge of God. This specially applies to the There is a slight difference first part of the Second Speech. men may The Schleiermacher was no longer in deadly struggle with the '' Illumination.-^ This leads to the second difference. Religion ledge and substance to morals. being. whereas the Romanticist said passionately I must tear these metaphysical and ethical rags off religion that see it undisguised. Religion in the old form was intuition and feeling. But the newer lava is much cooler than the old. Several references to toned down. and have our religion. religion and ethics. ^. and away with your goodness produced by desire of Heaven and Just what the Illumination fear of Hell. he refuses to commit himself to any statement about God's existence as a person. present exposition is not in any great difficulty of the new theory. rewarded and punished. lias art grown strange to him. was for Schleiermacher the surest part of gave " that in Him we live and move.

he scarcely stopped to ask whether there was any right religious thinking. dogma was denounced^ religious The question of the relation of discipline little regarded. for the feelings are the result of the operation of the Universe. of personal experience. but should be with religion. This is the conception he works out in the Glaubenslehre (the Doctrine of Faith). different state Religion purely an aesthetic religion among his ancient friends was now feeling. of his doctrine of individuality and he knows that it disPlace for it in the tinguishes his system from Spinoza. In 1806 he stood opposed to an entirely of matters. are so utterly inadequate as be no representation of reality. any definite xliii Pantheistic creed that hinders him from He is conscious of the value ascribing personality to God. such as to speak of God to as a person like ourselves. In a letter to Sack he defends anthropomorphistic expres-^ sions in religion as necessary for any utterance of it.INTRODUCTION. But in rejecting religion as abstract meant to influence morals. Thus the mind can make its feelings the object of its ' thought. to knowledge and morals was urgent. not less. not merely of personal excitability. work upon. Lipsius thinks if he had retained his first conception of intuition he would have reached the truth. Universe there must be and God must be greater. Schleierof the macher solved the difficulty by saying that one part mind can take the other for its object. but still something on to truth. Doctrines are generalizations of feelings. and doctrines arise. but not therefore merely subjective. or the way doctrine religious acting. but it rather seems to contain a profound truth. Doctrines are abstractions from our intuitions as well as V generalizations from our feelings. which means that our human ways of speech. Religious ideas are reflections on religious feeling. This has been uniformly criticized always as defective. . In the same way the will may make the feelings an object to Action is never to be from religion.

her sons were waking to an earnest and practical love for their native land. of stating a problem and suggesting its solution. Universe. is his deeper historical consciousness. is frequently replaced by Whole and All. ^' Apology '' is supplanted words." and now. That the theory is rendered more consistent is doubtful. that religion has not merely an aesthetic but an ethical side. the favourite term of the first edition. they receive their quittance. and traces of the theory that religion is the feeling of absolute dependence. but as the result of immediate feeling or of a fashion in the religious communion 'i This change of position necessarily involves somewhat more boldness in speaking of God and not merely of the Universe. by the German equivalent here translated '^Defence. . but they mark one of the greatest movements of modern times. much damage done because zeal issues in act before Is not it has taken counsel with conscience. are manifest. It has the merit at least made But ." Even common words like philosophers and prophets are changed to seers and wise men. but by a fundamental relation to God. words of sadly alien aspect in the English translation. A positive religion is determined not by a fundamental intuition of the Universe. He has carried out a remorseless war against foreign In his earlier days he made an unusually free use of such words. The artistic Tower of Babel Germany had been dissolved by the " confusion of tongues. if any respectable native equivalent can be discovered. These changes are by no means uniformly felicitous. but the change ' was in the interests of a great truth. as the shadow of the French invasion was gathering over her. Religion is somewhat strictly limited ~^ to feeling.xliv INTRODUCTION. and spiritual disciplines are determined upon not as the ascetic which a man's own conscience has decreed for him. He begins with the title of the First Speech. The third difference in the author which finds way into I \ the second edition. the meaning of this theory will better appear in its considering the Explanations. but now.

Christianity he sets forth unquestionably. and found that however lofty the conception of the individual. a morality that begins with the general elements of reason in man. bearing of his own doctrine. All religions do something to mediate between the finite and the Infinite. have maintained the social nature of religion and the knowledge of divine things in life and not apart from it. spiritual called most apparent in the striking addition Epilogue. Historical facts life. But Christianity is conscious of this as is highest aim. he takes up a definite position Schlegel not only as a Christian. a higher . individual perfection is not an adequate moral aim. His expectaits . but reckons it dead. . and he has no more interest in new forms of religion either without or This change the is within Christianity. tion that bespeak personal devotion and reverence. For Schleiermacher's theology as well as for his It was his high merit to life this movement was of value. 255. Here in contrast to Friedrich and his followers. begins with duty to his country and to all men.^ He says he does not care how heathen religions may be estimated. note He speaks of it on p. / the religion of religions. from his own There is a strength and power in his descripexperience. Christianity is power of religion. but he is rooted in the form of religion in which his life has Similarly a man he found to be realities of the In those years he had also struggled with himself and tested his theory in self-conquest. more practical 2. — . he not only participates in the universal elements of all religion. If each man is a whole within a nationality that is a whole within humanity. but now he was to perceive the larger. not only has his own religion. Judaism he describes for the value it once had. And what Christianity to other religions Christ is to other men.INTRODUCTION. xlv Schlelermacber himself was conscious of the value of this patriotism for religion. according to his own demand. but as a Protestant. grown.^1 In the first edition he sets Christianity apart from all other religions.

and even then he was indebted to a French officer for wood for his winter's But as long as ^'potatoes and salt " would hold out he fire. Napoleon.xlvi INTRODUCTION. but the hope of some new tiou of a organization of the religious matter that may wake the It religious sense in persons far distant from Christianity. he believed. " The lives of us all are rooted in German freedom and German sentiment^ and they are at stake. among of ideas. Hitherto Schleiermacher had been almost wholly a man In 1807 the defeat at Jena brought disaster upon Prussia and upon Halle in particular. using as a pretext the conduct of the students. hated Protestantism as he hated all independent thought. In those years there was no the war because there could be no worse evil than base submission."" His own circumstances were of the worst. joined Steffens in house-keeping. Schleiermacher and his youngest sister who lived -with him. had been pillaged by the French soldiers. Napoleon. but he did not deceive himself about the results. . and victory was scarcely to be hoped for except said.^' He rejoiced at by a coalition among the Protestant states of the North. In the years of humiliation that followed he became a man of action. that idol worshippers will need to be prepared for Christianity by Polytheism. he published his " Christmas Festival a (Weihnachtsfeier). because he fears that its purpose can only end with time. Even an opponent '^ better patriot. is parallel with the conception which he subsequently re- jected also. For economy. ^' Shortly after this second edition. The end would demand every effort and self-sacrifice. new religion of humanity is not an anticipation that Christianity will be replaced. closed the University. and then only after much purification by sorrow. Any little possession he ever had. dialogue representatives of various types of thought. who discuss the non-supernatural views of the occasion of the celebration. and it was worthy of it.

xlvii was determined not to move. the other great patriot of the time. Each book in the Bible must be examined by itself and its authenticity must be established on the same canons that would be applied to any other must stand by itself. At the close of 1807 he left Halle for Berlin. By the Peace of Tilsit Napoleon had divided a large part of the territory of Prussia among the neighbouring states. Once more he came into violent collision with Fichte. had made light of all three. he thought. As opportunities arose he preached and did not shun to deal with the present sad Meantime in the corner of Steffens^s studystate o£ things. . even when it receives the staters support. ing Fichte. and as he would not pray After long for the king and queen he could not preach. who wished to make the University a sort of philosophical cloister under the stern discipline of the state.INTRODUCTION. of Germany he regarded as one and Fichte. By individual spirit and effort it must prosper. by men who really taught and who were not merely paid for having the right to forget the existence of the printing press. and he continued by many oppressive devices his policy of . with almost History had become real to Schleiermacher . Schleiermacher maintained that science to be prosperous must be independent of the state. an inquiry into the authenticity of the First Epistle of Timothy. although a tempting offer was made to him from Breslaii. and Schleiermacher had much to do with the construction of it. The divineness of Christianity first effort and not depend on a different divineness of the Scriptures. . at that time Christianity he believed was the living power most needed and the cause of Protestantism and the cause . Halle had been transferred to Westphalia. He is found reviewfierce hostility. he was as busy as ever with his pen. book. replace Halle. At this time also he issued his at exegesis. and much poverty a new sphere opened for him in delay A new University was founded in the capital to Berlin.

decision Church in tunities Berlin. Schleiermacher aid in the Every morning he lectured as determined to be the last to quit his post. who without . and for a formation of the militia. Stein^s leadership desired reforms in Schleiermacher seized the occasion to demaud under reforms in the church. Friedrich Schlegel and his wife had already entered the Catholic Church . he married the widow of his friend Willich a marriage which was none the less happy because it was begun with nothing in store and with the utmost uncertainty as to the future. showing the spiritual purpose and the spiritual claims of such a time. The last link that bound him to the Romantic period was now broken. but he was so self-possessed that it short time of peace afforded to nothing. . He fouud the cause of the indiffer- ence to public worship. and he was not slow national to use his oppor- for summoned teaching before the French Once he was duties. During a by the war with Austria. having He preached with prophetic voice. sinking ever . last great struggle During the disaster in with Napoleon. in the subordina- tion of the church to the state. of the want of an active relationship between preachers and their congregation. Where blame seemed to him to be due he spoke out. of the failure of the religious sentiment to influence morals. while Schleiermacher was fighting for Prussia and for Protestantism as one cause. and henceforward. in the idea that it was a mere state institute. Schlegel was in Austria. and of the utter lack of church discipline. The patriots the state. and was despatched on several dangerous commissions. he was settled as preacher in the Dreifaltigkeits annihilation. came deeper into Ultramontanism. usual. commander Davoust. In 1808. any express union wrought together for the restoration of Schleiermacher was a recognized member.xlviii INTROD UCTION. their country. The government was incapable of any right but a band of true patriots arose. after the lent his Russia.

and to that end teaching must have a prominent c . and was being extended to others. and th. For the freedom of the church especially he felt called upon to fight. He desired a constitution based on congregational representation. After Napoleon^s strength had been broken at Leipzig. and spent some hours every lie day in being drilled. The teacher must be free to speak the truth and he must not be bound by any formula. calamity. is based on truth and worship. which was enforced in military churches. but with tongue and pen he laboured to obtain the constitution that had been promised in the time of government. To their presbyteries and synods he would give all matters of order and discipline. therefore. but where he departs from the spirit and truth of Christianity so as to alienate from him the congregation. Schleiermacher. and now he came forward boldly as the critic of the commission. is to be dealt with by the church authorities. it gave the sermon and Protestant congregational singing a very inferior place. the government appointed a commission to draw up a liturgy and to re-establisb the ancient Lutheran rigidity. not content with the commission. Schleiermacher maintained. felt called upon to speak. It was directly contrary to the spirit of the Reformed Church. The king.e manner of introduction was opposed to the spirit of he Protestantism. in the stomach. The new liturgy was not only rigid. largely composed by himself. Schleiermacher was even more gravely suspected by the For many years he had been subject to cramp and in the troubles of the time it increased upon him. freedom.INTRODUCTION. was among tlie first to enrol himself in a Finally battalion of the Landwehr. issued a liturgy. Instead of granting a constitution. in spite of the difficulty of opposing the king. Schleiermacher was already in bitter opposition to the spirit of the time which he felt there was no one to oppose. newspaper article xlix was severely censured by the government.

his own or other peoples'. Schleiermacher introduce was regarded as a political agitator. new." A certain outward unity of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches had been brought to pass chiefly by the authority Schleiermacher felt that a movement of this kind should have been the outcome of the Christian sentiment of the community . and that this transference of ecclesiastical power to the Prince of the Schleierland was the true outcome of the Reformation. macher with trenchant argument and pungent sarcastic wit. for no one that would believe what is divine. but Luther himself would have been the first to resist its imposition in a merely traditional spirit on the church of the Nineteenth Century. was convinced by his court ecclesiastics that from Constantino and Charlemagne he inherited the right and duty to be head of the church. however. While he spared such honest enthusiasts as Harms.1 INTRODUCTION. it by whatever means it might have been accom- This union. For many years the struggle continued. forward plished. but he also felt it his duty to of the king. testing are one and the same. he chastised the time-servers with scorpions. community that had been reared in the Catholic Church. If all the Reformation did was to transfer the Pope's power to the Prince of the land. a well-meaning arbitrary attempts at uniformity. ^ Meantime a movement similar to the High Church movement which followed in England some ten years later was . should wish to believe deceptions old or and the congregation must have a large liberty to use the means best suited for its own edification. He is also found defending the rights of critical study " Purest faith and of the place. was followed by the most The king. who sought to republicanism into the church as a beginning for introducing into the state. replied. sharpest simplest Scriptures. he thought there was need of The agenda was right for a another reformation. but rather weak man.

U Schleiermaclier gradually felt that passing over Germany.INTRODUCTION. last (Christliche Glaubenslehre) . the " '^ third edition of the Speeches appeared. the spirit of the time was not with him. They represent the third and last stage of Schleiermacher's little thought. While smaller men had been dealt with by the authorities. and no man can harmonize very great his youth with his old age without some subtil ty. but to . on the understanding that he was to use it as he liked. he had been too terrible an opponent to touch. and with it the of a church that might by its own free vitality have hope were on produced a new religious life in Grermany. and now many concessions were made to him. and finally to point out to his time the lessons of his former teaching." Had he said this of the changes in uhe second edition there might have been some force in it. diS'erence of tone. These Explanations are not to be regarded as expositions of the text. They are an attempt to harmonize his earlier utterances with his later. He considers them a superintendence of the youthful Schleiermacher by ^' is the the old. The people still his side. In how far it applies to the Explanations There is certainly a the reader has the mL ans of judging. The text was changed except in details of expression. Thus the strife ended. and. to give more precise expression to the old ideas. c 2 . but the Explanations at the end of each Speech were added. which gives an unpleasant impression and same petty smallness of soul with which the theologians of the Catholic Church compelled the Antinicene Fathers into agreement with Athanasian orthodoxy. usually in the new dress of the Glaubenslehre. but he was not fitted to be a popular leader and years and illness were telling upon him. . In the midst of these struggles he produced his " Christian Doctrine of Faith ^' his great work. Strauss criticizes them very unfavourably. immediately after its publication. to guard against misconceptions. Finally he accepted a much simpler form of the agenda.

It simply the consciousness of the roots jf our nature. though we are . but has no truth in respect of the matter of the theory. Wherefore. not only of Dogmatics but of Exegesis among historical sciences. as can be seen from the frequent references in the Explanations. it is Jy We live in the region of antithesis. yet coming to him through the consciousness existing in the Christian of Theological or rather the Protestant communion. and with a more definite moral purpose.lii INTRODUCTION. are — — way of thinking is the insertion. especially his doctrine that piety is the consciousness that we are absolutely dependent. He'^jCl's criticism that it would make Schleiermacher's dog more pious than himself may be a fair criticism of the terminology. but they touch on most points in Schleiermacher's later thinking as '^ set forth in his Doctrine of Faith" and an earlier work prepared in anticipation of the arrangement of the theolo^' A Short Presentation gical faculty in Berlin University. In this latter writing he accepts the fundamental fact of Christianity as entirely original. most minds These notes are not all alike of the same value. Without the ^' Speeches " indeed it is hardly possible to understand the whole bearing of his later views. of a very striking mind. or in relation to God. is simply the old feeling and intuition of the Universe with the idea of God more definite. Study" (Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums). There the place for his three chief divisions^ philosophical^ to find of Christianity in general religion^ leading to Most characteristic apologetics historical and practical. the contrast will not give an unpleasant but be a very interesting study in the growth impression. In the Introduction to the " Doctrine of Faith '' he discusses many matters already treated in this book. but God is the unity of knowing and being. It • what he considers the same thing. is Theology therefore a positive science of the existing Christian consciousness of God^ linked to the practical task of guiding the church.

There have been three Monotheistic Judaism. yet for the production of every man there must have been an indwelling power of development in the species. liii always conscious of God. next there is Polytheism. \ difference.INTRODUCTION. the not separate from our other experience but consciousness of freedom being the other. shows Polytheistic elements. stage is Idolatry based on a confused sense of the on admiration and terror . by its sensuous and passionate character. only perfect in Monotheism. dependence bearing on the passive — . and though Christ. to be a universal divine must be entirely set apart from other men. human nature must have had the power to take up into it . one sense supernatural. Christianity is distinguished by its relation to His the redemption accomplished by Jesus of Nazareth. we cannot have a consciousness that can stand outside of Him and regard Him. feeling its feeling of absolute side of life. the Kingdom of Heaven being Judaism gives more prominence to personal chief end. however. world. that is. therefore. and Mahommedanism. Christianity is distinguished as more teleological. itself. is the highest stage of In kind. I' ' appearance in history is as a divine revelation not absoEvery beginning is in lutely supernatural or above reason. involving clear sense perception and sense of law in first and The Pietv embodies itself in communities or churches. and therefore of absolute dependence. however. Further. piety. Christianity. by its constant limitation of God to Israel has affinities with Idolatry. and thus sees the world religions. its pious emotions bear more on the moral than its on the natural state of man. is This is simply one it side. which involves a deeper selfconsciousness that finds everything in itself and therefore The everything in harmony with as system. may be distinguished by the stage or by the kind. yet revelation. is feeling of absolute dependence. but one of immediate contact only. and Mahommedanism is the aesthetic type of piety.

the Pelagian and the ManichaBan. where in addition to his wife's two children by her former marriage. he was frequently in He lectured on politics. and all departments of theology. and was in Christ must be in man. Protestantism makes the relation of the individual to the church dependent upon his relation to Christ. before we could have any need to be reconciled. which either i/ make either y Christ too near or too far from it human nature. Catholicism on the contrary makes the relation . there were three daughters and a son of his own. Like many other men in Germany at that time he lec- tured on a wide range of subjects. the Ebionite and the Docetic. so that does not need redemption. in the outlines of his scheme of thought. Dogmatic theology is the science of the connection of the teaching valid in a Christian society The first duty of the theologian is to at a given time. the theologian far as must either be Protestant or In so the Reformation was not merely purification of abuses. aesthetics. in Christ. In Christianity there are four natural heresies.liv INTRODUCTION. There are two Christological. or Further Catholic. education. discover a rule to distinguish the false from the true. an eternal all. Many of the philology notes for these lectures have been published and help to fill dye in all collision. As a philosopher he enjoyed a reputation not second to his colleague Hegel. with whom. it cannot be redeemed. In his own home. and two anthropological. of the individual to Christ dependent on his relation to the I church. as an apostle of ideas and a Tory of the deepest things social and political. was The only be by a divine. There is than human reason He could not be a Redeemer for yet in a sense all that no way of sharing in Christian fellowship except by faith in Jesus as the Redeemer. it the divine as actual implanting could but the temporal issue act^ of the act in a special person must be founded in the And without more original constitution of human nature. he enjoyed the most .

intercourse. he spoke more persistently of God's love in Christ. journal had as the audience A ' described him as a great man. have the propitiatory death of Jesus Christ. and even when most broken down by illgreat health and overwork.INTRODUCTION.' he said. and The sublimity in preaching is against my principles. In 1829 his only son Nathaniel died. I must think the profoundest speculative thoughts. forcible and adapted to all. Germans. His body and His blood. perfect happiness. Iv friends and much social which on account of very early rising did not hinder him from overtaking an astounding amount of work."* He had long been acknowledged In the main his greatest preacher of his time. and we said. sublimer the Gospel the simpler must the preaching of it His style was conversational. but he had hearers of all classes. particularly of students. several days' walking in all weathers He had many At times he made longer journeys and was restored him. pedestrian. work in so much sick- end he was able Almost The will which had enabled him to the to and he was seized with he said *^ I am in a state between consciousness and unconsciousness. and they are quite one with the Once he cried ^' Lord I suffer tenderest religious feelings. but I have the divinest moments. consisted of educated people. I have ever believed and believe still that the ness. now resisted nature too far inflammation of the lungs. once at least in this country. He was a Holidays were usually spent in travelling. On his death-bed U-" . He made the funeral speech himself.' death there was larger depth of sympathy. to carry on all his work.'^ much. in the highest degree But after his son^s natural." Soon after the pain passed. I have never clung to the dead letter. ascribe greatness to so few that We * to say it of a man of my stamp can only be absurd. then as if meditating he " Lord. and a sublime preacher. but he felt that at his age ^ such a wound heals no more. and he was frequently moved even to tears. be.

one. have been estimated in comparatively short space by Neander and sible. '^ Whosoever. rejected the pantheistic elements in the and detestation. was the appearance of the ''Speeches on Religion" by the late Schleiermacher. will recognize how a pantheistic enthusiasm can be for " of pre-eminent qualifications. lie said.Ivi INTRODUCTION. adherents of the ancient Christian supernaturalism or earnest Eationalists whose living faith in a God above the world and a life beyond was a relic of it. tlie Lord Jesus gave Supper in water and wine. This book was the occasion of a great revolution and mighty stirring of spirits. should be pointed out. To enter on the Its Ritschl. it was of the greatest im- portance that the might of religious feeling." Then " Are raising liimself. the seat of It was a religion in the heart.''' " In this love and commu- we are and remain It A few moments more and he had departed. know with what might this book that in youthful enthusiasm of the neglected religious elements in human nature. In opposition to a one-sided intellectualism. however. But those who were then book with auger among the rising testified generation. the assent of the by-standers he continued^ us take the Supper^ you the wine and me the Let no one be troubled about the form. Specially important. 1834. was the 12tli of February. . ^* On these words of the Scripture I rest. Men of the older generation. they are the foundation of my faith.'' Then turning nion to his wife he said. participated in the removements at the beginning of the Nineteenth Cenligious tury. wrought upon the heart. j various criticisms of this book is imposwas not in satisfying but in stimulating power the mind. men says Neander."" After let On the words of the institution he said.'' many a thoughtful and profound spirit a starting-point for faith in the Gospel. The historical results. you also at one with me in this faith that the Lord Jesus blessed also the water in the wine ^' ? " Then water. as a steppingstone to the theological and religious development.

influenced by Methodism. while Schleiermacher followed the earlier Moravian type of a chimTITke disposition towards God. Christianity to be sadness. fore they only influenced persons of a higher rank. and of Christianity as part of religion. Both had their root Pietism. / d . nevertheless it was intimately connected with him. This accorded with the newly awakened interest aod sense for historical research. and is WhereSchleiermacher's mastership in the religious art.lity. It represents movement that would necessarily have had a large influence without yet the soil would not have been so fruitful either of bad or good had not Schleiermacher tilled it. of Romanticism.INTRODUCTION. He regards this ^ book as the a religious programme it. weighty impulse to science that Ivii men were directed from the arbitrary abstract aggregate called the Religion of Reason to the historical sigaificance. in the flesh and blood of lifCj of religion_. and the communion of the " awakened. note 4. On page 144.''^ The Pietists differ also from him in attaching the state of feeling to the Lutheran doctrine of Justification. They lacked Schleiermacher^s large view of what makes a characteristic gave a smaller place than he did to religious possessiotp^jj^ and treated all their members as only on the eternal am ^f ^^ Christian life. and yet their position is derived from Schleier- macher's view of Christianity as reconciling men who by nature cannot receive anything that is of the Spirit of they hold with him the prevailing mood of Their type of preaching too. in Moravianism. made a keen sense of sin a condition of assurance of Grace." not free from using Schleiermacher as a pulpit from which to preach to his age. Schleiermacher disowns Pietism. regarded themselves as the aristocracy of the church. Yet this penitence was largely the refinement of the aesthetic sense so conspicuous in the " Speeches. God." in the consciousness of having proved their artistic sense in religion. Above all they had nothing !-)prsni7i. and is more concerned to Ritschl is show defects.

'^ on the aesthetic fruitful. Many of his most valuable suggestions have been neglected by his successors. but he has encouraged the organic neglect of the study of the cult. a even an original thought.Iviii INTRODUCTION. movement has not followed the conditions of personal responsibility and moral freedom. belief that all things lead to of his God." His materialism is only the winter covering of what when the sun was high was his Romantic culture. or Strauss in religious science never had a positive." The modern Hierarchists are in their by Schleiermacher's have own opinion Lutherans. and has been contrary to moral progress and characteristic development of the individual. the Reformation theology. had no message great mass of the toilers. Nor are his conceptions of Judaism or Christianity adequate. but he has ever urged the thought of another beyond the proper measure. Hierarchical Orthodoxy was justified '' in their circle the perfect in religion principle that to rule. In practical matters Schleiermacher's influence has been towards creating a hybrid unworkable relation of the church to the state. has had ^^^^ ^^ influence on the method of his successors. The high value assigned to individuality by Schleiermacher was omitted by Strauss.' / It was a . but in truth they are modified Schleiermacherites. marks His conception of each individual religion as an whole is of great value. but musical temperament. examination of the general its kinds and grades. In an scientific theology his idea of religion in relation to era. Nor has it been rightly estimated by any of his followers. Their illusion of infallibility and dislike to painful discussion does not rest on a knowledge of sense. but having no for the gospel for the six working- days. and the lack of systematic and exhaustive treatment which '' was necessary for his aim in this book. Their.

Suavity and sociability. while millions. attention for a subject so entirely neglected by And I confess that I am aware of nothino* that promises any easy success. Now especially the life of cultivated people is far from anything that might have even a resemblance to religion. have been satisfied to juggle with its trappings. I know. centuries.ON EELIGION. Just as little. that no eternal and holy Being that lies room remains beyond the for the I world. FIRST SPEECH. art and science have so fully taken possession of your minds. as you visit In your ornamented dwellings. DEFENCE. and the splendid compositions of our poets. At all times but few have discerned religion itself. B . only. the the forsaken temples. that any one should still' venture to demand It from the very the vulgar. sacred things to be met with are the sage maxims of our wise men. whether it be in winning for my efforts your approval._^ do you worship the Deity in sacred retirement. may be an unexpected aad even a marvellous undertaking. in various ways. or in the more difficult and more desirable task of instilling into you my thought and inFrom of old faith has not spiring you for my subject. been every man^s affair. class that have raised themselves above and are saturated with the wisdom of the them.

priests. and least of all. that you no longer stand in need of know life so rick r . disfiguring and destroying more. Still less have I any expectations of danger from the praise which my brethren will . in matters of v- religion alone. is I venture. They have long and are declared' unworthy of your of their sanctuary because they like best to lodge in the battered ruins and cannot. and from the people ? Or can you perhaps. you eternity. as this order. you hold every thing the more dubious when it comes from those who are experts. but maintain and cry up anything rather than religion ? Scarcely. which on every side by sages and seers. I know. show that they are not more experienced. for my speech would not readily have betrayed me. r Having made a universe for yourselves. even there. you inclined to listen. though right. that I also am a member of I run the risk. You are agreed. and I might add by scoffers To priests. you would most willingly be taught by those who have devoted to it their lives and their powers. nothing an convincing can any more be said on this matter. and cannot take back my invitation that you and none else should listen to me. Might I ask one question ? On every subject. are above the need of thinking of the Universe that made you. for you. live without it still All this I know. my Not setting much store on a judgement so good sirs ! baseless I confess. I feel myself compelled to speak. but by recognition from the state. of being reckoned among the great crowd from which you admit so few exceptions. not only according to their own profession. This-is at least a voluntary confession. and yet. strangely enough. are been outcasts trust. divinely swayed by an irresistible necessity within me. has been abundantly discussed. liow well you have succeeded in making your earthly and varied.2 FIRST SPEECH. if you do not give me an attentive hearing. that nothing new. In your desire for knowledge you do not avoid the cottages of the peasant or the workshops of the humble artizans. ' How then does it come about that. however small and unimportant.

I do not speak from any reasoned resolve. it is a divine that which determines my position in the world is and makes me what I am. should I not it like any other accident ? Its prepossessions ing shall the limits it As a man . as you acknowledge shall in no way hinder us. for I know no age that has given religion a better reception entirely outside their sphere. — enthusiasm I sought the unknown. for 3 my present aim lies almost and can have but small iJ0^ most willingly see and hear. however I be moved by the changes of time and mankind. nor from fear. Why to say to then. in which most o£ them join. one of which cannot exist except by means of the other. The whole corporeal world. nor from hope.DEFENCE. bestow on this undertaking. I am fully conscious that in all I have I entirely belie my profession. Each of His melting together eternal thoughts can only be actualized in two hostile yet twin forms. \^ With the cry of distress. has to divide His great work even to thing can only be made up by two opposite activities. I have nothing to do with the conservaand barbarian lamentation whereby they seek to rear again the fallen walls and gothic pillars of their Jewish Zion. appears to the best Each definite B 2 . Wherefore. Nor is it done from any caprice or accident. it it is the pure necessity of my nature . there is something which compels me and represses with its heavenly power all those small considerations. the Deity. Bather call . of the innermost springs of my being which shall for ever remain for me the highest. You know how compelled Himself infinity. semblance to what they would tive than the present. insight into which is the highest aim of your researches. over the downfall of religion I have no sympathy. by an immutable law.1 speak to you of the sacred secrets of mankind according to my views of what was in me as with youthful Neither in asking nor in answerholds sacred be valid between us. even if it were neither fitting nor prudent to speak of religion. of what since then I have thought and experienced.

it strives to establish itself as an individual. but a common band of consciousness embraces them all. it fast in a special way Wherefore the spirit also. that in which. again. The other is wrought for when you are not directed towards the individual life. but seek and retain for yourselves what is the same in all and for all the same existence. among you. as is shown both by its passing actions and its inward characteristics. Just as no material thing can exist by only one of the forces of corporeal nature. but the perfection of the living world consists in this. All you feel and do that bears on all you are accustomed *to call enjoyment or possession works for the first object. it draws what surrounds increase. must be subject to the The human soul. right and fitness. that between these opposite ends all combinations are actually present in humanity. stand alone over against the Whole. Each Hfe merely the uninterrupted manifestation of a perpetually renewed gain and loss. The other impulse. in the opposing so far as itself in a finite life. to be taken hold of and determined. simply a is instructed and most contemplative never-ending play of opposing forces. has its existence Following the one imchiefly in two opposing impulses. law and order.4 FIRST SPEECH. Persons. your separate existence. At the extremes one impulse may preponderate almost to the exclusion of the other. you acknowledge in your thinking and acting. is the dread fear to manifests same law. every soul shares in the two original tendencies of spiritual nature. at the extremes of this great . therefore. For pulse. as each thing has its determinate existence by uniting and holding forces of Nature. and comprehends perfectly every single manifestation of than he humanity. and absorbing it into its own being. so that though the man cannot be other is. it to itself. however. no less than sustenance. And not only so. necessity and connection. weaving it into its life. the longing to surrender oneself and be absorbed in a greater. he knows every other person as clearly as himself.

They never make a living study of anybut devote their whole zeal to abstract precepts that thing. Swinging e. Vxlth. This is the position to which a false discretion seeks to bring the younger generation. removed from sucli The endeavour to appropriate^ is a knowledge of the too little influenced by the opposite sensuality that endeavour_. and the long series be made into a closed ring. they stand lower than either. on the other hand. of grasp. too forcibly seized by the opposite impulse. all men would have departed from the right life and from contemplation of f tft. who. To persons. but their activity dissipates itself in a futile game with notions. but both are distorted and smoothed away to a dull mediocrity in which no excess appears. and being ever busy with mere self. they are neither able to feel nor know the common. are incapable of acquiring any characthe true life of the world must just as much remain hidden. such persons never get beyond consciousness of the individual. definite culture. They consume themselves in mistaken hate against empty everything that comes before them with prosperous force. we are not indebted to a living union of both impulses. series^ are furthest . in truth.ternally between desire and enjoyment. It is not granted them to penetrate with plastic mind and to fashion something of their own. For this frequent phenomenon which so many value highly. and leave nothing to be an end. 5 whole. How are these extremes to be brought together. from defective power teristic. the symbol of eternity ^ and completeness ? Persons in whom both tendencies are toned down to an un- attractive equilibrium are not rare. but. the higher spirit would have vanished from the . But were the extremes avoided in no other way. takes the form of insatiable mindful only of its individual life^ and en- deavours only in an earthly way to incorporate into it more and more material and to keep itself active and strong. because all fresh life is wanting. the whole being and nature of humanity.regarding concerns. degrade everything to means.DEFENCE.

and reconcilers opposing istic of things that otherwise would be eternally mean. showing themselves lawgivers and inventors. in particular. Earthly things they wisely control. and not for that degraded animal sensuality.Deity been entirely frustrated.6 FIRST SPEECH. and they find just because they do not lose right activities. self-training. they. to perceive in their right object requirements. Wherefore the Deity at all times sends some here and there. Elements so separated or so reduced to equilibrium would disclose little even to men of deep insight^ and^ for a common eye that has no power of insight to give life to the scattered bones^ a world so peopled would be only a mock mirror that neither reflects their own forms nor them to see behind it. and in t heir persons the material litherto the his own incomprehensible . and the will of the . They seek order and connection. as an image upon mist. breathe into life and life's tools a higher spirit. For this wishes. either as a direct gift from above^ or as the result of a severe and complete. good fairies happiness. ordering and fashioning a world that bears the impress of their mind. and mediators between limited man and infinite humanity. They do not devour destructively. and fitness. creatively recasting. To them the captive under the power works of empty notions may of look. as or. They are interpreters I and His works. who in a fruitful manner are imbued with both impulses. the shadow of which only appears to most in empty notions. those who unite those by iniprinting in their lives a characterform upon just that common nature of spirit. They are equipped with wonderallows ful gifts. power they create and acquire. By they create and difi'use in quiet a nobler their very existence they prove themselves ambassadors of God. world. but. heroes and compellers of nature. divided. in narrower circles. themselves. Their impulse is not sighed out in inaudible but works in them as creative power. their way is made even by an almighty indwelling of the Deity word.

to kindle love for higher things. Far more nature of the earthly and to sensual whom learn is how much require of the such mediators from highest wanting They need of such a person. and can no longer be kept silent. but the One in All. to change the common life into a nobler. what a priceless gift the appearance of such a person must be when the higher feeling has risen to inspiration. This is the true priest of the highest. Acknowledge.DEFENCE. with me. another self-love it whereby man in this earthly life and along with loves .to oppose to their base animal enjoyment another enjoyment.st unwillingly becomes for others the master of some divine art. and to counterbalance the deep attachment of the baser side. This is the higher priesthood that ^^^M age to the the inner meaning of the kingdom of God. 7 despised.to the earth and to his place thereon. restless self-love. . the object of which is not this thing or that.. that He is needed to the spirit has learned to comprehend. the highest and the eternal. to reconcile the children of earth with the Heaven that hears them. humanity to their own works and ways. prophecies. show to their anxious. The heavenly and eternal he exhibits as an object of enjoyment and agreement. In this way he strives to awaken the slumbering germ of] trivial. and All in One. as the sole exhaustless source of the thinsfs towards which their whole endeavour is directed. a better humanity.^e almo. •/ when every pulse-beat communicable form in word or of his spiritual life takes figure. . for he brings it nearer those who are only accustomed to lay hold of the finite and the . of all announces^ and speaks from It is the source of all visions and the sacred works of art and inspired all spiritual secrets. with which he ought to deal. They interpret to him the misunderstood voice of God^ and reconcile him. and to their restless passionate greed a quiet and sure possession. . then. so that. despite of his indifference to the presence of others.tand in an object that knows no other bounds but the world. s.

which an ancient prophecy describes. as the hidden points from which the elastic primordial matter expands on every side are in space. than to go into the wide wilderness with outlines barely sketched But ! from one another now are those persons between whom such intercourse might take place They are scattered with as wise an economy among mankind. fervid prayers would not be needed to call it down from heaven.8 FIRST SPEECH. To this very power I now submit.maintain it. You know that far ! ! how . and of this very nature is my call. himself and others. on tlie chance of finding some receptive heart where they may bring forth fruit. and again here and there concentrated on single objects- A where now the ception. but only the placid quiet of holy virgins Nor would it burst forth in oft-dreaded to . its would strive only to communicate equally to all In quiet. whispered word would then be understood. clearest expression cannot escape miscon- together into the Holy of Holies who now busy themselves with the rudiments in the outer How much pleasanter it is to exchange with courts. each one would illumine hidden glow. but feelings would be an easy interchange. Might it sometime arrive that this office of mediator cease. then. The outer boundaries of their sphere of operations just touch so that there is no A wise economy void.man. and they labour the more persistently to provide for themselves the comrades they lack. indeed for all their longing for intercourse and friendliness is thus wholly directed towards those who stand most in need. friends Men could crowd and sympathizers completed views. for they If everywhere the sacred fire be taught of God ! burned. the different beams of this light being now combined and again broken up. yet one never meets the other. ! when no one should all should need to be taught of .^ >/ speeclies that are scattered abroad. The communication of holy thoughts and flames. and a fairer destiny await the priesthood of humanity Might the time come. now scattered. Permit me to speak of myself.

I know it is small proof of possession to be able to speak of their value. It showed me how. you would find/ little even in the sacred books. to whom should I turn if not to the --^ sons of ? Germany ? Where else is an audience for my It is not blind predilection for native soil or speech for my fellows in government and language. known. In it my spirit breathed ere it had yet found its own place in knowledge and experience. all that I feel to be the true work ofreligion. Of all that I praise. that makes me my speak thus. Piety was the mother^s in whose sacred darkness womb^ young life was my nourished and was prepared for a world still sealed for it. what 9 is spoken at tlie instigation of piety cannot be pride. I should keep myself holy in an undivided existence_. but the deep conviction that you alone are capable. ye wise and understanding of ing eyes it remained the people. for piety is always full of humility. or^ as all virtues are tion. of having awakened in you the. Their zeal for knowledge is only a sham . Finally. the faith of sift my fathers and It helped me as I began to to cleanse thought and feeling from the rubbish of antiquity. and through it alone I have learnt In respect of other human excellences.DEFENCE. But religion is of such a sort and is so rare. They can be known from descripfr6m observation of others. To the man who has not/ himself experienced it. must necessarily have had it. Those proud Islanders whom many unduly honour. if I am thus impelled to speak of religion and to deliver my testimony. sense for holy and divine things. L-^ for nowhere could he have heard it. know no watchword but gain and enjoyment. from the ancient and general traditions of their nature. it would only be an annoyance and a/ / ^ folly. that whoever utters anything of it.'y me into active life. friendship and love. with my guided endowments and defects. When the God and doubt- the immortality of my childhood vanished from to my Without design of mine it n(e. before your judgment-seat. as well as worthy.

skilfully and deceptively composed. and their sacred freedom itself too often and too easily serves self-interest. They are never in earnest with anything that goes beyond pjiJpable utility / All knowledge they have robbed of life and use only as dead wood to make masts and helms for their lifers voyage fight. . they tread its holiest ordinances under foot. though it be . and the witty frivolity with which individual but has them brilliant spirits behold the sublimest fact of history that is not only taking place before their eyes. for in every act and almost in every word. Somewhere. What does all in its religion more abhor than the unbridled arrogance with which the rulers of the people bid defiance to the eternal laws of the world ? What does it inculcate more strongly than thai. witnesses clearly enough how little they are capable of a holy awe or a true adoration. . discreet and lowly moderation of which aught. are a thousandfold renewed in vain. their worldly / wisdom a false jewel. . On them. only scattered. grasp. one who honours religion can hardly endure to look. regarding them as a protection wisely cl^erished by the constitution against the natural enemy of the state. of infatuation they have no understanding ? Where varied that formerly only needed to light on single punishments families to fill whole peoples with awe before the heavenly Being and to dedicate to eternal Fate the works of the poets for centuries. devotion to ancient usages and defend its preach institutions. The barbarous indifference of the millions of the people. There you find. in pursuit of gain. how ludicrously would a siugle lonely voice resound unheard and unnoticed. does not seem to be suggested to them ? What is more sacred to it than that lofty of whose most terrible dealings in the intoxication Nemesis. all save that For other reasons I turn from the French. all that adorns humanity.^ Similarly they know nothing of religion. Only in my native land is that happy clime which refuses no fruit entirely. and determines every movement of their lives. even the slightest feeling.lo FIRST SPEECH.

but I wouldj just my present endeavour \ conduct you into the profoundest depths whence every feeling and conception receives its form. on other higher subjects. will you direct me to those whom you look down upon as rude and uncultured. pray you. I do not seek to arouse single feelings possibly belonging to it. at least. open out of their narrow lives a glimpse into infinity . and much cannot fail to be won. all tliat grows attains its most beautiful form. in II individuals at least. templation is wanting there. their highest endeavours should be turned towards better things. on morals. as if the sense for sacred things had passed like an old-fashioned garment to* the lower portion of the people. and an impression of the worth of man be awakened in them. law and fact are to be traced to their common source. charmed from the depths of their hearts . when idea and feeling. I would show you from what human tendency religion proceeds and how it belongs . nor quiet con. justice and freedom. . as if it became them alone to be impressed with belief and awe of th*e unseen ? You are well disposed towards these.DEFENCE. But. You would have them addressed also. when you would exhibit the actual as eternal and necessarily based in the nature of humanity ? Is it not as much as can be looked . for if your wise is men are understood by the best among you ? Now that in regard to religion. our brethren. therefore. brought to life enchant them with single flashes. religion must find a refuge from the coarse barbarism and the cold worldly mind Or of the as^e. Let them be addressed at the same time on religion arouse occasionally their whole nature let the holiest impulse. nor to justify and defend single conceptions. raise even for a moment their low sensuality to the high consciousness of human will and of human existence. do you turn to this class when you wish to unfold the inmost connection and the highest ground of human powers and actions. asleep or hidden though it be. Neither wise moderation. be . that for single moments.

those who brood anxiously over the next moment and are fast bound to the nearest objects can extend their vision widest over the world. therefore. destroy the tenderest blossoms of the human heart. Let us then. Such a moving gracefully. special courage -to cast off" dogma. and that those.12 FIRST SPEECH. just to be well informed and thorough-going in this contempt. called to leave the • of man^s spirit to inmost emotions and see the living worth and connection of his outward works. Piety even the Graces. or from some vague thought ? Is it from the different kinds and sects . who. figure as religion I. I pray you. what is for you highest and dearest. and I can link the interest I require from you to nothing but your contempt. Is it from some clear intuition. There was a time when you held it a mark of . still pleased you. iu the monotonous round of a dull industry have not yet found themselves will discover most clearly the living Deity ! Surely you will not maintain that shame ? You alone. with most unwomanly hardness. if only that you wished to maintain in the But that gentler sex a certain feeling for sacred things. and time is long past. though You it still were ready partially the restraints of inherited to discuss particular subjects. examine whence' exactly religion has its rise. therefore. find his not shun the common standpoint of toilsome way into the depths your you who are mankind. Since this became clear to me. I. I have long found myself in the hesitating mood of one who has lost a precious jewel. will ask you. adorned in eloquence. I can invite. to temple I Do you seriously expect me to believe that those who daily distress themselves most toilsomely about earthly things have pre-eminent fitness for becoming intimate with heavenly things. who do -to and does not dare to examine the last spot where it could ^ be hidden. is now no more to be spoken of. To the roof of the would lead you that you might survey the whole sanctuary and discover its inmost secrets. were only to efface one of those notions.

DEFENCE. tations or false references of a necessary human aim. according to the definite attitude and form it assumes in particular cases. I adjure you. in one way or another. the hinges of all religion. tality. respect for his influence on the occurrences of this life called by you providence.-p tation of 'a future life after this one. based in one of its necessary modes of acting or impulses or whatever else] you like to call it. On the contrary. on expec. you consider. But say. and to unite your efforts to ours to free human nature from the injustice which it always suffers when aught in it is misunderstood or misdirected. By all that is sacred. that you have reached the idea that everything called by this name has it is a common it content ? You can hardly affirm that my good sirs. that regarded. regarded from the outside. some- thing must be sacred to you. From what side have you not considered religion that great spiritual phenomenon. for I will is now quarrel with your technical language. broadly.'or. Your general idea turns on fear of an eternal being./ These two conceptions which you have rejected. and according to that avowal. the true and eternal. from within. for there are two points of view from which everything • taking place in man or proceeding from him may be Considered from the centre outwards. do not neglect . or 13 from some general idea which have perhaps conceived arbitrarily ? Some doubtless you will profess the latter view. it is an expression of human nature. of religion found in history. But here as in other things the ready judgment may be without ground^ the matter being superficially considered and no trouble being taken to gain an accurate knowledge. you by regarding would have to admit that these thoughts are at least in some way based in human nature. my dear sirs. called by you immor. it is a product of time and history. it would become you to seek in it. And should you say that as now found they have sprung only from misinterpreIf so. according to its inner quality. how you have found this . are.

and if he point out something else in religion not hollow. therefore. like a murky and oppressive atmosphere. and have reviewed the various structures of religious doctrine from the senseless fables of wanton peoples to the most refined Deisrn. Rather. from first to last. Wherefore religion generally can be nothing but an empty pretence which. you must first hear and judge before you venture further to despise. have from wishing to contradict you. whom with us you honour. and you I am far all without rhyme or reason. to listen to what I shall say to those who. Do not grudge. are doubtless acquainted with the histories of human follies. do not most justly scorn you for forsaking them in a grave matter. You start with the outside. from the rude superstition of human sacrifice to the ill-put together fragments of metaphysics and ethics now found them called purified Christianity. dogmas and usages. They always return to providence and immortality. Doubtless But if you really consider this is your genuine opinion. these two points the sum of religion in all the forms in which it has appeared in history. but having a kernel of excellent quality and extraction. For these externals you have sought an inward and original source in vain. If you find from what you hear that the business is as good as done. has enshrouded part of the truth. that mankind. with the opinions. rightly has had You . If anyone says it is wrong and beside the mark. even if it ends otherwise than you expect. I venture to reckon on your thanks and approval.i± m FIRST SPEECH. if you really mean that the most cultured religious system is no better than . in which every religion is presented. /^ / of religion is 1^ ^ v^ probably say that your idea of the content from the other view of this spiritual phenomenon. have more accurately and laboriously adhered to observation of particulars. permit me to ask whether you have rightly observed all these phenomena and have will But you ^ 1 comprehended their common content ? If your idea its rise in this way you must justify it by instances. this business.

But this consummation of doctrines and systems is often anything rather than consummation of religion. these theories of the origin and the end of the world. Nay. these analyses of the nature of an incomprehensible Being. considered in themselves.DEFENCE. if you only.stonished at your voluntary ignorance. Why have you not penetrated deeper to find the kernel of this shell ? I am a. not infrequently. therefore. perceive that the divine cannot a series that ends on both sides in something ordinary despicable. wherein only by mutual limitation each part holds its place ? What else can they be. ye easy-going inquirers. and at the all too quiet satisfaction with which you linger by the first thing presented to you. within the mind. Po'ssibly they may all and appear to you transitions and stages towards the final form. wherein everything runs to cold argufying. but the handiwork of the calculating understanding. and who are in earnest that every side of man be trained and exhibited. I cannot speak of it without who have a regard for what issues from indignation. must bewail how the high and All its is often turned from its destination and robbed of freedom in order to be held in despicable bondage by the scholastic spirit of a barbarian and cold time. and first which all other known those pious exaltations of the mind in activities are set aside or almost sup- . I will gladly spare you the trouble of estimating further all. Out of the hand of its age each comes better polished ap. you do not yet know religion itself. till at length art has grown equal to that perfect plaything with which our century has presented history. and what you despise is not it. 'these systems of theology. « 15 lie in the rudest. that lies between.progress of the one has not the smallest connection with the other. the . Why do you not regard the religious iX life itself.d carved. What glorious are all these systems. and the highest can be treated in the tone of a common controversy ? appeal to'your If own — not the character of religion. feeling And this is certainly — let me / you have only given attention to these dogmas and opinions.

of their own. He thing more in them than you. letter. nothing but the cold dead mass remains. believe they are best helped. and yet even here you must commence with the scattered and innature it nection. some- Bonnd up thing of that spiritual matter lies. not have arisen. and are acquainted with its fortunes. On the contrary. let them break it as they may. in a way complete. for true philosophers ! Suppose he would . But in the hands of those stand it them all somewithout which they could in who do not underup and examine how to unbind it. and tlie whole soul is dissolved in tlie immediate In such moments the feeling of the Infinite and Eternal ? disposition yon pretend mordial and visible form. have put forth at. From its indeed. pressed. have penetrated into the secrets of nature viewing and exhibiting their mutual relation and inner harmony in a light of their own. once a system of their knowledge. if you regard the systems in all schools. how often are they mere habitations and nurseries of the dead With few exceptions. to despise He only who has reveals itself in pristudied and truly known man in these emotions can rediscover religion in those will assuredly perceive outward manifestations. if more fragile and spirit. must strive to fashion itself into the closest conThat special kind of knowledge is only verified and its communication assured by its completeness. the plastic spirit of high con- templation is too fleeting and too free for those rigid forms whereby those who would willingly grasp and retain what is strange. form.1 6 FIRST SPEECH. with- out distinction. Suppose that any one held the architects of those great edifices of philosophy. Recollect how very few of those who. philosophy. cannot surprise you who have more or less busied yourselves with With philosophy. This recommendation to seek rather in those scattered and seemingly undeveloped elements your object that you have net yet found in the developed and the complete to which you have hitherto been directed. they have communicated their discoveries. it should be quite otherwise. In a finer.

as you are accustomed to call them. as reliofion is as far removed. one among those who have brought down any kind of new revelation to us. almost strikes you as Have they come from the heroes of religion? absurd. perhaps. announcing that Himself through them. Consider only with whom those ingenious erections is originate. from anything in the sphere of religion." To you who seek religion I must give the same advice. salvation of the world the theologians of the and the light of me if I do not reckon letter. that you have not lighted upon those who merely follow. and collect. celestial is accustomed the Deity is revealing to be heard when the feelings are unburdened. an original beam of the inner light still shines. or a new arrangement In isolation only the mighty thuoder of ingenious proofs. in whom. beginning with of the Name Him who first if conceived the idea kfugdom of God. Doctrine is only united to doctrine occasionally to remove misunderstanding or expose unreality. the mutability of which you scorn. who believe the of their speech. From many such combinations those systems were graduc . from all go. and rest satisfied with what another has furnished find the spirit it : with them you will never of that art : to the discoverers you must surely rests. friend. Idea and word are simply the necessary and inseparable outcome of the heart. bv its whole nature. the bad proportions of which ofifend you.DEFENCE. when the sacred fires must burst forth from the overcharged spirit. only to be understood by it and along with it. and the incongruity of which. who has thought it worth his while to occupy himself with such a labour of Sisyphus. learn from 17 them the spirit of their research ! Would you not advise him thus. with your contemptuous tendency. It is all the more necessary. " See to it. from which. a system might have been produced to the new mystics or enthusiasts. on whom that systematic as philosophy is naturally disposed to it. You will not blame among them wisdom are to be found in a new vesture of formulas.

however. Yet you need not end to that fear that I shall betake myself in the common device of representing how necessary religion is for maintaining justice and order in the world. Which of the two is more degraded in being thus thought of together. Nor shall I remind you of an all-seeing eye. and are still able to hold in ridicule this reachiDg of the heart towards the Eternal. that you turn from everythiug usually i^ckoned religion. your culture and your prejudices. nor of the unspeakable short-sightedness of human management. the product of superficial observation. I will not confess that I have lost. how. insignificant speck of coarse metal with which he can kindle nothing any more. or having any change of opinion. you must not rest satisfied with ally the repeated oft-broken echo of that original sound. must understand the production of In the very act. whether . and it goes with you as with one who should too late bring fuel to the fire which the steel has struck from flint. Despite your acquirements. or enlarging your contemptuous conception. I shall not decide. it makes the struggle how to be the best friends goodness much easier for weak man. nor of the narrow bounds of shall I say human power is to render help. who finds only a cold. as all utterances and acts of inspired men direct. by its sacred feelings and glorious proswith self and the perfecting of pects. and I shall have no more to say.1 8 FIRST SPEECH. Those who profess and most zealous defenders do indeed speak in this way. Then. compacted. and fix your regard on the in ward em otions and dispositions. till you have looked from this standpoint without discovering anything real. At all events. the I ask. Nor a faithful friend and useful stay religion of morality. therefore. you light and heat in a soul surrendered to the Jlnivers^AyOtherwise you learn nothing of religion. You must transport yourselves into the interior of a pious soul and seek to understand its inspiration. I hope for good success. Wherefore. I will finally believe that your contempt for religion is in accordance with your nature.

how could I dare to suppose that you play with your consciences a sort of fast and loose game. you Answer me point of departure fore. at least. justice 19 and morality which are represented as needing support^ or religion which is to support them. things. if it c 2 . still be a culpable abandonment of a weighty a faint-hearted unbelief in the approach of better matter. begin by deceiving them. burdened with a very high degree of imperfection and have shown but small power to prevent or abolish injustice. if religion that in itself is not otherwise desirable it would must be ^ called in. they can again reject as soon as they have attained your level ? I. one question. give it a hundred eyes if it has not got them already. Though otherwise thiswise counsel might be given you. recast the whole constitution. If you leave a business like this to an intermediary. Could there be a legal constitution resting on piety ? \ Would not the whole idea that you hold so sacred vanish as soon as you took such a this ? Deal with the matter directly. and which. and could be impelled by something you have hitherto had no cause to respect and it you already honour.DEFENCE. in your opinion. < • . or even whether it be not you to whom such things are said. At least do not allow those it has to sleep veiled in delusion. thereseems to be in such an evil plight. offering them as holy and vitally necessary what is in the highest degree in- different to yourselves. which you have already devoted yourselves ? Or suppose that these Speeches were merely to suggest what How could you^ you should do for the sake of the people who are called to educate others and make them like your- love to something else that without and to ! selves. To recommend religion by such means would only increase the contempt to which it is at still Granted that our civil organizations are present exposed. I perceive the cannot invite you to a course of action in which most ruinous hypocrisy towards the world and towards yourselves. give the state an iron hand. Improve the laws..

tempted heart must take refuge in the thought of a future world. If morality loses in addition^ how much more must splendour and stability by every it lose from something that can never hide its foreign extraction. if this general jurisdiction is only possible when religion is combined with law.^ But it must it must render a special service it must have an aim due. Do not declare to tlie disgrace o£ mankind that your loftiest creation is but a parasitic plant that can only nourish itself from strange sap. that to wish to transport religion into another sphere that it may serve and labour is to manifest towards it also great contempt. Statesmen must make it universal. All this. show itself useful ! What it ! degradation ! And its defenders should be eager for . least Religious persons at know only one. have never managed it.20 FIRST SPEECH. It is not so ambitious of conquest as to seek to reign in a foreign kingdom. if it should be quite independent of praise. later earlier . satisfies it. Now quite apart from the question whether what only exists in so far as it proceeds from the heart can be thus arbitrarily combined. to morality. But it is folly to make a distinction Just as little A between this world and the next. dread of the Eternal cannot be more valid than dread of a wise If the desire for happiness is foreign happiness can be no more valid than man. weak. being is . however. Speaking from your standpoint^ law must not even require morality to assure for it the most unlimited jurisdiction in its own territory. and above all everything holding with it the same rank in human nature. none but persons skilled to infuse the spirit of religion into the human soul should be statesmen. It must stand quite alone. . And in what dark barbarousness of evil times would that land us ! can morality be in need of religion. Everything sacred to it. you have heard of sufficiently from those who defend the independence and might of the moral law. Yet let me add. The power that is its earned afresh at every moment.

for of all men they are \i least for the skilled to conduct its case. that a province of its own in the mind belongs to it. cannot avail anything going about do with its case. By this standard. of which no man that would be anything for himself to understands a single sensible word. but it is not in itself necessary. than that they should venture to come forward as defenders of religion. in which it has unlimited sway j that it is by them. High renown heavenly to conduct so wretchedly the earthly concerns of man Great honour for the free and unconcerned to make the conscience of man a little ! were For such a purpose religion does sharper and more alert not descend from heaven. at least. What is loved and honoured ! only on account of some extraneous advantage may be needful. I would have no more to is all it could do desired. It were better that such utilitarians should be submerged in this eternal whirlpool of universal utility. religion I. At 21 the last remove. closer contemplation. would offer little. souls piety springs necessarily by itself . to gain respect.DEFENCE. and it now behoves you to decide whether it is worth your while to hear me. before you still further strengthen yourselves in your contempt. for I merely as an accessory An imaginary praise that vanishes on is too unimportant. and a sensible person simply values it according to the end for which it is would be valueless must confess enough. the noblest and best worthy and to be to animate most profoundly . To recommend it I maintain that in all better with higher pretensions. morality and justice also must conduce some further advantage. in which everything good is allowed to go down. fully accepted and known That is my contention. that I do not believe much in the unjust dealings it would If' that hinder. nor the moral dealings it would produce.

does not. real of regarding the present state of religion is much too rare among the members of our clerical order. always vanish. and friendly relations have only confirmed the judgment. From the same cause we have the miserable views so often so many means necessary for remedying this so-called decay of religion. or any genuinely historical. and most of those who train them. they say to themselves. Both conceptions. they become incapable of living reproduction and disappear. not But this does not involve any childish even any positive doubt. Longer experience. positive unbelief. With most it is gradually purified and elevated. divided or isolated. the increase if We should have fewer complaints of the sectarian spirit and of factious religious associations. Wherefore nothing human can be said is Him. — Thougli I had been several years in the ministry when this was brethren. of There is opposed. Most of the clergy.EXPLANATIONS OF THE FIRST SPEECH. But those are early absorbed in a pure contemplative endeavour take another way. The analogy with the human in the conception of the Highest Being and the analogy with who the earthly still remains the shell of the hidden kernel. I stood very way of into the nature of religion generally. for the right understanding of this passage I cannot hide. were not without understanding of religious wants and emotions. do not acknowledge thi^ necessity. • (1) Page 3. rather hinted at than uttered was more a distant presentiment than clear knowledge. that any deeper insight much alone among my professional and my acquaintance with them was small.from the earthly world that gave it birth in our souls. however. The form . nothing in God. by any means. of the clergy. What is here written. Nothing earthly to be transferred . because they foolishly suppose it would render them more unpractical. (2) Page which at a time when the soul lives entirely in images is always expressed respecting the — highly sensuous. that a deeper speculative discipline would best remove this evil. in their first forms are found untenable. 9. It is an opinion that will probably find little favour. Their stand-point generally is too low. however. The first conception both of God and immortality. which yet. therefore.

and the spread of the Bible was not then Yet I would not on that account retract For one thing the English are much from my earlier judgment. In all that is most important for a mind aroused to reflection. even when no fully satisfactory solution is reached. As France and England were almost the only countries in which we were interested. are not excluded from sharing in enterprises that have taken their rise with a not weakened. well accustomed to organized private companies. but the unknown greatness remains in the soul. — A pious spirit. The pure interest of Christian piety does not dominate as far smaller of truly pious people. which is here unquestionably the sub- . and its reality is apparent in the endeavour to connect it with another co-eflScient and so to bring it to a higher actual consciousness. whereby they unite their individual resources for important undertakings. (4) Page 18. The unknown greatness. Such a misunderstanding could only arise in those who have never felt the speculative impulse to annihilate anthropomorphism in the conception of the Highest Being. an impulse most clearly expressed in the writings of the profoundest (3) Christian teachers. The same would apply to what was said about the scientific spirit. therefore. be remembered that the severe judgment of the English people was given at a time when it seemed necessary to protest strongly against the prevailing Anglomania. caring for nothing but the progress of culture and the gain to be made of it. At present it might not be wrong to say a word on the capacity in the Greek Church for such researches. far removed from suggesting that there ever was a time when he was an unbeliever or an atheist. it seemed superfluous to glance elsewhere. The results obtained in this way are so great that persons. vanishes witli the 23 known sensuous co-efficient. Despite the fine veil cast appears in this. Moreover. — It i is to » ^ popular interest in missions as apparent as it is now. to much later over in the by the fascinating panegyrics of a Stourdza.EXPLANA TIONS. the Page 10. is yet present in all operations of the spirit. The author was. In this endeavour faith is implicit. These are merely indications whereby I would express my belief that a closer acquaintance with the state of religion in England would rather confirm than disprove the above opinion. and yet the principle is be denied that those undertakings are regarded by a great number more from a political and mercantile point of view.^ JSTor is it to number that the religious needs at home have been attended and with much less brilliant result. all depth is lost mechanism of antiquated usages and liturgical forms. and which had much influence in Germany. it still stands it far behind the Catholic Church. even though it do not appear in any definite result.

It was therefore desirable to call attention to the way in which such emotions take their rise. and § 36. than that he first of all lives in the idea of the state. wished once more to It is still. 2. the springing of such pious emotions as pass immediately into religious ideas and views (light) and into a temperament of surrender to God (warmth). and are only habitual in a spirit in which such surrender is habitual." § 8. own constitutionalism has not quite triumphed over arbitrariness. however. When afterwards (page 20) it is said that statesmen must be able to produce universally in men the sense of law. but by it only in so far as it is embraced in the unity and completeness in which alone God is immediately revealed. that not to be looked its for. my strong conviction that glorify the theocracy. 2. it is one of the most essential tendencies of Christianity to separate completely church and state. 1. in respect of particular sphere of operation. — rested on piety. Not only in general. the thing that best supplies all deficiency and imperfection. could dispense with the piety This appears from the fact that in states where of its members. The further development of this subject can be seen in my " Glaubenslehre. The dark times referred to are the theocratic* times. I make this reference because Novalis. but on each occasion we are conscious of God and of His divine power and godhead by the word of creation. unless indeed an institution have some special historical basis. it is politically necessary for the citizens to be pious in proportion as they are not equally and adequately pervaded by the Humanly speaking this perfection is legal principles of the state. does not mean that the state so long as it labours under imperfection can do without piety. and I can just as little agree with that . and it means less that he accom- when the plishes something definite in the state. is elsewhere ! spirit. But the word statesman is here taken in the sense of the ancient ttoKltikos. it* will doubtless appear absurd to those who think of the servants of the state. They arise when a man surrenders himself to the Universe. but were it once effected the state. This would only mean. a thing entirely accidental. [ always defined as a sonl surrendered to God. and not by any one thing taken by itself. the relation of piety between the governor and the governed is most prominent and religious institutions have most sway. That the state would not be a constitution if it (5) Page 19. my very dear friend in other respects.24 FIRST SPEECH. however. But here the Universe is put for jGrod -and _t he pantheism of This is thdi^interpolation^ot interpretathe author is undeniable tion of superficial and suspicious readers\vho do not consider that the subject here is the production of light and warmth in such a ject of discourse. This ceases constitution is strengthened.

law and piety in human nature. .f for morality or endeavour after government as without capacity for religion. piety and scientific specula- and the more closely they are conjoined The distinction however will be found in my Glaubenslehre. I am not using the privileges of the rhetorical method (6) Page 20. the more both advance. and in so far are equal.- 25 glorification of the theocracy as with the opposite view that the church should ever more and more be absorbed in the state. They are functions of human nature not to be subordinated to one another. In so far as the two tion share with each other. they are inferior to the third." but here I had to defend the equal rank of morality. in my opinion. Also I was not concerned in this place to say which is first. for. " former do not involve an immediate relation of man to the Highest Being. Man can just as little be thought of without capacit. but all alike regulate as essentially what is eminent and characteristic in human nature. — to say to the despisers of religion at the very beginning that piety surpasses morality and law.EXPLANATIONS.

be recoguized as the object of your desire. You must have that unbiassed sobriety of judgment that seizes clearly and Without being misled by old accurately every outline. of what here and there at least you have seen in life. carriage and deportment. Do not even conjurors of common spirits demand abstinence from earthly things and solemn stillness. religion ? What like are the gods ? What is similar begin with a and equally extensive. you must endeavour to understand the object presented simply by Even then it may not win your love. I could wish to exhibit religion in ' some well known form. about the meaning of I. as a preparation. THE NATUEE OF KELIGION. to silence the person by long and. You know how hesitation. the aged Simonides. you might give steady and continuous attention to the point about which we are inquiring you might entirely exclude . which is to say.SECOND SPEECH. repeated put is who Our troubled question. reminding you. to leave you in perplexity. cannot hope for any unanimity religion or any recognition of its worth. in . only when long regarded with fixed attention. But you might attempt something for yourselves. Naturally I would not mean by ultimate silence. other thoughts. and otherwise itself. him with the question. as I wish to show it. which can. and I would fain hesitation. however. memories or hindered by preconceptions. and undistracted. close attention to the place where the apparition is to show itself? should I claim ? It is a rare spirit that I How much more am to call forth. by feature. ) Religion. as he did.

is not the pure work of science nor morals of intention. begin by reviewing the main points in your own position to see whether they are right. is not accustomed to appear openly. it is a way of and Without love. a faith. a peculiar desire duct and character. or whether we may from them We reach the right. in so far as a to warn you against the errors that naturally issue from the present state of things. in separation. man me activity of the spirit is only to can study it in himself. Among specially recognized. but everyone is all things. Speaking is.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. so in the human mind there is such a complete sociableness founded. Nothing it. The predominat- broadly. we shall look closely at religion from both as sides. Speech. produce its work. can ever. for example. Wherefore. a special kind of conthis distinction of a theoreti- acting. you are usually accustomed to give heed chiefly to only one at a time. that no special faculty or capacity. however much it may be separated for observation. and of combinmeets us in the world at another. in operation. Religion a peculiar is for you at one time a way of thinkiug. its 27 original. We commence with religion a kind of \-- activity. cal and practical you could hardly think at all. shall. therefore. . : ing what way of contemplating the world. one ing power is all you can distinguish. influenced and permeated by the ready love and support of the others. and though both sides beloug to religion. by extensive intercourse their characteristic ways of thought no longer appear unalloyed. ourselves at the present time this is It belongs to the opposition of the new time to the old that no longer is one person one thing. it is incumbent upon Wherefore every be understood. Just as among civilized peoples. but is only seen in secret by tbose who love Not that this applies to religion alone. own that is essentially characteristic and peculiar can be quite the same as that which openly exhibits and represents it. Seeing yOu maintain that in this way you do not know religion. characteristic form.

as some suppose. special duties towards God. The moral law shall order it. and therefore a part of all morality which is the performance of all duties ? But. and religion a duty or section of duties ? Is religion incorporated into morality and subordinated to it. as a part to the whole ? Is it. . would ascribe witli the poet earuestDess to life and cheerthem. Another power works alongside of it. you look upon it almost as a somewhat in the background. that the individual may be in harmony with the universal order of the world. imagination shall inspire the and genius shall completely sway him. it How now does it stand with piety. and has both right and might to continue working. show itself the ruling power in it. Nay you are inclined. and virtue fulness to art . duty is Separate them you certainly will. and non-essential for those life. being capable of existing in the largest measure along with a much more meagre moral endowment. shall or. On artist. and may nowhere encroach in a manner to disturb and confuse. in some other way. rule that art should be rules that have nothing to to be attained by do with the free and Nay. who are strictest in the ordering of the other hand.28 SECOND SPEECH. Now im- agination and genius are for you quite different from virtue and morality. Eather is it rigid variable precepts of art. you consider. you do not think so. you would contrast For life. liaving to do witli life and witli art. yet different from morality. Or will you perhaps betake yourselves to the position that piety is a virtue. This life. if I have rightly appreciated or accurately reproduced ' what you say. because the prudent power often comes into danger by reason of the fiery power. to relax for the artist somewhat of the strict demands of life. in so far as you regard as a peculiar kind of activity ? Has it to do with right ? Is it living something good and praiseworthy. the watchword. for you will not hold them to be identical ? But in that case morality does not exhaust the sphere which it should govern. You Activity is twofold. may appear without any discernible trace of art.

be so good as tell me how your opinion about religion is to be distinguished from nothing ? Till then nothing remains for me but to assume that you have not yet. leaving both elements unaltered. therefore. but must be an original unity. I warn you. But then make parallel. then it cannot be formed simply by bringing the two together. Religion then. as a whole. Were it the case. make something specific. falls. — many-sided it may appear. however. you must secure that those who devote themselves to life do not remain quite without art. Pray is not this rather the utterance of your dislike than your conviction ? Such an accidental shaking together. When. like every other person. because. by exami- warning. or faith. or its corpse when it is dead.THE NA TURK OF RELIGION. morality can And how are religion and art related ? They can hardly be quite alien. you accept it. that you do not make such an admission. Perhaps this combination gives its peculiar form to religion. you speak of an artist as pious. Religion were then higher than 1 ' both. the other side what is known as the way of thinking. the true divine life itself. You will. suppose piety. tirely peculiar. however nation. from of old. there seems no other possible issue. With your view. what is greatest in art has had a religious character. both in his 29 You rather seemtosay tliattlie pious person lias sometliing endoing and leaving undone. into two con- . in return for this solution. and that be quite moral without therefore being pious. does not. do you still grant him that relaxation of the strict demands of virtue ? Rather he to is then subthe cases jected. graut that your knowledge. even though the most accurate equality be attained. morality and genius apart would be only fragments of the ruins of religion. I believe. if and discover no other satisfied yourselves about this side of religion. Perhaps we shall have better fortune with. as a' kind of activity. But. is something which truly fuses both. is a mixture of elements that oppose and neutralize each other. But suppose it is otherwise. Take care.

or indicating Let the other be ethics or the sections of the same thins^. The former describes the nature of thing-s. and what he Now. teaches what man should do in it. you do not forget to remark diligently that very marvellous injunctions both to do and leave undone have issued from religion. only do not forget that it has been the same with that which you call science. SECOND SPEECH. At least we are agreed about the distinction meant. with which at present 1 am not concerned. in so far as religion is a way of know about the world — God's except in purpose the relation of man to God and to making him. Let us call the one division physics or metaphysics. as appears.so . applying both names indifferently. or stands on the same level of certainty as your identical with natural science scientific it knowledge does not Your accusation against it is just that know how to distinguish between the demonstrable ! Similarly. particularly if. has it not the same object as these sciences ? What does faith should be for the world. you founded. how man conceives and must conceive of things and of the world as The latter science. What that it is then. You may be quite and the probable. How you shall subdivide and name belongs to the conti^oversies of your schools. therefore. are we to say that religion is a mixture mingled theoretical — ? As before. each of these two branches of knowledge has its own characteristic mode of procedure. the sum of things. and the world's power own to help or hinder him ? Again it distinguishes in its fashion a good action from a bad. on the contrary. thinking of something and a knowledge about something. or if that seems too much. Is then religion and ethics ? You would not would never grant that our faith is as surely agree. even though it come from various quarters. and practical even less permissible. Such knowledge ? But this is . be too critical about my terminology. In both spheres you believe you have made improvements and are better than your fathers. right . trasted sciences. Do not. doctrine of duties or practical philosophy.

whether it is at at the sorts of Socratic questions. it is This something it is that you call the object of your hostility. my friends. But there is something different which must first be expelled. you. you would scarcely oppose it. at least. to speak of religion as different from your knowledge. If it It would not occur to were. Piety cannot be an instinct craving for a mess of metaphysical and ethical crumbs. Unless I •am quite mistaken. you have long been labouring to provide the mass of the people with just such an epitome of by you wiser people. only be made most arbitrarily. I only prepared for us in losing a serious your knowledge. a mixture of elements that would could either . it would be the strife of the master with pupils who are to emancipate them- selves in due time. Were to take this view. is not so. after you with all. The strife of the cultured and learned with the pious would simply be the strife of depth and thoroughness with superficiality . If we presumed to subject youj you might smile at our folly. I should also wish to submit whether in . article you would desire to extend. and Wherefore. whether it be "religion" or "enlightenment" or aught else. or. why do you strive against religion ? You might. utmost gain to be looked for would be to furnish us with another method for putting known results into shape and for stimulating them to a further study. The name is of no consequence. knowing for certain that you for beginners.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. you 1/ however much it might be distant. But it. that be so. and not an belief. and that it is think. till I to give a direct answer to the all possible to be wise and pious same time. 31 counteract or The sepat-ate. but. and of precepts for one life or for two. leave it in peace and security. you would be wrong word on the matter. so long as beginners are to be found. belief must be something different from a mixture of opinions about God and the world. if But bate left it far behind. I should like to plague all compelled many of you question. excluded.

however^ you may well grant. at the same time. As we recently agreed. in carrying on an honourable war which is not quite without strain. then. How does it come. and I consider it very wrong that out of things so disparate as modes of knowing and modes of acting. Or both may be united. you have no liking for religion. except in so far as. what. concerning this side of religion. for I would not take up a maintain. and again right for right knowledge. you would not wish to fight against such a shadow as that with which we have so far been battling. an most.32 SECOND SPEECH. of knowledge should be religion you cannot long-lost unity believe. you separate into two spheres. in science. It must be something itself so peculiarly in the human special that could fashion thinkable. the same would apply to a theoretic philosophy. there is is to God . that. in those who are furthest from science. you must take time to consider what is its proper significance. something be presented as to be spoken of and argued about. that in religious faith. original knowledge. that in But let us only the principle is not applied ? suppose you are serious. only in a That this highest. other well-known matters you do not acknowledge the principle that things similar are to be placed together and may Is it that you particulars to be subordinated to generals ? joke with the world about a serious subject. for you have found it most. is a practical philosophy set over against a theoretic. I will not hold you to any such conclusion. and have opposed it yet higher. necessary Suppose then the binding principle lies in the theoretic side. that one cannot be thought of without the other? The pious religion . Why not rather regarded as a section ? Or suppose the principle is in the practical side. he holds. and knowledge of the relations of man action. But. you patch together .^ position that I cannot This. the real nature of which can so heart. Let us be honest with one another. man does not believe that the right course of action can be determined. is united and so indissolubly bound together.

Under ! D . you would demand that I unfold all the original sources of religion from the beautiful fictions of the Greeks to the sacred scriptures of the Christians. take very gross things for simple ? It is the one ceaseless aim of also it analysis to present is in spiritual things. therefore. Does the material world present you with any element in its Must original purity as a spontaneous product of nature ? as you have done in the intellectual world. and the will of Is not that man everywhere accounted holy the Gods ? find and blessed who knows the former. To attach them to your sciences of resistance and oC. you. The deepest and highest in a work is not always either first or last. But let us go on to the sources and original writings of rehgion. and call it religion.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. Did you but know how to read between the lines All sacred writings are like these modest books which were formerly in use in our modest Fatherland. Its latter ? outward form is Religion ever deter- mined by something else. an artificial then it is but for the / moment of its production. /^ that the outward form and the true nature are the same. as it creation in yourselves. and even something really simple. all original by producing it. awaking consciousness for your own higher subject is to study what has already been more or less scientifically thought. because they are the sources of your Furthermore the best preparation for terminology. So You can only obtain what is were. that you have not gone to work with straightforwardness. for you shall be ceaselessly reminded of it. 33 an untenable something. never appears quite pure. of nature and of spirit is an un- avoidable necessity. and does the But that is just what I have already said. Our task first is to exhibit its true nature. as you seem to do. by a second. Seeing I have rejected systems. and tlien are But you would deny so needlessly ceremonious with it. Pray come to an understanding on the point. commentaries and apologies. action. and not to assume off-hand. Should I not everywhere the nature of the Gods.

as it has become so common to seek metaphysics and ethics chiefly. in the sacred writings. and to appraise them accordingly. expected that. Except where they are more directly But of you poetic. Similarly. a paltry heading tliey treated weighty matters. but rather for children in belief. poetic impulse. . and what method has from of old been more brilliantly or more successfully employed in revealing the higher nature. and our skill knows how to discover them and restore them to their it is refulgent splendour. offering but few explanations. you will recognize the real intent. the sacred writings include metaphysical and moral conceptions. lating the conceptions are treated. this end will not be reached. though it necessarily works in a poor and thankless speech. a communication of this sort could be nothing other than poetical or rhetorical. for novices. but of the deeper feelings ? But if the vehicle alone satisfies.34 SECOND SPEECH. That being done^ I now return. and to begin with the clear cut distinction between our faith and your ethics and metaphysics. Wherefore. aimed at the most profound inquiry. an endeavour to break through from a lower region to a higher ? As you can easily see. it seems time to approach the matter from the other end. This is what I would attain by this digression. as I am now new sense they would awake. In it they had to find the means for stimuwould be invited in. not only of knowledge. and. this seems the beginning and the end. It is as when nature gives precious metals alloyed with baser substances. Akin to the rhetorical is the dialectic. Can you not even in the way these moral and metaphysical recognize. The sacred writings were not for perfect believers alone. between our piety and what you call morality. by giving a severe concentration and lofty temper to the mind. I wished to throw some light on the conception that is dominant among you. in the creative. seeing through the appearance. for those who are standing at the entrance and and how could they go to work except with you ? They had to accept what doing was granted.

so slightly I am sketched. and to distinguish it rightly from else to present the whole real world in its conditioned necessity and to exhibit the oneness mutually This is truly of all phenomena with their eternal laws. I suppose. They may only know it as everybody does. Were you to set God all as the apex of your science as the foundation of all knowledge. though you allege that nature cannot be comprehended without God. Piety can gloriously display itself. as isolated results known in connection with other things. to determine for each its place in the Whole. most And yet. though you pass from the laws to the Universal Lawgiver. but he will readily admit.THE NATURE OF In order RELIGION. knowing as well as of D 2 . this not disposed to dedescription of mine. in so far as he is pious. however high you go . From their way. be a wise man. show the . beautiful preciate. its nature can be known. I would still maintain that religion has nothing to do with this knowledge. to peculiar relations by which each is what it is . that. in a sense. even though you some- kind of knowledge what proudly look down upon him. 35 and all to make quite clear to you what is the original characteristic possession of religion. I will grant the highest and exhaustive you are able to give. as they really are . Let me interpret in clear words what most pious persons only guess at and never know how to express. does not suffice. quite apart from it. both with originality and individuality. Quantity of knowledge is not quantity of piety. and excellent. but it would not be they would accord praise their way of having and knowing God. if and Eather. What then does your science of being. all . in whom is the unity of all things . at once^ claims on anything that belongs either to science or Whether it has been borrowed or bestowed it is morality. your natural science. it resigns. The pious man must. have for its aim ? To know things. in those to whom this is not original. all your theoretical philosophy. returned. in so far now as it has to do with the actual world. he does not held his knowledge in the same way as you. and honour. and that.

Heligion is to seek this and find it \ wThe in all that lives ' and moves. a it ^ revelation of the Infinite in the finite. But this contemplation is not turned. contemplation of the pious is the immediate consciotisI ness of the universal existence of all finite things. in all growth and change. of your not seek to distinguish precisely each part of human doing and producing. Yet religion is not knowledge and science. what science of action ? is God being seen in the it object Does of your ethics. like your knowledge of God if for once I might use an old — expression and in — to its itself do with the nature of the first cause. as they would readily grant. in all and suffering. It is true that religion is essentially contemplative. indeed. in relation to every other cause and operation. as your knowledge of nature is. It has not even. and it in God. He does. combined with and opposed to another finite thing. and at the same time to combine them into a whole. but it is not the kind of contemplation from which an ethical system takes its rise. according to actual But the pious man confesses that. in God. having and possessing all things in God. In itself it is an affection. contemplate human action. extremity and death. to the existence of a finite thing. only as such an existence in the Infinite and Eternal. whose sense is not open for the life of the world. he relations ? knows nothing about it. Similarly. either of the world or of God. Without being knowledge. and as is easy knowledge and science do not proceed.36 SECOND SPEECH. in the One and in the All. as pious. Only one thing he . and God in all. in and / through the Infinite. it recognizes knowledge and science. Where this is found religion is satisfied. and of iall temporal things in and J through the Eternal. Wherefore it is a life in the infinite nature of the Whole. where it hides itself there is for her unrest and angfuish. It is to have life and to know life in doing immediate feeling. enough to see. You would never call anyone pious who went about in impervious stupidity.

be moved by the Whole that stands over against man. and yet it is not itself this activity. Only by keeping quite outside the range both of science and of practice can it maintain its proper sphere and character. with action itself. therefore. seeks out and detects. regard the case women. but you demand of them the finest feeling for distinguishing the things that excel do you equally expect : them It to is know your ethics as a science? the same. indeed. one he possesses unless someone. as self- a submission to controlling. as a necessary. ye If you will not believe. and his piety as true. . let me say at once. Piety has also a passive side. entirely on the consciousness of freedom. your it he will not. another lacks . The the artist fashions of his special what is given him to fashion. on the contrary. If yj action ethics from God. there is no properly individual action. not only as an adornment. would possess all. Piety does. is praised to you as pious. which all that it produces Piety. acknowledge any action as excellent which not embraced in your system. leads. You ascribe to them religion. While different from piety. and But this is something influences in virtue of his morality. is is are right. Morality depends. where side of life. by virtue These talents are so different that talent.. God's activity among men. Bat to know and of learned. is not at all bound to this In the opposite sphere of necessity. it is quite as active. linger with satisfaction on every action that is from God. against heaven's The citizen its —taking the word shows in the sense of the ancients. not his. to construct this system is your business.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. and every activity that reveals the Infinite in the finite. piety appears as a surrender. you are not accustomed to ask which of these gifts dwell in him by virtue of his piety. within the sphere of falls. But when anyone will. Only when piety takes its place alongside of science and practice. Wherefore the two are different. not in present meagre significance —regulates. morality always itself as manipulating. well.

By piety this presumption is most certainly removed.38 SECOND SPEECH. and of action and piety. And what a precious jewel of science. the pious man may not know at all. not less worth and splendour than either. it is as impossible to be moral or scientific without being just But have I not said that religion can be had religious. will the common field be altogether occupied and human nature on this side in complete. without being pious. as their natural counterpart. But. in my opinion. But pray understand me fairly. as common as it is unavoidable. is ignorance for those who are captive to semblance. your own view and the very confusion. If you have not learned selves. knowledge and action are so much apart that you can discover no unity. without my deserving it. reality. Grant me conWith ignorance your knowledge will ever my it be mixed. Just as one cannot be truly scientific immoral. and at the same time be That is impossible. bat he cannot know falsely. without science ? Wherefore. but believe . that. in my view. do not accuse me of making. reality which knows and where it encounters nothing it does not suppose it sees something. but the true and proper opposite of knowledge is presumption of knowledge. I have myself begun the But remember. a man might have religion and be pious. His proper nature is not of that subordinate kind. an indispensable tliird. Such a separation of knowledge and piety. measure of science. semblance of His nature . I do not mean that one could exist without the other. according to the old adage that like is only is known to like^ knows nothing except reality. for example. which. it from and learn go sistency at least. Speeches or discovered it for yourfrom your Socrates. for with it piety cannot exist. which it has been my chief endeavour to show you in the mirror of my Speech. I only said piety is not the separation. You are only ascribing to me. Just because you do not acknowledge religion as the third.

can both come to life in you except in so far as there lives immediately in you the eternal unity of Eeason and Nature. which (. To wish to have true science or true practice without religion. the universal existence of all finite things in the Infinite ? ^ --^ Wherefore. Conobjects could be found independent one of the other. how can anyone wish to comprehend Infinite ? the world scientifically. you and instead transfer it to life. where it is necessary. or if. true practice is culture possessed. . is obstinate. have no living insight into any of these sequently you Each is for you a part. the knowledge is thrust upon him. indeed it is not that empty appearance which serves necesAnd what else do you take sity and is no knowledge at all.either live nor correspond to any living thing ? Or in ethics. is your conception bears the stamp of perishableness. it is altogether meagre. True science is complete vision and art self-produced . that does not arise in his own self from the influence of this sense for the Without it. either in life or in art. and culpable error. Because activities. Where you see science without religion. hold that is it right acting. that right 39 knowing can be had without I and vice versa. you will find every truly learned man and it is pious. devout be sure It is sickly. in your reason ? what is all art your existence in the things to which science. There. learned up from another. as if in life itself despise it.THE NA TURE OF RELIGION. that there ' you do not deal with life in a living way. What can man accomplish that is worth speaking of. a fragment. %is deduction and weaving together of ideas to be. if not the existence of things and culture if not form and order ? And how you give measure. and . in some distinct talent. only in contemplation / is division. true religion is sense and taste for the Infinite. if transferred. how should he wish to exercise it ? What is all in you. It issues from the sense that would rather have a show of possession unholy by cowardly purloining than have secure possession by demanding and waiting. or to imagine arrogant delusion.

mere notion . he remains. It would degrade it to a mere allegory. for ever apart. what else is this wretched uniformity that thinks it can grasp the highest human life in a single dead formula ? The former arises because there is no fundamental feeling of that living nature which everywhere presents variety and individuality. Either science must become as low as your life^ or it must be separated and stand alone. If man is not one with the Eternal in the unity of intuition and feeling which is immediate_. yet without disciples and without citizenship. and the latter because tife sense fails to give infinity to the finite by determining its nature and boun- Hence the dominion of the daries only from the Infinite. consciousness. if it do not again sink itself in this unity. hence the vain juggling with analytical formulas. hypothetical. complete rounded idealism. he stands there alone and unequalled. Wherefore. of manes In holy innocence and in deep humility he beheld himself mirrored in the eternal world. hence the mechanical erections of your systems instead of an organic structure . a division that precludes success. then. was its of the . sublime above the profane tribe. subordinates to It annihilates the Universe. in the unity of consciousness which is derived. if the humility of religion do not suggest to its pride another realism than that which it itself so boldly and with such perfect right. and perceived how he ako most worthy mirror. if life will not be fettered. full Holy Spirit. calling. shall become of the highest utterance of the speculation of our days. to a mere phantom of the one-sided limitation of its own empty Offer with me reverently a tribute to the the holy. in which^ whether categorical or Science is not your and fear to surrender youryou despise religion self to reverence and aspiration for the primordial. The high WorldSpirit pervaded him. while it seems to aim at ? constructing it. rejected Spinoza. the Universe was his only and his everlasting love. master in his -art.40 SECOND SPEECH. He was full of religion. What. the Infinite was his beginning and his end .

At least you must be able to reconstruct from your conWhat you are to notice is the sciousness your own state. 41 Why art? should I need to show that the same applies to Because^ from the same causes. which should of all else I would point to another example known to you all. and acknowledge that when the philosophers shall become religious and seek God like like Spinoza. you have already begun to is impossible.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. in order that you may understand what I mean by this unity and difference of religion. science and art. the great resurrection shall be celebrated for both worlds. we shall endeavour to descend into the inmost sanctuary of life. I would point in silence for It is that superb pain that is new and deep has no words. therefore. you have here also In place a thousand phantoms. with whom everybe as well thing his spirit touched became art. Wherefore as soon as you have made any definite activity of your soul an object of communigiven rise of cation or of contemplation. ^ ^ I There. be understood. — he had scarce more than struck the associate select spirits first chords. His whole contemThough plation of the world was forthwith a great poem. You must know how to listen to yourselves before your own consciousness. and the artists be pious and love Christ Novalis. to adduce any definite as soon as anything is an example. example. your consciousness and not to reflect upon something already there. and mistakes. ^ You must apprehend a living movement. perhaps. There alone you discover the original relation of intuition and is to feeling from which alone this identity and diff'erence But I must direct yo u to your own selv es. with those vivacious. you must him with the most opulent poets. we may find ourselves agreed. who has too early fallen asleep. what I . separate. are as profound as they are clear See in him the power of the enthusiasm who and and the caution of a pious spirit.^ But. Your thought can only embrace what is sundered. delusions. youth. It for.

you can scarcely understand them. in this way. you cannot ? Then say.42 SECOND SPEECH. however. its colour and impress. the more. weighing it quite generally and originally. the more your whole nature is concerned to retain for the memory an imperishable trace of what is necessarily fleeting. past. I will not despise it. And suppose What is it merely as act. Consider how you delineate an object. Only tlie faintest trace Such as it is. you formerly regarded as a disconnected manifold compacted now indivisibly into the one peculiar content of your being. But. Yet when you give heed. because it grows pale and vanishes. The greater your emotion. of the original unity could then be shown. as a preliminary. what is every act of your life in itself and without distinction from other acts. Is there not both a stimulation and a determination by the object. these are mere Unless you will go back on the first beginning of traces. which for one particular moment forms your existence ? The more definite your image. to carry over to what you may engage in. from whose magical contact this definite conThe more your own state sciousness has proceeded ? sways you the paler and more unrecognizable your image becomes. can you not see as it disappears. and at the same the Whole ? It is an endeavour to return into . as movement ? Is it not the coming time in into being of something for itself. the original moment that Or sunk in yourselves. and so unite two moments into a duraBut just tion. at one wisli to indicate is already and the same time. the less you observe the object that caused it. from whose influence. it must before have been nearer and clearer. both must have been one and equal in the first. the more you are absorbed in it. you find all that has escaped you. Originally it must have been one and the same with your feeling. preponderance of one side over the other. and the more you lose But just because you can trace the growing yourselves. as was said. the image of an object. you become the object. this consciousness.

it is all this. You become Whole becomes object.5 THE NATURE OF RELIGION. which is given chiefly in the possibility of How now comparing the varying degrees of sensation. and you rent from the object are for yourIt is this earlier moment I mean. It is the first contact of the universal life with an indivi- aud tender as y dual. a feeling. always experience yet never experience. its muscles and members and your thinking and forecasting set its inmost nerves in motion. __ You lie directly on the bosom of the are its infinite world. It the holy wedlock of the Universe with the incarnated Reason for a creative. so little refer to • a maiden's kiss. These are the links from which the whole chain is made. you pervade. so Would that I could hold it fast and commonest as well as your highest activities. you Through one part of your nature you feel. Sense and object mingle and unite. The pheyou nomenon swiftly of your life departure and return. all its powers and its endless life. raised above all error and misunderstanding. In this soul. it is bashful does it passes. original movement in your life is first . I would say which the dew breathes on blossom and fruit. it is holy and fruitful Nor is it merely like. productive embrace. then each returns to its place. seeing I cannot describe it is fleeting and transparent as the vapour it. And how are you for yourselves ? By the unity of your selfconsciousness. How both rise together. and the object rent from sense is a perception. properly exist. It is immediate. which selves. and to exist for oneself at the same time. 43 \ the Whole. In that moment it is your body. it it it can scarcely be described. as your own. as a bridal embrace. is just the is result of its constant It scarcely in time at all. as your own. if both together fashion every act of sense and the is easy to see. is It fills no time and fashions nothing palpable. In that moment. are you in the Whole ? By your senses. Your whole life is such an existence for self in the Whole. your ^ Did I venture to compare it. can only life. way every living.

Yet it is only as you are stimulated and determined that you can communicate yourselves to In founding or establishing anything in the world things. At length your consciousness is determined as one or other. side. even though you have not quite surrendered to this face of the and lost consciousness of your life as a unity. activity are a desire to be idenIf the power of the objects preponderates. religious emotion. as I said. even a moment. your life expands and has its place in And. Through the constant play and mutual influence of these opposites. that all is knowledge outside of is recollection. It is recollection of what all time. it is in this sense true what an ancient sage has taught you. so that it If the preponderating power reflect is on your you give the impress and is your- selves in the objects. or feeling issues from your heart and overspreads your whole being. as intuition or feeling. external working. so with knowledge which includes both and with activity on the other. as intuition or feeling. and similarly everything the world fashions in you must be by the same act. Among the rest it received.44 SECOND SPEECH. finally Then. that they issued simultaneously from the division fundamental relation of your nature. it enters and seeks to draw you into the circle of their existence. all temporal things. like the figure of the vanishing mistress to the eyes of her lover. as it is with intuition and feeling time. One must . activity in the narrower sense. if. is tlie source of every But it is not. Wherefore. as the blush of shame and love over the maiden. and is therefore justly to be placed at the head of it is on the one hand. it is always a knowledge. The incoming of existence to us. tified Both knowledge and with the Universe through an object. by this immediate union. you are only giving back what that original act of fellowship has wrought in you. remains nothing but the knowledge that they were there originally one. the intuition displays itself more vividly and clearly. Either at once stops as soon as it reaches consciousness.

wherein one side did not stimulate the othei. and nothing more. be they few or many. to it is . in so far as it exquite wonderful. new and Your feeling is piety. A pea. There then you have the three things about which Speech has so far turned. knowing "would not be your existence. perception. It would be that from which it first developed. and you now understand what I mean when I say they are not identical and yet are inseparable. moments things produce themselves in you as intuition. and into which it will again disapDear.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. when you have considered it more closely. I know not what. form what you call your practical. which is the series of feeling ? third. 47 mutually stimulate the other. Unless you grant it. to each class and consider it by itself. it must stand with the If How then are third in respect of both. or. form ? you to name this it What life will The religious as I think. feeling and activity. Your feeling is piety in so far the result of the operation of God in you by means This series is not of the operation of the world upon you. they must be distinguished. the being and life compresses. in the narrower sense. and as you will not be able V to deny. in which in . or peculiar — produce something else. This is the sphere which I would assign to religion the whole of it. Oaly in an interch^ knowand activity can your life consist. Now can either series alone form a human life ? Would it not be death ? If each activity were not stimulated and renewed by the other. in the manner described. mon as you and to the All. those — my Take what belongs You will find that which you exercise power over things and impress yourselves upon them. As it stands with these two in respect of one another. your moral life again the contemplative moments. you would understand your life and speak comprehensibly of it. The chief point in my Speech is now uttered. you will doubtless call your scientific life. you must either prefer the old confusion to clear analysis. life. would it not be self-consumed ? Yet they are not identical.

call . as a feeling person. Thus.3r -operation. Nay. you are cer- to do And if you in principles and ideas.44 SECOND SPEECH. May there not be some reason for this constant same way connection of principles and ideas with religion ? In the there not a cause for the connection of is Without such an inquiry it would action with religion ? be vain to proceed farther. and none are excluded. you can. which accompanies them These feelings are exclusively the and conditions them. you can become an object to yourself and you can con- own feeling. Now that we have some ground beneath us. elements of ft^^gion. who can tell? hinder that each of the functions of life just indicated should not be an object for the others? Or does it not rather manifestly belong to their inner unity and equality that they should in this manner strive to pass over into one another ? So at least it seems to me. Wherefore. This truth we here come upon for the second time. and the description of tainly free each feeling. If ideas and principles are to be anything. as a feeling person. There is no sensation that is not pious/ except it indicate some diseased and impaired state of the life. they must belong to knowledge which is a different department of life from religion. but purely of sensations and the influence of all and moves around. we are in a ^ fA better position to inquire about the source of this confusion. of works or operations or of different spheres of pg]jp. The misunderstanding would be confirmed^ for you would change what I say into ideas and begin seeking for principles in them. receivedP either ^^ perceptions or of objects of pcrception_. it follows that ideas and principles are all foreign to religion. so. Would you now template your call that the general description of the nature of your feelings is the product of this contemplation a principle. you are not them religious But do not error. Whether you What now is to will follow my exposition. become an object for yourself to operate upon and more and more to impress your deepest nature upon. an idea. the influence of which will that lives not be confined to religion.

forget that this is # 47 scientific treatment of religion. If the ideas and principles are not from reflection on a man's own feeling. and the other spins out of his prescriptions a sgheme of salvation. fools. that no man is pious. depends entirely upon it. however much he lished. to which they must have made for themselves. they must be learned by rote and utterly void. as for example in almost specially a matter all of women. strife ensues as to how many sensations how many conceptions and declarations. without ever having been contemplation. Nor may you say religion is lacking. and not religion itself. Make sure of this. however perfectly he understands these principles and conceptions. His soul barren in religious matters. if it is . being the outcome of his own feeling. and slow of heart They do not know that all this is mere analysis of the religious ! sense. As for those who parade religion and make a boast of it. for he is not. The one weaves -'C' his formulas into a system of faith. I always characterize them as unholy and removed from all divine life. know- ledge about it. in the secret feeling of his own weakness. that this contemplation presupposes the original activity. The feeling may dwell in many sound and strong. but only knowledge about religion. One has concep- tions of the ordering of the world and formulas to express them. It being observed that neither has any proper standing ground without feeling. Do is not present him to me as pious. Nor can the description be equal to the thing described. dry nor shallow.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. the other has prescription^ whereby to order himself and inner experiences to authenticate them. precepts and exercises. who cannot show that they have originated in himself and. do not forget what we have already estabFurthermore. are peculiar to himself. and his ideas are merely supposititious children which he has adopted. have any meaning. how many emotions and must be accepted in order to conglomerate a sound religion that shall be neither specially cold nor enthusiastic. It believes he possesses them in clearest consciousness.

and like all copies. would you succeed with religion. it lives Universe upon us. second-hand ! stuff. Once dead. each of these influences and their consequent emotions. for religion ought cannot and will not originate in the pure impulse to know. corrupt. characteristic the emotions of piety must issue. catures. dubitably your own feelings. you may know or believe about the nature of things i What is far beneath the sphere of religion. But if they are not conscious of having anything to whence have they those ideas and rules ? They have memory and imitation. and not mere stale descriptions of the feelings of others.48 SECOND SPEECH. however just completely the various kindred elements be given from From within. every occurrence scattered from its fertile bosom is an operation of the form it of its life. What we feel and are conscious of in religious emotions is religious ideas else Now the to be nothing not the nature of things. are apt to become carianalyze. can Such restoration component it ever again move in a liviug body ? of the products of living nature out of its parts. They have no ideas of their own from which formulas might be known. and the feelings which they would have accompanying them are copies. The Universe is ceaselessly active and at every moment is revealing itself to us. so they must learn them by rote. but that they have religion do not believe. from the fulness has given a separate existence. Every has produced. not by themselves . everything to which. passes all human skill. to be concocted The members and . which could at best issue in a wretched imitation. once divided. which form those systems can and than such a description. as little. a religion And is out of this dead. and. They must be inwithout. juices of an organized body can be dissected but take these elements now and mix them and treat them in every possible way and will you be able to make heart's blood of them ? . but their operation upon us. in their original. form. Now religion is to take up into our and to submit to be swayed by them.

any effort to penetrate into tbe nature and substance of things is no longer religion. in some way the revealed product of religion. or to regard it as science and religion at the same time. It was religion when they assigned a peculiar name and god to whom they ascribed any helpful occurrence whereby in an obvious. The sum total of religion is tu feel . but seeks to be a science of some sort. For example. because beyond genealogies of the gods. not as limited and in opposition to other things. because they had combuilt a temple to the prehended something as a deed their of the Universe. 49 but as a part of tlie Whole.THE NA TURE OF RELIGION. to take what are meant as descriptions of our feelings for a science of the object. if accidental. full of flaws and inequalities. necessarily leads to mysticism and vain mythology. in respect of science. or when long gion. series of emanations and procreations. in themselves. they felt the ever-stironly ring. way. all change and all apparent evil that results from the strife of finite forms. It was religion when they rose above the rude iron age. because one peculiar way in which the Universe operates was present as a definite feeling. regarded every special form of life throughout the whole world as the work and as the kingdom of a being who in this sphere was omnipresent and omnipotent. it was religion when the Ancients. and they described it after this fashion. Even though these things may have a later faith produced a it was not relitheir source in a religious presentation of the relation of 'the human and the divine. own fashion set forth its connection and after and peculiar character. vain mythology. ruinous mysticism.^ Anything beyond this. and sought again the golden age on Olympus in the joyous life of the gods. and. but as an exhibition of the Infiuite in our life. On the other hand. living and serene activity of the World and the WorldBut when they drew up marvellous and complex Spirit. of the imperfect and the perfect. abolishing the limitations of time and space. the laws of the world were revealed. they were.

though for the world.^ What is a help for presentation is treated as a reality. as if apart from His operation upon us through the world the existence of God before the world. and to all it is welcome. so far as religion is concerned. Him It is not easy to avoid the appearsusceptible of suffering like other from the never rid It is only one difficulties of itself. aught single and particular .^ it is quite outside From all this you will at once perceive how the question. It admits of an entire negative. were either by or in religion exhibited as science is. of characterizing God. and again.50 SECOND SPEECH. and by its to nature necessary. only possible by to say. That the religious sense of one person is moved in one way. is to be treated. if you mean that it is formed according an inward and necessary connection. cannot equally appear among among The essential oneness of religiousness spreads ic out in a great variety of provinces. means of this unity to feel. and. in its highest unity. whether religion is a system or not. and also of a direct affirmative. aud that of another in another is not pure accident. that our being ance of making objects. and outside of the world. moves us is that. but the peculiar territory of religion. that is and living is a being and living in and through God. Religion is certainly a system. Christians. whether among many or few as a peculiar and distinct kind of feeling is in itself complete. But it is not necessary that the Deity should be presented as To many this view is necessary. each . Whatever occurs anywhere. itself What you find as religious emotions Turks or Indians. t. as if the emotions formed no whole. as if any emotions might be caused in the same individual by the same object. it way it. vain mythology. yet it is always hazardous and fruitful in difficulties. also one distinct object. in a way that perhaps you scarce expected. all that to feel that in feeling is one . common speech will probably God just as if But to treat this objective conception of were a perception. It is only a misunderstanding very easily made.

based on unity. You would not have individuals issue from the Whole in a finite way.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. side. on what you call bis character. and the world influences him. Each emotion appears as displays itself immediately in E 2 . construed and numbered from the others. In the same way. and the unity of music generally. and its characteristics be accurately determined in a conception ? Were I to compare religion in this respect with anything it would be with music. is a whole in itself. for example. which again is it is divided into different characteristic forms. but so is any of the divisions that may at any time have appeared in it. whereby he is It is a rounded whole. till we come to Each actual instance the genius and style of the individual. the rooted in the greater forms one variety. elements in festations its structure. whereby from nothing farther removed than from all semblance of compulsion or limitation. each. a special. in its individual mani- life. according as his life stirs in him. of this inner revelation in the individual contains all these Yet while nothing is possible for a musician. piety of each individual. he presents it in the charm of sound with all the pleasure and joyousness of boundless caprice. Music is one great whole . Each form again is a whole and capable of an endless number of characteristic manifestations. religion it is. his peculiarity. is a whole by itself. Yet the music of each people is a whole by itself. being at a definite distance from the other. except in and through the unity of the music of his people. of which it Finally. the necessary element is taken up. which indeed is otherwise closely connected with it. patible and more included as characteristic. so that one might be determined. despite the necessary unities. In life. 51 province it contracts itself^ and tlie narrower and smaller the province there is necessarily more excluded as incomChristianity. down even Eeligion thus fashions itself with endless to the single personality. down to Pro- testantism and Catholicism in modern times. taken up into freedom. a self-contained revelation of the world.

to be somewhat marvellous. not only to have it within. disturbed in the simplicity of their way. a devout watching and listening to discover in their own hearts what they are to describe. It is purely arbitrary and never something new that should be i:i . system of perceptions A and feelings you may yourselves see. Is there not at the same time an accompanying feeling or thought make own choice that you would have to feel in accordance your with this feeling. and complete a designation which is about as accidental as the designation of the stars. is and a system.luded. which does not now move you. something limited and determined from without. must be from without. anything corresponding to nature. for always being discovered. is not to be found in it. far inferior to the theories about music. and a cold calculating and refining would take its place. It would be impious to demand here something held in the free self-determination of constraint. Suppose now you feel something. . Poor enough they are too. but to see it described and to comprehend it from without. If anything of this kind lies in your conception of system then you must set it quite aside. piety is poverty-stricken. anything permanent and secure. Thousands sufficient. and it is presumption to consider that. Among those systematizers there is less than anywhere. to be present? for this immediate association your feeling would be at an end. and not the result of caprice and tradition. with- — — The truly pious are not it.52 SECOND SPEECH. and not otherwise were but this or that But object. let the forms of religion be ever so inward and self-dependent. tliis very disposition. for they give little heed to all the so-called religious systems that have out been erected in consequence of this view. defective though they be. and to develope it from within. and mirrors one passing moment of tlie world. The designation. They would rather reckon with symbols. to be conscious of the connection of its separate manifestations. Wherefore it is plainly an error to assert that it belongs to religion.

which is not peculiarly appropriate to religion. the marvellous thought has arisen of a universality of one religion. and will not sacrifice the smallest for the sake of it. but it it is if as mere perversion to call it a principle. those systematizers are less anxious to present the details of religion than to subordinate them one to the other. 53 might be moved religiously in tlie same way. True. which include particulars. This distinct form of a religion is found. the man who truly knows the nature of his religion. and to deduce them from a higher. of one single form which are false. will give a very subordinate place to all apparent connection of details. each exists for itself. Without dependence on any other. or they are merely a work of phantasy and caprice. if they rest on reality. Nothing is of less importance to religion. and not proved from something else. By taking the opposite course. a special type of religion is constituted by one definite kind and manner of feeling. Its facts all are one and immediate. led. has ever been reached. Consequently. nor be comprehended without it. There is no single nothing fact in it that can be called original and chief. Every man may have his own regulation and his own rubrics. as by external circumstances. in every Each expression of feeling single element of religion. in the same way. and in respect of which all others misunderstanding must be guarded against. Everything is to be found immediately. combination and connection belong to another sphere. for it knows of deducing and connecting. and to treat the rest could be deduced from it. and yet each. bears on it immediately this peculiar impress. I w^ould say that it is only by such deducing and connecting that such a comparison as true and false. It cannot show itself without it. is true. It only applies where we have to Were it not that . not so much by disposition. might designate his feeling by different symbols. V/hat is essential can neither gain nor lose thereby.*^ Furthermore.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. Generals.

is how could anything arise ? But that immediate which has not yet passed through the stage of idea. are not in place. because everyone is a person by himself. but religion its is infinite on all sides. the consciousness of this infinity accompanies religion. and is not to be comprehended under one form. most characteristic differences. that about the same circumstances there may be views and sentiments quite different from his. is ever being more beautifully reproduced. but has grown up purely in the feeling. with being malignant. and is only to be moved in his own way. cannot believe that there is of all forms. for expresses a common higher is it is only religious not merely because any single has a limited horizon. therefore. but only under the sum total life. this friendly. How . but more particularly. not only because something new is ever being produced in time.^ It is infinite. and. yet just as pious . except immediately only All as it that But the whole circumference of religion is infinite. Religion is infinite. that his religion is He must be conscious only part of the whole . may be You of see how immediately this beautiful modesty. for which the sense may entirely fail him. do you reproac^ with loving persecution. so that for everyone the elements of religion have nothing beyond .54 SECOND SPEECH. and must therefore accompany everyone that really has religion. It is the very feeling of religion. Elsewhere the negative laws of your logic All is immediately true in religion. not only because the capacity for religion is never perfected. religion religion. religious is good. not religious organization being able to embrace all. by the endless relations both active and passive between different minds and the same limited matter. attractive forbearance springs from the nature unjustly. but is ever being developed anew. As the knowledge of eternal truth and infallibility accompanies knowledge. and that there perceptions and feelings belonging to other modifications of religion. for do with ideas. is ever entering deeper into the nature of man.

because. But just because each seer is a new priest. have filled the world with clamour and turmoil. These syste- matizers. Yet even philosophy leaves room for variety. seeks to bring those who would know to a common knowledge. the practical sometimes. in a high style religious. The adherents of the dead letter which religion easts out. the theoretical always. have caused it all. a new mediator. all stand together in their original genuine connection. ^ This miserable love of system rejects what is strange. strife. the sense for the unity of the original source of life. both of which belong else- where. They abide alone with themselves and the Infinite. he flees with repugnance the bald uniformity which would again destroy this divine abundance. truly pious. "with 55 overturning society. therefore. Modern Rome. a new organ. for by thus relating detail in its immediate detail. godbut consequent. who flood it water. and coherence disturbed. and the beautiful the seat of the art and love of on. indeed. and the more readily the better it understands itself. was hospitable to every god.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. and. What is it in religion about which men have quarrelled and made parties and kindled wars ? About definitions. relation to the Infinite. often without any patient examination of its claims. desire to bring those belief who religion does not. less all is one and all is true. Philosophy. Its endeavour to open in those who are not yet capable of religious emotions. hurls anathemas and ejects heretics. and making blood flow like Blame tliose who corrupt religion. War There is must be carried to finite persecution. But once. one may destroy the other. the closed ranks would be destroyed. Seers of the Infinite have ever been quiet souls. or if they do look around them. grudge to no one who understands the . even believe and feel to one is and one feeling. with an army of formulas and definitions^ and seek to cast it into the fetters of a so-called system. were it to receive its place.^^ Ancient Rome. while.

however and in itself. Something of this I have already touched upon. much. It is a knowledge. vision. they are able to look There is in religion such a '(contemplation as manysidedness in judgment and in nowhere else to be found. not at least so much of them as remains after religion is taken away. Religion fetters of opinion and desire. Let me Does not every other object appeal to your own experience. and will accomplish this capacity for unlimited or that in the world. beyond their own is sphere. do not touch religion. whether it is embraced in his system of thought. it is all alone rescues it.'^ whatever be its value. and of all onesidedness.56 SECOND SPEECH. They rest upon the confusion between religion and that knowledge which belongs to theology. it from the heavy is For all that is worthy in other respects. draw around him a narrow circle^ inside of which all that is highest for him is enclosed. and makes everything that does not forward him an object of Only when the free impulse of seeing. or lies outside. it is to be rejected. whereto man's thinking and striving are directed. and acts from principle and desigu. In this respect. therefore. this feeling of the InfiQite. even unholiness and commonness. I will not except even morality and philosophy. and of antipathy. of preservation and contemplation. and outside of which all appears common and unworthy ? The man who only thinks methodically. but let us take a general glance at . Religion is the natural and sworn foe of all narrowmindedness. living is directed towards the Infinite and goes into the Infinite. unavoidably circumscribes himself. To a pious mind religion makes everything holy. whether he comprehends it or does not comprehend it. whether it agrees with his peculiar of acting or disagrees. necessary. By means of this wide mighty word his own peculiai' way. is the mind set in unbounded liberty. and is to be always distinguished from religion. all that can be is an indispensable image of the Infinite. Just as inapplicable are the charges you mode ^ have made in respect of action. These charges.

Lest you should think I am merely quibbling. and moral life. Two things must be carefully distinguislied. would not act. tion. they might have been quite as pious without harm? If you are seeking progress as doubtless you are where two faculties that should be equal have become unequal. it is not advisable It would be better to to call back the one in advance. and had they been. it S7 in order to set it entirely aside. there have been many most religious men in whom the proper impulses to action have been wanting./ If you could imagine it implanted in man quite alone. and morality been too . t^ — — urge forward the laggard. he would only feel. the exception of a few who have shown themselves almost mad in their mistaken zeal. improper. according to what we have said. your accusation. that these actions have proceeded from pious men. as you rightly complain. and even unnatural dealings. and capable therefore of accidentally becoming immoral ? Piety and morality can be considered apart. civil. As I have already admitted and asserted. In the first place. the other on action.THE NA TURK OF RELIGION. for your war against it would then be of quite another sort. or a branch of it ? Scarcely. consider \ that religion by itself does not urge men to activity at all. you separate religion and morality. I will not demand horrible. proof But in the very utterance of I will grant it provisionally. and to sliow you exactly what I mean. indifferent in respect of it. Do you mean then that religion is immorality. tion do you come to make religion responsible for action ? Would it not be more correct to say that such men were not moral enough. from this opposifeeling. Wherefore. and so far tbey are different. With. you charge religion with causing not infrequently in the social. and you would have to make success in vanquishing religion a test of morality. The ^ man. it would produce neither these nor any other deeds. the one is based on But how. you have not yet taken up this posi- Or do you only mean that piety is different from morality.

if he had been The more pious he would have acted more morally. wlio have retired from the world and have betaken themselves plation. In this way. it would rather appear that. Quiet and discretion. life consists of two elements. and of our nature should give action birth this is "as much required in common life as in politics and art. way. But this divergence could only come because the agent did not make his piety sufficiently evident.58 SECOND SPEECH. they common. Rather I praise you the more thorough and impartial you are. by the is it his that straightway sets him to such World. is the other. your accusation can be turned into praise. whole religious influenced part. Blame also. whatever it be about. that they seem from one single impulse. that man surrender himself to the Universe and allow himself to be by the side of it that is turned towards him is one that he transplant this contact which is one definite within. life and being. therefore. and take it up into the inner unity of his feeling. contem- mucli in the background. if the whole impress and character. I am far from disagreeing with you when you so constantly blame it. is naturally violent. I pray you. but still more where it has a good appearance. from which it should not proceed. When. piety working and acting as bear the traces of commotion and disturb the pure connection of the moral life ? Impossible. is capable of such effectSj but not of cruel and horrible deeds. The religious life is nothing else and than the constant renewal of this proceeding. Wherefore. in solitude to idle Beligion. it falls into an undue dependence and is far too much under the influence of the external objects that work upon this one emotion. Feeling. in a definite . It is a coma force to which action should not be subject and motion. anyone is stirred. when isolated and morbid. it is not dormant. not only where the action appears bad. Whether to issue immediately you call this special feeling religious or not. When action follows a single impulse. However have this in different the actions you blame all may be.

' it corresponds to one emotion. On the contrary. action springs of branch of feeling. dependently and slavishly. if you asked him by action he proposed to give expression and particular vent to his feeling ? They are bad spirits and not good that . if you observe that each feeling in proportion as it bears the character of piety. . Would not a pious person who was right deeply moved even quite fail to find himself in great perplexity. the of feeling. activity is a reaction of sum of activity should only be a reaction of and single actions should depend on from momentary feeling. he should do everyin thing with religion. From this inner unity. and therefore subject to imperfections. as a natural As we agreed.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. life. man csannot be represented as from religion or being driven to action by religion. pure and eternal. 59 him it. you can easily see. you are speaking of what is quite general and is not in any way original to religion nor specially seated in it. Uninterruptedly. and not when. the whole inner unity of the spirit. But while man does nothing from religion. the religious feelings should accompany his active life. to enjoy what he has it won. but it must be apparent to you that. is disposed to withdraw itself into the heart and not break forth into deeds. That by this representation of religion I am neither deceiving you nor myself. like a sacred music. his piety invites it. you are speaking of a morbid state of it. to absorb to combine to strip of what is temporal and individualj that it may no more dwell in him as commotion but be quiet. and from which consequently nothing is to be concluded against religion in particular. does it exhibit. a healthy state. Only something when each action is in its own connection and in its proper place. in a free and characteristic way. Religion is of course finite. sum quite different / j \ ' if Consequently your charge does not touch religion. but the its own accord. or what understand you. acting but piety and morality form each a series by itself and are two different functions of one and the same life. And.

and drive him. There are. Spare me the long catalogue of outward disciplines. but they poured serenity and calm into a soul exhausted with doing and thinking. meant to represent We opinions have already seen how those dogmas and that would join themselves more closely to . but they are nevertheless disastrous. should be. these friendly spirits were lost to His view. The to produce religion. First of It is the subject I defend will justify itself. and being of no importance for sense. in that moment when His whole power was roused for action. I admit. neither can be perfect. This separation means corruption in the unity in real life.6o SECOND SPEECH. The legions of angels with which the Father provided His Son. other actions you often speak of. They had no call to help Him in any doing or forbearing. Let them be ever so inane and meaningless. There is a difference. mortifications and the rest. take possession of man. and yet you cannot overlook the fact that the greatest heroes of religion. far too often. because they accustom man to attach himself to what is void and to value wbat is worthless. I know what you jnean. they. also. but I believe that. let us understand what we with action as an exercise of feeling. are dealing all. not with significant action any symbolical or feeling. have regarded them with great indifference. purpose no importance for morality. All these things you accuse religion of producing. one and weakness in the other and if one is not what it . privations. and it we have come back to their essential following closely. exercised no power over Him. they are not moral. For a little. however. spiritual exercises. the founders and reformers of is distinct of of them Being the church. in this regard with. they are not immoral. but again they hovered round Him in joyous throng and served Him. take the place of moral action or hide its absence. But why do I direct you to instances and Because by starting from the separaspeak in images ? tion which you make between religion and morality.

What value this kind of activity may have. of the proper Similarly this conducting and knowledge made feeling an object to be contemplated and understood. accepting them from one and transmitting them to another. and religion than with you. however. of when they were put and in place original perception. this acting makes it an object to be operated upon and cultivated. feeling. and in no way an immediate knowledge about the operations of the Universe^ that gave rise to the We saw also. I grant it fully. and therefore a given product of life ? But as I said. lay their the end for themselves just such acting to acting. These actions are always. is certain. though they have no meaning or value for themselves. to be understood as . or does it not rather appear to be the business of the Whole. of goodness and righteousness themselves. this does not belong here. and I would rather discuss it with the friends of So much. down own sometimes put in place of direct moral action. upon as they say. they are a knowledge feeling. it is plainly an error into which religious men could not fall. If you would recall that something quite similar is to be found in morality. it be the result of a personal resolve. meaningless. and whether it may not be as unreal as that kind of knowing. are only designations and de- In short. and needs to be well weighed. I shall not here decide. how it necessarily resulted in evil. so vain and exercising of feeling which often turns out Just as that is an acting at second-hand. however. religion tlian is 6i fitting. it is through moral men. scriptions about feeling. that few errors are so disastrous as the substitution of these disciplinary exercises of feeling for the original feeling itself.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. of the feeling. Only. you would perhaps at once agree with me. In what sense man can act upon himself and particularly upon his feeling is Can difficult to determine. but you would not admit that Men do all kinds of things. It happens that these are of self-improvement. just such exercisings of morals. Men.

as for something universal if and holy.62 SECOND SPEECH. being done to rouse. This they were expected to think out for themselves. No exercise of this kind is of any value. they deceive themselves and others with the appearance of a higher life which they do not Either it is base hypocrisy or wretched superreally have. while the superstitious person and the hypocrite adhere strictly to the accepted and traditional. their own training of the feelings. as if they also had some of the hidden virtue. For them such exercisings of feeling have a special worth. having regard to their natural. endeavours according to his need. Every superstition shall be alike unholy. they would be in an evil inward poverty could be no louger hidden. and are zealous for zeal is it. and such an error could only arise among must cease. a higher nesses and inequalities. who are in their hearts hostile to piety. special state of feeling of which the man is conscious. Severe mortifications. has a deep significance.. their own outward discipline and exercise. I willingly expose it to your condemnation. is manifestly void. self-love directed to himself. stition. Consciously or unconsciously. Each religious person fashions his own asceticism discern. and their . and we shall reject not and only what. however specious. but all that in this way arises. as an essential part of the spiritual world. dull renunciation of the beautiful. case. for own personal state. a knowledge of his own inner life with its weak- It presupposes an interest. in others. empty phrases and usages and charities shall all be reckoned at the same value. it manifestly rests on the man's own feeling. self-pvoduced and really has this meaning. regarded by itself. is pre- Where the activity is A supposed. as a morally feeling person. sustain and direct religious feeling. But we must never confuse it with the well-meant The difi'erence is easy to of pious souls. and looks for no rule outside of himself. seeing they can supplanting feeling. ceases. the action also it When this love those abolishes itself. By outwardly imitate what. unnatural and perverted.

to drain off at once the sources of the commonest necessary to misconceptions. this outward nature. your vision flowers. which spare nothing. 63 general. nor many who would at least wish be counted among you. although else fear the powers which rule in nature. which is many the and only temple of the Godhead. penuriousness having been purified and prepared. it was religion to the other branches of life. Chiefly where the living contact of N man with the world fashions itself as feeling. First of to all. I hope. but in which all the different phenomena of life fashion themselves together. howto be the inmost sanctuary of religion. are the beautiful and sweet scented flowers hidden activity opens. The ever. which is never directly observed. we have found only one right and consistent answer. A climate of paradise is thus created in which no disturbs the development. have We attached ourselves to that moment. but which the divine growth ever anew produces from the fulness of life. and no rude surrounding injures the tender lights and fine texture of its To this I would now conduct you. understood the relation of Wherefore. soon fall. When. almost preliminary truths have long They should have been understood of them- but neither you. then. therefore. it is held At present. The most delayed selves. for the view with which ^ you next oppose me is utterly to be repudiated. us. or even to of A ^ be the sole basis of religion. we have now. after the These feelings of religion. little it should be more. we have asked where now among all it produces is religion chiefly to be sought. Surely in that case you . that they might not afterwards retard us. firm ground beneath us.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. as in the buds of some plants blossom and fruit are both enclosed. which threaten the life and works of man. In virtue of its peculiar way of stirring the heart. follow first me to outward nature. which. This having been done to the utmost of my ability. is said to give the first feeling of the Infinite. is than the outer court.

you call accident and the accidental ? Has this ever been made an object of religion and been security or insecurity? ' When . and what is measurable cannot stand in awful opposition to The objects of religion would thus be as the Infinite. tliat if must admit fear. and is preparing soon. even against the angriest blows of his trident . because it cannot be definitely comprehended or fashioned into something great. conducting themselves towards one another as brethren and kinsfolk.64 SECOND SPEECH. a laugh ready wherewith Is not nature protecting and sustainto mock the thunder ? ing quite as much an object of adoration ? Or. The lightnings of Zeus terrify no more since Hephaistus has prepared for us a shield against them . Manifestly the great aim all of all industry spent in cultivating the earth is to destroy the dominion of the powers of nature over man^ and to bring fear of them to an end. But. does it depend on your you stand under your lightning conductors. consider it in this way. by thus mutually destroying one another. ever more and more unfaithful to it. which. ever learning to resist and to destroy one of these gods by means of the others. Already a marvellous amount has been done. be just as zealously worshipped ? If you are still capable of being filled with reverence for the great powers of nature. piety came witli fear it must go with Let us then consider the matter. and Hestia protects what she has won from Poseidon. are they ? Would not these gods. he can measure. have you. as conqueror and lord. is Man then the ground of reverence for the powers of nature. to be but a smiling spectator at this play. and caring for man as the youngest son of the same Father. perhaps. for what man him has controlled or attempted to control. the sons of Ares unite with those of ^sculapius to ward off the deadly arrows of Apollo. they fear Were would gradually appear ordinary and common . Does the great and infinite alone threaten man^s existence and oppose his working ? Does he not also suffer from much that is small and paltry.

try to imagine essentially the same. you would have before your eyes one unpleasant grayness. among better disposed persons. by the desire to be rid of it. If it should be praised. was the holy reverence for Fate. into earthly is mean But piety first begins when it is fellowship in the state. without in the least degree altering its nature. is just as I almost hate to speak of their religious. it is not even preparaor introductory. in XoiYQ. you must have understood little of their poetic piety. They are quite full of admiration and transport. doings when they dart off into the great.' . the glare of which you cannot endure.^^ Such a sacred reverence I will readily acof which. which so many extol. to banish which was a credit and a virtue. you beauties. Under this dread Fate the sustaining powers were as much embraced as the destructive. fashion ! and. and yet what you are contemplating would be how Once more. was accounted. Spirit andjoyfuUy to regard his working. the midday sun. . in the best knowledge as the first element of religion. or gaze at the magic play of colours in the glowing evening sky. glorious world to get for themselves little impressions how they inspect the : delicate markings and tints of flowers. But suppose their we take their course and subtilize after What is it that they do admire ? Rear the cellar. and will have it that no instrument could conjure forth these sounds and no brush attain this gloss and marking. it must be tory for urging men. and how they admire the songs of the birds on a beautiful country-side. but the fear you not only not religion itself. for the aim of all religion is to love the Worldput aside. the rejection and most cultured times of Antiquity. absolute recklessness. Suppose the vapour above us somewhat differently disposed . THE NATURE OF RELIGION. Yery different from that slavish fear. 65 worshipped ? If you have such a small conception of the Fate of the Ancients.y^ ^" and fear is not But little truly that joy in Nature. if you are successful. plant in a dark rob it of all these can instead of that splendour.

expand our diminished pictures of them to their natural size. weak. for them really true. is the feeling of the greatness and majesty of the Universe. sensitive souls. as if man entered most easily into this sanctuary by being debased to fear of the irrational. or were they sages in whose clear intuition all strife between appearance and and who. so that they are stirred to pious feeling by every object .66 SECOND SPEECH. is easiest to awake in infants and ignoramuses. and what is so plexity appearance ? appearance . Do not scoff. without comparison and reflection. you are quite right in . a living impulse. received the light and splendour. would be a real and pure feeling. then. and by vain trifling with transitory show. The next thing to meet us in corporeal nature is its material boundlessness. then you can say that . Were they" children who. tlie already appears to iuliabitants of the East the glimmer- ing twilight. a gladly reality is resolved. undisturbed by these can again be stirred like children. therefore. just on account of their ignorance. hard In opposing religion. communicative contact between them and the world. it is doubtful cannot be a religious stimulus. and can call forth no genuine feeling. This arithmetical amazement try to when we which. refinement. They are in perbetween appearance and reality. that they have gone after a mere void But they do not believe in it merely as an. as if piety were easiest. If you understand this better way. their hearts being opened for the w^orld by the soul of the world. do not ascribe to it what does not belong to it. But do not present me that empty affected thing that sits so loose and is but a wretched mask for their cold.this also is a necessary and indispensable element of religion. the enormous masses which are scattered over illimitable space and which circulate in measureless orbits. as an emotion of piety. Is it not manifest. without further thinking and willing. their joy refinements. when they have not the same sensation. and most becoming to timid. Many hold that the exhaustion of the imagination.

can must be just as strong when the operation equal and conformable to our powers. howlost through advancing education and skill. f 2 . but it beyond it from smallness. nay. the external small and is great.are our compare these units. which is doubtless a ever. / the air. piety. nor anything constitute this feeling. but Rise to the height of seeing how these laws equally embrace all things. as ex- which is the feeling of our relation alting as it is humbling. organization. and reckon with them. wlio are accustomed to take this view grant us that. law in virtue of which size and number in general first arose. the greatest and the smallest. The religious sense corresponds not to the masses in the outer world. lacking Just as little one essential element. What moves us so wondrously is not the contrast between but the essence of greatness. when half of those worlds were not discovered. it is merely a feeling of personal incapacity. Neither a world operation too great for an to the Whole.THE NA TURE OF RELIGION. in so far as it can be conceived —and without that it means nothing is for us — the infinity of mass and number only finite and the mind can comprehend every infinity of this kind into short But formulae. as daily happens. . which and motion. when these great orbits had not yet been calculated. not grant that anything of their they would certainly reverence for the greatness and. as we are in a position to of size measure relio-ious feeling. this spell of number and -mass must disappear. and then say whether you are not conscious of the divine unity and the eternal immutability of the world. and not what is captive to weight and in so far dead. but is not that glorious reverence. was necessarily poorer ? can they deny that. with those great world As units. Life alone can work on us in a characteristic way. 67 Bat would those finding somewliat clnldisli and wortliless. the world systems and the mote which floats in to their eternal laws. when it was not yet known that these shining points were worlds. lono* as this feeling rests on difference of mass.majesty of the Universe is As soon.

fectly ordered Now the world is a and complete in itself. should this appear strange to you. By the most constant repetition. nay capricious arbitrariness. it must lack breadth and boldness and all that suggests a great spirit ? If a loftier unity is to be suspected. in the heavens and on the earth. Were this we could be part per- You see that the irregularity of the world. work of which you only see a part. The perturbations in the course of the stars point to a higher unity and a bolder combination than those we have already discovered in the regularity of their orbits. only inferior . religious Nor great lively regularity gives feeling than the sense of law in all difference. if it is allowable to a less make and a com- parison. Wherefore. there situations not fully explicable. along with the general tendency to order and harmony. with a phantasy the laws of which only a higher standpoint can show. But. the perpetual trustworthiness of the rules of mechanics. in the religion of the Ancients. compel us to see that she handles her most definite forms with free.68 SECOND SPEECH. there must be here and of art. complete and fully to be understood without anything besides. if the whole was wrought throughout in this style. this Suppose you are looking at a fragment of a great work In the separate parts of this fragment you perceive beautiful outlines and situations. The anomalies. some elements in these laws cannot escape even the order in which all common movements return There is perception. and would you not judge that. has really a greater value for religion than the order which is first presented to us in our study of the world and which is visible in a smaller part. so often employed against religion. Would not the fragment then rather appear a work by itself than a part of a greater work. the idle sports of plastic Nature. conscious of the greatness of the whole only in a limited way. and the eternal uniformity in the striving of plastic Nature. the recognized coming and going of all organized forces.

however. there is enough for all. In others. but I mean those dim presentiments which are the same in all. Furthermore. They are easy to gods. This happy view. What a feeling of endless How are we impressed and superabundant riches a universal paternal care and a childlike confidence that by without anxiety plays away sweet life in a full and abundant world Consider the lilies of the field. but this multitude of and everywhere being reproduced. We determined by is the yet unexplored general life. neither do they reap. not lying dead. being comprehended in ignorance and misunderstanding. forcefully awakes the dead and enters it on a new course by drawing itself alive it into its own life. On every side we find provision prepared for all living. were the work c£ the father of the there mysterious emotions. This consciousness pro- duced by what we understand in Nature. when is more distinguish from the quiet and settled consciousness that everything is involved in the most distant combinations of the Whole. the imagination reminds us that in nature than we know. wherefore be not anxious. With all forms of life. divinities tliat 69 and ministering virgins had tlie oversiglit of all recurred uniformly and liad an already discovered order^ but the exceptions which were not understood. dread. and the enormous mass of material which each uses in turn. only the educated seek to elucidate them and change them into a more lively activity of perception. Thus each completes his course and succumbs to an inward fate fulness and not to outward want. conquering power. The sustained. the revolutions for which there was no law. as is right.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. that every individual thing is also have strange. they grow to a delusion which we call pure superstition. there manifestly lies a pious shudder of which we shall not be ashamed. under which. even though. they sow not. consider how you are impressed by the • universal opposition of life and death. whereby every living thing nourishes itself. this ! ! . yet your Heavenly Father feedeth them.

that is for us still lovely and pleasing. It is natural. touches their life becomes truly a world. that is things which have their spuls in themselves apart. in a more definite boundary. concealed 'by being distributed shapes. Not only did they have. . Had this but to the people.70 serene. Only in appearance. our century glorious. whereby individual things.Spirit showed itself to the most ancient sages. How have been permitted by a richer age to go deeper Already we know something more of the universally distributed forces. how. the Spirit of the World reveals itself as visibly. who knows what strong and lofty penetrated way religion might have taken from the beginning ? At present it has penetrated to all who would be considered sciousness of it as Even without cultured. easy SECOND SPEECH. Through the gradual operation of the fellowship between knowledge and feeling. § mind was for one of the greatest heroes of very limited and meagre commuch more should we win who ! religion. all that application of these laws. See how attraction and repulsion. and we would not stop with such a con- might be had anywhere and from anyall the knowledge which has made thing. in small as in great. determine everything and everywhere how all difference and opposition are again resolved into . in a thousand different Nothing simple is to be found. in this sense. are fashioned and destroyed. as completely. the first pure speaking image of the world. they have arrived at the immediate feeling that there is notliing even in their own nature that is not a work of this Spirit. a unity permeated by the Divinity that fashions it. but there was kindled in their hearts a love for nature and a joy in her. the World. the fair profit of a munion with nature. an exhibition and In virtue of this feeling. but all is skilfully connected and interwoven. therefore. by intuition. the eternal laws. and always active. a higher unity. We would see and exhort all who share in the culture of the age to observe. in what we call bodies. can anything finite See how all likeness is boast itself cf a separate existence.

chiefly within our own minds. the stars shone down on him from a beautiful heaven. that love and joy. that deep reverence for nature which made sacred the art and life of Antiquity. But is it so easy to find original in nature the love and resistance. that tliere should be in 71 them all. is there so little truly religious enjoyment of nature. Still his mind was stirred with longing for a world. His paradise was beautiful. the unity and peculiarity. we might await all that should and peace. befall us with approbation out of those eternal laws. but there awoke in him no sense for the world. harmonies awoke At length the deep-toned the world fashioned itself in him. so that in all the changing phenomena of life. as merely the working would indeed be the germ of all ^ the religious feelings furnished by this side of existence. as long as man was alone. Then the Deity recognized that the world would be nothing. first The . it " ' He created a helpmate for him. even in the change be- Such a feeling tween life and death itself. the Deity ruled over him and addressed him in various ways. which was the source of that wisdom. and . Even from within. '^ The Universe portrays is itself in the 'inner life. and he collected the animal creation before him. Let me reveal a secret to you that lies almost hidden in one of the oldest sources of poQtry and religion. this sense was not developed. Wherefore the spirit is for us not only the seat of religion Whole must be i but its nearest world. gion If the mind is to produce and sustain relimust operate upon us as a world and as in a world. and from thence transferred to corporeal nature.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. if perhaps out of them a world might be formed. which we have returned to" and and fruits are at length beginning to commend of being/^ long delayed. but he did not understand and answered nothing. sense of the found. and then the corporeal comprehensible from the spiritual. of being quite rooted in it. glorify by one with nature. whereby it is a Whole for us ? Just because our sense tends in quite another direction. As long as the first man was alone with himself and nature.

72 SECOND SPEECH. Humanity itself is for you the true universe. and divided from it. Yet it has often pained me that. and what will not come to an issue you finally cast aside in dejection. and with all your zeal for it. have Wherefore. ever^ and ever again renewed. he discovered humanity. and pure love cannot become right prominent in you. life of In order to receive the religion.^* all lovers forms and tendencies this — in From moment he was capable The All is history of us all is related in this sacred legend. let us enter upon the territory where you are in your pecuHere your inner life had its liar. humanity and religion are first. with all your interest in humanity. surroundings. the World. whether as blessedness in attaining or of need in coming short. In this first love he had a foretaste of the world. In flesli of his flesh. closely satisfied and through love. Similarly the pious feelings are most holy that express for him existence in the whole of humanity. and here you feel the growth of your powers whereby you are evermore conducted towards it. here you see the goal of all your striving and doing birth. . . and to educate it.Spirit. you are always in difficulties with it. > before his eyes. before your eyes. and have man must found humanity. and the rest is ^ only added in so far as it is related to it or forms its Even for me. forthwith becomes reliEach man embraces most warmly the person in gion. whom the world mirrors itself for him most clearly and purely he loves most tenderly the person whom he believes combines all he lacks of a complete manhood. humanity he found of seeing and hearing the voice of the Deity. this point of -view suffices. present in vain for those who set themselves alone. your most loved home. and even the most insolent transgression of His laws did not any more shut him out from intercourse with the Eternal Being. and bone of his bone. A longing for love. in love. and indissolubly united. Wherefore. Each of you in his own way harasses himself to improve it. to find the most glorious elements of religion.

men.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. ethical. If you would only attempt to exchange the objects of your working and the objects of your contemplation Work on individuals. It can make nothing that has not a nature of its own. and which belongs to the best of you. and of all that now oppresses you no trace would remain. is that you are. individuals vastly. in your own way. . and striking types of the fairest and divinest. Just consider what a consummate artist the Genius of humanity is. and are faithful pictures of its necessities and its tastes. you would have far more success. "' pleasant feeling of contempt. and you select religion. Millions wear the imagines costume of the time. unquestionably that which is finest in itself. for contemplation. You take men singly. to end-*^ Seek this humanity in each less. others lofty resemble grotesques produced in the most original and The common view. but rise in contemplation. regard the nature of every person as one revelation of it. undivided humanity. As soon as it assays its brush. They displease you causes. I at least boast myself of a moral disI know how to value human excellence. Only by comparing details could such an opposition appear to you. that this also comes from your lack of You wish to work on humanity. on the wings of religion. You must not contemplate anything alone. or sharpens its It pencil. Some are most past. and fashions countless forms. I 73 make bold to say_. In others there are memories of the or presentiments of a distant future. ! individual. and commonness could almost overwhelm me with the un-position. is not pious. were it not that religion gives me a great and glorious view of all. there appear living and significant features. If you would begin ^ with religion. you must rather All that we can be regoice in everything in its own place. far too Among the thousand possible and you have an ideal of the individual to which no one corresponds. of the sacred words that there are vessels misunderstanding of honour and vessels of dishonour. based on a fleeting mood of a master.

and gives life to the dead. strengthens the weak. and how important for the Whole. is Eternal humanity "^ fleeting manifestation of the endless life. allow yourselves to be pleased with an old. in whom humanity is a mediator between your limited And eternal laws of the world. and to present itself in the most varied way. bowing before it ? Indeed. or contempt may draw Or. that stands on one one movement of the complete working of sheet. and belongs. in when you have found one a way you understand. mysterious existence into the light. rejected conception . it ! and satisfy Make search may you now recogamong all the circum- stances in which the heavenly order portrays itself.74 SECOND SPEECH. pre-eminently revealed. . That is the and unparalleled Being occupied in the outer court of morality. and let all that has hitherto seemed useless and wretched be illuminated by the reflection of this new light. Would you make light of the chief groups that and afflaence to the Whole? Should not each give heavenly form be glorified in having a thousand others that regard it and are related to it. in the simile. all. and perhaps some favourite passage of history may be a divine sign to you. • This nize is suflScient to it indicate your need. as it were. traverse humanity. you slander its magnificence by your demands for a lamentable dismemberment. harmony of the Universe. seek out among the holy men. whereby you may more easily recognize how real the insignificant is. by imparting himself. the wondrous unity of that eternal work of art. caring for details and satisfied with them. time and circumstances excepted. What would the uniform repetition of even a highest ideal be ? Mankind. there is more in this presentation than a mere picture. and the who. seeking to step forth from its inward. as it were. Then what you regard with coldness you with love. and despising high religion. to one great historical conscious of at once. life unweariedly active. someone to be way of thinking. presents the Whole. and there only with elements. would be .

by the approach of something higher. in the present temperature of the world. of the future. And each has something of its own. and. existence of and to those who have not known it. You will not find it quite by itself. identical. like the coruscation of baser metals. this is not possible. so what. For this moment it was created. ever returning unchanged in a thousand copies. from your standpoint appears superfluous. possible condition. If I arrest in thought Yet the existence meaning in respect of the . and no two are identical. gap would be a negative revelation of the Universe. And just as that seems to come short of the requisite infinite this. should stand closest together. and even the finite mind can see the reason why. it surpasses itself and stands on the highest pinnacle of its possibilities. an indication that. Your imagination thus gives you a glimpse beyond the present mixture boundaries of humanity. and whether it be only a ray from a vanished past. the whole them must appear superfluous and despicable. 75 They would be tlie same formula with a different What would it be in comparison witli the endless variety which humanity does manifest ? Take any element of humanity. of such an ordinary soul has a double Whole. or by some electric shock. when. variety is not really too little. is not really too much. but you will fiud all possible mixtures between. and you will find it in almost every co-eflScient. In every life there is some ^ moment. it ' is This oft-bewailed superfluity of the commonest forms of humanity. souls and to contemplate them during it is a pleasure nary fulfilled its to be envied. or an involuntary and unconscious prophecy a real higher inspiration. does not disturb the pious mind. in the requisite degree. this And if you could think of unions you do not see. in this moment it purpose. after this moment its exhausted To call forth this moment in ordivitality again subsides. in every odd and unusual combination. The Eternal Mind commands that the forms in which individuality is most difficult to discern.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. nor quite combined with all other elements.

with heartfelt liking and That is one meaning that every individual has affection ? in respect of the Whole. another how. it would be impossible If now it completely and perfectly. having been separated f i*om all that is base and unworthy. the hardness of the earthly material cannot be overcome . in an atmosphere too violently agitated. is see that each individual in his inner nature a necessary com- plement of a complete intuition of humanity. in a third. self in graceful. fashioning itforms . another is the pure dematerialized spirit that. But even the noblest only presents mankind in one way and in one of its movements. all the course of that unresting machinery whereby that is I human >^ is woven together and made interdependent. hovers with noiseless foot over the earth. in the minute detached phenomena of individual lives. while. and were a single figure to fail in the great picture. quickens if only the plastic impulse of the can calmly progress. shows how. and embracing all. the spirit it. One shows me how any Whole still fragment. One appears as the clearly rude and animal portion of mankind. by their harmony the whole soul. disturbed in its working. from want of regular a vivifying and combining warmth. explication. not are there who are the distinguished represenwho strike different melodious chords and no subsequent charm and satisfy that require no further accompaniment. the different elements of human nature all It is appear at every stage and in every manner. stirred only by the is within first ungainly motions of humanity . enough that among this countless multitude always a few at least tatives of humanity. how can we avoid feeling to comprehend is every one this connection. so essentially connected with that which is the inner kernel of our own life. but who. so that nothing comes and recognizably to light. in the one note. and in some sense everyone is a peculiar exhibition of humanity and does the same thing. . I see how. It But everything between also has a purpose. without distinction of disposition or mental capacity.76 SECOND SPEECH.

leads it. understanding and blind force appear in such separate masses. sensuality and morality. to hedge in their Ego and to . but the understanding. But they will also feel single things in single how contemplation isolates moments. in invisible bands. in its operation on the Whole. In this connection of everything with the sphere to which it belongs and in which it has significance all is good and divine. The follows. nothing moved by itself^ I am greatly quieted humanity nothing moving only about the other side of your complaint. this vast interaction. on that account. dissolve. Why do you see things singly that are not single and do not work by themselves? The reason of one and the disposition of another have as strong a mutual influence as same is set if they were in one and the The morality that belongs to this sensuality subject.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. and it sciously. quite as unconoutlines of personality which appear to you so definite. and a fulness of joy and peace is the feeling of those like and plays around all solving and magnetic forces. who know nothing of this dependence. so that some are deeply influenced. into a single activity. The common impulse of men. without being aware of the fact. brilliant and deceptive. without being specially concentrated any- where. and others have at least a superficial illumination. and do you suppose its dominion is. scarce noticeable portions to each individual ? The blind power which is allotted to the great mass. The magic circle of prevailing opinions and infectious feelings surrounds all an atmosphere filled with disBy the most vital diffusion it smelts all things. that reason and soul. yj on the other hand^ observe the eternal wheels of in motion. abandoned to a rude peradventure. is to seize and retain this and that. were divided out in small. who allow all things to work upon them in this great con- nection. Do itself^ I. the issue of which is to impel those who are really in possession of light and truth to activity. limited ? Would the sensuality be better ruled if the morality. is not. from my standpoint. even the most distant. apart from it. concentrated at other points.

They seek to conduct be existence according to their own self-will and not disturbed by the eternal current of the world. and there finds all the influences that had streamed upon it from the most distant regions. And own when we who have an entirely opposite impulse perceive how fate necessarily sweeps all this away and how they wound and torture themselves in a thousand ways. on returning with the consecration of intercourse with the • world still fresh upon us. then. and the most earnest longing and all that belongs to us in safety in that sacred region where alone there is security against death and destruction ? Advancing further. And when graduto mortal man than unaff"ected humility ? ally our feeling becomes quick and alert to what there is in the path of humanity that. not only into smallness and insignificance. the submissive desire to conciliate the to jDut ourselves Deity. by the influence freed from dependence on and from the endisavour to expand their own fleeting being. sustains and forwards. and what. If. how we ouly reach intuition of it and ^ in fellowship with others. but into oneWhat lies nearer sidedness. How. and with all the stripes which awful Nemesis deals out on every side ? From into its these wanderings through the whole territory of humanity. if it is not recast and transformed. we perceive how the Whole only becomes clear to unity with of those it us. and when from this law we regard all doings in the world. own Ego. insufficiency and nothingness. quickened and educated. we become we give heed how it is with us in conscious that our Ego vanishes.78 SECOND SPEECH. and isolate it. must sooner or later be conquered and destroyed. pious feeling returns. it surround their with manifold outworks. what is more natural than deep contrition for all in us that is hostile to human nature. what is more natural than the most heartfelt compassion with all the bitter suffering that must arise from this unequal strife. on the contrary. this feeling. can we avoid a f eeliog of special who have long been .

^ human nature. we honour them as those who^ before reached this union. and we cannot comprehend ourselves. i back to the heart. when all the count- human tendencies you have ever seen in the characters of others appears simply arrested impulses of your own life. its way The man in whom contrition is sweetened to joyful selfthe completion of religion on this side. has its counterpart in the feeling that the whole of humanity lives and in the manifestations of works It in you. Wherefore. that never forsakes you. except as thus progressively affected. Even is sufficiency. is in all its smallest and swiftest changes immortalized lined. and happily guided it through threatening Though by us they become conscious of their dangers us. you love. in the present moment. you if you were really this or that person. more Except as something going on. feel. is no need of a mediator for any sort of intuition of humanity. There are moments when. and there finds thethis is v\ accomplished. those different forms. Eather he is himself a mediator for many. you have actually passed through all You are a compendium of humanity. affinity to 79 those whose actions have defended our existence. culture. But there is not merely the swinging of feeling between the world and the individual. self-love is quite less mixture of manifold degrees of You not only find at human powers within in times all the submerged sympathy. that you. we cannot comprehend what affects us. have Not by examples which are rare. In your own order. or environment. This works in Infinite. as feeling . but. ? life in the Whole. being multiplied and more clearly outnature.THE NA TURE OF RELIGION. As soon as this is can love yourselves with a pure and blameless seen. but by passing through these and similar feelings you discover in yourselves the outlines of the fairest and the basest. despite all distinction think. and act as of sex. Humility. In a certain sense your single nature embraces all human Your Ego. the noblest and the most despicable.

it in a new life has already finished its course. Prophecy and religion begins all history are for religion the same and indistinguishable. appear as all alike necessary for the completeness of history. and ends with history.So SECOND SPEECH. The genius of some human endowment awakes as from slumber. a wonderful arrangement of the Universe for comparing the to difierent periods of humanity according period. and how how much the climate of humanity much fitter the soil has grown to Peoples and generations of mortals nourish nobler plants. during which nature could produce nothing simila r. and true history has at first had a religious purpose^ and has its departure from religious ideas. History is not of value for religion^ because it hastens or controls in any way the progress of humanity in its development. tion of the deepest and holiest. Here and there rising and a sure standard. stronger form^ indicate has improved. and you are to recognize from the various causes which have now produced it. should judge by his works the signs of different times. After a long movement of which falling. moreover. its deeper working. and it is they returns. The spirit persons. some distinguished individual almost entirely the same But only the seers recognize him. . but because it is the greatest and most general revelaIn this sense. spirits and souls. Its quicker increase. What is finest and tenderest in history. The religious mind recognizes the transmigration of which to others is but graceful fiction. who sjK of humanity returns exactly like something some distant foretime has left you an image. in another place and under Now it appears circumits fairer diff*erent stances. but can only be taken comprehended in the feeling of a religious disposition. however. the course of development and the formula of its law. and history immediately and especially is for religion the richest source. furnishes the chief nourishment for our piety. as. cannot be communicated scientifically. in more than one sense. we are ever driven back into the past.

never wearied. preservation nor destruction.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. one conception they produce. fitted only to show some peculiar shade of some single form of life. worthy perhaps of praise and wonder. follows his individual. • 8i Some are though. a new world that draws its first vital strength from elements decomposed and wondrously transformed. effect. Being deeply impressed with this sense of a universal connection. of which first one and then another. like individuals. it mows down with iron hand. estimable and spirited. Penetrate further and compare this partial striving of the of rude unfeeling force opposing views. of different worth. permeating space and defying time. and then they hasten towards destruction that the power that produced them may be given to something else. Would you comprehend the proper G . features seizes and heartfelt love. now inviting you to impotent you defiance and now to childlike submission. till through dizziness can neither distinguish great nor small. and then that well-known Its bear the impress of this state. For one moment only they are really living and noticeable. with the quiet uniform course of the Whole. so spiritual nature rears from the ruins of a glorious and beautifal world of men. your glance perhaps passes so often directly from least to greatest and greatest to least. being a marvellous mixture of obstinate self-will and deep wisdom. to meting out punishment to the haughty who resist Even the stoutest and choicest who have with steadfastness. As vegetable nature. from the destruction of whole species. whole generations of plants. cause nor This state continues. Others are common and insignificant. One thought they exhibit. produces and nourishes a new race. and work strongly without ceasing. the fruit of the gods. bow before the gentle breath of the great Spirit. it going backwards and forwards. You will see how the high WorldSpirit smilingly marches past all that furiously opposes him. and from the ruins of. You will see how dread Nemesis. figure of an eternal fate appears. refused steps.

complex. and that nothing is to be persecuted and destroyed like this first and last foe of the spirit. i/that humanity. cannot possibly be the highest. of all character changes and of all human progress^ a on history must show you more surely than feeling resting aught else. Beyond be looked into. unthinking custom. the sole manifestation of the unity of spirit is only one form of be only one form of this humanity may humanity. all those sad symptoms of the death slumber of freedom and humanity are to be abolished.82 SECOND SPEECH. lazy it is the great ever advancing work of redemptive love.the individual. everything and passive. But in our own The dependence find something similar. that despises these bounds. The rude. Hence this ever active bounding it we all . As the individual so V and standing over against it. instinct. dull obedience. being capable of motion and cultivation. that living gods rule who hate nothing so much as death. has been impressed upon us both by nature and by education. I have brought you to the limits of your horizon. upon other worlds. unity. but here and there really being different. exalted life. this point only infinity is to in virtue of which being not only differently manifested in. something there is something you cannot stay where you are. the barbarian. I will not speak of the presentiments which define themselves and become thoughts which might by subtilty be established. the formless are to be absorbed and recast. and matter. Nothing is to be a dead mass that moves only by impact and resists only by unconscious collision . Beside it many other similar forms may exist. Here is the end and summit of religion for all to whom humanity But consider that in your feeling is the whole world. I have now sketched in vague outline. To this the work of the minutes and the centuries is directed. feeling our earth. Xl / Some prominent emotions of religion connected with nature and humanity. all is Blind to be individual. connected. and therefore of the highest unity it has proof duced.

But I do not know whether to lack religion quite. that take religion. would be too definite. and you simply wish to it^ the name upon in order to give religion the last blow. are conscious of the feeling that After it has been purified points to this unfailing progress. G 2 What we have . Were you to conconscious of what you already have the few religious opinions and feelings that I have so sider ! slightly sketched. Hence it is exposed to misconception and is so often taken for folly and superstition. Religion with you is the retribution which alights on all who resist the Spirit Whole. This far is sufiicient reference to a thing so immeasurably More would be incomprehensible. Some things you select and stamp as exclusively religious. and you impose upon yourselves in addition. Had you the religion that you could have! Were you but only from you. from all abuses. purpose. Any echo of the feeling could only be fleeting and vague. you would willingly see it sustained and exBut you will then have it that this is exclusively tended. it is the hatred everywhere active against haughtiness and audacity. higher and closer and productive of more But any sketch that could be drawn beautiful forms. How have you come you. but above humanity. is In the latter case also it fails of its the greater misfortune. the steady advance of all human things to one goal.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. Something of the same kind you them must have had in your thoughts before. You. or not to understand it. and you would exclude other feelings their rise from the same operation of the mind in exactly of the the same way. Both you apparently do on the same ground." you would be very far from finding all strange to you. other things you withdraw from religion as exclusively moral. visible and finite. 83 but seldom understood presentiment of some other marriage of spirit and matter. You do not regard I will tell to this torn off fragment ? it as religion but as an echo of foist moral action. Two things I would specially blame in you.

In your narrow sense of it the moral world would produce very few religious emotions. humility. nothing specially to the sphere of the spirit and to history. irrecoverably corrupt their moral doctrine itself and sow in it the seed of new errors. do yet. moral action would be dependent on the degree of receptivity for this assurance in each person at any moment. Feeling knows If I direct you of such a limited predilection. fluence nothing is his own. being predominantly ethical or rather legal. Therein he finds a divine Nemesis that those who. Morality cannot include immediately aught of feeling without at once power and purity disturbed. But if this high assurance belonged to moral action. and your Ego the other. but you try to persuade that they are an essential section of your moral yourselves action. not at least in tlie narrow sense in wliicli you understand the word. the noblest part. The ancients knew what was right. also recognize them. When anyone succumbs in moral action. The pious man can detect the operation of the World-Spirit in human in and Everywhere he perceives enough to move him by the presence of this Spirit and without this inactivity. love. it does not follow that the moral world is religion^ s Universe. will sometime. joy. in play that belongs to earnest. You would justify these sentiments on moral You . by others. agreed to acknowledge as religion does not arise exclusively in tlie moral spliere. and the pictured as the undulation of the mind between the two points of which the world is one. make of it an insignificant appendage to morals. you deal in another way. purify religion as they may. would. They called them all piety. having its original With others all those I that feelings. and that what does not succeed through us. in smallest things and all greatest. it sounds well to say it is the will of the Eternal. by selecting from religion only the elements suited to this purpose. come to pass.84 SECOND SPEECH. For them those feelings were an essential part of religion.

man must strive for mastery.^^ Why do you make such an ado. it • ' That alone removes man from one-sidedness and narrow- ness I have already indicated. It makes light of. but an indispensable friend and sufficient advocate as the sum with humanity. be it moral But when man or artistic. sentiments is not action. really use his whole power ? Will not the larger part be unused. This is the rank of religion. If you talk of contrition it speaks Your own feeling of lost time being needlessly increased. coming by themselves and ending by themselves. almost as selfish. where they have no right Be content to consider them religion. The mind is directed chiefly to one point. They are spontaneous functions of your deepest and highest life. and then you to be ? will not need to demand anything for them except their own sure rights. strict almost despises. becomes quite absorbed. for morality not the handdoing. Now I am in a position to be more and working. and definite. humility. If selves. it. and begging for grace for them. by advancing from one narrow work to another. Can man. all mastery limits and chills. must assure you that the immediate object of all these. they will there neither action proceed directly from the emotions of love or affecMoral action tion. outward object. and you will not deceive yourselves with the baseless claims which you are disposed to make in Eeturn them to religion the treasure belongs their name. and makes one-sided and hard. L^ maid. and this one point cannot satisfy it. As the possessor of religion is and all else that is an object of human ^ of all higher feelings. should not proceed from such a momentary influence of an it is Wherefore your doctrine of morals. : to it alone. it will be insecure and thoughtless. principles^ 85 system. when and pure. acknowledges no reverence except for its own law. Everything done from pity or gratitude it condemns as impure. if you remain true to yourbe desired nor endured.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. and assign them tlieir place in your moral But in vain^ for. In all activity .

and is your destruction. is to enjoy art. This would science. to be afi"ected by the Infinite. without definite activity. to allow himself. or at least. But is it possible? Those objects. a totality to be em- This rivalry of several objects of endeavour can end by one expelling the others. for whatever be the have chosen for your deliberate technical working. inor revelation. The only remedy is for each man. beyond the department which he demand much thought In it to advance from it to find the Universe. The object you it does not directly cultiInfinite is near to everyone. active in Hence most virtuosos are oneown sphere. . The only way of acquiring what spiration lies outside the direction of the mind we have selected. even within only this one sphere. you discover the rest as precept. it separately. outside of their they sink into an inferior kind of life. against himself and devour him? of you go to ruin because you are too great for 'yourselves ? superfluity of power and impulse that never issues in any work. the more he must restrict himself eminence entirely occupy him. how shall he duly participate in the world.86 SECOND SPEECH. and if he lives only to attain it. and comprehend it thus as a whole. In every sp^ies of religious feeling he will then become conscious of all that lies vates. because there is no work adequate. as soon as they are attended to Each tendency pleted. while he is definitely some one department. Nay. How many consequence. and how shall his life become a whole? sided and defective. your ever recurring love of uniformity. A would you have those who are too great for one object of human endeavour. not by but by instinct for the Universe as religion. and any others you may know of ? To resist this evil — simply be your old desire to have humanity complete everywhere. all alike strive to rouse and dominate the mind. unite them all art. drives you aimlessly about. will as . life. But if this preattain. is directed to a work that should be com- has an ideal to be copied. in turD. or. the more eminent a mastery a man would braced.

to appear dismembered. expansive soaring in the Whole and the Inexhaustible. endlessly raise the rich variety. without at the same time having religion. even for communicating religion. than completed. he abandon himself to one object. supernatural intimations. and all it remains a simple. like your conceptions from experience. most splendid. Even in the religious 87 fall into form these objects again This result of rivalry. that I trust I have indicated clearly enough for you all. with its meagre series of notes unless religion. peculiar receptivity human imperfection causes religion Religion takes the form of some and taste for art. nothing but general expressions for definite They are not necessary for religion itself. of which we have already spoken. In this way he restores the balance and harmony of his nature. Whence do those dogmas and doctrines of religion ? Where do ? And how do they stand related to they properly belong essential in religion ? They are all the result of thati contemplation of feeling. inspiration.voiced. philosophy or morality. man sets alongside of the finite that he. specially concentrates on. accompany it with notes. I say. is really the nature of religion. But when feeling is made the subject of reflection and comparison they are absolutely ^ ' . I have already an- come that many consider the essence what is swered the questions. with satisfactory result. revelation. all-embracing. is form of religion remains the highest. were it the most beautiful. if. that. Oftener. which would be lost for ever. and it is only by it. If then this. The conceptions that underlie these propositions are. but reflection requires and creates them. glorious harmony. and consequently often mistaken. scarcely feelings.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. of that reflection and comparison. much piety can be had without the need of any one of these conceptions. it appears thus than freed from all participation in one-sidedYet this complete ness. and simple song to a full. . an Infinite alongside of the contracting endeavour for something definite and complete. Miracle. A man's special calling is the melody of his life.

espewhen it is nothing besides. and character properly consists. how much revelation be and how far and for what reasons man may pro- perly believe in it. becomes a miracle. Pray do not be misled. as soon as the religious view of it can be the dominant. must be fitted to call cially attention to itself and to the power in it that gives it signifi- Every finite thing.88 SECOND SPEECH. is one of the childish operations of the metaphysicians and moralists in religion. refers purely server. Every event. as if it trespassed on the universal validity of scientific and physical all conclusions. sense all tliese conceptions do cer- tainly belong to the sphere of religion. To me all is miracle. and indeed belong without condition or the smallest limit to their application. their sophistical to the detriment of nor even by mystery about what they would only too Eeligion. back all those well abused conceptions. which means a mental condition of the ob- wonder. in i' are. religion./ All dis- . and please God. is ^ simply the religious name for event. indication. The there strife its wherein may about what event is properly a miracle. however. also your psychology. even the most natural and usual. in the foolish notion that philosophy and reason are served thereby. In tliis unavoidable. Our name. leaves your physics untouched. does that involve that every event should not have quite as immediate a relation to the finite and to nature ? Miracle cance. and so these various expressions declare the immediate relaBut tion of a phenomenon to the Infinite and the Whole. and the manifest endeavour to deny and set aside as much as can be done with decency and consideration. however loudly it may demand willingly publish. In your sense the inexplicable and strange alone is miracle. mine it is no miracle. The more religious you ^ the more miracle would you see everywhere. It is only in so far appropriate that a sign. their hypocritical What is a \ miracle ? What we to the call miracle is everywhere else called sign. is a sign of the Infinite. by disputations. They confuse points of view and bring religion into discredit.

whereby they manifest their wish not to see anything of immediate relationship to the Infinite and to the Deity. In the same measure in which this action is freed from all earthly entanglement^ divine and referred to God. 89 puting about single events. as to wliether or not they are to be called miraculous. or at least. despite of. one half being given.THE NA TURE OF RELIGION.^^ all external occasion. A phenomenon for them must be marvellous before they will regard it as a miracle. yet we are not every such moment merely to assume himself what is it generally. it is felt as is prophecy ? Every religious anticipation of the half of a religious event. but each one knows best repeated and learned elsewhere. It is that action which springs from the heart of man. regardless of. demonstration is not possible. for example. If nothing original has yet been generated in you. by the issue. inspiration for the feeling of true morality and freedom. nor by the greatness of the subject. One party show it by protesting everywhere against miracle. But do not mistake me. is and I counsel you ? to weigh it well. neither by the difficulty of predicting. as.^ What is revelation ? Every original and new communication of the Universe to man is a revelation. when it does come it will be a revelation for you also. It was very religious of the ancient Hebrews to What measure the divineness of a prophet. and what is original and new. but. is other prophecy. The other party display the same poverty "^ by laying stress on this and that. ^ whereby they simply announce that they are bad observers. It is not that marvellous and much-praised morality and freedom that accompany and embellish actions What It is simply the general expression with deliberations. the . gives me a painful impression of tbe poverty and wretchedness of the religious sense of combatants. quite simply. As revelation lies beyond consciousness. Every intuition and every original feeling proceeds from revelation. of conscious insight as I have jusf^ referred to. for we cannot know from one .

is a hard and base from being the highest in religion. through intuition and feeling. as is asserted. till we see whether the religious aspect of this one special circumstance has been rightly comprehended. has/ no religion. nize something individual in them. . something that cannot be imitated. It includes both. at least. To wish to have and service. the true belief. which is to accept what another has said or done.no revelation of his own arises. • how complete the feeling is in everything. To be assured of this possession on the contrary. . because they indicate just what necessarily and universally must be in it.90 SECOND SPEECH. The religious man mu^t. that it must be rejected by all who would force their way into the sanctuary of religion. or to wish to think and feel as another has thought and felt. that a divine spirit urges him. the man who does not. feel. So far is it . something that guarantees the purity of their is origin from his own heart. Belief. the man in whose heart. and that he speaks and acts from holy inspiration. through action and culture. The man who does not see miracles of his own from the standpoint from which he contemplates the world. or can adopt ideas. are the first and the most essential. and to be permeated by "b its spirit . in so far as religion requires. with the most lively assurance. scious of Universe . What is operation of grace ? ^^ Nothing else manifestly than the common expression for revelation and inspirathing tion^ for interchange into between the entrance of the world man. when his soul longs to draw in the beauty of the world. in supreme moments. They indicate in the most characteristic manner a man's consciousness of his religion. usually so called. and the outgomg of man into the world_. be conhis feelings as the immediate product of the He must recogfor less would mean nothing. so that the whole life of the pious simply forms a series of operations of divine grace. You see' that all these ideas. in their originality and in their divine character.

derive their religion entirely from another. otherwise. or it and preying out Every sacred writing is in itself a glorious production. require a guide to lead and stimulate.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. and to give it its first direction. hold a faith that . and with a feeling of equality upon his work which yet could only be a weaker impress of himself. convinces me that you have a talent for religion. you accord to all powers and functions of the human and why not to this one ? For your satisfaction. and who. but. of having any part in religion. to wake his religious Indeed. is of religion to demand no captivity. Your very contempt for the poverty stricken and powerwriting. a few choice souls excepted. proves that a man is incapable it of others. religion died before ever it came to the birth. shows that there is no You wish always to stand on of religion. could most easily do without it. a speaking monument from the heroic time of religion. produce some contribution to the treasures of religion . this tutelage is only a passing and shall Hereafter. this is your reason. least of all for to yourselves. shall each man see with his own eyes. Did this spirit still live and work. a monument that a great spirit once was there. Religion is no slavery. so far as he himunderstanding self is concerned. be it that here. if anywhere. said^ state. \ Not every person has religion who believes in a sacred has a lively and immediate of it. but only the less venerators of religion. You must belong an indispensable condition sense from But this soul. through servile reverence. wretched echoes of who depend on a dead writing. but is now no more. 91 an echo. in man who whom. its first slumber. understanding own feet and go your own way^ and this worthy intent your should not scare you from religion. to be sure. The same . from lack of nourish- ment. it would become merely a mausoleum. swearing by it. Every man. he deserves no place in its and receives none. therefore. does. he would look with love. You are right in despising the kingdom.

It appears to . Return to what lies so near to you. I have tried. appears from your regard for tlie persons of all true heroes of religion. the more you are separated and isolated by definite culture and individuality ? Have you not often felt this holy Become conscious of the longing. seeing I have not treated at all of immortality. as best I could. and Is it not incumbent upon of God only a little in passing ? most of all. This regard for the persons confirms me in the thought that your contempt for the thing rests merely on a misunderstanding. I conjure you. believe that I can here me. even to you.92 SECOND SPEECH. the violent separation from which cannot fail to destroy the most beautiful part of your nature. How can I have spoken thoroughly of the nature of religion. and the abuses which presumptuous leaders carry on. to show you what religion really is. Banish the false shame of a century which should not determine you but should be made and determined by you. I do not believe I have said nothing about immortality and so little about God* Both. Have you found anything therein unworthy of you. are in all and in everything Had I not that I have adduced as an element of religion. First of all. I believe. for most pious people. and has for its object only the miserable figure which religion takes in the great incapable mass. That you should treat them with tiling shallow scoffing or not acknowledge what is great or powerful in them. yes. therefore. I would hardly ascribe to you. as something unknown ? call of your deepest nature and follow it. to speak of these two things and to repreme. the very poles and first articles of religion ? But I am not of your opinion. of the highest human culture ? Must you not rather long all the more for that universal union with the world which is only possible through feeling. sent to you how unhappy you would be without belief in them? For are not these two things. that many among you do not mean to end my present business. however. nay.

till some definition of God and existence that has stood its trial^ has been brought to light and has been accepted in the German Empire as good and valid . God and immortality. In the second place. it afi'ects • / us as revelation of God. because it would be dangerous to speak. / particular thing is one and all. presupposed what I have 93 God and immortality said. — — you may not think I am afraid to speak a straightforward word on this subject. finite It is. I could not liave said only what is divine and immortal has j room in which to speak of religion. or lest you should. not an individual or thing. on the other hand. as they are usually understood. believe that I am playing on you a pious fraud and wish. without being on that account pious or having religion. How many among found in such doctrines. for. according to my best conviction. in whom alone the life. in order to be But that all things to all men. therefore. As ideas they can have no greater value in religion than ideas generally. but by our whole being.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. Remember in the first place that any feeling is not an emotion of piety because ^in it a single object as such affects us. with seeming indifference to make light of what must be of far greater importance to me than lest you should think these things. it really is. The divine in us^ therefore. however^ as they are religion. but only in so far as in it and along with it. that enters our Nor do we stand over against the World and in it at the same time by any one faculty. are ideas. to be the principal things in religion. is immediately afiected and "^ . most of you are firmly convinced of one you possibly or other or both of those doctrines. perhaps. I shall I will confess — gladly be questioned and will endeavour to make clear to you that. as I have just now maintained. but God. Only what in either can belong to is feeling and immediate consciousness. just as little do I consider that I have the right to hold the conceptions and doctrines of God and of immortality.

how could you distinguish the highest existence. Science. you would be for me godless. is dif- .94 SECOND SPEECH. lags far behind the demands . only we are not of religion. I can neither teach nor direct you How much you may know I do not judge. and that it is first formed when piety is made an object of contemplation. is neither the idea of God as the undivided . expresses itself in feeling. for it farther. a Universe. that is the source of all now speaking of science. but in respect of feeling and sentiment. what I have said of ideas generally. the only unity ? Is it not God alone before existence of God whom and if in whom all particular things disappear ? And you see the world as a Whole. how can anyone say that I have depicted a religion without God ? Is not God the highest. These attributes correspond which the unity of the individual in reference to religion. it is true. the original and eternal Being from a temporal and derived individual ? Otherwise than by the emotions produced in us by the world we do not claim to have God in our feeling. and is for piety something quite subordinate. It of science. from what in are called attributes of God. does not at present concern me. unity and source of all. can you do it otherwise than in God ? If not. that is placed by you at the head of nor is it the feeling of God in the heart. that there can be much piety without it. Yet this idea of God. and consequently I have not said more of Him. and to be conscious of Him. as it is usually conceived.' is an idea compounded from characteristics.^^ called forth sented nothing but in us just this Seeing then that I have preimmediate and original through feeling. by the feeling. It. to the different ways and the Whole. of all knowledge which we boast ourselves. This way of knowing about God which most am praise and which I also to laud. is extolled as giving an immediate knowledge about God. Hence I can only say of this idea. but other knowledge . If you will not admit that this is to have God.

95 ferent from the otlier ideas before.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. as a thinking and willing Person. of which it has come far short. for it has no life Neither conception is any sign of a perfect or of an imperfect religion. both present. God. and his desire to place the essence of piety in conception. . against it. we have an idea of the Highest Being. but exalted above all \ personality. and thus cannot be of piety. at feeling. necessity of all thought and existence.adduced. and yet are nothing less than pious. is one element of of any value. charge in dread of this anthropomorphism. may be still be pious. or for declaring their piety void. Eightly understood. for though it seeks to be the highest and to stand above all. he can His piety. connecting than for the adherents with godlessness those who. but. let ns now go on to consider the development of the religious sense. productive. feeling. only makes him misunder- stand himself. take refuge in the other. without Many believe in and accept a God presented in conception. being is us. except in so far as it rests on something in the aproof mind. Neither corresponds to its object. ness of the idea of better than his conception. not as personally thinking and willing. as the universal. Consider God in the one conception. the more easily another mode of presentation is set over thought of as too like drawn down Hence. ^ As I know of nothing more that could bring us to an understanding on this subject of conceptions. appears natural that the more like man God is conceived. neither least. sense. how narrow is the presentation of and how dead and rigid in the other. the divine in his feeling. of the It matters not what conceptions a man adheres to. but perfection and imperfection depend upon the degree of cultivation of the religious in itself. It therefore into the region of opposition.^^ and in no case is this conception the germ from which their piety could ever spring. or for the adherents of this latter view to make the humanless fitting Nothing seems to me view to of the former God a ground for charging the adherents former with idolatry.

becomes more prominent In the same degree in man^s consciousness of the world.96 SECOND SPEECH. the world can appear to him nothing but a confused unity. of the contemplation of this feeling changes. Here you will find but few traces of any conceptions. alive indeed. and gods arise in endless number. without division. or law. and different inclinations and disobjects stronger. only to be indicated by magic rites. Nothing of is to him a complexity is definitely distinguishable. in which. only distinguishable by the arbitrarily appointed limits of their sphere. You on the difference. if many. by whose constant and determined strife. It chaos. an idol. The opposite forms of the idea stand more distinctly apart. or a being. the idea of a personal God becomes higher. exhibits the character of the Whole. you will scarcely discern to will not set much which side they incline. As long as man's whole relation to the world has not arrived at clearness. each power and element becomes animate. phenomena are determined. whether a blind value fate. but at the same time divides and multiplies. They are A you must acknowledge this is here exhibited. It is most beautiful when new won complexity and this innate highest unity are most intimately bound together in feeling. this feeling is but a vague instinct. its Apart from what most immediately concerns the subsistence of man. Similarly. fairer life of the Universe in feeling positions. now distinguishable by means of the different of their activity. uniform in its confusion. though the result unattainable and unsearchable. or. As we advance. ments and powers. and order. reason and connection rest. he distinguishes nothing as individual except by arbitrarily cutting it off in time and space. as for example. but with- out definite characteristics. Circumstances display themselves in their complexity and The multiplicity of the heterogeneous eledefiniteness. a fetich. among the Greeks. the feeling becomes more conscious. Blind fate changes into a higher necessity. whom you so justly . one.

as system. especially if the idea of the Highest Being is placed rather in the eternal unattainable necessity. that repudiated. one showing more of the complexity. stands over against the Whole. Is not the who man who perceives existence both as one and as all. The ground of such a rejection this stage. of the twelve gods whom you would rightly name after per Lucretius. one beinsr of more value for thought. But to which idea he will attach himself depends purely on what he requires it for. where existence.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. are most strongly stage. is decisive of the worth of his religion. as unity in variety. to ing. the manner in which the Deity is present to man in feelin feeling. in which there is copied in idea. Let us now mount higher where opposing elements are again united. the unmistakable Those who are at the same sign of defective culture. first deserves its name. by exhibiting itself as totality. But this stage. not the manner. the other of the unity. even without such a union is more perfect than the former. whether Pantheist or Spinozist. it is always inadequate. which announces the stage to which a man has attained. This rejection of the idea of ai/ personal Deity does not decide against the presence of the Deity in his feeling. as a pious person at that stage would be above an idolater. and yet is one with it be accounted happier in his religion. on the names you are accustomed to apply to him. But we have here the old confusion. I will not decide who rejects the the justice of might be a humble consciousness of the limitation of personal existence. and particularly of personality joined to He might stand as high above a worshipconsciousness. only The proper standard of religiousness. the other for art. and H . 97 Both forms then unite in reflection. Suppose someone arrived at idea of a personal God. is his sense for the Deity. let his mirror itself in idea as it may ? There as elsewhere feeling then. than in single gods. revere. not at the same point.

You will not. not so much in explanation of my own position. whereby you come to a conception of the world such a . conception you cannot receive from without. except under the one form given to us. nor compound from inferences. Now cannot with both ? the same inwardness of religion be combined Would not a closer consideration show that the two ways of conceiving are not very wide apart ? But the pantheistic idea is not to be thought of as death. reflection upon it. but the highest and most original All else in the human mind is simply faculty in man. and no effort is to be spared to surpass in thought the limits of the personal idea. I trust. that of consciousRecoil from the obscurity of indefinite thought is the one tendency of the imagination. consider it blaspliemy or incon- gruity that such a matter should depend on the direction of the imagination. he cannot think of anything ness or self-consciousness. first of all. The subsequent translation into thought depends on whether one is willing in the consciousness of his own weakness to be lost in the mysterious obscurity. Imagination in this sense is the free generation of thoughts. as to prevent you from thinking that all are despisers of religion who will not accept the personality of the Highest Being as it is usually set forth. recoil from the appearance of contradiction in transferring the forms of the finite to the Infinite is the other. and is therefore dependent on it.98 wlietlier bis SECOND SPEECH. From this conception you are then im- pressed with the feeling of omnipotence. imagination cliiefly inclines towards existence and nature or consciousness and thouglifc. By imagination I do not mean anything subordinate or confused. or whether. nor will anyone rid himself of the almost absolute necessity to anyone who . So much I have thought it necessary to say. And I am quite convinced that what has been said will not make the idea of the personality of God more uncertain for more easily truly has it . seeking definiteness of thought.

The number who would have something from this God. parunfree. but in the only way in which one free being can work on another. it matters not how many consist. He is to give an is alien to piety. manner of treating this there is still more that seems to me inconsistent subject with the nature of piety. would not have God working on man by freedom. is pleasure. truly pious persons alone with great tranquillity. and whose nature has become brutish. I believe I have just shown you in what way each one bears in himself an unchangeable and I cannot conceal that in the usual H 2 . can have no consciousness of the God that is in us and in the world. They believe that only those who are quite without feeling. therefore unmoral. ^ men he Nay. cannot be far travelled in the region of piety.THE NATURE OF RELIGION. enthuEven when timidity and siasts. and of the divine life and operation whereby all things But whosoever insists. and morality not moral. They would most un- willingly believe that anyone could in point of fact be quite without religion. But the Highest Being. to immortality. 99 knowing whence this necessity comes. outward guarantee of their blessedness and incite them to They want to have it before their eyes. for it is called atheism. or fanatics for this idea. that the highest piety consists in confessing that the "Highest Being thinks as a person and wills outside the world. cannot wish to make freedom itself not free. Not to have the Deity immediately present in one^s feeling has always hesitation about it will leave ^ seemed to them more irreligious. to morality. Every alien it To follow ^"^ This now brings me to the second point. ticularly when he is thought of as free. acquire it. that by by necessity. the profoundest words of the most zealous defenders of his own faith must still be strange to him. Among truly religious men there have never been zealots. They morality. external incitement by making himself known either by pain or But this cannot incite us to morality. whether it be where it concerns morality is hope or fear. excellent excludes. is only too great.

becoming conscious of the Universe. the same shall lose The life that they would keep is one that cannot be it. Gradually they are to be lost in the Infinite that we. Would they but attempt to surrender their lives from love to God Would they but strive to annihilate their person! . there can be nothing fleeting in it. prehending tality for who They are not even capable of comcan endure the efi'ort to conceive an endless temporal existence ? Thereby they lose the immorthey could always have. but if its content is our relation to God wherein all that is individual and fleeting disappears. On the contrary. struggle against this aim. and do not wish to overstep the accustomed The limit or to be anything else but a manifestation of it. Eecall how religion earnestly strives to expand the sharply cut outlines of personality. But men They are anxious about their personality. one opportunity that death gives them of transcending it. But God speaks to them as it stands ^' Whosoever loses his life for my sake. shall keep it. In the religious life then we may well say we have already all that is mortal." sight concern is with the eternity of their single are they not as anxious about what it has been person. the same written. may as much as possible be one with it.loo SECOND SPEECH. they are concerned as to how they are to carry it with them beyond this life. like to the very nay quite opposed aim of religion is to the spirit of piety. and their utmost endeavour is for longer and better limbs. seem to me offered up and disposed of irreligious. and whosoever keeps it. they are very far from wishing to embrace. If our feeling nowhere attaches itself to eternal nature. But the immortality that actually most men imagine and their longing for it. why What does forwards avail when as about what it is to be ? kept. by thoughts that distress and torture them in vain. but all must be eternal. and that we are enjoying immortality. and their mortal life in addition. Disthe ground of their. wish to be immortal. the individual. it. If their they cannot go backwards that is ? They desire an immortality no immortality.

Only the man who denying himself sinks himself in as much.'^ This then is my view of these subjects. and such a God may be believed in without piety. at least in my sense. from the need for such a being to console and behind the world and help. and I think in the true and right sense. . AVith him reallv possible to hold further converse about the endlessness to which. Such an idea may be entirely pure and always inadequate. this idea is formed. Similarly I the goal and the character of the religious life is not the immortality desired and believed in by many or what their — craving to is is would suggest pretended be believed in by many. The usual conception of God as one single being is outside of the world not the beginning and the end of It is only one manner of expressing God. If.THE NATURE OE RELIGION. it is the problem in the solution of which we are for ever to be engaged. through death. behind it. seldom religion. It is not the immortality that outside of time. the imperfections of his idea will not cumber him nor contaminate his piety. but somehow by the necessity of a man's way of thinking. knows that he loses little when he loses himself. but immediate consciousness of the Deity as He is found in ourselves and in the world. It is the immortality which we can now have 1 in this temporal life . or rather after it. if he needs it for the security of his piety. lie can and in whose soul a greater and holier longing has arisen. and which still to it be too wise about — in time. In the midst of finitude to be one with the Infinite and in every moment | 1 to be eternal is the immortality of religion. we infallibly soar. not arbitrarily. has a right to the alone it is hopes that death gives. formed from mixed motives. ality loi and to live in the One and in tlie All ! Whosoever lias learned to be more than himself. Yet the true nature of religion is neither this idea nor any other. however. of the whole Universe as attain.

is the highest knowledge. had that religion is this restored unity of knowledge." to show how all forms of religion. or indeed knowledge at all. This I cannot at all accept therefore I cannot hold . if a philosopher as such will attempt to prove a Trinity in the Highest Being. The assertion of others that the more imperfect. Philosophy would be the first round in the ladder. and no one of the three stages would be consistent with the other two. what the Christian layman has in less perfection than the . and theology as yvwais would be the jDcrfect way and stand at the top. he does it at his risk. but that elsewhere and in another form I would carry it to a victorious issue. —The rlietorical character of this book and the im- opinion really been possibility of continuing the subject. and all speculations that do not reach the same results. Christianity is similar. ' but the Christian religion. the religion of the Christian laity would as nicTTis be an imperfect way of having the highest knowledge. Not only in dignity but in form is it identified with metaphysical speculations. if they cannot deduce the Trinity. in the further progress of this book. fore. would have allowed my me to say so by a very slight suggestion of irony. the scientific method would be suitable for its extension. it has its origin in another part of the soul. as for example. Wherereligion the highest knowledge. and religion could be acquire! by study. a thing not hitherto asserted. and in respect of the latter I have sought. and not religion generally. even the most imperfect. have failed. (1) Page 32. and in the Intro'* duction to my Glaubenslehre. especially the Polytheistic religions have no kinship with I reject both. are the same in kind. EXPLANATIONS OF THE SECOND SPEECH.102 SECOND SPEECH. My meaning would then have been that I would not now press this truth upon my opponents. In respect of the former position. It is the most successful and pre-eminent. and I would maintain that this is not a Christian Trinity because. Were alone religion really the highest knowledge. Wherefore it seems necessary to guard seem myself against this interpretation. being a speculative idea. especially as so many theologians to maintain at present that religion.

has struck most that the Infinite Existence does not appear td be the Highest Being as cause of the World but the World itself. In the former editions. but something appended to it. sensibility and taste stood not quite correctly for sense and taste for the Infinite. But the Infinite. by means of which our tendency to postulate and seek a world. but the infinity of existence generally. meaning not something unconditioned. however. I do not think that God can be placed in such a relation as cause. that the pious person is the existence of the finite in the Infinite universal. bat as all movement of the spirit withdrawn is from outward readers is activity. the universal existence of all finite things in the Infinite be made explicit. you to say Whole without God. Wherefore three different expressions follow in rapid succession. Sense may be capacity of perception There it is the latter. and descriptions are substituted. and it is by but to be conscious through finds that this liking. we cannot be conscious of immediately and through itself. If then. This change of expression presents different sides of the matter. which in my opinion are false. It is said here of religion that through it. strict definitions (2) Page 39. Hence sense for the Infinite and the immediate life of the finite in us as it is in the Infinite. This whole speech is simply an extended description. of writing it seemed specially appropriate.EXPLANA TIONS. and I leave whether the World can be conceived as a true All and Therefore I remained satisfied with that exthat I might not decide on the various ways of conceiving pression. What I conscious of or feel. taste be now added to sense. and I find it useful even in more scientific treatment In this kind for avoiding the scrup^ulosity of^oo rigid ater minology . the universal existence of all finite things in the On page 89 it stands religion is Infinite lives immediately in us. There a similar passage on page 36. or capacity of sensibility. under different expressious. in the first expression. mixed with criticism of other conceptions. and in the latter expression. In rhetorical exposition generally. sense and taste for the Infinite. 103 theologian and which manifestly is a knowledge is not religion itself. — are dispensed with. must be am imagined. this desire to find not merely the finite thing. . it of the Infinite. and that is what I call the life of the object in me. not as speculation proper. What. are one and the same. The chief points being scattered are of necessity repeated in different places. leads us from detail and part to the All and the Whole. both become Taste includes liking as well as mere faculty. The connection shows that the expression contemplation is to be taken in the widest sense. essentially identical. It can only be through a finite object.

which be considered here.I04 SECOND SPEECH. for there was no cried down as godless by the literalists. Many coquetted in insipid poetry with religion. At that time. There is now another reason why I should say no more. God and World did not fall to (3) Page 41. Even Jacobi has in his criticism no means hit upon what is most characteristic. reason to believe that I ascribed the Holy Spirit to Spinoza in the special Christian sense of the word. seeing I would review the whole sphere of piety. Without destroying the balance of the Speech. interpretation was not then so present. Novalis was an enthusiastic mystic by the j^rosaic. and Spinoza as It was incumbent upon me to protest against this view of Spinoza. As common interpolation instead of or so honourable as at How was I to expect that. I felt sure that. this parallel occurred As it was known that Novalis to Catholicism. the as together or as outside of one another. The result might have been different. or that he holds the same conspicuous position iu art as Spinoza in science. believing they were akin to the profound Novalis. had not the Christianity of that time been so distorted and obscured by dry formulas and vain subtilties that the divine form could not be expected to win the regard of a stranger. these examples seemed significant and important. I would myself be taken for a Spinozist ? Yet I had never defended his system. which was then somewhat marked. however. JSTovalis also has again become unknown to many. I believed that a part of my work was well done. I should have his in . This I said in the first edition. not seeiug that he is like Spinoza. When I recovered by my astonishment. even though it were not Christian piety. just as there were advocates enough of the All in the One taken for followers of Spinoza who were equally distant from their original. has relaxed. I could only suggest my reason. During these fifteen years the attention to Spinoza. Many I believe will wonder at this juxtaposition. Something essential would have been wanting in the exposition of my views if I had not in some way said that the mind and heart of this great man seemed deeply influenced by piety. and anything philosophic that was in my book tent with the characteristics of his views basis was manifestly inconsisand had quite a difi'erent than the unity of substance. and could only have limited the horizon in a hurtful manner. because I ascribed piety to Spinoza. — This passage on the departed Novalis was first inserted in the second edition. in revising the second edition. in some points had a tendency praising his art. yet so that I have found nothing now needing to. awakened by Jacobi's writings and continued by many later influences. to me. be altered. somewhat youthfully indeed.

(4) my expectation has deceived me Page originally many all among the few who admit that religion feeling stirred in the highest direction. But these principles and ideas do not belong to the feelings themselves. or at least that. and it is similar with the dogmatic and ascetic in respect of religion. Religion itself is to be rigidly distinguished from what merely belongs to it. — For shown more fully further on. could be shown of each department of feeling not inconsistent with But. Even were this granted of all social feelings. is — Even healthy feelings are pious. in agreement with the declaration which goes through the whole of . Yet. a tendency in it to the rage of Bacchus or the folly of In accordance with this analogy I believe that the same state. by showing that wedded love and all foregoing natural attraction of the sexes are not. as all true morality. as is (5) understanding my whole view I could desire nothing better than that my readers should compare these Speeches with my " Christliche Glaubenslehre. require ideas for their commanication and representation. yet in matter Page 49. Protestantism can only completely and consistently defend the domestic and paternal relations of the clergy against the melancholy folly of the peculiar holiness of the celibate life. religious aberrations 105 ascribed me as Spinozism had been because I praised Spinoza's piety. I can retract nothing from the universality of the statement and To take one in no way admit that it was a rhetorical hyperbole. they are quite parallel. they should be pious. Thus every one perhaps might' not find the description here given an action of things upon us underlying all religions emotions. if it be inferred from this passage that. human feelings belong to the religious sphere. there will be to whom it will appear that I assert too much when I say that 46. the connection seems to show my meaning. in the nature of the case. it must be shown how piety is to be found in all those feelings that unite men for a higher or even a more sensuous enjoyment of life.'' In form they are very different and their points of departure lie far apart. This only happens when the feeling is diseased. But to provide the Si3eeches for this purpose with a complete commentary was impossible.EXPLANATIONS. Yet example. and principles to exhibit their due measure. absolutely inconsistent with a pious when there is Narcissus. all ideas and principles of every sort are foreign to it. in order not to be diseased. Whether I do not yet very well know. and I must content myself with single references to such passages as seem to me capable of appearing contrary or at least of lacking agreement. even those feelings which are usually separated from the religious sphere.

This result will depend entirely on the mood and But then our reaction will appear to us determined by the same cause and in the same way as the action. and being over against the Universe. If. our state must be the feeling of Whole. in acting upon us. then one cannot limit the other. however. but it. 'Bj mythology I understand in general a purely ideal subject enunciated in historical form. The divine pity for example. For this a dialogue of divine Page — persons.io6 . it will be. and the idea of pity is evil. in the idea . is here put. is not found in more rigid didactic form when something is represented as happening in the Divine Being. let reacts against it. lehre. it seems to me that we have a Monotheistic and a Christian. The representations of many divine attributes also have this historical form and are therefore mythological. an opening for the attitude of the mind. It found in Klopstock's poems and elsewhere. (6) its ojDposition oO. Similarly. as it a unity conditioning all things of the Whole. And this also shows that however we exhibit the World and God they cannot be divided. Yet. being so comprehended that to all else entirely vanishes. our single life and there can be no feeling of dependence except is not equal to the action. Exactly in accordance with. Bat if the single things are in their action only single. the sole result is In the " Glaubensdefiniteness of the sensuous self-consciousness." likewise this emotion. but as part of the Whole. decrees it only in a definite out of place. such as necessary. is only something when the divine will that lightens the evil is separated from the will that ordained Are both regarded as one. We do not feel ourselves dependent on the Whole in so far as it is an aggregate of mutually conditioned parts of which we ourselves are one. the analogy of Polytheistic Mythology. The matter stands thus. an exhibition of the Infinite. or again to modify former resolves. but only in so far as underneath this coherence there is and conditioning our relations to the other parts Only on this condition can the single thing be. entire dependence. " Glaubenslelire. the divine will that decrees the measure. as divine resolves made in respect of something that has happened in the world. not to speak of the special divine is is resolves that give reality to the idea that prayer is heard. as the idea is mostly understood. fortuitously in so far as the reaction is postulated as the substratum of religious the single thing be great or small." that the essence of the religious emotions consists in the feeling of an absolute dependence. the single thing does not work upon us as a single thing. SECOND SPEECH. Even except there it is it is admitted that we cannot really have this feeling occasioned by the action of single things.

tained in another type of doctrines. and both together exhibit a historical transaction. on the contrary. The same may be shown in other things. that we can say. my as elsewhere. If here the system of marks or attributes which in (7) Page 63. is regarded as exact knowledge. By applying this name to them blame these representations. on the dominating language. But when the activity that jDromises. the activity that brings to pass and its expression are regarded in general as one. the oft-repeated assertion. the use of such mythology has no danger. so contemptuous of all historical sense." that the formation of the idea depends here. for them the chief worth of those presentations is that by them they communicate and realize their own religious moods. and treated as the essence of religion. for example.-^icon- Page 64. manner. the Hellenic and Western being. but if. the degree. and quality of its scientific development embracing of course the manner and for itself. 107 of the veracity of God. these are only external circumstances. divine connection of all things. But I blame it as vain mythology when this. — completest form composes the theological outline is represented rather as being determined by outward circumstances than as coming its forth of itself from the religious capacity. for there it is always incumbent to think away the historical and the time form generally. I only wished to recall what is " also expounded in Kurze Darstellung " and in the Introduction to the " Glaubenslehre. without being essentially different. Apart from the if universal. that is only a help in need. There we have only to do with the like-minded. They naturally at once adjust the defective expression.EXPLANATIONS. Christianity had had a great and preponderatinj Eastern extension. Rather I acknowas indispensable. were merely accidental and the fruit of entirely alien interests. the conception of divine veracity is something only in so far as many divine activities are linked or not to one exjoression of them. kept it back. for otherwise the subject could not be spoken of in such a way that any distinction could be drawn between I in nowise ledge them the more correct and less correct. there is hardly place for a special idea of the divine veracity. But in respect of religion in and quality of the philosophizing. promise and fulfilment are separated. that the religious movements which in Christianity have determined a great body of the most important ideas. (8) might have been conm. is not to be made. Even in more scientific presentations of religion. In this distinction also a history is told. it is and In the sphere of religious poetry and oratory also indispensable. — This passage also might occasion various . is regarded as the same that accomplishes the fulfilment.

io8 SECOND SPEECH. Thus both still appear in Christianity." §§ 7 and 8 (2Dd It and I would simply add that. Similarly. And if no one has an adequate sense for all that is Christian. or there may be in the religious communion a higher spiritual power be stored of and love. and therefore in the history of Christianity have a place. Even if Christianity had supplanted all other religions. about every truly pious person willingly acknowledging that to other types of religion much belongs for which the sense fails him. except the state of mind of the religious person. diately true. all types of religious association are good. is not to be called visible in Christianity. The same thing would happen i£ Christianity should annex the territory of all existing great religions. Just as little did this passage express a wish that other religions should always continue alongside of Christianity. in religion. Page 55. he would not have a sense for all that would thereby be historically mirrored in Christianit^^ for just as little then as now would the Christianity of . there can be none with the all sense fr r all there is in other religions that may be the germ of some futur*-. Consequently the religious sphere would not be enclosed in narrower borders. in respect of the opposition refer to ceptions. but it can be said that every man's religion is his highest truth. my " Glanbenslehre. what follows is to be understood. it would be hypocrisy. religion at all. though perhaps among many races. First. the rejection here of the thought of the universality of any one religion and the assertion that only in the sum of all religions is the whole extent of this bias of the mind comprehended. as nothing is expressed at any moment of it. raging commotions. this greatest of all religions may suffer im- portant changes. Similarly. religion. One may be the utterance of a superior state of mind. but all religions would in a historical way be From the connection again it is clear that I only deny that a religion is universally true in the sense that everything that exists or has existed outside of it. Furthermore. in no way expresses a doubt that Christianity will be able to extend itself over the whole human race. (9^ Christian peculiarity. I is between true and false edit. But how little this prejudices the superiority one type of faith to another is in part plainly stated and in part easy to infer. there treated fully. Error therein would not only be In religion then everything is immeerror. The influence of Judaism and Hellenic Heathenism on Christianity was through a long period visible in hostile. Christian j)eople be quite the same. There are still Christian divines who reject the whole — .). error only exists by truth and not merely so. for the best in the existence of each man must up in them.

and so to describe the extent of Christian conceptions by approximation." § 22. on account of its boundless Rome which. note. on the one side.As what has long been Church heretical. and would yet be concalled in the Christian dogmatics I could not avoid offering such a formula. Hence they labour to prune it. They believe that Christianity- would have been a healthier development and would have shown a form if no one had ever thought of presenting the Christian conceptions in a finished connection. that the living mobility of the letter be secured. treatment of relig'ous conceptions is the best which. is apparent. and that I condemn the expulsion of heretics. and § 25. That many. and I can only wish to attain my object as fully as But this definition of the subject has nothing to do with possible. —I feel offence. it is to be assigned its place. as an accidental freer. It does not appear to me possible that there can be a sound dogmatic procedure without a formula of the character of what is Christian. First I prefer Heathen mixture of religions. T was far removed from agreeing with them. Their good intentions I do not question. (10) Page 55. Within the great conformity characteristic difference is not only to be endured. to present the Christian faith in the closest possible The mania for system is merely a morbid degeneration. and to have it acknowledged as merely a collection of monographs. stitutive. It would be a grave misunderstanding to believe that this invective against the of the mania for system makes light endeavour connection. while contending for the defence of their own opinion. I begin with the latter as the deeper and more important. That systematic of this praiseworthy and wholesome endeavour. by the application of which it would be possible. 3 and note. I call I myself godless. to Christian that this passage gives a two-fold. to abolish it. It naturally follows that what lies outside of this extent. If this were to be taken for the chief aim in my presentation of the Christian faith. that it may not die and the spirit be drawn to death with it. sidered Christian. fairer aggregate of single theses of very unequal value. but even then. and even seek to systematize heresy. In my the treatment of persons. and I have declared myself fully on it in the " Glaubenslehre. to cut off the ordinates. I would fain believe that I am in perfect agreement with myself. may use a heretical expression without meaning anything heretical. purpose of Cliri^stian 109 when this passage was dogmatics. while declare certain views to be heretical. from any point of the line of cleavage. as much as possible. grave Rome.EXPLANA TIONS. in comparison. and there was a far greater number first written. does not take the conception and the idea for original and conand on the other. .

has ariben There. embracing. From this point of view the rise of the Evangelical Church was simply to rescue its own productiveness from fellowship with such a rule. this alone contains living knowledge of God. and that through persecution of heretics. taken literally is that the dogmatizing love of system which scorns to assign its place to difference. exclude from their fellowship all who do not agree with them in the same letter of doctrine. my preference of Heathen to Christian Rome. all kinds of Polytheism.no On many sides SECOND SPEECH. by mutual understanding. however. the system itself This is the history of the Roman Catholic system in contrast to the Protestant. however. This makes it specially necessary to obviate the con- fusion between this proceeding and the right to pronounce the bann on all we may choose to consider heretics. the living knowledge of God. one-sidedness of each individualized Polytheism." also from fear. My praise of the must become dead. § 8. crushes out productiveness. but rather excludes all difference. but assume an authority our church grants to none. according to the somewhat perspective usage of the Holy Scriptures. but were much Now more favourable to the spread of Christianity than heresy hunting. the Evangelical Church will rather acknowledge that its sole duty towards them is to maintain fellowship with them that. they do not act in an Evangelical spirit. If individuals or small societies employ a contrary method and. and my statement that through tolerance the former was full of gods. regardless of disposition. — In the " Glaubenslehre. and the desire to free the religious need from the limits of political forms. is to be specially the rhetorical cast of the book. and changes doctrine into a dead letter. I wished to . note 1. could ever be for its establishment and preservation. the latter was godless. these two things were not only praiseworthy in themselves. If heretics are not also without a Christian disposition. receptivity of ancient Rome for strange worships is also to be taken It involved an acknowledgment of the narrowness and seriously. however well meant. plainly suppresses. And now passing to the second point. rule so rigid that it A condemns everything As of another shade. First. I have de- clared myself against the opinion that idolatry. (11) Page 65. the character of the expressions used shows that this passage bears What. they may the sooner be led into the right way. to the wisli has been expressed in the Evangelical renew church discipline in a judicious manner that a Christian congregation may be in a position to withdraw a measure of fellowship from persons disproving by their lives their Christian Chnrch disposition. as much as it can.

Two things there rigidly distinguished seem here to be both ascrihed to the religion of the mind. the lower iii and the higher stages of religion which could not be if the former arose from fear and the latter did not. the expression World. and all growth towards perfection is simply a pro- gressive purification of love. No one will confuse it with World-Soul. and therefore has many points of contact with this book. It neither expresses reciprocal action between the World and the Highest Being. Despite the somewhat piety generally has had its source variable use of Setcri5ai/xoi/ta. the world of religion may be external nature. love is operative. even though it has not directly proceeded from the special standpoint of Christianity. show that.EXPLANATIONS. It should hardly be necessary to justify the use of (12) Page 65. I believe therefore that Christian authors are justified in using the term. it can only regard its object as were alike. as th|/i-e indicated. 4. malevolent. regarded as an individual thing having one or more things standing over against it the mind in our sphere and at our stage of culture. by this choice On the conof the most perfect form of religion to the inferior. for whether the . for it could not be said of the Greek and Roman Polytheists that their faith in the gods would have been extinct if. trary. my chief form.Spirit where I wish to indicate the object of pious adoration in a way that would include all different forms and — stages of religion. nor any kind of independence of the World from Him. not only that it is a perfectly Christian name for the Highest Being. In the same division way on the other side. In particular. In my" Glaubenslehre. Where then higher beings are not worshipped or rather entreated as bad. The peculiar world of religion seems to be the mind. what is said there may here be applied generally. — was into what I have called the aesthetic and the teleological Here another ground of classification seems to be assumed. but that the expression could only have arisen on Monotheistic soil." the Introduction of which (13) Page 71. for if fear is not in some way a perversion of love. the proof here given in general would apply to the particular instance. they had shaken off all fear. " — contains the outlines of what I take to be the philosophy of religion. the motive cannot be fear entirely separated from Hence it remains true that in all religions from the beginning love. in the courageous use of life. and is as free from Jewish Particularism as from the incompleteness of the Mohammedan Monotheism which I have attempted to specify in the Glaubenslehre. I believe. There I am dealing with the conception that in fear. I do not believe it can be said with of expression. in essence. I have sacrificed the interests justice that. Similarly." § 8.

it it or ethical character character. I will here also explain two passages not specially text. If the influence of the contemplation of nature is re- ferred to the soul and its activities and its laws. indispensable to . is there quite overlooked. mercy. is wherein not only each member. This contemplation is exalted by speculative natural science. always remains science. formerly given as a natural form of emotion. nor the ento order the world for itself can be quite lost to the soul till the consciousness of the species has quite vanished. And. it appears as clearly. or the passive to the active. nor can he form general ideas. (14) . for I think that pious emotions both exalt and debase. The religious whether from nature or the historical life. which. The opposite feeling to humility. I believe it can be shown that the narrative necessarily implies that neither can man come to a consciousness of God. as Paul puts it. is spoken of as if it were opposed to an exalted religious feeling of personal existence. only in proportion to its effect moment. and only gives rise to religious emotions in proportion as the soul is conscious of itself in the contemplation. however.'' express just that very joyful self-sufficiency here meant. has a teleological has an aesthetic Page 72. two-fold form. On Now.112 SECOND SPEECH. the feeling that in each one the whole of humanity lives and works is rise. and therefore again by the mental state. all religious is active state be referred to the passive. The classifica- " tion given in the " Glaubenslehre therefore remains. not as the author's only to be taken as an aj^plication of the own opinion. and therefore. just the consciousness to which the Christian of all men should He should feel that all believers form a living organic whole. similarly depicted as natural and essential to piety. By a natural religion. as if it must be changed to joyful selfsufficiency. if it is referred to nature. and contrition. deavour that neither the consciousness of the Highest Being. all penitence is quenched in the consciousness satisfy thyself with The words " my of the divine forgiveness. until he has dividual in gained a consciousness of the species. Hence the distinction that here regarded as the higher. again upon our mood at any from the mental state. In the same way they arise from the immediate relation of nature to our life and existence. have all this emotions. Even in Christianity that spreads itself only by awaking the emotions that debase. marked in the page 79 humility. emotions are states of mind. I do not mean that religious emotions can come to man through contemplation of the external world. however. —This is narrative. I do not consider that a contradiction. of his subordination as an init and his difference from it.

each man men. 3 and § 47. to Kant and So long as ethics adhered to the imFichte. that man must have no time to begin it or to cherish it. — Without Redeemer. all 113 But each one presupposes the characteristic activity Further. or to deny that single actions should not proceed directly from stimulus of single feelings. perative method so rigidly followed in those systems. the religious name and that all connection with the explanations given in the Glaubenslehre. and particularly Kant. just as a presentation of religion would embrace ethics. But ethics should not be reIt should assign to these stricted to the narrow imperative form. which is that all higher feelings belong to religion. ing has not in himself the right key for understandTo almost everyone much is so alien that he can only acknowledge it when he finds it in a form more akin to himself or all namely. all feelings their place in the their ethical worth. for if everything is a miracle then nothing is. those who unite the most alien elements with those Chiefly in that feelin contrast to humility. the self-consciousness advances to such transparency and accuracy that the most distant ceases to most acknowledged. (15) Hence there is here no derogation from the higher mediatorship of the Page 85. but as a free. but can himself be a mediator for mauy. thou shalt is have this or that them Such a system should logically say of feeling. I would say that this passage specially applicable only to the ethics of that time.EXPLANATIONS. of all the others. If the reference of an event to the Divine 1 " . 2. —The expression here employed for event. only what has been said of friendship. But when all human limits are seen in Him from this feeling will be purest whom all limitation was banished.'' § 14 note. ^ 34. to be taken in the limited more. wishing to retract anything from the leading position in this Speech. therefore. This stands in close (16) Page 89. when it is said that a man who has thus combined both forms of emotion needs no mediator any the others. is ing which appear strange and ceases to repel. this statement is only meaning indicated by earlier expositions. yet both would not be on that account one and the same. linked to something else that has a special value for him. not as It should also acknowledge soul. human that 'miracle is only that happens is miracle might easily be suspected of being a practical denial of the miraculous. feelings could find no place in morals. for there could not be a command. In this sense. natural function of the higher life in close connection with the higher maxims and modes of acting. Ethics would then so far embrace religion. something that can or ought to be made for some purpose and for which guidance is given in morals. mediate an understanding.

Now both are combined in the idea of grace. and pious persons are always characterized by both. and because here it was necessary to make it general it could not otherwise be conceived. however. so that we can say with some assurance that this is willed of God. Hence it is plainly true tion. on how certain we are that we have grasped the full meaning of the event. I . will admit of little doubt. are most regarded as miracle. the divine provision will be least observed and the course of nature best. As in the expositions of the '' Glaubenslehre. In what follows.'' § 3-5. the expression entrance of the tvorld into man is substituted for revelation.114 SECOND SPEECH. upon (18) Page 9-1. inspiration more productivity. But it is not to be overlooked that the idea of the Deity does not enter our consciousness exreligiously. and everything original must be at least occasioned from without. so here I merely seek to exhibit miracle in its purity and to remove all foreign ingredients which are more akin to stupid amazement than to the joyful anticipation of a higher meaning. Revelation is more receptivity. which is scarcely at all current except in a peculiarly Christian form. Yet it may easily be charged to it it that. not speculatively. — By and that this entrance is looked shown sufiiciently further on. for every inspiration must go forth and accomplish something in the world. and in which at the same time the natural connection is most hidden. It is diflficult to treat an idea like the effects of graces (17) Page 90. omnipotence and the contemplation of it in its natural connection do not exclude one another but may be parallel. and the The latter original outgoing of man into the world for inspiration. the religious interest in the miraculous is acknowledged and guarded. and the examination of the connection goes too much into details. in such a general way as to embrace everything analogous to be found in other religious forms. and for the most part is regarded as inspiration. for the sake of the less perfect forms of religion. Yet it is equally true that in themselves and in respect of the divine causality all events alike are miracle. is cept along with the idea of the World. puts the Christian in the background. what is said in my " Glaubenslehre. and on the other how deeply we can penetrate into the natural connecAll this is mere subjective difference. which view is first taken depends upon the direction of the attention. The former also is in agreement with the preceding explanation of revelation. To it belongs all that distinguishes — a human being as a sjDecial favourite of the gods. Where the bearing of an event on our aims most interests us. But which of the two views will most satisfy us depends on the one side. that all the events that most awake religious attention." though absolute miracle is rejected.

the unity of our being cannot. On the other hand. But none who reflect on the little that is said about pantheism will suspect me of any materialistic pantheism. Most appears in the self-consciousness. the self-consciousness then most appears as a single function. will be is made at the same time be completed by what said in the them. at least. and as there can be no passive existence of God. As everyone can compare it is not necessary for me to enter on a defence of myself against the supposition —I would not willingly call it accusation^ which men whom gone hence. Even were the criticisms just. and thereby obstructs I all simplicity. seeing it can be shown from other manifestations us. It may. as the divine in And you may ask why I say of this unity that it appears in the emotions of piety. in so far as single in the background. I did not think it necessary to I did not remember how protest further against all consequences. and to acknowledge it under every form. have to prefer the impersonal form of thinking of the Highest Being. trust that \ 1 5 what is here said. note 2. I find. for it is absolutely inward. the divine activity npon any object is the divine existence in respect of that object. When had said in generally the growth of his piety. In respect of the former the divine in us must be that in which the capacity to be conscious of God has its seat. For the rest. And if any one look at I it rightly." especially in § 8. thought that it is truly Christian to seek for piety everywhere. may be set in a clearer light. when references to single things are most prominent.EXPLA NA TIONS. and especially the statement that all 2)ious emotions exlilhit through feeling the immediate jiresence of God in us. certainly. often a person going straightforward seems to be going to the left to a person going to the right. require to be explained why I represent the unity of our being in contrast to the multiplicity of function. and this has been called now my atheism and again my Spinozism. For myself I am supposed not only among the Jews and the Proselytes. and that is here the main point. but among the that it is not indifferent whether one does not acquire or quite rejects a definite form of representing the Highest Being. and that Paul obeyed I. It is hardly necessary to remind you that the existence of God generally can only be active. hovs^ever. however. and some of whom have already drawn from this Speech. he will find that. also that self-consciousness is but a single function. appear by itself. still Heathen at Athens. it might still be the divine that is awakened in us in the pious emotions. immediately it references are (19) clearer *' Page and 95. Glaubenslehre. — This exposition also. on 2 . it is hoped. I greatly honour. that Christ enjoined this upon his disciples.

n6 SECOND SPEECH. Partly the statement that morality generally cannot be manipulated. Yet the profoundest of the church fathers have ever sought to purify the idea. have never rightly developed the idea of personality This passage is different from the former edition. if by exhibiting the doubtful consequences. it would be as easy to say that they denied personality to God as that they ascribed As it is so difficult to think of a personality as truly it to Him. the one side. infinite and incapable of suffering. for whom off . this conception of personality is indispensable as a general supplement to their chain of causality which on both sides is broken and how many. seemed to require closer definition — ! if there was not to be misunderstanding partly the whole view seemed to me only rightly completed by the addition that freedom and morality would be endangered by the prosj^ect of divine recompense. are there in whose lives piety has little weight the other as How many men and influence. or whenever the heart has immediate intercourse with the Highest Being. and on the other he will recognize the essential imperfection in the conception of a personality of the Highest Being. The conception is necessary whenever one would interpret to himself or to others immediate religious enaotions. does the by negative formulas. nay. The latter idea alone distinguishes from materialistic pantheism and atheistic blind necessity. theoretically to explain the order of the world has very often been The former is an immoral and therefore si^ecially an . Does the former fashion a too human personality. every one must recognize it as an almost absolute necessity for the highest stage of piety to acquire the conception of a personal God. show the deepest piety who. if it is not most carefully kept pure. it overlooked. to show that. though right in the connection. how hazardous it is. Were the definite expressions they have used to clear away what is human and limited in the form of personality put together. a great distinction should be drawn between a personal God and a living God. (20) Page 99. the I was specially concerned one form of the conception does not in itself exclude all piety. In the strife on this point. Within that limit any further wavering in respect of personality must be left to the representative imagination and the dialectic conscience. the latter restrains latter limit the representation too much former knows how to suit it to its need. in what they say of the Highest Being. little necessarily includes it. especially as it is carried on between the Kantians and the Eudaimonists. they will guard each other. on the other hand. the great difference between presenting divine recompense as an inducement and using . and where the pious sense exists.

It was also directed against narrow and impure conceptions and it has raised the same misunderstandings. the passage which treated of the personality of God. in the state of pious emotion. It is hardly to be denied that its unity. and as arbitrariness can only have its seat in personality. This will be found in the second part of my " Glaubenslehre. and is never employed by true heralds of Christianity and has no place in the Scriptures . There I had only to answer the question view of that the two stood or whether this hope was so essential to a pious direction of the mind What could I do but answer in the fell together. But this was not the place to declare myself in respect of the truth of the matter.EXPLANATIONS. hold. from the lowest stage of self-love. seeing it might as well have been ascribed to the interest of love in the beloved objects. 117 uncliristian procedure. just in contrast to the opponents of the faith it seemed to me natural and necessary to utter the warning that any particular way of conceiving immortality and especially that which has unmistakable traces of a lower interest hidden behind it. it rift in human this explanation will be very different in proportion as love of truth and desire of knowledge are free from all foreign ingredients. not as it is personal interest is purified by subordination to a self-consciousness . in earlier times. representing it as a weakness and contending against it. I — am supposed to disparage the hope of immortality in the usual sense of the word. This passage has met very much the same fate as (21) Page 101. All the Only it forms under which the hope of immortality of the can as the highest self-consciousness spirit present itself being before me. as a Christian. but as it is natural in one in whom reality. and seeing also that it is easy to show that. is not to be confused with the I thus sought to prepare for grasping the question. for it alone shows how the divine law extends over the whole nature of man. negative.'' and both passages should supplement each other. the other is natural and necessary. seeing it is now usually accepted that the people of the old Covenant did not. or to offer the it which 1. be accompanied by the narrowest conceptions of the divine personality. most fully guards But the demands of self-love will most claim arbitrariness for the divine it will recompense. entirely limited to personality or to a self-consciousness chained to single affinities. the soul is rather absorbed in the present future F moment than directed towards the appears hard that this Speech should deduce not doubtfully the hope so widely diffused among the noblest men of a restoration of the individual life not again to be interrupted. have this hope. and so far from causing a nature.

so without excluding any kind or manner we would hold the same of those who believe in an eternal life of the difi'erent spirit. if he would test his feeling. is not to be overlooked. but. wherewith the great ones of the earth often think they must adorn themselves. should see. The most anthropomorphic view of God usually presupposes a morally corrupt consciousness.Ii8 that is SECOND SPEECH. If I am somewhat severe on the self-deception of a mean way of thinking and feeling. and the same holds of such a conception of immortality as pictures the Elysian fields as just a more beautiful and wider earth. he still find that that eternal life is with him to which the end of this Speech points. spreading explanations. that he then decide whether these claims are anything more than the titles of lands. which is proud that it can comprehend immortality and that it is guided by the accompanying hope and fear. ennobled by the consciousness of the human race and of human On the other side. . as Plato says. of Furthermore. not merely. piety. the in respect of between the two ideas God and immortality the ways of conception here indicated. never possessed and never to be possessed. As we call everyone pious who believes in a living God. thus stripped. If. it was necessary to make the opponents of religion observe that there could be no religious discussion of this matter except among those who have already cultivated in themselves the higher life. but that it has always been with me a very strong I desire no more than that each man. in order to avoid endless and wide- nature. given by true piety. I can only say in self-defence that there is nothing of mere rhetoric in it. laying aside these claims and considering himself just as he is. so there is between one who does not hold such a sensuous conception of immortality and one who does not hope for any immortality. he will readily understand what I am aimferred to endless existence ing at in parallel my presentation of the Christian faith. that souls appear before the judges of the Underworld stripped of all alien ornament con- by the external relations of life. which is worthy to conquer death. As there is a great difference between inability to think of God as in this way personal and the inability to think of a living God at all.

seeking to the harmony of the religious feelings. As I myself have willingly confessed. Every corresponding element being stirred by this life-giving power^ they should attain a consciousness of their existence. The unsuccessful issue is not new to any of us. — when it carries every faculty of his spirit imperiously along in the stream of its impulse. THE CULTIVATION OF KELIGION. Yet that is not what now urges me to speak to you of the cultivation of man for this noble capacity. For this cultivation we believers know of only one means the free expression and communication of religion. in the calm conviction that the time has not yet come for anything congenial to appear. ^ow often have I struck to Beginning with single soft notes. 'When religion moves in a man with all its native force.THIRD SPEECH. every exercise of force. the endeavour to make proselytes from unbelievers is deep rooted in the character of religion. I have entrusted these words to a larger and more versatile . and the attentive ear be gladdened by an answering note of kindred sound. I have soon been swept on by youthful impetuosity ! up move ths bystanders fullest the music of my religion. j Where the pious person fails to awake a life like his by the natural expression of his own life. \ But nothing stirred. he will should despise nobly every strange charm. we expect it to penetrate into the hearts of all who live and breathe within its influence. nothing answered in the hearers.

The difficulty we know may not otherwise be met. and many lack much. yea. And how often^ for all who proclaim ! and for me along with them. but earthly order of things. in these times of universal confusion and upheaval. if the number refuses to develope should be great ! whom religion Necessarily be great. . without his knowledge. it is not brought to life. is natural that its slumbering spark should possibility of having to abandon the very belief that determines his place in the world and binds him to the And he may find no other. and that. it is r busy But especially it in him. or bounded. then. that they may hold fast what they take . without having awaked the vaguest suspicion ! from how many. may sink in the general whirlpool. Every man must continually face the . despite of their purpose religion. will they return in sadness of those advantages^ without having been understood. Everyone of us misses himself little that belongs to a complete humanity.I20 THIRD SPEECH. and where it sustains him and forwards him or guess that. yet cii-cle. however lovingly or patiently we tend it. be renewed Yet this shall never distress us. One class shun no concentration of their own powers and shout also towards every side for help. In all human things nothing remains unshaken. else how could we come to see it if I might so say its incarnate. in What wonder. historical existence. not glow up in many. or discern the bounds it sets on all sides to the other capacities — in — it must how by them again it is in manifold ways Or how should we know how far man can anywhere succeed without it. even in persons in whom under happier circumstances it would have broken through all obstacles. of man. will this fate which has been appointed us from the beginning. and we shall never be moved from our quiet equanimity to attempt in any other fashion to force our way of thinking in either upon not a this or the future generation.

in the universal giddiness. on the mechanism of the spirit everyone . and so far to associate them with. the other class. is there such a ? lAll that the activity and art of one man can do for way another is to communicate conceptions to be the basis of' thoughts. / means and freely produce what inner activity you In short. suddenly leap from their sockets and allow all that has so long revolved around them to fall . by every possible way. the aspect of the moral world is more majestic and noble than ever. are busy clearing away the ruins of fallen centuries. but. Where. he must be glad to fix his eye steadily / enough on any one object. then. In such a state of things it would be foolishi to expect that' many could be fit to cultivate and retain religious feelings which prosper best in quiet. as it were of their own accord. every man is so mightily by the vehement shaking of all things that. and at moments there are hints of more significant traits than ever before in the centuries. J There is a contrariety that cannot be eliminated from words. In the midst of this ferment. to ingraft and to impart it. less can you get beyond this will. to 1 2 1 be the poles of the world and of society. witb a like restless zeal. seeking to be the first to settle fruitful ground that is being formed beneath from the quickly cooling lava of the dread volcano.THE CUL Tl VA TION OF RELIGION. on the Even without affected leaving his place. indeed. of art and of science. ? Yet who can rescue himself from the universal turmoil can escape the power of narrower interests ? calm enough to stand still and steadfastness enough for undisturbed contemplation ? will Who Who has But suppose the happiest times and suppose the best not only to arouse by communication the capacity for religion where it does exist. and much. which by an indescribable destiny. his own ideas But no that they may be remembered at fitting 'times. to be able to keep to it and convince himself gradually that something still stands. one can arrive at the point of making others think what thoughts he will.

they have no possession that can truly repay their toil. making everything an object for itself and turning every thought and action into a theme for its heavenly phantasy. From this sanctuary of his organization which force cannot enter. Like everything that should be ever present. it matters not before what object he finds himself. in or add to. in the true sense of the word. But does that touch their deepest nature? Is it. is meaning that piety absurd and unmeaning. human soul. Our opinions teachable. by means of this mechanism.122 THIRD SPEECH. retard the development of the spirit. In the spirit it inhabits it is unand strong. and doctrines we can indeed communicate. into the sacred workshop of the Universe. an imitative talent which in some perhaps we can so far arouse as to make it easy for them. no one can enter at No one can change or disarrange. proceeds. and if our pupils do not share our emotions. it lies far beyond the domain of teaching and such is And religion. cannot be taught. Part of the growth thus be violently mutilated. But we know very well that those things are only the shadows of our religious emotions. interruptedly active imparting. This retreat into oneself. imagining power of the understanding. itself is Instruction in religion. take from pleasure. all that should be an ever alert. even though they do understand the thought. then. At the most he may. work. cannot when sacred produce in feelings are represented in powerful tones. can. all that pertains to the true life of man. power There is. there to perceive oneself. ever active in the [else. Even the most inspired person who can see. religion ? If ^ou would compare the . to themselves somewhat similar emotions. indeed. but into its organization. operative impulse in him. some measure. but nothing can be may moulded. Universe. if we have words and our hearers have the comprehending. the original light of the bv the word of instruction transfer this and dexterity to another.

Compelled simply by the feeling of weakness and circuit of the world. by the awakened in others. the spirit of observation. owu impulse. and moving self- limited in his new course. religion it in our power or attach utterance if. and who even then only lisp^ in an ill-understood terminology. you must liken them to persons who cannot be made to feel till commentaries and imaginings on works of art are brought as medicinal charms for the deadened sense. and every man finds himself in gallery the midst of them. of his own choice and spontaneous . This is the goal of all Show conscious educating and exercising in such things. without producing works of art themselves.^ of our And is own cannot retain religion. by an original. It is not the But this attachment is no blind imitation. but he is their master because of their choice. he makes choice of that climate which suits him There he seeks for himself a centre. feeling for art or morality^ then will I pledge myself to teach religion also. their religion also is own way. The works of art of religion The whole world is a are always and everywhere exposed. are responsive to everything that has to do with viewing them. he may settle far away from the place where first the new life was lit. inward determination to settle in definite quarter. fed by its own atmoMore or less it illumines for the soul the whole sphere. So much and no more you can accomplish by mere teaching.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION. some inappropriate words that are not their own. without being ungrateful to his first guide. following his fiaitude. me one man to whom you have imparted power of judg- — ment. On blazing up in the soul. Of course there is in religion a mastership and a discipleship. of religious scenes. Wherefore. As soon as it lives. so that. 123 sense for the Universe with the sense for art. some best. master that makes disciples. we it to ourselves. free and goes its the sacred spark spreads to a free and living flame. you must not compare the possessors of a passive religiousness if you care so to name it — with those who.

Man other. is born with the religious capacity as with every If only his sense for the profoundest depths of his is own ofF. — — You know how itself each element of humanity discloses by the place it maintains against the others. and how that comes to pass we shall now see. as far as it can be seen. liking. alas that is exactly what. and what must happen are to be widened. But in our time. infallibly religion would. I do not. nature not crushed out. I see how all things unite to bind man to the finite. This is the way in which the pious sense can conceive man. to religion. by the movement of the Whole. Now this strife is only sustained by the fellowship of the single elements. be developed. By this universal strife everything in every 'man attains a determinate form and size. With pain I see daily how the rage for calculating and explaining ! suppresses the sense. and to a very small portion of the finite. and that your deed.124 THIRD SPEECH. in very large measure. .^ aim at training either you or others would I teach you by resolve or rule to I would not leave the sphere of religion as by doing so I would but a little longer I would The Universe itself trains its own tarry with you within. does happen. therefore. Nor train yourselves. he calls liimself the disciple of him who first settled in this dear spot and showed its splendour. towards quite other things directed^ has an influence upon the present state of religion. regard it in this aspect and to make it clear thus and not otherwise. the religious limitation of our I wish to Now I wish to return contemporaries which you praise and I bewail. why we if are our limits Would that I could at the same time make you conscious that you also by your being and doing are tools of the Universe. if only is all fellowship between himself and the Primal Source not quite shut after its own fashion. observers and admirers. Hence every man and every thing in every only man is a work to of the Whole.

However many earthly objects are presented for their knowing. Even though you were all of one mind to have no religion. crushing out his higher aspirations. . is supposed. T -J J "^""^ there but ° a^uardians of religion amono^ those who divided impi». but is it not who know but the surface of even the finite not to . the foes of religion. '"^nng. they seek at the same time something else to set over against it. the right to which is strongly felt. and their great preponderance is the cause why it plays such a poor and insignificant role. for your influence could only later find prepared soil. With great reverence I regard the longing" of young minds for the marvellous and supernatural. Joyfully taking in the motley show of things. inexplicable presentiment urges them past the A Every trace of another is welcome to and they delight themselves in fictions of unearthly them. they embrace with that strong and jealous love devoted to objects. Infinite \y' natural in those immediately outside of the finite. in the present state of the world. it is a delusion to seek the riches of this world. for it is quite a difierent power to which perity But the discreet and practheir endeavours are opposed. beings. sense unnourished. hinders the prosperity of religion ? Not you. All that it is most evident to them cannot be here. you would not disturb Nature in her purpose of producing piety from the depths of the soul_. tliat 125 the infinite may as far as possible vanish from his eyes. there seems still another That is the first stirrings of religion. but cannot be established. for tical from tender childhood they maltreat man. secret.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION.. Who Nor. They search every- where for something surpassing the accustomed phenomena and the light play of life. not the doubters and scoffers. as men of to-day are. do the immoral most hinder the prosof religion. and sensuous ? Is it not the delusion of whole peoples and whole schools of wisdom ? _^ . True. how easily could this natural error be .

thus treated. and let it foundation In many. as business that could never be too if it were an urgent soon accomplished. the word. Let it be supposed that the taste for gro! of the Infinite in its It young imagination in be richly satisfied. right-thinking. may remain hanging. on the ning. the angels are but tesque figures is as natural to the religion as in art.126 THIRD SPEECH. that is considered the very essence of religion. as the empty frame But in which they have been fixed. Without regard to their real want. desiring quite other fare. ! corrected And. there is given them that of which far too soon there will be too much. Now. to rescue the universality of the s^nd an impulse awakes in everyone to allow the -'tiie finite. is immediately united with the careless games of childhood. would more easily find. in due time. have encountered soon enough. the another kind of fairies and sylphs. the natural issue from from the beginmysterious and not to be filled this labyrinth. perhaps. Have no anxiety when the earnest and sacred mythology. may While the images grow pale. In proportion as man must busy himself in a narrow way with a single object. suppressed. Suppose that the Heavenly Father. are impressed upon them. . forcibly is contrary. how greedily would young souls then abandon themselves to the impressions omnipresence were even better if life were left quietly to take its own course. the Saviour. be laid for an insufficient and dead letter. uncorrupted soul that knew how to keep himself free from the titillation of scraping and scheming. Imagination It is just as easy to store the memory with airy images Poor young with real objects and to be preparing for life ! ! marvellous souls. that they would of themselves. that tendency is. would be more left to himself. and a man. in clearer times. Everything is proscribed. are wearied with moral tales and have to learn how beautiful and necessary it is to be The current conceptions of things genteel and discreet.

objects are to be transcribed accurately in thought as something simply given. Sense of its own accord seeks objects for itself. for. without it.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION. except that. life 127 all and to open organs By a secret and most helpful sympathy this impulse is strongest when the general reveals itself most clearly in our own breasts and in the surrounding world. fortable But to yield to this impulse in com- permitted^ for. it advances to meet them and it offers to embrace them. and understand that and nothing more. it is absolutely opposed to any perceptive sense. brings them. inactivity cannot quiet. it would be laziness and idling. and who knows how long thanked. as it is conducted. It is a vain endeavour. But this explaining knows nothing of this living acquisition. is strives to . not to be found. Fruitful in human life this life. and if the spirit can no more Work and play. somewhat has always to be performed. activity and all its kindred to rest. availing nothing in human life. God be for all men ever the same. where things are only to be seen and handled as they have already presented themselves./ will perceive what x/ . It communicates something to them which distinguishes them as its possession. They are. then. the body must be exercised. already they have been docketed in good order with their all Take them. The sense divided impress of something whole it comprehend the ua. men sense. submissive contemplation ! be But most explain. resting on true inward culture. But from first to last. to the influence of all impressions. It will find and be found. But to seek for yourselves and to wish to have living intercourse with things is eccentric and high-flown. only as life qualities defined. In everything there must be design and aim . of the true spirit of discovery in childlike intuition. its work. of their of By are to be taught to analyze and this explaining they are completely cheated all. but no serve. from the middle-class standpoint. of this illuminating truth. an active endeavour is not.

Having first by decomposition robbed of its character as art. Truth and all that in it is. it is believed that the boasted inner harmony of man means that everything bears upon his actions and they never think that. Were this their desire. even as of the state must have arisen from the Whole. • and how it is it will know everything in its But that is not what they mean by character. But all must be used for some excellent purpose. But while. they are itself. You must grant that this is the practice of our people of understanding. they could hardly escape so utterly without religion. must be confined in the limits All actions must bear upon this life. object they would understand is a whole. again. in their despite. But they are sunk in blind idolatry of the existing civil life. and you must confess that a superabundance treatment. but only in special aspects. of the civil life. they eternally circle.128 THIRD SPEECH. the existence of an individual in the state. not as a whole. convinced that it affords material enough for the sense and . They seek to grasp nothing in and for itself. where- fore they dissever and anatomize. peculiar What and how are too remote for them. if it is to be a true and free life. ing it all that is art in it nature and in the works of it Before can operate they annihilate by explainthis it in detail. is a whole in itself. but only pieceTo inquire or thoroughly examine whether the meal. they would teach and impress or that lesson from the fragments. too far. The utmost is done to divert the remaining sense from the Universe. of sense is necessary if anything is to escape this hostile On that accountr alone the number must be small who this are capable of such a contemplation of any religion. understanding. I mean with man. object as might awake in them development is still more checked. would lead them each thing is . with what. around whence and to what end. This is how they deal with what exists chiefly for the highest satisfaction of the sense. and therefore.

barren circle. and with sacred They most sincerely pity regard them as willing sacrifices. just is not to be neglected. activity. without science. they thank the gods. undertake it. lament that there are feelings which cannot be tamed by the external sway of their formulas and precepts.• THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION. only to be endured because it is not quite bad as other tendencies. and that a few are ever to be found who. to be got rid of with all possible speed. is for them an and exhausting so extravagance. they would require no sense for anything except for action. or even to nature itself. as if it were mean and perverted. All displays rich enougli pictures. 129 to Hence they have a right discontented seeking for something else guard against and departure from the natural centre and axis. I reckon also among this class. Pure love to art. and that in this way many men People for immoral. nevertheless. What can be seen and understood from their standpoint is all they allow. whom are rendered socially unhappy or the moral side of civil life is whom. there are things which. are but useless exercises. to some littlo depth must be explored. emotions and endeavours not so directed. Wherefore they dock everything with their shears. The smallest thing that has solation influence in this sphere greatest. and because many find in it con- and compensation in various ills. if all would do what they do. though they may step a little beyond their trade. consider this one of the profoundest evils of human nature. and everything. within . from which. decried. and it is merely a small. and that. is for them a necessary evil. by purposeful the soul must as much as possible be restrained. The good people believe that their own activity is everything and exhausts the task of humanity. Knowledge is with a wise and sober moderation and never withsought out regard to practical life. That. and they will not suffer a single characteristic phenomenon that might awake a religious interest to grow. from unconquerable liking. and the is because it goes further.

witTiout almost say without it letter. indeed. Immediate feelings of definite content may not be produced by this glimpse. in its separate existence. art. it must necessarily ! be contemplated in its characteristic nature and in its fullest In the Universe it can be nothing except completeness That is the sum the totality of its effects and relations. It is as a post at the end of a course. to perceive it. happens at times. to sink in lamentable narrowness and become a serf bound to the spot of earth on which we view for happen to stand. not from some outside point. who grasp and treat all things in their Would that they could but once see that. They think. and that they are the people true connection. every matter must be considered. prospects past which all are led that their sense may find its way to the Whole. which is to say. it is without any- thing whereby the world might disclose itself. I might In short. that they have the true and real world. by ! and substance. out morals. and. its own proper nature. and the opposite is to have one point of all. and yet has many lofty pretensions to the same. and in the opening some philosophical caricais placed as an ill-favoured place is at times covered by some sorry picture. . are wisely religious feelings. but from its own proper centre. but there may be a general susceptibility to all Those prospects therefore. without spirit. the omnipotence of the Universe makes itself manifest in those people of underif.130 THIRD SPEECH. This is to have all points of view for everything. And as standing themselves. In the relations i of man to this world there are certain openings into the Infinite. which is the most direct way to leave the Universe behind.^ without love. ture blocked up. the Infinite is never a goal to which they fly for rest. for anything to be known as an element of the Whole. if some ray penetrating falls upon their eyes and their soul cannot be shielded from some stirring of those emotions.

believe me^ however much they may speak of religion. The measurelessness of sense perception also a hint at least of a still higher infinity. Birth and death are such points. if the images of life and death do approach them. for measuring and reckoning in common life. which the age with rapid strides is being worthless scholastic word-wisdom. from the foundation.^ This new hurried by barbarism is a fit counterpart of the old. and the sooner they can return to their old place the better. without touching. for they do not despiso But they cultured. 1 3 1 simply a point to be rounded. the crazy buttresses of a crumbling time. they always stir a quiet longing and a holy reverence. this worldly wisdom in which they trust. But nothing would please better those persons of understanding than to be able to use the greatest radius of the system of the is / worlds. Despite of their frequency. as men now use the meridian of the earth. and the capacity for religion. I distinguish from you. And. has suffered in the early bud. These men. life. and they train the age K 2 . religion. but move slavishly and reverently in ancient forms or divert themThis is the extreme of selves with little improvements. even as you would not have yourselves made equal with them. tiful fruit of We not being able to keep pace in its development with other things.THE CUL TIVA TION OF RELIGION. Punished they certainly are. at the greatest speed. and they are not to be called destroy religion as much as they can. Before them it is impossible to forget that our own self is completely surrounded by the Infinite. so soon as they / touch us more nearly. it does not lie so near their hearts as to use the occasion to win some few young people for caution and economy in the use of their powers and for the noble art of lengthening life. It is the beauutilitarianism to "/ the paternal eudaimonistic politics which has supplanted rude despotism and permeates all departments of have all been affected. They reach no standpoint from which they might themselves rear.

and you and . leaving them to be the great aim of the researches of the people of be occupied In accordance with this law. vation. They are still the dominating party. and it cannot begin except by radical opposition. it comes that. cated the field and The calculating understanding has here first valeft it open once more for pure obserA religious man must be reflective. intellectual as well as physical. this way of thinking ever holds religion in By their vast influence every movement whereby its life might anywhere reveal itself with full power. not the outer world. Now this object is the The enlightening psychology. has at length exhausted itself by extravagance and lost almost all good inner. the masterpiece of this kind of understanding. and resists resistance to this general tendency. in science. he abandons meanwhile pied all external things. the feeling most readily developed in persons whose nature keeps them far from that which is the central point understanding. name. and enlighten men. all truly religious characters . sense can only triumph by taking possession of an object on which this kind of understanding so hostile to it. his sense must in the contemplation of himself. if tliey had tlieir will. And now it is not merely ancient philosophy — using the present highly historical classification into ancient new and newest but the new also they have annexed. are found in society. for the Infinite is Hence o£ all the opponents of the universal complete life. hangs but loosely. and in philosophy. Being occuwith the profoundest depths. This it will acquire most easily and with superfluity of free power. Eeligion at present can only be advanced by the strongest subjection. from of old. Whole towns and countries are educated on their principles. As everything follows the law of affinity. Those again who have come through this education. Nay.132 THIRD SPEECH. — on every worldly interest and the semblance of philanthropy which dazzles the social inclination.we are but a very few. even to transparency. philosophy is their peculiar place of abode.

and he finds himself to be the plan and key of the / . because. they have only disconnected and fleeting emotions. in capacity mastering the essential. in this state of things. but it is with a flame as unsteady have emotions of religion just as they They philosophy —they are attracted by the have of and all things great and beautiful surface. It does not arise from being sated and overladen by external influences. the character of all the religious appearances of our \ time from those two colours. but merely fortuitous and entirely subjective combinations.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION. religion pre-eminently belongs. They are really only seeking the and universality of charming appearances. often charming. Imaginative natures for fail in penetrative spirit. Accordas it is viewed this may be less or very much more than ing their sense can attain. art. but to appearance they have accommoinfinity dated themselves. Appearances I say. though in various proportions. but. and that all imaginative natures. satisfies them and is the highest they can conceive. wrings admiration from the most judicious. which. and instead of a healthy and powerful life. A light changing play of beautiful. more is scarcely to be expected. by its heroic simplicity and proud scorn of the world. for. in the present condition of the world. they are all composed. have at least some stirrings of piety. some secret power ever drives the man back upon himself. on every occasion. The mind as is easily kindled. But their sense always remains turned towards themselves. and they soon fail in material for cultivating their feeling to an independent piety. This is . they do not know how to attain anything beyond. which are too airy to occupy themselves with solid and rigid worldly affairs. imagination and mysticism. and a deeper and inner connection presents itself in vain. 133 have had a mystical trait. it is ready. not to be considered by the most frivolous man without reverence and devotion. To the very nature of the other class. There is a great and powerful mysticism. again.

for ever against all that is ! living relation to it suffers from the clumsy way in which objects are rather indicated than shown. he shuts his eyes that it is is not himself. in scorn of this evil age. the source of which almost no man knows. Only victims. and they have neither sense nor liofht remainintjf from their self-con- templation sufficient to penetrate this ancient darkness. in an all too Another end awaits those whose sense for the highest turns boldly outwards. and their true inward fellowAlone ship with the world is both confined and sickly. Finally they unwillingly rend asunder utterly the connection of the inner and the outei-. alas it stands with our party at the present day. Not knowing to comprehend the world. for they suffer a violent death. seeking there expansion and renovation for its life. abandoned to unbridled fancies. Thus. ' \* Convinced by a great analogy and a daring faith not necessary to forsake himself. their sense dies. Their higher feeling is thus untrained and needy. the essence and larger sense which remains strange to them among the paltry views to which an outward constraint limits them. happy if yet fearful. They have not learned to open their souls to Nature. from want of attraction. appears. chase the impotent understanding and end in a holy madness. they are compelled to circulate eternally narrow sphere. they are deceived by confused phenomena. they would fain have nothing to do with its work in them. after a sickly life. with their sense. and. of indirect religious weakness. and seek the Universe and its traces where they never were. Their Whole. Yet this contempt no ignorance. this closing of the sense no incapacity. Their disharmony with the age only too clearl}^ you will. They are loud screaming but not understood victims of the general contempt and maltreatment of the heart of man. however. the suicide of the spirit. not how of . but that the has enough in itself to be conscious of all that could spirit be given from without. by a free resolve.134 -' THIRD SPEECH. Wherefore.

casting on them. it. and the conscience of everyone can judge of of religion. for whosoever succumbs. who are which is all in all to them. as well as the purity and clearness of every perception.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION. as often as I reflect J on what must happen and what direction our culture must take. and perhaps never. if religious men of a higher type are again to appear as a natural if rare product of their age. partly the sublime ideas of a few spirits notable among mankind. partly the endeavours of a narrower circle. I abide by the conviction that there are many who breathe and who out the sweetest fragrance of the young life in sacred longing and love to the Eternal and the Changeless. apart by an oppressive fleeting broken up and driverv It reveals itself in small and is though frequent manifestations that rather exalt the variety of the Universe and delight the eye of the observer. . general working. I think that your whole endeavour you may yourselves decide — — whether little is not a consciously."* The strength and compass. one that the downcast eye feels without seeing. but force. the high World-Spirit has not appeared. than produce for itself a great and sublime impression. at least. depend upon the keenness and ^ . / shall serve this purpose. This complaint that there are no permanent. though test. helpful for a Partly your palingenesis of religion. late at least. Bat heroes! have been seen. The amount it of religion in thel -' world is not diminished. while they were ashamed for themselves and blushed at their unworthy limitation. is not to recall my earlier assertions that our age is not less favourable to religion than any other. are overcome by the world that there are none to whom once. openly recognized representatives of religion among us. it 135 be in the final cannot be reckoned among the recipients of the inmost mysteries. entirely permeated by religion And are wanting and must be wanting to this generation. heroes. as they of those piercing glances By this I abide. holy souls.

ment. with which the best among you are coming forward. You are tired of seeing barren. He would not be nearer religion than the most thoughtless and wanton who only had an open and true sense. This has not escaped you. Hence our judicious and practical education of is but little to-day distinguished from the ancient mechanical and that little is neither in spirit nor in working. it is seen that the manifestations of liberty must be expected and inquired for. of those This is : Even in the first stages of developliberty is spreading. a limitation and firm direction of the activity may very well consist. No one can perceive the justice of this . and ifc will be possible for objects. You insist. It has happened to the improvements in education as to all revolutions that have not been begun on the highest principles things have gradually glided back into the old and only a few changes in externals preserve the course^ memory of what was at first considered a marvellously great occurrence. made to the slavery in which the sense of man is held. in all ways. It begins to be as detestable to all truly cultured people as it is to me. A juster idea of the sacredness of childhood and the eternity of inviolable clear. With this regained liberty of sense. the intuitive power will take "possession of whole domain. This is the great demand from contemporaries and posterity. Soon those barriers shall be its broken down . An end must be vigour of the sense. Here then we must begin. and follow something with steadfastness and concentration. article. J Suppose tlie wisest man without opened senses. Only by this way of self-limitation have you become what you are. and you know there is no other way to culture.136 THIRD SPEECH. encyclopaedic versatility. therefore. an end for which you will all labour with united powers. however. every organ will be opened. for the benefit of exercisings of the understanding whereby nothing is exercised. of those enlightenments that make nothing dissectings whereby nothing is resolved. to affect man. that everyone should seek to become something definite.

element. to do and forward something for its own sake. this seasonably changing love and contempt all that is finite and limited are not possible without a forth a dim presentiment of the World and God. all the more surely prepares for the sense the way to the Infinite and opens again the long man who much and can then if Whosoever has seen and known resolve. of all that is is art in nature.J Everyone not equally at home in all those spheres. and would they had had more success. except by separation and limitation. this is This recognition of the strange and annihilation nothing. or what you will . the outer world. of the personal that urge themselves everywhere upon a for thoughtful man.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION. it will least of summit of perfection that. perception would have no objects. for this very limitation of effort. | / not to contradict himself. if only the sense itself is not limited. for help. And when he has succeeded to the utmost in the all all object of his choice. the sense turning. must recognize. '^' ways in which they have been found. of what is complete in itself. interrupted intercourse. Religion would thereby receive excellent universality of sense. and in the works of man. therefore. . but from each there is a way to pious exaltations of the soul which take characteristic form simply according to the variety of the — is indefinite and . and they must call more definite longing for the One in the All. within and without. I rejoice. / second. matter. without escape him at the the rest. in so far as incomplete call it mass. which is the sphere of the individual. that other things have been made and have a right to existence for their own he is sakes. in constant change. with his whole might. lEvery man knows from his own consciousness three spheres of the sense in which its different manifestations First there is ^L are divided. at these efforts. counsel better than the \yj has ripened to a certain he must know that. the interior of the it Ego itself. and only finding peace in perceiving the absolute unity of both sides. the third seems to unite both.

however. everything everywhere. Soon everything individual and distinct will have been lost and the Universe be found. It is an individual thing complete in itself and rounded off. There is satisfaction in each enjoyIts ment. Traverse again and again your way from centre to circumYou will rediscover ference. and the more gloriously the terror of aunihilating the fleeting feeling of the eternal. peacefully sunk in it. but must this sphere for ever remain apart. proceed with the sense ever more The more you pass closely directed to the purely inward. from the immediate object is by no means the Universe itself. is rewarded by the . going ever farther afield. and the mind. making your personality appear diminished almost to the vanishing point. But judge for yourselves. . and seek it in particular objects. If it is true that there are sudden conversions whereby in men. One of my thoughts on the matter. thinking of nothing less than of lifting themselves above the finite. for But you to me the inquiry is too difficult and too strange. Is there no- where any way. What way now sense for art ? leads from the third sphere. all J Study yourselves with unswerving attention. put aside that is not self.138 THIRD SPEECH. have used your sense and love for art to good purpose. in yourself and everywhere. I would hafve not to be wish and presentiment merely but insight and prophecy. and artists be condemned to be irreligious ? Or is there perhaps some other relation between art and religion ? I could wish to leave the question for your own solution. is not driven to such a progress as would make the single thing gradually disappear and be replaced by the Universe. and you will only be able to recognize it in relation to its opposite. Look outside again on one of the widely distributed elements of the world. Seek to understand it in itself. the clearer the Universe stands before you. by all foreign elements. and I would willingly leave you to yourselves on your native soil.

the most ancient Mysticism. more gladsome form. the most abeastern stracted self-contemplation. without any plish this miracle. it is all the clearer that the sense for art has never approached those two kinds of religion without covering them with new beauty and holiness and sweetly mitigating their original narrowness. knowledge rather as we perceive beautifully that mystical self-contemplation mounts to the highest pinnacle of divineness and humanness. gradual approximation beforehand. in a 139 moment. has manifestly proceeded. which you would acreligious than as scientific. I believe that more than anything else the sight of a great and sublime work of art can accomAnd I would believe that. you may perhaps be of your own sun and turned to By the first way of finding the Universe. changed the natural religion into fairer. In all the mythical representations of the divine Plato and his followers. polytheistic Egypt was long the most perfect nurse of this type of thought. sustained by indwelling power and especially by . linked the infinitely great to the infinitely little and found everything bordering on nothing. again. the contemplation of the masses and their counterparts. inward illumination.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION.* And if there is nothing to tell of a religion originating in art that has ruled peoples and times. every religion. the sense for the highest comes forth and surprises them by its splendour. the pattern of which is the heavens or elemental nature. Simply how by the ordinary life in the sphere of art and by a living endeavour. the artists of the Greeks. met by such a beam religion. with marvellous boldness that resembled the more recent Idealism among us. as by an immediate. and above all. In it we can at least guess that the From The purest intuition of the original and real may have walked in meek tolerance close beside the darkest superstitions and the most senseless mythology. Thus the ancient sages and poets.

being mutually attracted. to aid the other. worse than of old. are troubled by the loss of simplicity and present. and all is different and worse. but without the love that truly unites. at the beautiful self-forgetfulness with which in holy zeal. they the ruinous influence of a conceited and false insight. appears in various ways. How neither may have been At are they to be purified ? Whence are they to have power . in its own state. even though of two sources rich enough to produce the highest. opposite and unites both. The perception and feeling of the Infinite streamed forth magnificently upon an age when scientific subtilties. with load. or from pure love •and joy is there to be as you desire a new day for art alone ? However it comes. but is. therefore. for. but they are pourings and always held back. Friendly words and outof the heart are ever on their lips. Eeligion and art stand together like kindred beings. without true principles. whose inner affinity. he speaks against art. They await a fuller revelation under the same heartfelt liking and. whichever is first set free will certainly hasten. had nof yet corrupted by their commonness the purity of the sense.I40 THIRD SPEECH. as the work of art was but a free-will service rendered to the imperfect natural religions. where there was no corruption and no misunderstanding produced by corruption. Will this common burden bring about the happy moment of their union. with at least a sister's faithfulness. poetic art^ he penetrates from one form of religion to tlie One can only marvel. as they cannot find again the right manner and the last reason of their thinking and longing. suffering and sighing see each other enduring.^ Like the opposite poles of two magnets. But religion of both types not only is without the aid of art. they are violently agitated but cannot overcome their gravity so as to touch and unite. present art serves no religion. they and deep feeling perhaps. though mutually unrecognized At unsuspected. a just king that does nt^t spare even his too soft-hearted mother.

will hand him at the entrance the heavenly lyre and the magic glass. far from jealousy and despotic pride. in its chaste and heavenly beauty. and fulness products sole ? 141 for enricliing the soil with more than ephemeral To unite their waters in one channel. have opeued the sanctuary of true science. and no suffers him to dissipate himself fruitlessly in the longer . another inner world. teaching him to know himself. is the means are of for bringing religion to completion by the way we now bosom That would be an event. and the sons of religion among them. Then all who draw nigh. soon go to meet better times. exalting man to the consciousness of his reciprocity with the world. post and your work till knowledge. pine in poverty and need. in a new and glorious form. the goal of your highest endeavours is just the resurrection of religion. as Ethics. and I celebrate you as. but as a livings operative member of the Whole. and. in man who looks around him to the centre of nature. He can in this reflection without losing himself or seek himself going outside of himself. from the going. will no longer endure to who steadfastly turns his eye to his own spirit see the man in search of the Universe. the rescuers and cherishers of religion. however unintentionally. whether you wish it or not. Natural science sets the discover the Universe. his spirit is spirit. By your endeavours this event must be brought to pass. Everything is the reflection of his own the copy of all things. that he may see in countless forms the earnest quiet image of the spirit ever the same and may accompany it with divine music.THE CULTIVATION OF RELIGION. will be compensated for not abandon your you have unlocked the recesses of Do what half knowledge and arrogance have made them lose. Philosophy. in priestlike humility. See then. for in himself everything lies. religion would which. He can never exhaust himself in contemplation of himself. The anxious wall The outer world is only of separation is broken down. not as a separate individual.

also. It is a witness of the gods and of the imperishableness of the approval of your desert. He can now pursue the play of nature's powers into their most secret recesses. then. who. He is working with bold and eflfective art. with rich gratitude to reward religion its first nurse. from the 'inaccessible storehouses of energized matter to the artistic workshops of the organic life. He is nature's centre aud circumference. Expound the Artist then with force and spirit . all Under after initiation into those mysteries. and the Deity directly fashions it. eternally multiplied by a thousand Let the history of the worlds be ready brilliant mirrors. See how. Let the past. the heavenly growth flourishes in the midst of your plantings. Neither disturb it nor pluck it up it is an . without your aid. one goddess. For this work the sense must soon awake in many. and finds himself everywhere in eternal strife and in closest union. Already I see some distinguished forms return from the sanctuary his view. And be the temple servants when the new forms are set up in the temple of time. explain the earlier works from the later you will and the later from the earlier. will come forth in priestly robes. Delusion clear is is gone and reality won. and the future surround us with an endless gallery of the sublimest works of art. having purified and adorned themselves.142 THIRD SPEECH. still linger with her helpful presence ? For this. study of small details. . by awaking true and holy worshippers for eternal might and wisdom. The present. a talisman that protects. ornament that adorns. He measures its might from the bounds of world-filled space to the centre of his own Ego. for at Can amends. time will make us great and rich greatest work of art has for its material humanity itself. the present. Sure is his glance and disguises he detects it and nowhere rests except in the Infinite and the One.

He could not on such a footing of equality as to call them disciples friends. but I have chosen you. we can say. recognized Him as the profoundest and mightiest. as unquestionably it has begun to be among us since this was written. such as reform of the church. if would be wrong to interpret Christ's words as they had only special reference to certain persons. that they chose Him anew Also as their Master. that the kingdom of God was founded. this may very well be said. in them there was only Originally." Yet the contradiction is only apparent. Of subordinate movements in religion. therefore. the capacity for having it awakened. as their representative. —This expression appears to contradict the words of '' spoke to His disciples. This would be a particular sense which I would not defend. What is here said. for on another Christ which He occasion He others had been. Ye have not chosen me. It was not by an original divine impulse common to Him and to them. to His disciples suggested it. whereby with Him was a free act. the emotion was in Him alone .EXPLANATIONS OF THE THIRD SPEECH. either from profession Christianity. Had not Christ set out from the view that every living utterance. but it was not thus that Peter. . indeed. can only awake its response in another in a universal way and that complete attachment to the individuality of another His brethren and have set (2) is always a free act. it seems to me specially necessary that all who. asked of His disciples whether they also were deceived as He acknowledged that their coatinuance Now this is all that is here asserted. What is here said follows naturally from the passage just explained. with a quicker sense it and a riper judgment. his relation entirely agrees with the representation of Christ . Page 124. however individual. In their declaration of steadfastness. (1 ) Page 123. in the Proselytes from Heathenism. The best example is found in the oldest Christian who forsook the Jews who history. first — woke in them the sense of the one Highest Being and went over to In every time when the religious life is stirred.

for he thereby approves himself an instrument of the Divine Spirit. should stand completely alone. Some reader of another stamp may look askance. Nay. specially struggled against at the present day are thus favoured. however. thinking As they admit a moral. that they may not wonder why so many who have received their first impulse from them. The impatient uncharitable- — . as nothing through nothing for nothing. but in his power. should only find their complete or from inward call. in the largest sense the ages are distinguished by the letter. as the fulfilment of the hope here uttered. in so far Page — as everyone can still think what he will. That I do not regard it in this way. and indeed no small worth. to the letter. rejects it ? is it too late. exercise a rest in very different views and sentiments. By it the chaotic indeterminate crowd is changed into the determinate multitude. in so far as it is not separate from the spirit and dead. that everything following the principle of absolute utility. the existence of a and in the individual there are elements too fleeting to be it. Only by tltis lasftrait is the picture of the way of here described made complete. for I make it equal with the other qualities here named. No one will suppose that I regard the manifestations of an awakened religious life so frequent. that giddiness has already ? begun which it can no more exorcise (4) Page 135. so no practical rules are valid except with the proviso of standing exceptions. and misunderstandings. without which we could only vibrate giddily between the individual and the great classes. say. for a piety revived by greater openness of sense would be of a different type from what we see among us. appears clearly enough from what follows. embraced in individual ? for what letter could express the nature of a single But the letter is the indispensable selecting discretion. should rise to this freer view. but in part produces obstinacy and in part it favours reaction. for these men flee also theletter. and it is the master-piece of the highest wisdom to estimate rightly when human things require a new Does it appear too early the love for what it is to supplant letter. (3) let none believe that the fashioning of it continues 130. for ? people in the great unities is too closely shut to be entered by the what letter could comprehend. especially in Germany at the present time.144 THIRD SPEECH. Let everyone rejoice at waking life. on an expression that ascribes a worth. The immediate life letter. I would warn him that such a conscious dej)reciation of what has been set too high does not serve truth. Therefore. political or religious confession only. we would at all times ascribe a high degree of worth to the letter in all earnest things. marked religious influence.

master this form. Rather they are signs of a deep-rooted. Even which in the is Speech itself. it is hinted that that historical sense the completest union of both directions leads most perfectly to piety. morbid state which must be treated with love and also with great firmness. and of the higher from their worldliness. By this cultivation individuals are not introduced into a definite form of is rendered capable of discerning the form that him and of determining himself accordingly. the indifference of most of them the aristocratic narrow-mindedness all science to all great historical events . or absolutely dependent on the Whole. iu accordance life . I naturally make most prominent those forms in which one or other is most conspicuous. as teleological or cesthetical. is not content to witlidraw from what it but uses every social relation for defamation to the danger of all free spiritual sions. Yet even here it is not meant that subjective reflection has not to religion. Being more concerned to show the chief aspects of sense. if there is not to be more loss to society in general than gain to individuals. for the most abstracted self-contemplation. Hence it would be vain to expect that Christianity be here assigned its place as in " " the Glaubeuslehre it is placed under the ethical or teleological. or the most objective contemplation of the world may be either active or passive. of others the general dislike of are not signs of an open sense. We will not deny that many of the lower class can only be awaked from their stupidity. but everyone best suits do with the objectively observing Ego. I am treating of cultivation of religion by opening of the sense. It therefore naturally follows that Christianity presents a piety nourished as much by conL . — In the it. • 145 ness of our new Pietists that dislikes. by this acerb kind of piety. their painful listening for special expres- with which they make one man white and . yet we would wish and earnestly labour that this stage should be for most but a transition to a worthier freedom of the spiritual life. AVith this division the forms of religion here mentioned would not seem to agree. This should the more easily be accomplished as it is patent enough how easily men who are concerned with something quite different from true piety. requires no proof. " Glaubenslehre " religion is divided as pre- dominantly active or passive.EXPLANATIONS. That this sense lies quite specially at the foundation of Christianity. in which everything comes back to the relation of man to the Kingdom of God. But I am not seeking to distinguish here the chief forms of religion. another black . as concerned with the problem of duty. and how visibly the spirit decays that is long shut up in (5) Page 139. or objective observation with a world that awakes and sustains the spiritual life.

hostility to art involves barrenness Religious art mostly upholds the severer style. and that on the other. on the — one hand. This affinity will hardly be denied now by anyone. Already this has been more fore often repeated in the history of the arts. templation of the world. Of course these are subordinate distinctions of receptivity and are naturally quite subjective and incapable of determining the different forms of Christianity. as by self-contemplation.146 THIRD SPEECH. and a freer and In all arts there is a severer* quickly follows. The it renounces its connection with the severer style. in all religions. and is best nonrished when both are most joined. When religious objects are handled in the light style. (6) Page 140. Nothing but attention to the subject is required to find that. Christianity not excepted. more sustained and coldness. and therewith religion. the decay of religion is decided and the decay of art style easier. being repeated at the present day. all great works are religious representations. in all arts. the more certainly and irresistibly it degenerates into over refinement and the art of flattery. and in individuals it is . as art so long as The it lighter style only maintains its true character finds its mass and harmony in the severer.

the healthy spiritual life and working of whole generations and peoples would be irrecoverably ruined. and priests. Hence your opposition to the church. so long as it only infects On the other hand.FOUETH SPEECH. the common danger is increased and everything put in jeopardy by too close association there. after undergoing such a feverish delirium. spiritual atmosphere may allay the paroxysms and weaken. more individuals here and is at least So long as they are isolated. the virus. Even a few would then poison the whole atmosphere the soundest bodies would be infected. to every institution meant for the communication of religion is always more violent than your opposition to religion itself. the evil not to be quite subdued^ endurable. but in the other case the among the patients. and. as the supports and specially active members of such institutions are for you the most hated among men. Those of you wlio as a are accustomed to regard religion simply usually cherish the idea that it if malady of the is soal. . OR CHURCH AND PRIESTHOOD. only remedy to be relied on is the curative influence of would be accompanied by the most nature. ASSOCIATION IN RELIGION. be decomposed. dangerous symptoms and be far more deadly being nursed and heightened by the proximity of the infected. if they do not destroy. judicious due precautions against infection and a healthy treatment. L 2 . all the canals in which the processes of life are carried on would be destroyed all juices would The evil .

the inseparable consequences of every such institution. it is morbid and in the highest degree unnatural to wish to reserve it to himself. about produced and wrought out something in his own mind. spiritless mechanism and vain usages are. it And this is true even if we regard only as the endeavour to find the feeling in and so to be sure that nothing has been encountered others.148 FOURTH SREECH. In a thousand it utterances of the most esteemed among you is clear as not pause to refute those charges in day. it must be social. reconstructing it from the centre outwards. I do not need to recount. . for that is the (^If nature of man. and it is quite peculiarly the nature of You must confess that when an individual has religion. have an equally unfavourable idea of organizations for fellowship. there is religion at all. He should express it in the indis- pensable fellowship and mutual dependence of action. Rather let us I will And subject the whole idea of the church to a new consideration. or which at least every other person could have done equally well. The more violently he is moved and the more deeply he is impressed. detail and derive them from other causes. you consider. that is not human. And there is also a spiritual nature which he has in common with the rest of his species which demands that he express and communicate all that is in him. How many of the perverse efforts and the sad destinies of mankind you ascribe to religion. of religion^ regarding you wlio have a somewhat milder view of it rather as an absurdity than as an absolute distraction. It is the skilful work of persons all thing characteristic and who with incredible success make great gain from things that are nothing. But those Slavish surrender of everyfree. I would very unwillingly expose my heart to you on such a weighty matter. unconcerned how much is fact and experience. Were it not that I strive to bring you in this matter to the right standpoint. the stronger that social impulse works.

rather his first endeavour to direct others to the know himself from himself alone view it become is same subject and if possible transmit the impulse. or a pious feeling stir his soul.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. element of life. It is only the endeavour to become conscious of and to exhibit the true relation of our \ own life to the common nature of man. know and those who have obtained enjoy from the representations of This urges him to give his it. Still more easily he resolves to reserve his judgments. . He is urged on to learn whether it may not be an alien and unworthy power that has produced them. religion full expression. The same nature that makes it necessary for the pious person to speak. and. about the origin of which he can have no doubts. provides him also with an audience. Those are the things which mankind from childhood are chiefly engaged in communicating. so far is He conscious as he is able. No | as religion. grasps but a small part of it. has implanted along it so vivid a feeling of man's utter incapacity ever with No sooner has he any to exhaust it for himself alone. His ideas. he would rather leave in quiet. comprehensive and general influences of the world when they appear to him the greatest and most irresistible ? How should he wish to reserve what most strongly drives him out of himself and makes him conscious that he cannot ? If a religious clear to him. so much sense for it than he feels that he its infinity and his own limits. seeking his own perfection. But indisputably the proper subjects for this impulse to communicate are the conscious states and feelings in which originally man feels himself passive. at least. But of all that enters byiJtlie senses and stirs the feelings he will liave witn esses and How could he keep to himself tlie most participators. to listen to every note that he can recognize as religious. and what he cannot himself reach he will. 149 You see tliat this is not a case of endeavouring to make others like ourselves^ nor of believing that what is in one man is indispensable for all.

In the written com- munication of piety. In our defence I would say. is swallowed up. Many who have a regard for religion have upbraided our times.^ Religion. religion must hide its varied life in the dead letter. therefore. withdraws itself from too wide circles to the more familiar conversation of friendship or the dialogue of love. and where a solemn silence also is understood. the original medium requiring to be again ex- and still its effect on men in general in their great unity can only be badly copied by multiplied reflection. pious feelings. By way of the light and rapid exchange of retorts . are not to be tossed from one to another intercourse. On sacred subjects it materials of a light converwould. and speecli and hearing are to all alike indispensable. Thus mutual communication organizes the greater part of the rays of light. everything needs to be twice or thrice repeated. But the communication of religion is not like the communication of ideas and perceptions to be sought in books. in such small morsels as the sation.1 50 FO URTH SPEECH. but a very correct instinct. be rather sacrilegious than fitting to be ready with an answer to every question and a response to every address. this is /neither contempt nor indifference. and even earnestness must pliantly associate with joke and witticism. Nor can this intercourse with the heart of man be carried on in common conversation. there can be no room for what must ever be attended by holy reserve and awe. itself. where glance and action are clearer t han word s. too much of the pure impression of the Like dark stuffs that absorb original production is lost. so everything of the pious emotion that the inadequate signs do not embrace and give out again. because our manners are such that in conversation in society and in friendly hibited. Religious views. Only when it is chased from the society of the living. and earnest reflections. Where mirth and laughing dwell. we talk of all weighty subjects except of God and divine things.^ In this medium.

utters divine things and feeling. which language has to deal.* He comes forward to present to the sympathetic contemplation of others his own heart as stirred by God. the feeling of heart-felt unanimity and completest equality. religion can only be exif it would be impious and frivolous would not consecrate everything to it. Without poetic skill. It is not as if there were any ornament that religion could not do without. only opens where speech so richly equipped might have manifold working. wibh. or links with prothe present. the superlife in this city of God. 1 51 common in society divine things cannot be treated. and. if possible. It is the free impulse of his spirit. be presented in all power and dignity. is full before an assembly is willingly accepted. not collect all pressed and communicated rhetorically. of all earthly order. or by phetic assurance the future to new examples confirms old truths. they of its heralds. of religion. by leading them into the region of religion where he is at home. it is fitting that the fulness and splendour of human speech be expended. but if they would they possess that is glorious. when the citizens assemble. in solemn silence the congregation follow his inspired his If own He he unveils a hidden wonder. seeking liberty of utterance and full same time of holy desire to apprehend and approWhen one stands out before the priate what others offer. Would abundant each at the that I could depict to you the rich. others he is neither justified by office nor by compact nor is it pride or ignorance that inspires him with assurance. in all power and skill of speech. he would infect them with speech. the common abolition of all first and last.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. but there must be a higher style and another kind of society On the highest subject entirely consecrated to religion. full of native force . therefore. that religion may. Hence a person whose heart his mouth. or if his fiery imagination enchants him in visions into another part of the world .^ and in its swiftness and inconstancy the service of every art that could aid.

the most perfect production of. giving most and comprehensible expression to the heart. has from of old laid on the altars of religion the most gorgeous and perfect works of her most devoted scholars. On returning from his wanderings through the Kingdom of God into himself. into another order of things. in all that I have said of the congregation of . knows himself. but which nevertheless will not ripen to manly beauty. but. announce itself. there may be a music is the saints that speech without words. rightly considered. far more transient than But where. appears far more forced than Compared with that other union. Of such a nature is the influence of religious men upon each other. Thus their natural and eternal union is produced. as such a speech is song or melody. but. own noble tone answers the voice that And among definite this is music without not a mere simile. though acknowledged by few. are natural indications of a certain kind of consciousness and certain feelings. if Do not blame them they value it more highly than the civil union which you place so far above all else. be attained till man. then there are sacred and solemnized that are not mere insignificant emblems. It is like a loftier choir that in its calls. The melodies of thought and feeling interchange and give mutual support. not to in the highest sense. the trained sense of the and congregation accompanies him throughout. The muse of harmony.152 FOURTH SPEECH. his heart and the hearts of all are but the common Let this harmony of view seat of the same feeling. the intimate relation of which to religion has been long known. mysteries discovered however softly. eternal. there are breathed out things that definite speech cannot grasp. It is a heavenly bond. the spiritual nature of man. In sacred hymns and choruses to which the words of the poet are but loosely and airily appended. it free. till all is satiated and full of the sacred and the infinite.

but only of office and function. That tyrannical aristocracy which you describe as so hateful does not exist. hav^ been deluded . Doubtless persons who most resemble will most strongly attract each other. is that distinction between priests and laity to which you are accustomed to point as the source of so many evils ? You. in so far as he draws others to himself in the field he has made his own and can show himself master in every man . there must be opposition and In contradiction. be the home of the envy that you consider the nj^ural con se quences of all religious I see nothing but unity and. it seek each other and all that is separated in opposites contemplation is mingled. even between the remotest elements. that by characteristic power has its own Unless you forcibly isolate it by some mechanical means.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION.^ but it will show at the extremities transition to the qualities . in so far as he follows the skill and direction of another in the relisrious matters with which he is less isf familiar. . a priest.to two different types of mind and two different directions which specially the soul seeks its highest object. for there are all degrees of affinity. and unconstrained fellowship in religion be hindered ? In contemplation. Do you mean that from them sects must of necessity arise. in Take any body organic structure. but reflect that life is quite different. a layman. but they cannot on that account make up a whole by themselves. EYei:y man i_s. where each in turn is leader folio iving in others the and people. but this society is a priestly nation/ a complete republic. it will not be homogeneous and distinct. and with so many transitions there can be no absolute repulsion. this is no distinction of persons. no entire separation. 153 the pious. same power that he and strife feels in himself and uses How then can this for governing others. just by means of associations ? the social union of the pious. where there is severance because we comprehend only in sections. the gentle mingling of all the I have called your attention differences found in religion.

you can surely see that. in so far as it proceeds to rigid separation. is a proof of imperfection. as is natural. are connecting links between two otherwise divided Thus a person better fitted to put himself in spheres. neighbour V it. in seeing it. or those who only see it in its elements or as dim chaos should all be A band encloses them all and they cannot be quite uijrted. its ripest fruit. have risen to a systematic view of the Universe. There is thus a point of union. The highest and most cultured always see a universal union. even better than they understand themselves. if persons in whom may yet be hidden from them. will be understood by a person belonging to a more advanced society. yet there are always some among them who have a guess of something higher. And if divide the great domain of religion otherwise. in the essentials of the Deity in history. closer union. draw together. who. of religion. and. and it must ever be . Pious persons at the lower stage have a of another body. iMystics is the Deity and physicists in religion those to whom personal and those to whom He is not those who . losing association is a mobile. as religion advances and piety is purified. religious communion with nature is not. though it Again. ^ Each separate separated. whole. there will be some among them who at least understand the two types and. •^ the whole religious world must appear as an indivisible whole. belonging in a certain sense to both. the one type of mind is dominant. you will you still return to the same If unconstrained univerpoint. opposed to a person who rather finds the traces and there will never be a dearth of who walk with equal ease on both ways. of the sense is the first and original condition of sality those religion. and also. of the whole. integrate part itself in vague outlines in the whole.154 FOURTH SPEECH. except forcibly and arbitrarily. The impulse to abstract. . Every man is only in contact with his but on every side and in every direction he has neighbours and is thus inseparably bound up with the establish .

This undertaking would have no measure and no how would the society ever think of going beyond principle of religious seeing the need which gave it birth. The society of the pious. something common to all the person might receive ? general and indefinite form can actually be communicated. the association. Is there something general. Whence then. indefinite. members that a non-religious But you know that nothing in a Besides. It must be individual and thoroughly definite. If a man. is the wild mania for converting to single definite forms of religion that you " denounce. or it is nothing. and any particular communication must proceed from an individual and not the society. the whole being satis- fied with itself. has no such bearing ? Individuals join and become a whole . if not from pure misunderstanding.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. never more . the better class of ISS members who feel this truth. itself. and has no further endeavour. and the awful watchword. for this element also it should embrace and therefore someone must possess it? And how would they cultivate persons to whom religion generally is still strange ? Their heritage. abides in itself. it matters not what. not even when highest and most cultivated. rule. would it not be a mad proceeding for the society to rend from him that which suits his nature. the infinite Whole they cannot communicate to them. for it is in no one instance a unity. is Religious efi'ort of this kind. No salvation save with . therefore. is occupied purely with mutual comniunication. as I have exhibited it and as from its nature it musfj be. As each one sees it in others it is infinite. and subsists only among persons already having religion of some kind. and no single person can fully grasp it. How can it be their business to change the minds of those who already profess to have a definite religion. therefore. or to introduce and initiate persons who have none at all ? The religion of this society as such is simply the collective religion of all the pious. has any share in religion.

I have shown what the church quite to be. I have. from intercourse with gods and muses. the endeavour to carry his Fatherland with him. And if there heavenly melody. almost as strongly as you. he has been transported among a spirit — — race of rude religion As of barbarians. I assure I have not spoken of what should be. rather in so far as a man is outside the church than as he is within. )w hen.^ He feels himself a steward unbelievers. what iSj^^nless. blessed and complete in itself. more beauteous life.156 FOURTH SPEECH. presents himself He be any response. indeed. and how triumphantly he conducts the novice to the exalted assembly This activity for the ! extension of religion longing of the stranger for his home. and find again everywhere its laws and customs which are his higher. and I might so say. by not ascribing to the id eal churc h ought any of the qualities which distinguish the real.*'into the lower regions of life. even under an alien and inclement sky. The is only the pious Fatherland itself. he must wi^draw fMn the circle of religious association where the common existence and life in God affords the noblest en]oyment. 'Now. however. you will possibly say that I seem to be at one with you. impelled by sacred feelings. an Orpheus or Amphion he hopes to win many by among among them as a and vividly his higher priestly figure. he can still bring all that there occupies him into relationi*^with what to his must ever remain the highest/ (On descending among persons limited to one earthly aim and effort. if than a private business of individuals. but of you. how willingly he nurses those first presentiments of religion in a new soul. / After all this. you deny the existence of what is only hindered by the limits of space from appearing to the . condemned its present form. knows no such endeavour. a missionary among savages. believing it to be a beautiful pledge of its growth. expressing clearly sense in all his doings and in his whole nature. he is apt to believe and let it be forgiven him that. is.

commonly so-called. separate communities. what the age and the X who have reached consciou'sness with their piety. how its to true ^^ to say. at about it. not of the church that fights against state of man place in its way. So close together. as many as there have ever been. not particularly high. This at least is certain. which. or rather a living feeling of such a union. and 157 still is. and it ^ y \ww ^ ^ ! . in fact. you need not seek their union where many hundreds. that all truly religious men. are assembled in great temples. in almost every it should be the counterpart of the true church. men of this kind do not stand. alwaj^s been and if you cannot see it. whose I have e xhib ited a society of men training is compl'ete.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. I must. whose song strikes the ear from afar. Possibly anything of the sort collected in one place is only to be found in single. \rhe great association to which your strictures properly apply. It is only^n association of persons who are but seeking value. coarser vision. and wind my way through a labyrinth of marvellous It is not done without repugnance.j seems to me natural that. excluded from the great church. and in the religuDus view of life is dominant^ As I trust I have convinced you that they must be men of some culture whom and mCich power^ and that there can never be but very few of them. To make this as clear to you as it is to myself. but it is confusions. is very far from being a society of religious men.* respect. at the same time. and own. you well know. but of the church that has vanquished all opposition. The true churcli lias. have not only had a belief. the blame is your in a tolerably palpable misunderstanding. necessary. thus. is -. they have all known estimate the church. but have actually lived in and. alas condescend upon a mass of earthly and worldly things. but of the V lies Remember — — church triumphant. if you are to agree with me. only to use an old but weighty expression that I have not spoken of the church militant. Perhaps if I draw attention to the different forms of religious a ssociatio n your religion.

however.158 FOURTH SPEECH. I most willingly would say that they are negatively in great crowds to the few points where they suspect the positive principle of religion. they may aid in receiving. I hope. The principle that urges us to in the visible of my give utterance to our action own experience. from the necessity of its nature. you will. they simply far as they on their organs. They exercise no reaction because they are matters of religion. they again fail in capacity The emotion which could but play around the to retain. and press —I Then they go about in a surface very soon disappears. and thus Here. and zeal. for if they had any religion of their own. on the contrary. which. quite different. this is the history of their religious life and the character of the social inclination that runs religion. even to those through it. till certain feeling of emptiness. in — from capable of none. In the course of their and on the larger scene of which I . Not who show both domestic and spirit civil life. are all that can be ascribed even to the best of them. Having been charged. All wish to receive. Were I to use a figure from science borrow expressions rejigious. but a little sense for it. it would. and there is only one who ought to give. longing awakes once more. is closely connected with what draws us to that which is is and reaction are indivisibly united. So have power over themselves. In few words.^ in the principles of association ? They cannot be spoken of as wishing to complete their religion through others. lamentably fruitless endeavour to reach it. suffer the impressions In entire passivity. and they can only be incapable because they have no religion. agree that in the true religious society all communication is mutual. and they gradually become again negatively electrified. it strange. and a painful. and in the true church. you will be convinced opinion in essentials. but of reaction on others they do not so much. show itself in some way operative on others. After what has been said. as Does that not show clearly enough the difference think.

a weak impression on a soft mass. The dim something in the it will soon be entirely overlaid From mind. extraneous manifestation. one wouFd think. and is left stranded in the most unfrequented region of the memory. Being without know- ledge or guess of true religion. They would behold in the mirror of another person's representation that which in direct peri. But those emotions remain only a dim presentiment. Then. but if a fleeting. that It is all human things. In this way they seek to reach some higher. tliej are spectators. where and what they were. where by worldly things. and in the vain hope of at length attaining. tliere is mucli to stir persons 159 with evetl a small share of religious sense. though it may be in a higher degree.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. yet at the end they misunderstand this whole endeavour. from old habit. Feeling this. Soon everything is swept away by the waves of the active life. to those relations will. frequent repetition. th£y_iiQ. But it is not a single thing which they might abstract from all else. they remain subject to this delusion. and once more the sublime and infinite in their eyes. always recurring. be broken up into single. would be to take time to observe leisurely and attentively the cause. miserable details. however.^° I . The best means. but_ seek__outside_heIp. their sense will spontaneously turn works on them. that the leading of their nature has been satisfied. If the utterances of a truly religious man awake those memories.' ception would soon dissolve. the outlines of which at once become vague.-^ot—tiuiatJih^m selve s. must finally be made clear. Yet they have now as formerly. all they have received the combined and go away deeply moved. impression of them. they and yet remain repeat a thousand times the same endeavour. of this little shock. a necessity at length arises. and that they have in them the power and essence of all those feelings. more defined consciousness. and among them the different relations of their life in other departments. they believe that their need is stilled.

Hardly anything could be man is in this association merely because but seeking to be religious. If they advanced. signs of the return from the most personal impressiveness to the common centre. and the most pious sever (V themselves coldly and proudly. becomes of less consequence to men the more they increase in religion. most But that is what they characteristic views and feelings. they any understanding of they would know from their own feeling thtit those matters of creeds. but the current expound them chiefly ideas.i6o FOURTH SPEECH. the chief matter for them would be that the person whom they have to think of a one-sided made the organ of religion communicate his clearest. it exists among us. about them. where piety could show itself to others both living and life-giving. and soon they would wish to live altogether in it and devote to it Thus in point of fact the church. there could passivity not possibly be in their combined action the utter perversity and ignorance you find in the visible church. they would soon not wish any more to be among those whose one-sidedness and passivity would no longer accord with their own state. can by their nature be nothing but signs reflections religion. in short. Had X that the previously attained results agree. though. If the members of the church had any understanding of religion. as their exclusive love. essential to true religious union. as I said. the full -voiced refrain after everything has been uttered with purely individual skill. dogmas. not the characteristic elements of religion. for suppose it were possible communication and a state of willinof and abnegation in truly religious men. They desire that he opinions. would not have. and a spontaneous and living religion were implanted in them. and they rather set limits on all sides to the utterances to of individuality. and continues in it_only so long as he has not yet attained^ clearer than that is he But this proceeds from the way in which the members of the church deal with religion. But of this they . They would at least seek beside them another sphere.

Those matters for them exist and dominate special times. to the results of reflection about religion.^^ is. that I agree with the growing wish that this institution should be utterly deThough the true church is always to stand open stroyed.A SSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. This they attempt by every means. and the entirely different aspect. be. in my view. know selves 1 61 nothing. and them in greedily. But indeed the whole pattern of this institution must be and its relation to the true church must take an On this matter I may not be Those wishes and views of mine are too closely connected with the nature of religious association. guard myself. as of something common and mean. to those who already have ripened to a piety of their only own. Thus they employ creeds which are naturally last in religious communication. to take its leaders and priests always from the true church. any assumption you may cherish. there must be some bond of union with those who As that is what this institution should are still seeking. tiom the nature of the case. and I could not conceal I different. it ought. and that the ideas may change again to the living emotions and feelings from which they were originally deduced. is the only true church. but has a school-mastering. that the process that gave them birth may be reversed.^' Or is religion to be the single human concern in which there are to be no institutions for scholars and beginners ? nature of the case. silent. which indicates that they merely seek to import religion from without. I have spoken of this larger and widely extended association very disparagingly. drink To that end they are so attached to dead notions. In comparison with the more glorious association which. M . This follows from the ^ mv mind on the most solemnl}^ against subject. to stimulate what should properly precede them. however. mechanical nature. for them- The conclusion that their united action has nothing of the character of the higher and freer inspiration that is proper to religion.

I even grant that in the old Polytheism. You must admit that religion. methods for attaining religion. conduces too much to its glorification for me to reserve my notions. but you will admit that there is no reproach to religion in general. everyone whose religious speech is of a different cast. I grant both . he weakens this authority. this at least has been gained. must be acquitted of reflect every ill it may have wrought and So it its evil state. to acting and to perfecting customs than is favourable to a free development of i . be And where they are someformed into a definite whole. entirely should it of all participation in be acquitted that the it. thing that can only be given from without. and there is no proof that the view religion. for by his very existence and the claims involved.FOURTH SPEECH. being accepted on the authority of the giver. seeing never been. seeing a method requires to be thoroughly definite and finished. the value of details have its full and displayed Where must be vastly greater. and that in the otheras ^'^ wise better times of systematic religion itself it first all organized believe they power. of the Universe as system is not the highest stage of I grant that in this society there is more regard to understanding and believing. they must. By the clear-cut distinction we have established. a complete system with a centre. reproach that might degenerate into it should not once it be made. must be regarded as a disturber of quiet and sure progress. not having produced such a church and not exhibiting itself in such a church. Nay. but willingly submitted to all division and severance. cannot possibly degenerate where has I grant that in this society a disastrous sectarian spirit Where religious opinions are used exists and must exist. where naturally religion could not be summed up as one. that we can very calmly on all the abuses that prevail in the ecclesiastical society. better state of things that I imagine. this sectarian spirit was much milder and more peaceable.

I mean this institution for pupils in religion. Why have they allowed base passions to make that a scourge of humanity. and they obey only the voice of Nay. which seems once more to roll back those reproaches upon religion. cannot as if possibly continue a layman. because in itself the true principle of How then can those who are religiousness is wanting. where all things obey their voice. 163 religious perceptions and feelings. must take its priests perfect in religion. however enlightened its teaching be. characteristically this some kind and completely. that.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. from true religion. and the ! dependent society has been rent from where then is the high that is justly to be expected in them ? Why have spirit they administered so badly their most important province ? government of the the members of the true church. endure so much that is utterly contrary to the spirit of religion where they have to rule. or to allow himself to be sent back by the true church to lead as a priest. is not brought about by religion but by the want of religiousness in the multitude. either to forsake this society and seek the true church. religion for to whom does the church owe its regulations. however. cultivated in himself his feeling to dexterity in of presentation. in that its whole nature is distant degree. remains certain. bound. exist without a standing distinction between priests and Whosoever has laity as two different religious orders. He would be free. nay. You would remind me that I myself have said that the great ecclesiastical society. only from the members of the true church. if not to the priests ? Or if things are not as they should be. that this spirit of division with all that is unworthy in it and all its evil consequences. which in the hands of religion would M 2 . how do they produce so much that is evil. it borders on some but you superstition and depends on some mythology will admit. or conduct himself all were wanting. This. and that in consequence. But here you raise a new objection. I grant that this association can hardly .

1 64 FOURTH SPEECH.in the name of philosophy. attack religion. that even the majority. I hope. If now. have remained a blessing ? And yefc they are the persons whose most joyful and sacred duty. speaking in the name of the religious. Thus everyone proclaims the new salvation that has arisen for him. it is usually Yet do not take what When you in the name of the state. may win some minds for religion who by no other way could be introduced into a higher world. You would defend the politicians of every age on the ground that the interference of the church has made so much of their handiwork imperfect and ill-advised. it is usuall}'. if you suspect me of artifice Yet you will but hear what I have to say of the true source of this evil. they are usually violently urged by the need to utter what is in them that they be not consumed of the fire within. Every fresh doctrine and revelation. as soon as the new feelings have permeated and satisfied all their soul. distinct part of the true and universal church which yet only ripens slowly and quietly towards union in spirit with the great whole. and when you upbraid the church. a self-existent. have been accomplished in religion members of the true church ? or even I say in excuse as mere subterfuge. I attribute their failure to conduct their business with will better success. They form around their master a school of their own. . Every object Buggests the newly discovered Infinite every speech turns . is to guide those who need ! their help ! Truly. But before this is accomplished. every fresh view of the Universe that awakes the sense for it on some new side. To most of them naturally this particular aspect then remains for them the centre of relis'ion. you will not. be able to deny that I am right. Who things are not as I maintained they should would venture to say that all. that even the foremost and notablest of those who for many a day have ruled the great ecclesiastical assembly. as you confess. to the ? state and to statesmen. alas be.

having mutual attraction. only you leave it quietly standing. But the intoxication of the first enthusiasm past. In all times. every friendly tion of the sole way they word is an inspired commenda- know to salvation. The youthful zeal of the new saints accepts them as true brethren. And it is those thousands that work the mischief. relinquish their own higher and deeper enjoyment. surpass them. this Pour liquids of state could not anywhere long endure. every wish. And it whosoever knows how a new enthusiasm fire works. to go to their help. into a vessel. shake them violently if Yet together if till they seem to form one liquid. how they will divide V . things were only left quietly to themselves. and. that these also should receive the Holy Ghost ? Nay. and you will see. 165 every counsel. might not remain apart from all cor- it and form a false ruption. the corruption most quickly seizes upon the most fiery and active life. and. small power of various gravities and densities. in every religion this has happened. and give to thousands the surface imitation merely of a heart-felt glow. Thus everything takes that imThis comes to pass without outward causes perfect form. through accordance with that eternal order. finds it natural that they all for otherwise they would fear that the stones should speak. they say all too rashly. they themselves believe they have received. Whosoever knows how religion operates. In the corruption common to all human things. but be compelled to participate in and degenerate church. into a sketch of tlieir peculiar religious views . in joyous triumph. Compassionately the saints condescend to them. consume some and warm many. among all peoples.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. that any section of the true church which might arise in isolation anywhere in the world. they show themselves incapable of enduring and sharing the state allotted to the true believers. allow themselves to be conducted into the bosom of the pious society. the glowing surface burnt out. What that hinders. finds violently natural that this living should kindle around.

They would have been only states to be passed.j66 fourth speech. less definite societies would have In them men would in all kinds of ways. lead in the by the gods be propitious to them. the simple of way of nature haviog ! failed.'^ Listen to what may possibly seem an unholy wish that I — can hardly suppress. the revolutions human way. Besides them. undisturbed entered upon their priestly better appointed form. have and might have possession office among them in a new and Every man would then have gathered around him those who best understood him. artificial a longer. now there. who would have had the smallest call to care for their state ? What attraction What offered to the regard of other men ? to be won or what fame to be obtained from them ? would be were The members remained in of the true church could. preparatory for the time when the sense for religion should awake. more intimate fellowship of which the The bond among those that remained rest are not capable. more the temple of the Eternal labours that in our present unfavourable circumstances yield us such scanty fruit. a great crowd of smaller. and only like associate itself to like. Would that the most distant pre- . The true church would quietly have separated itself again to enjoy the higher. arisen. and to smooth the way for the babes to affairs shall. who by his method could be most strongly stirred. And they would not have been forsaken by the members of the true church. for it is the natural course of things.^^ Hail to those who shall first be called when. therefore. and their natural dulness would then have had to look for something from without to determine what should become of them. So would it have happened here. now here. of religion May golden age and may a rich blessing follow their labours in their mission to help beginners. Instead of the vast association. would then have been as good as loosed. have tested religion. and decisive for those who should be found incapable of being taken hold of in any way. the existence of which you now bewail.

And if the society of believing persons. and instead of fulfilling holy vows. I Such a constitutional act of political preponderance works on the religious society like the terrible head of Medusa. they have left worldly gifts as off'erings to the Highest. as if the advantages they have to give were valid everywhere without exception ? Why must they take back with them into their palaces and judgment-halls the reverence due to the servants of the sanctuary? Probably you are right in wishing that the hem of a priestly garment had never touched the floor of a royal chamber but let us wish that the purple had never kissed the dust on the altar. to all successful and skilful politicians ! ! Would that not one of them had ever been seized by the The source of all power of that infectious enthusiasm has been. ! here as elsewhere. that is always to the detriment of the former. this could not have happened. the corruption of that church was begun and almost irrevocably decided. As soon as it appears everything turns to stone* . a distinguished member of the civil world. They have presumed to decorate the of the heavenly structure with rags from simple grandeur their earthly splendour. As soon as a prince declared a church to be a community with special privileges. had not been mixed after a wrong manner. 167 all sentiment of religion had forever remMined unknown to heads of states.ASSOCTA TION IN RELIGION. for otherwise no religious society could ever be large enough to draw the attention of the governor. most personal public character. the rich cornucopia of all his But they have employed it favours and tokens of honour the temple. for had this not happened the other would not have : followed. that they did not know how to separate corruption their deepest. Why life from their office and must they bring their petty vanity and marvellous presumption into the assembly of the saints. Had till but no prince ever been allowed to enter he had put off at the gate the most beautiful of his royal ornaments. and of persons desiring belief.

Though without connection. It can neither be divided nor disIt can neither alter its form nor its articles of faith. persons are attracted who otherwise would forever have remained withoutj If it is the interest of the proud. j^et cannot they treat matters of this sort as a concern of their priestly office. But that is not (^ all. and if they begin to pretend interest and intelligence in holy things to gain the earthly reward. Its views and usages are all condemned to abide in their accidental elements that might . to do may that might still be done.^^ By this unnatural state of afi'airs the members of the true church are distracted and perplexedJ^ But besides all this. how can the truly religious if escape subjection ? And who bears the blame unworthy men replace ripe . everything: that is for a moment combined. The greater and spurious society can no more be separated from the higher and smaller. There is more to govern than they either could or would do. or for the larger society which they should conduct. It does not accord with their high religious fellowship. is now inseparably welded together. the ambitious. They cannot understand what they are to make out of houses and lands and riches.1 68 FOURTH SPEECH. they did know how to deal with such things. /The members of the true church the visible church all share in its it contain. either for the true church to which they and pure idea of religion and belong. solved. and are not in a position. are forcibly excluded from government. That is an incongruity that their sense will not see into and to which they cannot reconcile themselves. and privileges for little even the to maintain and make good. the covetous. where otherwise they would have felt only the bitterest ennui. easily are now established for ever existiug state. the intriguing to press into the church. civil And even though in their domestic and affairs. There are w^orldly things now to order and manage. have been ejected and body are made drapery irom one block and every unseemly fold is eternal.

into its deepest the church. still charge it to religion that the visible church does not consist entirely of pious souls ? But I am not yet done with my indictment. it believed it had a right to its active gratitude. it consecrates the union of . under their supervision. that they be stirred up to a truly citizenlike way of thinking. and transferred to it three of its weightiest commissions. church this fatal kindness. And do indeed ing . it demands that the people be instructed in. Under the auspices of religion and in the form of a congregation. When take the occasion to receive it from the hands of the church into the list of its proteges. they be made truthful in their utterances. 169 in and if. The state you . by the power of religion. As a recompense for those services. saints.^^ More or less it has committed to the church the care and oversight of education. as is now to there is be seen in all parts of the civilized world where a state and a church.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. When it gives the stripling its first kiss of brotherhood. in promysteries phetic devoutness. the state is the cause why the bond between the true church and the visible After showing to the religious society has been loosened. consecrates the new-born babe to the Deity and to the struggle for the highest. it robs it of its freedom. It treats the church as an of its institution own appointment and invention — and its faults and abuses are almost all its own inventand it alone presumes to decide who is fit to come forward in this society as exemplar and as priest. this must also be for the state the evidence of the first stage of civil independence j/^ if with pious wishes. everything" creeps and establishes itself that is most contrary to the spirit ? of religion Who but the state with its ill-considered magnanimity ? But in a still more direct way. and that. the state will pollutes religious fellowship its by introducing own interests. as one who has taken his first glance into the sacred things of religion. those duties that cannot be set forth in the form of law.

the best proof that it is not strictly a society of religious men. two persons wbo. and there are many among its members who do not even wish to seek religion. The state will not even believe has vanished from this earthly scene. as servants of the state. cannot be a a definite aim and know exactly what they wish. as emblems and instruments o£ creitivo nature. everything has a legal and civil reference. would at the same time consecrate themselves as bearers of the higher life. are in a position to earn great official merit.'^ everything is perverted from its Hence there are many among who understand nothing of religion.T 70 FO UR TH SPEECH. nothing even in nothing which religion is the chief matter. for a delusion. astical society This glance at the history of the ecclesiI think. quite outside of its path. till the church assures it that it has restored his soul to the Infinite that a man and enclosed his dust in the sacred bosom of the earth. At most it appears that some . It shows reverence for religion and an endeavour to keep itself bows before it perpetually conscious of its own limits. the leaders of the church follow things that society of lie men who have is. as well as in the most mysterious and religious society is there symbolical doings. but ^jojv all this works for the corruption of the In all its regulations is clear enough. it must also be the state's sanction for the civil bond. or returns again. which with false humility accepts favours that can profit it nothing and with cringing readiness takes on burdens that send it headlong to destruction. but who yet. and who yet have interest enough to remain in the church and bear a part in it. In the sacred speeches and instructions.^ It is very apparent that a society to whicn such a thing can happen. and parts with the liberty and independence which are its birthright. which a'lows itself to be abused by an alien power. which abandons its own high and noble aim to original form and nature. directed to religion alone. that the state religion and before its worshippers when it receives anything from the hands of the Infinite.

to exhibit to persons so much s^arily religion as such that their capacity must necesLet us now see what there is in be developed. But if the true church have nothing to do directly with the profane world. Full of sacred pride. Everything in its place will be The goal only I can indicate in who in any degree have a sense for because it is not yet apparent and conscious. The fundamental idea of such an auxiliary institution is of cure. the true church would have refused Before the first matter of this gifts it could not use. Sometime it will certainly be done.A SSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. religion. things requiring no princess favour. well knowing that those who have found the Deity and have a common joy in knowing Him. what form must this institution take and how is it to be freed from the corruption it has imbibed ? This last question time must answer. but it may be done in a thousand different ways. boundless corruption could have been admitted^ the whole must have been in a state of morbid fermentation in which the few sound portions soon utterly disappeared. of all sicknesses of man there are various tried ways and have its effect. which to make themselves understood and a speech by space in which to be together. order to show you more clearly that here also it has not been religion and its endeavour to which you should have manifested your repugnance. for. have in the pure fellowship in which alone they would exhibit and communicate their inmost nature. really nothing in common the possession of which could be protected by On earth they require nothing but a worldly power. the present state of things that hinders this from taking . though they are not fit for incorporation into the true church. and if there must be a mediatiug institution whereby to come into a certain contact with it. as it for attracting were an atmosphere. particles of sucli a society are 1 71 mixed iu it and are overlaid /- with foreign ingredients. both as a medium for purification and new material.

therefore. Think . and can be a that in the view of the state a man educator and a single-minded effective teacher of duties to the people without. for the sphere of religion is far too comprehensive. being religiously affected at whom it reckons among all. The sacred orator must obtain his hearers by a certain similarity of talents and cast of mind. most preposterous to wish to limit any pupil to a single master. All his work will be in vain if the same thing is not only intelligible to all. I will grant that everyone it appoints is truly inflaenced and inspired by piety. they may not all be near in same way.^^ And assuming the that only persons equally near religion assemble round one master. they are set down in the police list. or as file. No man is in a position to draw by his representation and speech from all who come before him the hidden gems of religion to light. persons to be leaders and teachers. may easily fail utterly. I will not place. and not by rank and some ancient not as they are counted out to him by distribution. not as their houses adjoin. its worthiest servants.172 FOURTH SPEECH. It is. This more necessary in respect of our subject where the master can do nothing but point out and exhibit. repeat that the state cliooses accord- ing to its own wishes which are more directed to the extraneous matters in the institution. if there is not among knowledge. by its this very mode of transition. Remember the diff'erent ways by which men pass from consciousness of the individual and particular to the Whole and the Infinite : remember that. in the hig-hly intelligent strict sense of the and that therefore persons word. than in art where his pupils of preliminary is some equality the scholar progresses by exercise and the teacher is chiefly useful by criticisms. if you will grant that no artist can communicate his art to a school with any success. but suitable and wholesome. nor anyone who can exercise all kinds of influence. There is no one so universally cultured in religion. a man's religion assumes own distinct character.

all the glorious branches into which the crown of the heavenly tree of Master and disciples. But it is not possible for a man to limit his teaching to what he understands as soon as. should not a person. with a religious morality. only not the one in and through the other . if it so pleases. and to become of the to every of the various influences man what he needs. if it suits. not accompHsh the two concerns by the one action. what profits them. into presentations from history and from experience and into many other things too numerous to mention. Why then. visions and prayers. may he must not wear both natures at the same time. having a call to the priesthood. He do both. priestly art is divided. a scientist at the same time. Whosoever would proclaim religion must do it \/ unadulterated. that if religion is actually to stir a man's own feelings he must meet it in the definite form that suits his capacity and his point of view. impossible for any master to be all things to all. thousand single perceptions and of the thousand ways of combining" them and showing one in the light of the other. a priestly man can present his religion with zeal and skill as is fitting*. he must have something else in view. in perfect freedom. in the very same transWithout action. Reflect. therefore. The state may be satisfied. be allowed to seek and choose must. and at the same time remain faithful to some civil business and accomplish it effectively. and no one must in any way be obliged which he possesses and understands. but religion rejects consciously and individually every prophet and priest that moralizes from this point of view. be at the same time a moral teacher in the service of the state ? There is nothing against it. therefore.• ASSOC!A TION IN RELIGION. It is opposed to every sentiment of honour of a master in . 173 whereby the Universe affects man. It is. to give except that question. No He one can be a mystic and cannot be a master in \/ every sacred art whereby religion is expressed^ initiated at once into prophecies.

the chief matter. it removes makes it incumrecommends them to give themselves chiefly to the special section of their art. whether for the better cultivahis business. When the state takes other workmen into its pay. Between teacher and congrelet but man do own duty without concerning him- self gation also. and then it allows their nature full scope. and more particularly of a master in religious a true priest has to do with the state on such purity. shall form no profits. grant them leisure for special cultivation of them what school they seemly burdens. It bent upon them to refrain. it can be seen how little that the priests. though it cannot to follow their own ways.1 74 FO UR TH SPEECH. along with attention to its business. or state ^^ them ! ! till union actually destroyed. as in every case duties. for. set up for itself a school of civil will not allow And yet. or having in this matter closer connection with one than with another. all that bas even a semblance to rigid Away union of priest and laity. it employs them neither for use nor for show like other arts and sciences Away then with every such union between church and That remains my Cato's utterance to the end. some kind straints. nay. and it prescribes to shall be of and lays upon them unIt will not even. in which they believe they can accomplish most.'*^^ it still it must. I mean as such. be unconcerned about the priestly works. Accord- . They shall neither divide their And work nor their knowledge according his to corporations. it from them all extraneous business. if tion of their own talents or to attract pupils. with each other I see the too with ! even in mechanical trades. of religious presentation which yet is for nor free them from burdensome them con- Even after it has. They must embrace the whole compass of their subject. whether among themselves or ^* Learners shall not form bodies. unworthy and impossible conditions. With the artists of religion alone. there shall be no firm outward band. it does exactly the contrary. brotherhood among themselves. each about others.

recognition and criticism. bond of creeds will be severed. when ancient formulas were too oppressive or were too varied to consort in the same bonds. and the temple should also be a private chamber where he lifts up his voice to give utterance to religion. individual presentation. hateful sectarian and proselytizing spirit which leads ever farther astray from the essentials of religion. It is a poor. now there. Let him be a speaker for all who will hear_. having no distinct outlines. and let none oif er the seekers a system making exclusive claim to truth. and if the character is contrary to the spirit of religion. Like a polypus. can truly priestly souls take for religion. the mission of a priest in the world is a private business. Let there be an assembly before him and not a congregation. Only under such conditions.'"^ Let there be no point of union of this kind. and all peacefully mingling together.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. if old device. any more. Thus only can this preparatory association actually lead to religion and make itself worthy to be regarded as an adjunct and vestibule of the true church. but let each man offer his characteristic. it is no improvement that several societies should bear it. sole means for putting an end to the This appears the mischief. but not a shepherd for a definite flock. but each part being now The here. for thus only it can lose all that in its present state is unholy and irreligious. the hard and pronounced distinction between priest and laity will be softened. By universal freedom of choice. The vis ible religious brought nearer the universal freedom and majestic unity of the true church by becoming a mobile mass. to cut up the church by partition of the creed. capable only of alleviating the evil for a moment. till the best of the laity come to stand where the charge of seek ers All that is now held together by the unholy priests are. can only be extinguished when no one. 175 ing_to_tlie principles of the true church. each piece grows again into a whole. is informed that he soci ety can onlyjpe .

you see. that they can prolife claim by a priestlike be their consolation and the spirit of religion. In n holy person everything of religion is signjficant. Permit this me. but there is little we can do except to the evil removed. however. only after a great / . I But tliis know little to say against it. break off its unhappy marriage with the church ? Or will it endure that another. Even in the common relations of life nothing . and different faith. a heavy fate must lie upon all holy souls. more virginal countries. therefore. But till something of this kind do happen. They may. cannot be taken from them. in all their movements exhibit the nature of religion. who. by an amicable arrangement and without the death and resurrection of both church and state. it ? institution arise alongside of the one that is for ever sold to ^^ I do not know. Germans I do not know. our wishes are idenWhat is obnoxious to you opposes us also. And if many of them believe themselves bound not to be always speaking ouly of piety. in an ackuowledgedj^riest everything has a canonic al meani ntr. Will it be. not even frequently to speak chiefly of it and to speak of it alone only on solemn occasions. for other circles of a tical. that something might thereby be accomplished. and this may their best reward. always to add that as it is.J' y 176 \ r\\ FOURTH SPEECH. is / ^l^belong3 to a distinct circle. nay. I will not delude the members of the state privileged order into making much account of what in these circumstances they can accomplish by speech for the dearest wish of their heart. if they are not to be untrue to their political calling. as in neiofhbourinor commotion and then everywhere at once ? Will the state. us How such a change will take place among wish and hope. glowing with religion. would seek to exhibit their most holy things even in the profane world. In resrard to this society. if would not have been we had only been left alone to occupy ourselves Our common interest is to have in our own proper work.

but also outward to the world ? Haviug no greater scene in which. and active sense that neither the rarest nor the open commonest escapes. Unconcerned no need all quarters by the they let themselves be hissed at from snakes of solemn calumny. with which they treat everything shows that even in that a profane spirit skims over thoughtlessly. and feeling of courage. and in the high simplicity it. they disregard what base prejudices and subtle superstition have surrounded with a spurious as the infant Hercules. of utter unconsciousuess. may be ardour trifles 177 The holy lost of the expression of a pious mind. seeing And no danger. I to say to those to whom you refuse the robe because they have not gone through a definite priestly course of science in a definite way ? Whither shall I direct them with the social beut of their religion not directed But what am alone to the true church. being able to crush them quietly To this holy service they may devote themin a moment. shows that they refer every^fching to the Un changeable anj^. glory of sanctity. If in this way the whole life work of soul and body is a priestlike what dwells in them may by this dumb speech be awakened in many. selves till better times. reveals to all how they live above time and above the world. The utmost ease of self-denial indicates how much of the limits of The constantly personality they have already abolished. The majestic calm with which they equalize small and great. shows how unweariedly they seek the Deity and listen for His voice. in all with things alike perceive the Deity. and will augur well for its influence on men. N . id any striking way. The bright serenity which they pass every trace of decay. the sense for not content to express the nature of religion. they must also in a similar way destroy the false appearance of With childlike ingenuousness. and I think that you also will have reverence for this unassuming worth.ASSOCIA TION IN RELIGION. the music of noble feelings resounds in them. and every movement of art.

When quietly and securely all things work together. resounds. when the music of love accompanies all movements. they One family can be the g'ods. in the smallest space. They may construct this sanctuary. be turned into an enchanted castle where the god of the earth only needs to utter a magic word or press a spring. those dead forces will be made serviceable to us. We and everything of the spiritual that can be regulated.178 FOURTH SPEECH. By this means many will learn to contemplate It will be a the Universe in the small. Nay. the high Worldit . ing of sciences and arts. all the pov/ers that animate the Infinite are thus operative . This priesthood was the first in the holy and infant world. with pardonable inertness. except necessity straightway to imitate and learn the same younger generation the degradation. and. and it will be the last when no other is any order it longer necessary. obscure dwelling. the youth of the people do not acquire the free and open glance whereby alone the There is no greater hindrance to object of piety is found. At present. and everyone is That the cause why is a slave who must execute something it ought to be hope that by the perfectpossible to do by dead force. The older generation succumbs discouraged. and what he requires . abandons the to accident in almost everything. and the corporeal world. and cherish it. In pious might they may set it up clearly and evidently . with love and spirit they may dispose it. religion than that we must be our own slaves. service of their household when all Spirit rules in advances in quiet joyousness."'' most cultured element and the truest picture of the Universe. at the end of our future culture we expect a time when no other society preparatory for religion except the pious family life will be required. may rest satisfied with the priestly they miglit appear. the harmony of the spheres resounds. Holy of Holies in which many will receive the consecration of rehgion. millions of men and women of all ranks sigh under a load of mechanical and unworthy labours.

but straightway into the sacred assembly also of the worshippers activitv. ye friends and admirers of the good and beautiful ? They are among themselves an academy of priests. which for them is the highest. to be their eye for them. and the Deity out of His endless To a universal riches apportions to each one his own lot. will 1 79 free-born be done.A SSOC/A TION IN RELIGION. not only into a more joyful world and a lighter life. of the Eternal. then every life will be at once practical . templative the lash of the task-master will be lifted over will no man . communicate to them the highest content of But when the happy time comes and everyone can exercise and use his sense. What there in it that should not you with admiration and esteem. under the care of paternal wisdom. when th^sjbetter time come. al l wh o are capable will participate in All communication that is not mutual will then religion. its spirit rules everywhere. Then for tlie iSrst time. everyone as his art and study. at the very first awaking and the father. and everyone this is have peace and leisure for conIt is only the unfortunate templating the world in himself. The exhibition of the fill holy is treated by life. permit me once more to direct your attention to the fair fruit of your labourj Allow yourselves to be led once more to the exalted fellowship of txuly It is dispersed relig ious souls. to wanting. N 2 . shall have contributed somewhat to its coming. will lead the stout son. every man will be and con. from whose spiritual organs all forces are withdrawn. however far off it may still be. now increased in number and has /in the grateful feeling that. freely of the higher powers. because their whole being nourishing must be spent untiringly in mechanical service that need individual. well repaid. even and almost invisible. the efforts to which you have devoted your days. but where but few are gathered is in the name of the Deity. in sacred youth. fortunate souls to come forward and assemble them about them. cease. and in a few whom swift minutes a life.

not in respect of existence and working. that all With sacred reserve. everyone bringing. acknowledgment and praise of the Infinite resound. If in any other department of life. each has also that of his neighbour. a pure heart it is preserved. in him also its divine life and working being revealed. The more everycommunicate become one. or in any other_school_ of wisdom. They are no longer men. No Going out of themselves and triumphing over themselves. He. therefore. the ripest fruit of his thinking and examining. of the elements of Why is humanity takes individual shape in should they hide anything from one another ? is y( All that are h uman holy. They are also among themselves a choir of friends. you have found anything nobler than this. impart it to me . — or have they you . with concentrated mind it is it is moulded and perfected. but in respect of sense and understanding ? one approaches the Universe and the more to thej?" one another. with joyous heart. of his comprehending and feeling. yet with a ready openness may enter and behold. and a longing to produce something worthy of such an assembly makes everyone with faithfulness and In diligence master all that belongs to his special section. . the more perfectly they all one has a consciousness for himself. but mankind also. by heavenly art others. they are on the way to true immortality and eternity. the endeavour to perfect himself in some one department. every man joins as artists should. sense for everytliing belonging to tlie sacred spliere of religion.t8o fourth speech. mine I have given you. perhaps an intenser expression for the entire blending of their natures. Evervone knows that he is both a part and a work of the Universe. regards himself as an object worthy of the attention of arranged. for all is divine among themselves a band of brothers Again. he lays bare everything of is the relations of the Universe of which he conscious and what him. noble A rivalry prevails. Thus in every way and from every source.

The poetical section again in part. and it became simply the bearer of the living little it. the history being Even in the history of chiefly to give them the movement of life. (1) Page ]50. in respect of the sacred writings. The Acts of the Apostles alone seems . And the direct. In the very various Jewish codex. and it is indisputably to be looked upon mostly as a manual of themes for religious compositions. The historical section. writing in the strict sense of the word. First. as for example a large number of the Psalms. chiefly which are the means and the small religious pamphlets used at present for reaching the people. its direct influence was lost. the gnomic books especially have something of this purely literary character. therefore. a fact quite in accordance with the unoriginal character of this religion. and the Scriptures became to the Jewish people a learned study. and a not insignificant part has been handed down imbedded in history. only those of monotheistic The Koran alone has arisen purely as a religions need detain us. writing. And who of will deny that they produced the effect in this connection which their present influence as mere scripture is but a shadow ? The prophetic poetry of the earlier period. as as possible. As this living traditional power was lost. not scripture in the strict sense. In the historical books the speeches are the most essential. seems to have experience against it.EXPLANATIONS OF THE FOURTH SPEECH. strictly speaking. strictly religious influence of the Koran is not to be and repertorium esteemed very highly.-*^he assertion that scripture alone is euflScent to piety. from the sacred writings of all religions down to our books for edification so widely awake distributed among a certain class. and the narrative of pains and agonies might easily produce only a wrong effect. The New Testament Scriptures also are. was for the most part actually spoken. deals immediately with definite occasions and was not produced simjDly for indefinite use. utterances linked to the Passion the words of Christ are the most sublime and deeply moving parts. has none. and is.

we. as is the fashion of other historical books. life and it must always be hurtful is to the whole religious generally made use of f©r preaching simply as a motto. natural that the Catholic Church. a fulness of quickening spirit dwells in them. but simply by chance. must make the public exposition of Scripture much more prominent in preaching. help to guard . the most vital influence of those writings for our time is that which was borrowed from the synagogue that influence on the immediate recipients to of the time ^ utterance is linked to them. and to have its place in the canon chiefly because the root of all church history. which entirely literature. which shall be direct and independent As regards our literature for edification again. therefore. after they have become all living religious . as it too easily degenerates into magical frivolity. must have been much greater. and then only by learned help. So vast was the original power of these productions that even now. and no one can deny that the whom the whole movement was present. are as little as possible mere literature. For that reason only. it is repugnant to our feeling to be it is when the speeches are regarded as subsequently concocted. But just because it would quite limit the book to this subordinate use. neither chosen by selection nor by memory. which arises for the most part expressly as books.1 82 FO UR TH SPEECH. This cannot be defended. Our didactic books. And who does not works that. yet it is an endeavour to restore to the religious utterances of holy men a living influence of their effects as a book. are used on every occasion. We can only dimly. should limit the use of Scripture by the laity. side of this influence. transport ourselves back to those times. an exception. the reading of the Scriptures by the laity continues otherwise. believing we dare not so limit it. its great influence is not to be denied. The countless editions and the continuance of many of them through feel respect for a long series of generations speak too clearly. in addition to their vitality. would soon be null for the private use of the laity. setting little store on preaching. On the other hand. Even then. the clear understanding. when religious enlightenment or stimulus is needed. its influence would not entirely vanish. It is. being letters. The reality of the endeavour to rescue the contents of the sacred books from the state of being mere literature. but for that connection with the learned exposition. but it would degenerate into utter vagueness. is the highest testimony to their divine power yet the objective . appears from when Scripture would be the ready adoption by the most pious Christians of a method that in the highest degree unnatural in a work made throughout purely as a book. Single detached passages of Scripture.

rests on a deep misunderstanding. Many perhaps. but let no man That the religious life believe it is to be replaced by a dead letter. They had special meetings for the distinct object of religious conversation. noble formulas contained. clever work of this kind seldom rejoices in much This good witness is only given to able and compi-ehensive But the present endeavour of so many well-meaning societies to scatter a multitude of small religious leaflets among the success. let each man journals. into still deeper degradation. without any actual experience. Our wish should* therefore. I wrote then from my youthful experiences among the Moravians. "^Is do his utmost 10 heal it. should issue from the circulating library seems to me like handing sick or weak. the evil of which it presupposes. have already applied the proverb to themselves that with time we may easily have too much of what earlier we zealously desired. practical works. and can scarcely have any other result than to bring church matters. people. or who will fall into sad perplexity because their own religious experiences do not the public church life accord with the pattern set before them. 183 a great mass of men from the dangerous whirlwind of changing doctrine ? Yet it will not be denied that the living word and the religious emotion in a community. An absent person of a different mind could not there readily be discussed. On closer consideration also it will be power than the found that the chief influence of practical writings rests less in their completeness than in the multitude of forceful.EXPLANATIONS. They also offer a certain assurance that one's own religious emotions are not at variance with the common religious life. A multitude of men will be reared who will have manifold hypocrisies. of which the better. and therefore refresh the memory of many things. — Confusion and trouble enough have arisen from treating religious subjects in brilliant circles in the form of conversation. yet I have never heard anything of real life and worth. Hence the individual. be not so much that in our free sociality religious subjects . who formerly cherished the well-meant wish that the sociality which had become vain and frivolous should have new life put into it by an admixture of the religious element. in which the personal element too easily preponderates. and I believe I have here quite rightly grasped the general principle. but utter the most subjective inner experiences in the dead letter of a terminology that neither accords with literary nor religious usage. over the great acts of legislation and executive to irresponsible more numbers and improved editions the (2) Page 1 50. which may embrace many religious moments. that have no right objective character. have a far higher written letter.

that is suited for glorifying God in a circle of thoroughly cultured religious men. In the former all discourse. years' conduct of office. but does not suppose would develop the distinction that of itself in this exact way. not lees in the actually existing church than in the ideal. whatever be its subject-matter. This only is meant that everything belonging to civil order must be left outside.I S4 FO URTH SPEECH. a period within which every man must come as near hit. other wisdom being denied. religious the pious poetry. and make them like many fanatical sects that arrange nothing beforehand for their meetings. between priest and laity is not to be sharply drawn. On the contrary. witji plain Yet is speech rather than strive for false ornanot quite so. greater contrast between that and what I myself have accomplished in that time in description. Who would think of taking art. And this sliould be treated. which indeed he assumes to exist in them. the same thing appears. Now the more the didactic character appears. The speaker would bring something to consciousness in his hearers. as wishing to banish all order from the assembly of the truly pious. it I was content mentation. in all its power and magnificence. the more it exhibits an artistically organized unity. ideal as he can. and all things must be fashioned on the foundation of an original. my only apology would be that. must have a didactic character. the higher not being granted me. how much less is a difference to apply among the laity themselves that belongs to a that . wish will certainly not fail as soon as a considerable part of society coDsists of religious men. the more it requires a rigid order. and for this purpose In another a blessing undoubtedly rests on unadorned speech. as that a religious spirit should rule. to know that he knew nothing. Were there really such a difference of theory and practice. as it was given to Socrates. and making it the standard in collecting a church P hymn-book (4) Page hardly be necessary for me here to guard myself against being misinterpreted. — It can but leave everything to the moment. I hold this the essential condition of all prosperity in such a fellowship. My practice has been based on is drawn later in this Speech between the existing church and the true church. of which we have many splendid examples in our Klopstock and our Hardenberg. Since this was written I have had almost thirty (3) Page 151. and an order If the distinction is made for another society is disorder. universal equality. the higher the style of religious utterance. 151. Every fellowship is destroyed by disorder. the less room there is for ornament. — A the domain of religious speech would be hard to imagine.

would have the same right. assumes the right. to myself. any other member. This distinction could never disappear till all Christians were . This is. so that there by the whole community. This narrower use of the word I never quite justify of this kind. In their share.he is distinguished in the civil society. a truly Christian expression. quite different sphere. and true and fitting order would be at an end. Christianity has recognized its true goal in that prophetic saying that all should be taught of God. because. to organize the more advanced for more effective operation on the In this latter case the more it succeeds the more superfluous rest. either that there was an original difference.in Christianity. The Christian priesthood is manifestly this organization will become. because But the history of Christianity and in particular the intimate knowledge of original Christianity necessarily this scientific information all became an object had to have some of science. the apostolic felt. there could be no distinction among members. The view here set forth of the equality of all true members of the religious community. a religiously developed stock that had joined a rude race and had never succeeded in raising it to its own fulness of religious life had developed so unequally in a people had become necessary.gradually made itself This is the more apparent that. is also a truly Christian view. earliest antiquity.EXPLANA TIONS. for we in the Protestant community are quite agreed how far the expression generally can have no validit}'. came to acquire a position apart from the religious enthusiasm of the others. so that none are to be made merely recipient and the exclusive right of utterance given to one. will here think who exhorts all of the Apostle Peter. leaving out of sight the education of the young. (5) Page 153. this smaller body. If then we find in all religious forms. to interfere and have priestly functions in directing the body and arranging the outwardly he may meetings. then. even though stand in some relation of guardian to it. The need for this narrower priesthood onl}'. and assures them all that they are a royal priesthood. or that the religious it that character itself involved no special pre-eminence in the community. — Every reader familiar with Scripture. the distinction between priest and laity we are driven to assume. life. save such as from the in force. chosen from the community. at the beginning. Christians to train themselves into a holy priesthood. therefore. 1 85 If a member of the congregation. the passing occasion required. however low his station in the civil society. if communications were to be in conscious agreement with history. if it were not again to be scattered. Suppose this goal attained was no more need to awake religion in others.

which agrees with the assertion in the that every distinct communion has a historical point of departure which dominates the organic development.i86 FOURTH SPEECH. as characteristic variation of any faith of one stage and one kind. can in any communion be only the un- . (6) Page 153. the monotheistic being the highest. as stages of development. these bodies would only be distinguished by number or by size. like the fruits of one stem. common different types of faith. — This assertion. greater degree of communion than is must be capable not only of being understood by a spectator. partly externally. if from one type of faith it were not possible to understand another. On the other side. There I say that the different pious communions that appear in history stand to one another. according as the natural or the ethical in human life predominated. familiar witli tbis science. developed in the Introduction to the I say that in religious communication there are no entire separations and definite boundaries except by a mechanical procedure. which finally alone it can have a reason. are rather to be harmonized as follows On the : grant here that certain bodies of communion are formed " " Glaubenslehre organically. as different in kind." an inner difference in the types of faith. for this involves The two passages one side. in the Glaubenslehre. its modes of externalizing itself. from which I afterwards draw the conclusion that the external religious society should be as mobile a body as possible. whereby is the communions are divided. and that the primary aim was to discover from their contents the characteristic features of the piety. their boundaries to touch they *' Were would naturally grow together. I distinguish the individual type of origin. I dealing with the Christian church as a definitely bounded society. But if it is understood in its inner nature. and the superiority given by favouring circumstances. particularly of Christianity. Further. But it is only difference and mutual which does not involve any here represented. Persons to whom this is impossible. that is a procedure which is in a certain sense arbitrary and not founded in the nature of the matter." §§ 7-10. partly. the validity of this distinction must ever more and more be limited to the sphere in. The whole attempt there made would be in v^n. and could only be again mechanically divided. by its historical and partly internally. partly. and. Even though this is not to be looked for. seems to contradict what I have exhaustively Here *' Glaubenslehre. its services relations of the separate parts. in the subordination maintained. but in some degree of being appropriated. It will not suffice to say that in the ** " Glaubenslehre communion is secondary. Did this point of departure not also presuppose an inner difference.

is not to be found outside a True and false do definite religious communion as it is found inside. proof only along with the cultured. seems to be rejected. every every endeavour to draw from another form endeavour to implant religion in souls still without piety. Cultured. with a view to edification. the error must be sought in the theory. as the uncultured do not alone. the more the adherents of one form of religion are compelled to regard many other forms simply as such transitions. proselytizing work is If the assertion that entirely inadmissible. it is manifest that here also much is naturally destroyed. Again. and it cannot be wrong to accelerate and guide the progress. though divided and organized. Hence Wherefore. here uniformly rejected. 1 87 Now tbat Is simply what is here maintained. with the notion. for mild proselytizing also. it is regarded by the experienced as simply a point of transition. either altogether or in a much higher degree. the more powerfully will the work of proselytizing organize itself among them. it appears to be maintained that the spread of Christianity in the world did not proceed from the pious Christian But this good endeavour is always in some way connected sense. that salvation. when it makes a hard and fast cleavage. — But there seems to be too much here. would yet in another respect be only one but for mechanical interference either of sword or letter. the assertions there made also agree with this that the religious communion. no less than against my own state- ments in the " Glaubenslehre. in which transference of a follower of one form to another seems to be a wish to impair the whole by destroying its manifoldness. the wild mania for proselytizing is nowhere founded in religion itself. to one's own." about the relation of Christianity to other forms of religion. Does it not us violent and irreligious. . but of imperfection.EXPLANA TIONS. Against the witness of all history. against the clear words of the Founder Himself. that the is a separating impulse. in which all the different forms of religion mutually recognize each other. Though there is in the strict sense only one universal religious coma munion. It was doubtless serviceable to establish that (7) Pages 155 and 156. form the communion. the services of another ? Yet only by such an utterly mechanical appear to procedure could the communions be quite separated. not seem to be here sufficiently distinguished. is a just consequence of the previously accepted theory of the religious communion. that the spread of our is own form of religion natural and permissible private business of the individual. when the members of one communion are forbidden to frequent. On going back upon it we find what solves the difficulties. which can only happen in an inferior stage of development.

nay. On the contrary. in varying degree and under the most different shapes. believe that I it is am here speaking of separatist piety. . no one will doctrine. it must always be done. not to be understood with too painful accuracy that proselytizing can only be the private business of the individual. This should most apply to the monotheistic religions in general. After what is said above about the social nature of piety. found in full deep corruption. at all times. to form smaller and warmer societies within the great one. As Paul did in Athens. a of the pious whole mode of faith can be regarded as individuals. rests Glaubenslehre. and in the broadest sense to Christianity. which is to say. but will have nothing to do with the regulations of the religious society. all great forms of religion. it is Hence associations for the great of individuals. This community of two forms of religion shows itself at all points wheresoever a like effort at lehre. Only in so far as one religious party utters it against another. the latter believes it is exalted above any such endeavour. in so far as a universal communion is denied. The special truth of this in Christianity is dealt with in the agreement with these views. regarding the Hellenic idolatry. Manifestly therefore." as the issue of a . it must maintain that the regulations of the society are independent of its and determined by something alien. And this holds fronr the " Glaubenspresent standpoint." again has absolute verity. undeniably on the presumption that the great society has fallen into This exjjresses itself in separatism which accepts generally the type of doctrine. can therefore say that this is the true distinction between praiseworthy zeal for conversion that would recognize the faintest traces of religion and purify and build up a piety assimilation We already begun. prejudiced and loving comprehension even of the most imperfect kind of faith. to assign it a value and obtain a link of connection for the communication of his own piety. and that wild irreligious mania for conversion which The former begins with uneasily degenerates into persecution. work of proselytizing presupposes the one graduated communion. for without any piety it can acknowledge no salvation. is developed. and that in consequence the members of the religious society are in a state of sickness." in (8) " Page 157. The maxim " nulla an communion salus.i88 FOURTH SPEECH. does it work destructively. rather of the endeavour to found closer associations more But this praise associa- accordant with the idea of the true church. — The propensity. as it is more fully dealt with in the The more scientific course of thought. Further. Hence it clearly goes along with the wild mania for conversion. The individual stands here opposed to the all-embracing communion.

This activity would also have its influence in the . broadly considered. Yet the consequence that the is communion in these assemblies principle of entirely different from what has actually been developed. and their activity is actually in Thus when public and family worship are the assembly. Further on. it has displayed a pure and right happy readiness in reaching the most imperfect states of religion and awaking receptiveness for the high spirit of Christianity. moreover. a* good and praiseIt has rejected that exclusiveness of the letter which course. but only under the following limitations. who do not have the requisite endowments for coming forward in personal activity and priestly function in the outward religious society. are religious and the next step is. page 178. the contempt of the recognized church. tact and a must be acknowledged to excel. is not to be drawn straightway. not when they are founded on a narrow and exclusive letter. and stands in manifold relations to the whole of this church according In its missionary efforts. showed at that time. In any case it was the result of an — immediate impression. besides the . Now persons who are in this position cannot. and if the result characteristic type speech also among A is less rich. is natural. that from this state the endeavour forth to improve the great outward society itself aud bring its natural union with the true church. But this contempt is here ascribed to all who. that they may there satisfy their impulse to communicate. veiy beautiful scheme at least is not to be denied. family worship is assigned to members of the true church. and reject the idea of one all-embracing com- munion. in its existing state. in which it as occasion offers. tions only deserve 1 89 in when they unfold a rich productiveness religious coramunication. ance with the form which our assemblies for divine service. Hence among all similar the Moravian Brethren. the sense for such closer union is Where awakened. in a higher sense. them has moi-e scope and variety. not to be denied. the community is divided up in various ways. of who have at least produced a Religious poetry. regarded as one.general assembly. despite outward appearance. are always pre-eminent. for. societies Is this the case is the state of sickness and productiveness is weak or quite fails. worthy keeps the two chief branches of the Protestant Church apart.EXPLANA TIONS. must go it nearer This description may very well be quite in accord(9) Page 158. In other directions deficiency in the cultivation of talent also this society has taken a may be to blame. be merely passive and receptive in the assemblies of the church. the whole of the larger assembly appears as an active organism. They carry the work of the church further.

however. Further. founded in the original constitution of the individual. Wherefore. but it is Yet here. for example. not determined by piety only. a thing seldom found at that time in our country. marked common The religious emotions are linked to the individuality. because otherwise this cold and proud withdrawal from the church would be praised. the composer is not the only person. states of things. Religion In some. there are gradaPersons tions. as if one could simply by working on another implant religion in him. * if they are connoisseurs. do not merely receive. the result would (10) Page 159. if the leader of the assembly had this inner productiv^eness of its members before his mind. and stirs in every man. or the speaking and working being offered simply from a profane artistic sense without religious spirit. But th. this individuality appears in others. through its incapacity to bring the religious feeling to any high degree of keenness. satisfaction. from the leading instrument to the most subordinate accompanyist. either the piety doing nothing but absorb. Compare great representations in any art. both parties would What would become of the common presentations unsuffer loss. by no means to be dis- things. entire equality and reciprocity are not possible.1 90 FO UR TH SPEECH. religion only appears under the form of the common feeling. in direct contradiction to the previous is contention that this great religious society solved. so that.it it is not to be taken exactly is — visible manifest. in every manifestation of the pious consciousness. as in all similar human only a shallow view that one simply affects the other. Similarly we must acknowledge that in the assemblies of the church the greatest number can only contribute own way to the representation of the whole as accompanying artists. is original in every man. but the performers also. Thus one- sidedness only fully appears when such co-operation entirely fails. And this may be so even in persons otherwise of . and the audience too. it keeps pace with the whole individuality of the person. certainly be that the visible church would exist only through its own nullity. again. but each one in his also has his work. but by training also. fertilized by individual emotions we can see in the ecclesiastical . religious communication is also an Hence art. and find in the common presentation their Were persons of more individual emotion now to withdraw from those common forms of presentation. if several families were to join for a pions purpose. In music. Then there must be the maker of the musical instruments. of different grades are directed by nature to one another. If this were taken quite exactly. the consequence would only be rightly assembly drawn where no religious communication had developed itself in domestic life and family intercourse.

here regarded as the true church. as has been of indicated on p. Further. in corporeal and visible form. requires 'subordinate artists and a worthy. and only to be moved mechanically. who would have his full effect. and the actually existing religious communion.— Seeing that in is this passage the view that dominates . is that earth. improved type of the existing church.3^ this it whole Speech may here presented most decisively and compactly. The state of this communion is acknowledged further on p. great masters are too rare. Should there be in this educational society. in the measure of their progress. We have seen every to master. always decaying from want of a larger circulation. the more such a company is a great presentation of religion. there is the higher fellowship which consists intercourse and insight. The more the members of this circle advance and fashion that twofold sphere. be best to say what remains to be said in explanation and justification of it. What remains for us then but to say that. an informed. besides the priestly work which only those fully cultured religiously should exercise. the ground.EXPLANATIONS. separatist existence. but. and too much dispersed to fashion alone this twofold sphere. The idea of the true church here given is not realized therefore in one single instance. (11) common Page 160. the question stands thus : which the members of the visible religious society might. societies in 191 is in the background. who leaves which individuality generally all rests on steadfast formulas. The individual again. . For those who are the soul of such a in mutual presentation. a special communion of such persons corresponding to the idea of the church to be capable of such an improvement as is described This being assumed. gives over the largest range of his consciousand. ness. 166. and The Armenian and Greek churches. the latter be now receiving a new impulse. such a society is nowhere to be found on The best of this kind to be actually discovered. a responsive audience. each being as perfect as possible after its own manner. however strong and characteristic his life may be. unless. 154. appear to be quite dead. The other members share in so far as they succeed in raising themselves to the possibility of such enjoyment forms strange to them. The whole matter resolves itself into the right representation of the relation between the perfectly mutual communication. go over ? Now the greatest masters are required for the greatest representations. those societies in which a skilful he fires master gathers around him a number of kindred souls whom and fashions. if the true church nowhere shows itself in actuality. nothing remains for him but an isolated. indeed. by the peaceful cosmopolitan union of all existing communions.

but the more advanced also seek helpers for such a presentation as can be recognized as proceeding from the spirit of the true church. Two objections it. the enormous expansive power of Christianity made its reappearance impossible. But something was wanting. And. despite its short continuance. may be easily set aside. seek some one to inspire and encourage them. for were all one. only not as a reproach. The highest spiritual communion of the most perfect saints is thus conditioned by the communion of the more perfect with the But if this latter communion is of a better type. but would always develope itself in a subordinate way. This consciousness of inadequacy was. At present Christianity exhibits no outward unity. But. even if it did. Yet this instance. but.1 92 FO URTH SPEECH. that this kind of existence has been always renewed and has never quite vanished from the true church. secondly. among the motives for the wider expansion of Christianity. First. All who enter. something held in this Speech majesty of be essential to the true church. greatness and presentation. Through this common . and when they were by themselves in the upper-room to praise God and the Lord. But this has already been answered. human nature. does it deserve the reproach that only inquirers enter it. can be the only foundation for the former. and only those who are not yet pious stay in it ? This may still be said. 165). to humanly speaking. what were they but that true church ? In this Speech also it is pointed out not indistinctly (p. how does this agree with the call attributed to Christianity in the " Glaubenslehre" to absorb all other kinds of faith. can it be said that what is here called the true church has ever actually existed in any one instance the priestly When the Apostles of Christ scattered to preach the ? Gospel and break bread in the houses and the schools. But having once disappeared. that cosmopolitan union for communicating and for understanding different faiths would not exist. they exercised office among the laity in the visible church. and less perfect. and not only the more receptive and imperfect. certainly. without injury to its higher unity. however. showed that the imperfect church only springs from the perfect. We that still it will ever exhibit an outward unity. if there has ever been any one instance of the true church it was then. it would be such a cosmopolitan union. it This idea. All naturally existing different characteristics in Christianity would not disappear. and the highest we can wish to see is just such a have no reason to believe peaceful union ot its various types. belonging as to must be developed more fully does to the completion of in the science of ethics. and the true church can never again be found except in that cosmopolitan union.

How often. though it is. be thought of. I mean the regulation. The former evil has doubtless caused far more confusion at various times. confusion. which is that not only do the clergy among themselves estimate themselves by the standard of a creed. all present were attuned for celebrating this sacred meal. there is only so much of the true church munion that as there religious is true life and reproductive development in the existing communions. But if the description of the true church were the immediate association of the more perfect. as happy time when we dare to cast to the table of the and welcome whom a momentary impulse conducts thither. Hence none of the members of the church have attained.EXPLANA riONS. it would need to be understood literally of the church triumphant. inward enter. without exception. in the most natural way. . O . Nay. but the laity also presume to deliver judgment on the clergy by the same standard. they are only attaining. other hand. . with and outward disturbance may Now just put of off how because of the previous preparation it may not be easy to the participation. however. and diminish the full blessing. In it everyone is valued simply according to his present state and attainments. Clearly no one will deny that it would be the finest effect of the whole service. in most larger communions at least. 1 93 work they seek advancement in outward mastery as well as inward power and truth. arises from the other misunderstanding here mentioned. Two reproaches are made here against the present (12) Page 160. for only in it can an absolutely mutual comis without inequality and without progress. Lord everyone Still more . previous meditation and preparation are required on each occasion from the participants. but the latter has always given me a painful feeling of the undeveloped state of the society. a combination of the perfect be opposed who seek nothing beyond the joy of contemplation. There. because everyone is already what he can be. if — very many But this fairest blossom of devoutness is lost. on the previous meditation and preparation. the Lord's supper. this can be nothing but just that cosmopolitan union. a right is acknowledged in the congregation their clergy shall teacli them according to require that to the letter of the creed. and cannot expect to be immediately forwarded in his own peculiar sphere by contemplating extraneous things. on the contrary. the crown of each service. regulation of the church. But if to this combination in its best form. that for our holiest symbol. and unreliable novices aside this caution how we ? It will be a treat all Christians. Is not this way of doing a speaking proof little influence upon the heart we believe the matter itself to be capable.

for example. or at most I require more preposterous the sharper the line is drawn between clergy and laity. for. This state of things is. most pro(13) Page 161. one consolation. It is also the more absurd the more the it. but can myself give This claim. it still is everywhere in the Evangelical Church a free outpouring of the heart. that on this jjoint there can be nothing but improvement. Were all on the same level. when he believes he can judge of the relation of the clergy to it and what religious communications. or as a congregation. if In other matters. The laity are simply those who by them have been formed to piety. who certainly did not wish to be themselves limited by it in their dealings with the laity. to determine myself can rightly judge of my shall be prepared. how it otherwise with doctrine. only For the others it is for the secular clergy is this the chief concern. minent in the Komish and Greek Churches. allowed. may tend to forward its interests. That the principle of . however. I alone if anything is prepared for my use I must be I will. is the to be reminded. but provides through his mandarins that no party swerve from its own creed. only secondary. teaching of the clergy is. tolerates Christianity.194 FOURTH SPEECH. quite necessity. and how far its authority is to preposterous. indeed. First of all they are to live in high religious con- templation. it is peculiarly has had its sole origin with the clergy. and the chief worth is not set on the repetition of fixed formularies as in the Komish or Greek Churches. If the laity. whether singly as patrons of a church or congregation. The clergy thus in their inward association form the true church. while the highest triumph is for some to bec'ome capable of reception into that closer sphere of the religious life. therefore. The letter of the creed apply to the teaching. or combined as state officials. if I am in a position to judge how a doctrine on any subject is to be set forth if it is to be useful to me. it might be easier to suppose an agreement to abide by a common type. the religiousness of which is quite strange to him. decide what accords with the letter of the creed. however. in many respects. Nor is it merely because the distinction between priest and laity is there most pronounced. head of a state personally believes he has by his position justification and qualification for deciding on the creed of another communion. God be thanked. The laity are only through the instruction of the clergy even in a position to understand the letter This preposterousness appears at its height when the of the creed. — The clergy are not limited to the duty in the congregations . The Chinese Emperor. and who therefore stand under continual spiritual guidance. as. There is. I do not require teaching. seeing It is.

has not succeeded.EXPLANATIONS. the latter being declared quite incompatible with the higher religious stage. separate from those who are only being taught in religion. so soon as any religion attains any greatness. because on the one side it enables them to scan the whole circumference of possible subjects of religious communication and presentation. and that Page —A misunderstanding it bears is system an exhibition of the closest connection of the religious principles and dogmas has been and must remain a natural and essential — — part. the most glaring opposition between the two classes had not again appeared. It is their concern. But if they can be injured by what is contained only in scientific terminology. even though. in this regard. they have no need of further witness from any system. it must construct for itself a theology. on the bad state of the clergy. and to assign each its place. As both interests lie quite outside the horizon of all the other members of the church. of which (14) senting the true church. as if systematic theology had its only source in the corruption of religion. or are called in blind zeal by theological dispu- 2 . whereby easier to discover utterances by the precise whether anything that cannot be reduced to this expression is mere confusion or conceals something contrary to the spirit of the whole. it is not to be doubted that is. in other respects. whether they have lost themselves in unseemly conceit of wisdom. on the irreligious vacuity of the cloister life. they should not be affected by anything exclusively bearing on them. should remain the exclusive possession of those who in this particular respect have had a scientific training. more also of its image. I speak only of the false interest taken often by the whole church in the connection of doctrine. And I do not rest on the imperfect result. which can only be fully understood in connection with the whole. The chief point is that the failure is based in the principle. The system as a whole and in its sections. If there is anything in the public or social utterance that immediately injures their pious consciousness. 195 this theory exists in the Catholic Church we should have to acknowledge. Clearly this is based only on that corruption. according to the idea. Elsewhere I have plainly enough declared that. a return to the right way of pre161. the contemplative life is quite separated from the active. Judging the consequences from all Protestantism that has hitherto taken place. then this is just that corruption here shown. here easily possible. and on the other it serves as a critical But here norm for testing it is all religious expression. but. In that case we could only say at most that the attempt to present the true church. In practice the clergy and monastics are often deeply involved in all worldly matters.

196 FOURTH SPEECH. on the greater variety that can be manifested in the same time and space. and for some yet untried art that may favour its development. If now only great church institutions exist. but which. them to the good belief that there are pious theologians and point enough to tions. Still less can they exclude. America seemed to me a marvellously active theatre. more than anywhere else. and where. First. rests on the following reasons. communions as against the great ecclesiastical institutions. is awakened only after such long and painful effort can hardly attain that higher development and free enjoyment. an absolute incapacity can never be acknowledged. though fleeting. nor even suffer to be done. may produce something strong and characteristic. One side only doubtless is — brought into prominence. influence. tants to help in crushing some dangerous man. How beautiful would it be if theologians would begin the change and warn the laity of all kinds against all participation in dogmatic strifes. Yet it remains true that the person in whom religiousness. are freer. In the great bodies either no variety is allowed to grow. The preference. literally as if fellowship. This is difficult to avoid. because they awake less apprehension. This the pious neither could nor should do. at least in an oratorical connection. — If what is piety passing. in the form nearest and most congenial to him. is easy to correct from the preceding explanahere called the true church has no separate manifestation. or discoverable only by close observers. in conse- . or at least reach no clear and com- when attention has to be drawn to greatly depreciated subject. so that outside of his own communion everyone advanced in may be also capable in a certain sense of sharing in the cosmoSimilarly the word decisive is not to be taken politan union of all. They must always look for a time when an element common to all men shall be developed. either being put out the incapable should be quite outside of all religious or keeping out. these germs are all lost. moreover. and are I first less When wrote seldom put in wardship:) by the civil authority. neither is there. that the smaller plete organization. In the religious sphere. in a literal sense. Since they seek to give their presentations of religion the widest and deepest they can let no one depart. for A great preference is here exhibited for the smaller (16) Page 166. points of union arise which cannot long continue. or it is hidden. this. a passing sojourn in the actually existing communion. ecclesiastical societies. This (15) Page 162. Exclusiveness alone is arrange the matter. where everything took this shape. The other leading reason is. an utterly neglected or however.

Smaller parts separate from a greater whole. Now time now This difference has not yet by any means quite disapthis involves onesidedness on the part of both. Similarly we must conclude that if the religious life in its whole variety and fulness would develope in the broad compass of Christianity. our own beloved Fatherland not excepted. and smaller wholes draw together. almost always done. The difference of doctrine has me insignificant. peared. for example. however. either if the Episcopal Church were quite dissolved and scattered among the smaller societies. For those free states. 197 quence. I believe wrongly. that I have been more weaned from the smaller society and have grown more into the larger institution I would not speak so decisively. But the prospect is better since science has advanced and institutions have been founded for the propagation of Christian learning. Disorganizing elements it must surrender to them. and the appears to be come for a more vigorous effort to diminish . more than anywhere else. or if it absorbed them all and existed alone. were to be wished. Unions are freely made and dissolved. and its come to be quite forgotten. so that the institution must be resolved into small societies and from them be again produced. Only one thing is to be lamented— at least so it appears to us from the distance the British spirit has so much taken the upper hand and the German keeps on receding. both great institutions and small societies must exist together as they have a fear that it scientific stability — . They divide themselves. but manifestly cause the smaller at least to disappear. would appear to us.EXPLANATIONS. Since then the development has confirmed the anticipation. outside of Christianity. such a German immigration as would establish an abiding influence. Thus they seek a centre around which to form a greater unity. The freedom of Christian development is so great that many communions. therefore. . Now. it is most evident that it would stand ill with Christianity. no one will ask how this preference for smaller religious societies is consistent with a lively participation in the union of the two Protestant ecclesiastical societies. I thought that. . and from them again it must be enriched and strengthened. The following alone I would add. but there has manifestly been a difference of spirit between the two communions. as the Unitarian. the freedom of the religious life and of the religious society was assured. such a division could not have arisen from motives otherwise so inalways appeared to significant. In England. that would not only make one greater out of two smaller. After this exposition of the matter. In such a breaking up of Christianity there might be would gradually lose its great historical form. Without that.

Wherefore. But even the most extensive care of the poor requires only a secure yearly income. Besides. But I meant that in so far as it believes it must so rely. allowing the organization of the society to take its own course without its guidance. (18) Page 169. this business also can be carried on satisfactorily without any such possession. by complete combination of differences and by friendly proximity. it is to be desired that the state do not interfere in a manner hurtful to the pure effect of these sentiments. On the one side all capital can be better used by private peoj^le. or when this deficiency it a decisive majority of a religious far the defect has its root in the principles society. when there is any positive intermeddliug. influence in forming and guidiug the society. By this complaint I in nowise meant that the state should not in many and in most important things rely chiefly on the power of the religious sentiments and on the agreement of its own interests with their natural working. shows itself in how as it has no ground for withdrawing its trust. it must know that the organization of the society proceeds from the very sentiment. This could better be accomplished by union. (17) — A person who has spolien as urgently as I have done my sermons for once in the fourth collection of moremakingthe whole care of the poor a business of the ecclesiastical association. and on the other this possession adds a foreign element to the pure character of a congregation and introduces an estimate of its members other than the purely religious. it will. respect of It then reserves the right to withdraw this assumption in an individual who does not manifest this working. Other things being equal. be carried on better. inquires But so long of the society and modifies its assumption accordingly. Now this happens without fail. it seemed high time to provide that a recurrence of envy between the two might not render impossible the strong resistance which is becoming necessary against the manifold suspicious endeavours of the Romish Church. and that in the nature of the case only those in whom this sentiment is strongest will have most It must. therefore.198 thec^e limitations FOURTH SPEECH. The state may on the one side assume the religious sentiment of its members and rejoice confidingly in its — working. from which it expects good result. if the congregational tie is secure. indeed. This must oontinue till the result gives ground for lessening the state's confi- . appears to know quite well to what all property and money endowments might be devoted. and the spirit that rules in it embraces an active goodwill for this subject. leave the sentiment free to operate. by a life in freedom more bound and in the bonds more free. Page 166.

except to allow religion to manifest itself as an amusement to which the state is indifferent. and regulates distrust. for ourselves. as if a state would watch more closely the religious society to which the sovereign himself belonged and limit it in its free activity more than any other.EXPLANATIONS. we. the first The second is the opposite case. dence. do by force the contrary. for our present inquiry. . be following consequences. it would have none. Perhaps the church has earlier thought of education than the state." If the church dares to speak and understands its own good. Now in reason this can have no other ground than that the state marvellous phenomenon gives the latter society less confidence. by With the teaching the natural course of things. as such. . leave us our own to care and only omit from yours that for which you think ours will suffice. The religious eduthe whole education of man All training in which the religious society does not. it will " Not so. that no harm arises to the civil community. Even then there seems to be no consistent course. as such. cannot be thought of. will honourably contribute our utmost to their suc- Within our special limits. its conduct towards the others by the greatness of its varying up to complete intolerance. . taking care. The state finds now that there U cess. A state relies on one religious society and accords it a high degree of independence another it watches more closely. but they do not will suflfice me. This case of confidence A in the religious sentiment is. it follows this course with the society in which it exists. it is the same. interest itself. lies outside of its domain. as with other private associations. "I see that you have the institutions for educating the youth. when the state looks point. The state will then say. which is nothing but a continuous education of grown-up people. Applying this now to education. there seem to cation of be the man will never. That this is needed by the state admits of no doubt. and itself decides on its organization." Does the state. I add what fails but will then take them under my guidance. but for all deficiency make your own institutions and reply. of human duties in civil life. as citizens. however. . nevertheless. as for example the academic and higher scientific. and it will feel it an injury even when this gives the doubtful privilege of a certain influence on many things whereon. all the more if it does not proceed naturally from the public life. igr. for no good effect in respect of anything falling within its own sphere from the religious sentiment of its members. the matter here in discussion and the matter to which everything comes back. If a state has this confidence only in one particular form of religiousness. there will be an element in the highest degree undesirable to the church.

200 FOURTH SPEECH. and who think it help of the state in such a manner. two are only (19) Page 269. is exhorted to preach on the sacredness of oaths. it injures the personal freedom of its you may members where it is holiest and most inviolable. while our society in that state must observe a discreet silence.." And if the state gives no heed to these representations. be many among them may also be who. are troubled in conscience about swearing. properly belongs to the second. done. How can to religious get over the literal interirreligious to come to the it be that such an injury very painfully ? These fuller explanations. I must prescribe to you what you are not to forget to speak of. for we cannot assist. and in respect of history it is repugnant to us. An injury has here also been inflicted. and what you shall recall from history at fixed times. Of the three points here lamented. days are alike to us. however. fearing the plain prohibition of Christ." certainly say. but the great church. '' I will make use of your teaching. burdensome because they witness to the dependence of the church or the state. sure that it But to the make completely reaches my purpose.. it is to be hoped. There may. to recall joyfully certain days when you were victorious over another state. "By no means. make the same your honour and to your shame. teaching of this kind in the exercises and utterances of the religious It willingly resolves to spare an society existing in its midst. The religious society is pleased to render this service to the common good. the taking of oaths. . institution of its own for this object. specially favoured by the state. but state says. but for that special purpose make another arrangement. if it dare. Both and we must. in our own way. that the state should employ what is useful to it in the arrangements of the church only in so far as consists with uninjured freedom should not be felt freedom. The third matter here mentioned. The sacred acts of baptism and solemnization — . With this use well be content. use both of what is to and should rejoice on other days and which we again must pass over. when you were defeated. but is specially mentioned because of the special manner in which the state brings the church to its aid. for example. and I must make arrangements to know is actually The church will then. will justify the wish expressed in the text. for there would then be much teaching that this not belonging to our department. and its members must take them in the prescribed manner or lose all the privileges involved. The different small societies of non-swearers are allowed a simple aflBrmation instead of an oath. and among the teachers there many who cannot pretation of those words.

but only by a great difference of form in all those concerns that relate to the connection of church and state. This might well happen. how often must they. There are these imperfections inseparable from a young . should begin early to protect the freedom of conscience of the children even against the parents. would remain unbaptized. If the example of the free states in the other hemisphere alone were considered. while the strife about the right of exclusion from the congregation would be spared. as servants of the state. In Protestant Europe only the grossest would be outside. no one could regard baptism as merely a legal formality. it does not appear that this would be a misfortune. and everything in the condition of the church charged as consequences of what is here postulated. who set no great store on the fellowship of the church. though with us such an anti-Christian zealotism would be very rare. quite against their conviction.EXPLANATIONS. seeking to guard them against the religious negligence of their parents or guardians. many civil qualifications with admission to In many instances it demands attestations of this act. it would soon appear that marriages are best where a special value is set on this additional outward consecration. the point between.^ These complaints appear plainly arise. as is the case in North America. of all. in the name of the state. the state it but capable of remedy. Kather it would have the advantage that the Christian church would not appear responsible for the lives of the grossest men. An Evangelical is. accompanied occasionally by a And if the marriage contract were first concluded stately speech. of marriage are 201 first made to appear as done by the clergy. If inscription in were a purely civil act. But to hinder the real loss that would hence . But the worst Christian state unites the sacrament. the civil register purely civilly. and the blessing of the church were purely an act of the members of a congregation. But how much are the consciences of pious clergymen burdened./ should not be required to impose baptism by force. for the continued participation in divine service would sooner or later supply what they had lost at that time when confirmation As in the American free states it might usually takes place. Even were a great number of baptized Christians to remain all their lives without participation in the other sacrament. it would unquestionably be unfair. They would then have no link with the church. declare religious instruction and closer supervision at an end. It acts with the best intention towards the youth. Without question this is one reason why the way they are carried out betrays so little of a Christian or indeed of a religious character. furthermore happen with us that the children of Christian parents.

confesses its adherence to any one religious society. which have anew proclaimed the Catholic religion to be the religion of the state. to require that its citizens belong to some one ? Let it be granted that irreligious men are neither society state. The south European states. as such. — legal or civil relations is matter. be able for many generations of tranquillity to adhere without harshness and injustice to this system. be made religious by being compelled to confess adherence to any one religious society ? is Manifestly the only way to make irreligious men to strengthen the influence of religious men really religious upon them as much as possible. In the former case. will not. Such a transaction is not a state's confession. even though their position is favourable and Protestants are only found scattered as clients. which rests on a very meagre . — With this exposition. or even if it believes it can require all its members to belong to some society. But if adherence to one is now a passing state of things. and very dissimilar population that Lave been gathered from all quarters.202 FOURTH SPEECH. the rest being only clients and strangers. This freedom they will never feel (21) till those intermeddlings cease. That in (20) Page 170. if a law declares thai only in one church is there the greatest fulness of that sentiment which can maintain this state and be the fullest security against all its possible foes. all that is essential in the government of the state falls to the adherents of one society. and it does not seem as if. it would follow that the whole maintenance of the would be entrusted only to the members of this society. and we must wish that it may long continue. is it a right maxim for the without deciding which. nor to be relied upon. which will be thrown off without the necessity of essential change in these matters. But even in Catholic countries such a state of matters no longer exists. Page 172. It is quite different when. For this end the state cannot work more effectively than by allowing all the religious societies within its domain to operate with the fullest freedom. But would they profitable for the civil union. without law and in consequence of the natural effect of public opinion. requires no further discussion. especially if it clergy and the members of the congregation. Yet it appears as if this complaint would never be all religious doings the predominance of a departure from the original nature of the occasions pecuniary transactions between the removed so long as a state. in the present position oE affairs. In the present state of social relations this can only continue as a law where state the great body of the people belong to that society. a state would easily be able to confess absolute and undivided adherence to one religious society.

and here every one has an easy choice. Exceptions are rare. speaker's decision on the much discussedquestionof therelationof state and church to what in the widest sense of the word is called school. I can no longer agree. and the cultured also must be capable of division of hearers in guidance by a thoroughly popular diction. 203 experience. ties. religious according to the dominant type are If.EXPLANATIONS. In part the state may continue to rely on the religious associations. besides what it confides to the church. selecting the presentations of religion that can strengthen and quicken him. on this point. it is indeed not to be denied that the differences of the audience must be contained in very narrow limits. our present state would be tolerable enough. or influenced by understanding and reflection. It will always be found that in whole districts. Only in great cities could elements so different be brought into a small compass. and on the other hand all religious orators strove only after true popularity. or more linked to history. It is only a different kind of imperfection when one man speaks better for the But in the second people and another for the higher ranks. that in a multitude united in other matters and woven together in a common life. That the state. and those who are not world in great cities less religious altogether. It is affectation that chooses either expressions or combinations of thought unsuited to the majority. This contention shows the is here regarded as absolutely necessary. therefore. But all true eloquence must be popular throaghout. in respect of mental type. . And first. must provide an educational institution of its own. and indeed so marvellously different that on the one side they are not strong religious society of their own. all the flowers of speech are to be expended. place. But suppose the people are considered in relation to the different forms of religion afterwards mentioned. be it for (22) — the younger generation or for the less educated portion of the people. according to unequal enjoyment of a religious utterance on the demands made above. at least. enough to form a and on the other they are so markedly singular that they cannot appropriate a religious utterance of another type. but by the consciousness of imperfection in the artists. the religious life has been prevailingly mystic. we must have very different religious peculiarities. through many generations. Page 174. the easy selection of the gay were not troubled by narrow partiality for the ministrants. But it must be a wrong assumption. A respect of capacity is not required by the nature of the subject. if a religious utterance is to have a large and happy result. in respect of capabiliit appears as if the people and the cultured would have a verywliich.

it may But everything statisrely on the church school for those objects. there is also in the discipline for life. and neither by the state nor by the scientific bodies. it Yet and their institutions. for it cannot and. either being maintained by the state or being independent bodies. the state may rely on the work of the If families. innst be content to exercise only a negative supervision over For the rest it is the duty of the state to arrange awaking homes a uniform Where there is any kind of religious association. this feeling is not sufficiently diffused. church. it is This is religious speech and the the church parish school. But to acknow- . the state must make public academic in education is of this kind. attainments that belong to the sphere of science and learning. ecclesiastical and the civil school may for some good reason be united in one institution. The proper feeling of its necessity taming sensuality. is All that in all that bears creed. All other sciences are foreign to the church. Has the state confidence that an effective communication of moral ideas and the germ-s of mental development will be given at the same time. technical and such like is foreign to the church If the ecclesiastical and the civil community are identical. needs an institution to maintain and encourage such attainments. it must not come from the church.204 FOURTH SPEECH. for comprehending there exist in the state. for transmitting and among Protestants for some small understanding at least of the Scriptures. which if way useful for the civil But being universally diffused. The church may intendence of neither found a claim on this union to general superscientific institutions. mathematical. there must be common instruction of the youth provision. Further. every religious fellowship that has a history its development. tical. should not even appear to proceed from the church. it may find it expedient to unite with them its own But the expediency must be determined by the special academy. wherever a system of religious communication exists. than the church to conduct the civil. being quite foreign to it. Suppose requiring. In Christendom properly upon understanding the religious ideas. These are the principles then on which church and state are to act together or act apart. Finally. nor give up its right to manage its own academy. academies for general science. that the of the higher spiritual be not hindered. the school. not as elements of the religious but of the civil society. is in every the state requires a special discipline to produce certain habits in its citizens suited to the time. But the state no more acquires the right thereby to conduct the ecclesiastical school. This is the church academy. care. and suppose the church has confidence that their methods are suited to its requirements.

it is seldom possible safety.EXPLANA TIONS. the present curious position of affairs would not have come to pass. appears even in North America where the church is in case they freedom and to escape. the more lamentable complicaarising from this dependence of the church on the state. I stand firmer. right.land. though spread over many the more marked is states. while the Evangelical Church is referred to a changeable and often doubtful good will. is It is. Within these limits.— This rejection of the same faith and of all religious associations. and the independence of the church from the state. The more of these transactions there are the more it will seem that a churchcommunion in one state becomes the church of the. The less These complications were the kind so rapidly came to grief on the least is private society. of all closer connection among the (24) Page 174. tions I see and in this view I Nay. is 205 ledge these principles towards one church and not towards another the worst possible inconsistency. all existing relations are permissible. and it belongs to comhave all had historical pleteness that at some time and place they On the contrary. therefore. ledge of that the state treat the religious societies like any other As a general principle of association it takes know- them and puts itself in a position to interfere should cherish anything prejudicial to the common With this least. as freest. only in Since I wrote this I have . That appears even where the church is freest. existence. that in lands almost entirely Protestaut the Catholic Church is well endowed and secured. Every further union of church and state should be regarded as a private agreement for the time being. may appear an undivided whole. It must necessarily pain the slighted church that incurable disagreement should arise between their religious and their political feeling. for the only thing of dominant tendency of the time. still stand firm. the more a communion. ! — thought of then. The less there are. Now even though they may have no possessions except the most absolutely necessary means for meeting together. Had this and no other relation existed between church and state at the time of the Reformation. there are difficulties of settlement in which the state is the natural arranger and umpire. rests congregations solely visible on the presupposition that every existing church is only a appendage as of the true church. so far the presupposition right. The freer the churches are the easier it happens that some dissolve and some combine. what transcends these limits is of evil. and becomes more divided from its brethren in the faith in other states. Yet it is impossible that the church should be without any union with the state. Well said of every such relation (23) Page 174. however.

they seem either by the state commisecclesiastical. The congregations cannot. creeds. A constitutional priestly government becomes only the Catholic Church. Herein are contained the principles for determining in different circumstances the firmness or the freedom of the bond. for they cannot judge of communicate to them the ability to judge the question. Otherwise it would be necessary to wait on and on and no beginning would be possible. or literary and friendly. In part also. depends still more on the presupposition religion. I have lately declared myself more fully. life in ment that is our time soon conducts to the view that every improveto succeed must be ushered in from all sides at once. ness those who must worth in upheld where the spirit of piety in the congregations can be assumed. The last assertion ventured in this passage.2o6 FOURTH SPEECH. In part I have abandoned the presupiDosition. The foundation stone of that church is the higher personal religious worth of the priests. and that it is 'good to strengthen as much as possible their influence on the rest. enjoy in the blessings of the church. But according to my view the sole warrant for such closer combinations is that the participators are members of the true church. that the congregation still require to be led to This could only be done on condition of the most complete spontaneousness. By observation and joyful experience I have shown myself a zealous defender reached the conviction that truly believing and pious persons exist in adequate number in our congregations. Where synodal unions consist purely of the clergy. only by their mediation. in which the distinction between occasion priests and cannot be permanent.re regarded as having come forth from the congregation. that there should be no outward bond between teachers and congregation. Who is then to impose this outward bond V Neither the state nor a corporation of the clergy. This involves that men should in many respects be treated as if they already were what they ought to be. Hence this bond can only be entered on and first On the limits of the binding power exercised by (25) Page 175. and purely consultative. and where those who can guide and limit this judgment p. This result naturally flows from well-ordered combinations. if this spontaneousis to exist. though with special reference to the Evangelical Church. is only to serve the Wherefore. rather than and constitutional. I could only defend and laity a constitution that rested on this equality and any other in the Evangelical Church there could never be. of synodal government which is manifestly included in this rejection. and sion first its their share principle that the laity. I here call this bond unholy — .

little altered. even when they cannot lead in public religious assemblies. and if the restrictive treatment of our universities and our open — spiritual intercourse is longer continued. abundance underlies the maxim that teachers Of of and even teachers the church. existed in the greater part of Germany. when it is 207 regarded in the ordinary way. Yet how the matter will turn is still not much clearer. Than an unbelief religion. that if an Evangelical Church is not soon put in a position in which a fresher public spirit can be developed in it. occasion declare that he sees them as a testimony against those who heed them not. This limitation will seem to many too narrow. clerical order. has since become much more general and definite. should be bound by the letter It is unbelief in the power of the common when men are not convinced that alien elements in individuals will not. when men do not believe that every time has naturally its own fitting interpretation is force word of Christ of it. It is unbelief in the power of the and of the Spirit that declares Him. profound and extensive cultivation of the mind. by the living power of the whole. It can never again befall us that the spirit The Sacred Scripture itself has of prophesy should become dumb. and a rich inward experience may very well exist where the theological erudition. spirit in unbelief nothing is more unholy to the pious. be either assimilated or enveloped and made harmless. of a written confession. spiritless Dominion of the dead sectarianism from below will From their collision a whirlwind will arise that will drive the outstretched net of Jesuitism. Living piety and liberal courage will ever more and more disappear from the letter from above and uneasy approach. and I am still of this opinion. and many deaden and weary the great masses to utter indifference. The feeling that ecclesiastical matters as they then (26) Page 176. but believe external required to cast it out.EXPLANA TIONS. Should such gifts be limited in their religious working to the narrow circle of the domestic life ? Could not and should not such men. could not continue as they were. and still exist. The signs but everyone should on every that proclaim this are clear enough helpless souls into . of theology. that is the essential condition of the oflBce of church teacher. the hopes we cherished will be fruitless blossom. yet work by the living word in freer. wider circles ? Should not the enormous influence — A . and will retain it only by the power of free and not by outward sanction. when they believe we must adhere to the production of another age. This alone can be foreseen. (27) Page 178. is wanting. and the fair dawn of the recent time has only betokened storm. and application obtained belief its position.

coming from the inmost depths of a reflective mind. all that. or from the stimulating power of a life. and the domestic and social life in which no trace of a decisive religious character appears. formulas and theological disputes. First. First. they are manifestly a desecration. but have rather produced and cherished what is morbid. yet not aiming at forming a congregation. Among us a large proportion of them has been composed by laymen of all classes. be good that has not all the qualities demanded by Many of those productions would doubtless have long perished. Nay. Two circumstances assist. Nay. as free sociableness. in short conventicles. it is an entirely different question whether everyone should venture a general censorship. for what is to have attraction and effect is the subjective apprehension of universally known objects and . Here. it is diff'erent. It is a duty hitherto neither sufficiently understood nor sufficiently If it were. then. Secondly. and been forgotten.2o8 FOURTH SPEECH. indeed. whether relations. between the interest taken in religious exercised. to communicate his religious views and sentiments in this way and it would be expedient that it should happen often is very much to be doubted. it would certainly be a great evil if the clerical order were to possess a monopoly. Even superior talent falls more easily into mediocrity. Otherwise there can be nothing but mediocrity. it does not seem to me consistent with the spirit of the Evaagelical Church. which the former are not. have passed into church use. that have never contributed much to the advancement of religion. had they required to maintain . particularly among the higher and more refined circles. nobly active. With religious songs. every hymn book has only a very limited sphere. there could not possibly be such a marked contrast in a great part of Germany. exceeding the limits and the nature of the social life. But larger assemblies. is a great sphere for the pious sense. Many that a severe judge would call only mediocre. Only a high degree of unaffected originality. links itself naturally to the domestic life. in respect of religious influence by the written word. or a true inspiration. them? which they can obtain through the written word be pointed out to To this I have a twofold answer. most resembles the family connection. are always miserable half and between affairs. and here much may absolute publicity. that they should exercise But while there should be the greatest freedom. can succeed. The harm from the flood of mediocre romances and children's books may very well be compared with the harm from the mass of mediocre religious writings. and have attained thereby a kind of immortality. The work of exhibiting there the character of a liberal-minded religious life is not insignificant.

He is or less. has harmony and .EXPLANA TIONS. Secondly. and by the liturgies that assign the work of the poet its right place in a larger connection. The author does not produce the effect alone. 209 themselves as pure literary works. everything that has the supported by the composer by whom. more same metre and is known to all effect he is supported by the congregation who put their piety into the execution. . in tlie public use of hymns so many other things assist.

That is past all doubt. of reverence. but in vain you attempt to depreciate one all Man love who drinks in the greatest for his nourishment. exalted above all imperfect endeavour. You cannot despise when you see man in this supreme moment of human existence and the clenr beam is reflected in its purity upon you. responsive to the Universe and one with it. because of the contrast between the limited powers and the infinite undertaking.FIFTH SPEECH. activity and culture. And were it even possible for you to find some- thing ridiculous in virtue itself. THE RELIGIONS. you must honour the virtuous who. you still could not deny esteem to one whose organs are open to the Universe. withhold this feeling. but even the most beautiful feeling of equality you cannot The entertain towards a person so far exalted above you. even against your will. when he sees it. who is far from strife and opposition. according as he goes with you or against you in the narrow path of. . Your wisest men say that. in closest fellowship with the highest must be for you an object of esteem. You may despise all whose minds are easily and entirely filled with trivial things. No one capable of understanding such a state can. all seeker for the Highest Existence in the world stands above who have not a like purpose. You may him or hate him. nay. in accordance with the laws of the moral nature. endeavour to determine finite concerns by infinite require- ments.

religion when it has resigned its infinity often in sorry form. the same form of heavenly beauty that I have tried to depict is to be sought in them. howat this state of things. a new present I would. holier than the tenderest tie of In short. . essentials esteem is too often refused. for I leave the matter itself to work upon you. coherence of this indwelling capacity with all that is sublime and godlike in our nature^ have stimulated you to an I Nor do ask whether intenser study of our nature and possibilities. so much misjudged. the all-fashioning Worldfar than Spirit. higher any earthly fellowship. Yuu would. . At God that has become flesh I would show you and appeared. has compelled you to adoration. among men I would have you discover religion in the religions. and impure. and have recognized from thence. I do not ask whether all religion. I also pass the question. in friendship. its infinity. are as many creeds and conseems inseparable. even the holy of holies of fellowship. in that nobler fellowship of' spirits. I have something else to deal with. as soon as it is freed from distort- my thoughts on the ing drapery. conduct you opposition to vanquish. but I am sure of the its power of the subject. Glancing earthly you might easily believe that my judgment on the plurality of the church must also be my judgment on the plurality of religion. wherein everyone freely surrenders himself. whether you have taken the higher stand- point I showed you. p 2 .THE RELIGIONS. The divisions of the church and the difference of reThe connection ligion are almost always found together. that he may regard himself as a work of the eternal. not regarding the glory of his self-will^ nor the exclusive possession of his deepest. There fessions as churches and religious communions. religion I have 211 But whether the picture of tlie nature and of the life of drawn has claimed your esteem I do not Because of false conceptions and devotion to noninquire. Though they are always to the . its divine power. as it were. most secret individuality.

a uniform whole. and become identical with it. is not necessary and un? avoidable. plurality of the churchy but my argument presupposed the I showed from the nature of the case plurality of religion. the quicker would visional. differing only in number and size. entirely mistake my opinion. and forming. but that the actual connection should have larger development and ever approach the highest. that all distinct partition should disappear. but that it must organize itself in manifestations of varying degrees of resemblance. this fellowship with all believers which I consider indispensable for every religious man. would be merely proThe more successful its work. that religion is not dismembered and scattered in parts by random among men. Nor can tbese difi'erent manifestations of religion be mere component parts. it must itself be of a definite kind. is based iu That no man can perfectly possess all religion is easy to Men are determined in one special way. The church. if Now if there is the most marked difference not everywhere plurality of religion. if it is not that everyone may seek in it religion in the form best fitted to awake the germ that lies asleep in him ? And if this germ can only be fertilized and made to grow by ooe definite kind of influence. Kecall . the universal unity. I condemned the ever. religion is see. have never contemplated.212 FIFTH SPEECH. But it must be equally evident endlessly determinable. In that case every one would by naturahprogress come to belike his Such religion as he acquired would change neighbour. Not only did I hold that all should be one indivisible whole in spirit and sym- pathy. that in the church all rigid outline should be lost. when combined. into his own. it why should the true church need to be one Is not that everyone in the religion of others may see and share what he cannot fiud in his own ? And why should the visible church be only one. it end — a view of the institution I I therefore find that multiplicity of the religions the nature of religion.

' ' But religion. but in either case you will have to admit that. though it be distorted. Each separate religion claims to be such a distinct form revealing religion. I said that the religion of a person. and we must see whether it is agreeable to this principle. but also by the unholy hand of sacrilegious men. These differences you may call kinds or degrees of religion. we must find it. not only in the individual but also in the Did the society not contain a principle to indisociety.. This multiplicity is necessary for the complete manifestation of religion. By no amount of regarding the Universe as chaotic and discrete can the higher view be attained. vidualize itself. assumes the utmost unity of the church. it could have no existence. as in every similar case. is that every society existing in space and time is thereby limited and losing in depth what it gains in breadth. It must seek for a definite character. The only reason. is not a mere continuation of the view of tlie person who only sees the world in its apparently hostile elements. therefore. Though the difference be hidden under strange disguises. not only by the unavoidable influence of the transitory to which the enduring has condescended. be the uniformity of just diiference that should be ^ ' brought into fellowship. falls to pieces. exactly by its multiplicity. divides itself is . cannot It is religious persons. however. THE RELIGIONS. to whom the world reveals itself as a living whole. fellowship. Would you then understand it as . the forms in which an infinite force usually characteristic and different. We must make clear to ourselves wherein it is peculiar. Wherefore. Its limit. Hence we must assume and we must search for an endless mass of distinct forms.^ You are manifestly right when you believe that the church can never inactuality be completely and uniformly one. 213 the several stai^es of religion to which I drew your attention. To be satisfied with a mere general idea of religion would not be worthy of you. plurality of religions is another thing than The essence of the church is plurality of the church.

For you. as thing that has ever. you must abandon the vain and foolish wish that there should only be one religion . even to the careless glance. offensive. proclaims what it really is. The so- called natural religion is usually so much refined away. very marked physiognomy. been developed in its advancing career. If you have now. pugnance to religion generally. I do not hesitate to say at once that from the heart I enFor all who have religion at tirely deny this superiority. ^ would you compreliend an endlessly progressive work of the Spirit that reveals Himself in all human history. as candidly as possible you must approach everyreally exists and* displays itself. to whom religion generally is have always considered this preference natural. For my own part. that little of the It understands so peculiar character of religion appears. . as I hope. in the changing shapes of humanity. They would thereby fall into the openest self-contradiction. If you see that a peculiar and can be put up with anywhere. well to live itself that it in reserve. all and profess to love it. from the ever fruitful bosom of the spiritual life. I I would consider that I had lost my pains. and has such metaphysical and moral graces. a better estimate of religion. so that its every movement. you have always borne more easily with what for distinction is called natural religion. If this is the true ground of your dislike. The Despite of your re- the object of a quite pre-eminent hate. to restrain and to accommodate Every positive on the contrary. it should be no longer necessary for me to contend against it. it would be the vilest inconse- quence to admit it. you must now rid yourself of it. you must lay aside all repugnance to its multiplicity .214 it it FIFTH SPEECH. different existing manifestations of religion you call Under this name they have long been positive religions. You have almost spoken of it with esteem. has certain strong traits and a religion. if I only succeeded in recommending to you this natural religion. indeed.

You may transfer all the reproaches you have formerly been accustomed to bestow on religion in general to the single You may maintain that there are always. the occasion and the justification of those reproaches. by elements they should as true. that hold all their adherents to the same type and You the same word. must. be it with art and understandiug. must not a principle of corruption lie deep in their You will remind me that each one proclaims constitution ? that it alone is the highest. according to of my own statement. of course. exactly in proportion as you esteem religion and acknowledge its importance. You full would show me how. this element that you call positive. without exception. withdraw the freedom to follow their own nature and compress them in unnatural limits. must be educated. 215 noble capacity of man underlies religion.THE RELIGIONS. a capacity which. do much they not show themselves quite contrary to the nature of true religion ? You would add that. But you may not admit this argument. or with weapons stranger and more unworthy. and that what is peculiar to it is absolutely Are they not distinguished from one another y as possible eliminate ? In disproving and contending. I do not deny that misunderstandings and perversions exist in all religions^ and I raise no objec- . Once more I say. therefore. and that in consequence the positive religions cannot be as I have sought to represent. just in religions. Con- sequently. In contrast. you must take a lively interest in seeing that it everywhere enjoys the greatest freedom to cultivate itself on all sides. most definite forms in which it has yet Rather you must the more willingly grant a in the it form your attention the more there is developed in the characteristic aud distinctive elements of religion. the natural manifestations of the true religion. 5^ou would praise mightily the superiority in all these points of the natural to the positive religions. they are what. hate keenly those definite religious forms. it cannot be offensive to you to regard it appeared. is not religion.

Though it may loDg ago have degenerated into a long series of empty customs. the true faintest. has to accept I ? must take care not to attempt anything systematic or complete. each religion be in one of the special forms which mankind. and not the Yet you must not be allowed to business of a discourse. tions to the dislike witli whicli the^^ inspire you. find that this dead dross was once the molten out- pourings of the inner fire ? Is there not in all religions more or less of the true nature of religion. and however much the : thereby. and the eternal. Na}^ I acknowledge there is in them all this mnch bewailed de- The generation. And however deep-rooted this corruption religions may be. Acknowledge that much of it is unavoidable as soon as the Infinite. Consider how much of this corruption is due to those who have dragged forth religion from the depths of the heart into the civil world. as I have presentedrit~to jou ? Must at not. judged I invite religiously. or admiringly cherish its excrescences. this divergence into alien territory. every name and a character. by descendiug into the sphere of time and submitting to the general influence of finite things. wander at hazard in this endless chaos. And you would find more you to religion that has a study every faith professed by man. takes to itself a narrow shell. of the earth some region and some stage of development. for that would be the study of a life. into a system of abstract ideas and theories. when you examine the original elements at the source.2 1 6 FIFTH SPEECH. and to reverence even the you cannot omit what has the justest claims to be than remote traces of the Deity. consider this also if the proper religious view of all things is to seek even_^in things apparently common and base every trace of the sufi'ered may have divine. That you may not . diviner religion itself is. the less would I embellisli its corruptions. But forget for once this one-sided view and follow me to another. will you not. therefore.

In this sense is but one religion. but quite Now this difference alone is felt and alone differently. that you may a right standard the true content and essence by of any religion . can be exhibited while the reduction of only thought. sorry. They are corresponds to no only a vague. poor thought that in the reality.THE RELIGIONS. The whole of ness ^ religion is nothing but the sum of all relations of man to N/ God. forget the characteristic attributes of single religions and seek. and the sacred from the profane. if all these relations did not exist wherever religion ought to be. a general view of how the essence of a positive religion is to be comprehended and determined. You will then find that the positive religions are just the definite forms in which religion must exhibit itself a thing to which your so-called natural religions have no — claim. all differences is You that is natural to are wrong. and you will find that positive religions alone a true individual cultivation of the Nor do they. injure the freedom of their adherents. if it is the same for all. the native from the borrowed and extraneous. by their nature. which will necessarily . relations of man to occupy a place there must be in these the whole a nearer and a farther. apprehended in all the possible ways in which any| there man_can_be immediately conscrous in His life. from the centre outwards. with your universal religion all. therefore. for no one will have his own true and As long as we right religion. be misled by the estimate 217 false ideas that prevail . that you may have some definite and sure procedure for separating the inner from the outer. Yet all men will not by any means apprehend them in the same way. for it would be but a povertystricken and halting life. have I assumed that religion can only be given in a great multitude of forms of the utmost definitefully Why ? Only on grounds that naturally follow from what has been said of the nature of religion. religious capacity is possible.

In short. This is an entire misunderstanding religions. this view can only be verified by the existing historical religions. a definite form of religion. of the nature of the different Even among their adherents it is general. they must have the same body of religious views and feelings. The peculiarly characteristic and individual element in a religion is not easy to find with certainty from instances. and this common possession must be the essence of their religion. _and what. of every relation are actually given. and that such is not their relation to one another. Their fellow-believers must have the same opinions and the same faith as they have. is common to all. eacli feeling differently in eacli life. holds them together. they must be true individuals. and of them it is maintained that all this is different. are implied in what has been already said. if you believe that it consists in including a definite sum of religious intuitions . determine festly then. but. when all those different views its ' This is not possible. They must except ^ 1 be determined adequately by a different principle of reference to the others. the whole of religion can be present only. They suppose that because so many men acknowledge the ^ same religion. their coaipoaent parts. however general the idea may be. no single relation can accord to every feeling due. First. It requires the sum of them. on the other hand. What ^ determines and distinguishes these individuals. Again. and is their principle of adliesion. whereby any given detail is to be adjudged to its own type But of religion. in an endless number of different forms. and causes manifold opposite and false judgments. and in each the same religious element must be characteristically modified. Manifor others. every man lias greater receplong tiveness for some religious experiences and feelings than In this way everything is different.218 FIFTH SPEECH. in the same degree. This we must now examine. a definite quantity of religious matter is not necessarily. as as we are individuals. Hence.

quantity of religious matter that may arrive at consciousSome views may set and others may rise and come to clearness. which in the individual is so changeable. according as it stands related to the rest. long beside one another. they continue to exist apart. they could certainly not be the individual manifestations we seek. 219 and feelings. It is evident that the different religious perceptions and feelings are not. and his religion in this respect is ever influx. of every relation different views are possible. by the most various combinations. If now. to Hence. tossed together without regard to number. in the religion of any one man. as you know. for.THE RELIGIONS. each can lead. and it can never lead to the character of any one religion to regard thcDi as a mere heap./)!^ can the boundary. the elements of religion. nothing is more accidental than the Even ness. such an idea must be possible. how would we be helped by such a compendium of some of them that could define none ? If the positive religions were only distinguished by what they exclude. you are in error. even less j Much . however. as each exists for itself. That this is not their character. Very soon each would supplement itself into uniformity with all others. awakened by one another or interdependent. kind or purpose. difi"erent religions could not continue every other.only what commingles in fact is inseparable in . be permanent and essential in the religion of several associated individuals. religion needs to be of many types because. in a determinate way. as it is fashioned in the course of life. Now. As idea. Single perceptions and feelings are. appears from the impossibility of arriving from this point of view at a distinct idea of them. In the highest degree it must be an unusual and accidental occurrence that. as I have sought to show. and that as a consequence the positive religions are prejudicial to the freedom of the individual in the development of his own religion. if they were not otherwise distinguished.

it would be a sect. But the forms which history has produced and which are now All secactually existing are not wholes of this sort. and necessarily of only one short period of his life. for reaching a system and determinate series of feelings. binding exactly these elements together and excluding all others. and what to separate as free and accidental . they do not understand the religion in which they live and for which they presume to fight and they contribute to its degeneration. and nature sustains what their false reflections and the doing and striving that flow from them would destroy. or ascetic. for bringing single intuitions tarianism. men remain in the same circle of and advance along the same path of feeling. Except by taking the religious experiences of one single person. but an arbitrary section of the whole . labours for the utmost uniformity among all who would share the same fragment of religion. as the norm for a societj''. among those who determine their religion in this way. Fortunately the instinct they do not understand. they do not find the point from which the whole can be surveyed . it could hardly arise." perceptions Hence. there is a standing quarrel about essentials and nonessentials. several . they consciously grasp only the detail. If the character of any special religion is found in a definite quantity of perceptions and feelings. They do not know what is to be laid down as characteristic and necessary. A not agreeable whole of this type would not is common but be what we seek to give religion in its whole compass a de- terminate shape. it would not be a religion. guides them better than their understandings.220 FIFTH SPEECH. into a philosophical coherence. for. Those who are infected with this mania certainly do not lack activity. It would not be a whole. must be assumed. be it speculative. This false notion agrees well enough with the way of comparing is religious conceptions that to the spirit of religion. while for a little time. and if they have never . some subjective and objective connection. they are influenced by the whole.

embrace a mass of very different individuals. To find the character of individual beings. 221 succeeded in reducing any one positive religion to a sect/ you will have to acknowledge tbat the positive religions must be formed on another principle and must have another character. system and elemental diversity. there are many distinct manifestations of religion belonging to each type. positive religion. that has crept in from the outside. did not convigour centrate and exclude. Therefore religions are not fashioned on this false prinIt is not oue witli their nature. distinct religions. fresh and evident. But those three differences in religion are only the usual division according to the current scheme of unity. so often mentioned. and the need to seek for this individuality is by no means satisfied by the existence It is clear as day that of religion in this threefold way. three ways of being conscious of existence and of its The totality.THE RELIGIONS. . diversity and totality. You only get less general ideas which may. as hostile to them as to the spirit of religion generally. Their relation to it which is a standing warfare. as genus and species. as chaos. it is a corruption ciple. in its You will recall how every' growth and bloom. but expanded and pushed fresh shoots and acquired more religious matter to be wrought up in accordance with its own peculiar nature. They are types of religion but not religious individualities. are very far from being so many single and Divide an idea to infinity if you will. you cannot thereby reach an individual. when its peculiar was most youthful. Just as suflSce little could the general differences of religion to produce a thoroughly definite individual form. You will see this even more clearly by thinking of the times that gave them birth. there must be more than the idea and its attributes. is another proof that they actually are constituted as individual manifestations of religion should be.

They are simply types within — which there have been. ai. and none of the various ways of regarding them are realized. of everything in the mutual relations of men that lies be3^ond each man^s good pleasure. and of ascribing to its phenomena a common object. without the concej^tion of a personal consciousness and will in the various elements nor pantheism. nor deism are single and definite religions. that the only remaining way . Only recently we agreed that this principle antithesis rests simply on a way of regarding the religious feeling. because either the one its or the other thought accompanies them. Neither naturalism"' meaning perception of the world limited to — elemental diversity. cannot be individualities.^ They Just as istic go through all three types of religion and.222 FIFTH SPEECH. nor polytheism. The individual elements of religion are as indefinite. Hence the to fact that any particular religion inclines more one form of representation and expression than to the other^ no more determines its individuality than it would worth and the stage of its development. but of intuition. very many individualities developed. not a thoroughly definite and individual whole. you will find everywhere that all religious feelings. The personal and the pantheistic conceptions. little are the personal and the opposing panthemodes of conception two such individual forms. and there will still be.e utterly indefinite and ambiguous. Perhaps you may seek this further determination by uniting the two modes of conception with the three modes You would reach narrower sub-divisions. Though they desire to be considered quite definite.® genuine Let me say then at once. of the highest unity of mankind. This may be seen in all purely deistic manifestations of religion. for that reason alone.therefore. and especially what is most dwelt on — all views of the movements of humanity in the individual. are only very general forms that may be further determined and individualized in various ways. such as we seek. They are simply another of division. .

it it is formed or what relation is selected. this the others. in a definite way. of the fellowship of all participants and a strictly positive religion. 223 for a truly individual religion to arise is to select some one of the great relations of mankind in the world to the Highest Beings and.'^ for from many equals one is chosen to be head of the rest. is fully realized.0 with their own religion pitch their camp in some . In respect of the sum word that should again be brought to honour it is a heresy. be exhibted only in an endless series of shapes that are gradually developed in different points of time and space. in respect of the peculiarity of the adhereots. only those wh. a distinctive spirit and a common character enter Hereby the whole at the same time. which are all possible and all require to be exhibited.THE RELIGIONS. Single elements are all seen on the oue side that is turned towards this central point. of / of religion can only be actually given in the the forms possible in this sense. to it all make it the centre and refer -religion. it is the purest necessity. In respect of the idea of may appear a merely arbitrary proceeding. By every formation of this kind one of the endless number of different views and different arrangements of the single elements. but. therefore. it is a scbool their relation to the founder of and a discipleship. and the ambiguous and vague pression reach firm ground. we are agreed tkat religion can only be exhibited in and by sucli definite forms. all The whole and nothing adds that everything to its complete manifestation that is not found in one of those forms. It can. as is to be hoped. which makes all the feelings have a com- mon sum tone and a livelier closer interaction. In respect^ however. of the religious elements to use a it is — — their religion who first raised this central point to clear consciousness. Where religion is so moulded is seen and felt in connection with one relation to tbe Deity that mediates it or matters not in what place or in what man embraces it. But if. being the natural exof their character.

They alone can boast of contributiDg to the existence and the progress of the whole. depends entirely on what relation developes in a man as fundamental feeling and middle-point of \ all religions. and.^ must belong to none but should be held bound to produce a new one for Is he alone in it and without disciples. then. I might almost say whosoever is not in a position to make it if he had not found it. FIFTH SPEECH. or some evil-disposed person may ask with guile. I would accepted. you will see that the existing forms should not in themselves hinder any man from developing a religion suitable to his own nature and his own religious sense. on one side belonging by community of type to a kindred. have any fixed abode. . That points. The question of abiding in one of them or of con- structing a religion of one's own. and they alone are in the full sense religious persons. they may evermore develope in countless numbers from all and definitely. Rather. Whosoever does not find himself at home in an existing religion. and the religion of one person any may have a definite form and organization. existing remind him t]iat I have never spoken of two or three definite forms. But many perhaps who take an religion interest in the affairs of may ask with consternation. by no means. largely form is not equally necessary. In my opinion. It is only necessary Provisionally.224 sucli positive form. Everywhere there are germs that cannot arrive at more extended existence. and be quite as genuinely a positive religion as if he had founded the matter. I would say. greatest school. whether every pious person must 'Connect himself with one of the existing forms of religion. on the other being distinguished by persistent and definite traits from everyone else. it does not himself. that his religion be developed in himself characteristically it should resemble any great. if I miglit so well-earned right of citizenship in the religious say. any world. and said that they are to be the only ones.

THE RELIGIONS.
This
is

225

my

provisional answer, bat
that, except

if

he will hear more
it

I would

add

by misunderstanding,

would bo

such a position. A new revery velation is never trivial, and merely personal, but always rests on something great and common. Hence adherents and
difficult to find oneself in

fellow-believers have never failed the
institute a
will

man

really called to

new

belong to

Most men, following their nature, an existing form, and there will be only few
religion.

whom none
Yet

—and
no

suffices.

this is
all,

my

chief

the same for

the

many

authority being are no less free than the few,
point

—the

and do

less

fashion

something

of

their

own.

If

follow any man's religious history, we find first; dim presentiments which never quite stir the depths of the heart,

we

Around every and, being unrecognized, again disappear. in earlier days, they doubtless hover. Some man, especially
hint

may awaken them, and
definite
first

reaching any Afterwards it

they may again vanish without form and betraying aught characteristic. comes to pass t^^at the sense for the
all into

Universe

rises

once for
it

clear consciousness.

One
Here-

man

discovers

in one relation, another in another.

after all things are referred to this relation, and so group themselves around it. Such a moment, therefore, in the
strictest

sense,

hope you
teristic,

will not consider a

determines every man's religion. Now I man^s religion less charac-

less his

own, because

it

lies

in a region where

already several are collected. In this similarity you are not to find a mechanical influence of custom or birth, but,
as you do in other cases, you are to recognize a common determination by higher causes. This agreement is a

guarantee of naturalness and truth, and cannot, whether one is first or last, be hurtful to individuality. Though

thousands before him and after him referred their religious life to one relation, would it, therefore, be the same in all ?

Remember that every definite exhaustless for any one man. In

form
its

of

religion
it

is

own way

should

Q

226

FIFTH SPEECH.
tlie

embrace
not only

so,

whole, a tiling too great for any man. And but in itself there exist endless varieties of
are,

cultivation which

as

it

were,

subordinate types of

work and scope enough for all ? religion. I, at least, am not aware that any religion had succeeded in so taking possession of its territory, and had so determined
Is there not here

and exhibited everything therein, according to its own spirit, that, in any one professor of distinguished gifts and individuality of mind, nothing is wanting to perfection. Only to few of our historical religion has it been granted, even in the time of their freedom and higher life, to develope rightly and perfectly the neighbourhood of the middle-point,

common
are

and, in even a few forms, to give individual impress to the character. The harvest is great but the labourers
few.

An

infinite

field

is

opened

in

each of those
themselves.

religions,

wherein

thousands

may

scatter

Uncultivated regions enough present themselves to every one who is capable of making and producing something of his own.^

The charge that everyone who allows himself to be embraced in a positive religion, can only be an imitator of those who have given it currency and cannot develope himself individually, is baseless. This judgment no more applies here, than it would to the state or to society. It seems to us morbid or quixotic for any one to maintain that he has no room in any existing institution, and that he must exclude himself from society. We are convinced that every healthy person will, in common with many, have
a great national character. Just because he is rooted in it and influenced by it, he can develope his individuality with the greatest precision and beauty. Similarly, in religion

only morbid aberration so cuts off a man from a life in fellowship with those among whom nature has placed him,
that he belongs to no great whole. Somewhere, on a great scale, everyone will find exhibited or will himself exhibit

what

for

him

is

the middle-point of religion.

To every such

THE RELIGIONS.
common
issue

227

sphere
its

we

into detail, in virtue of

ascribe a boundless activity that goes which all individual characteristics

from

bosom.

Thus understood, the church
of us
all.

is

with

right called the

common mother

To take the nearest example, think of Christianity as a form of the hisrhest order. First there is in our time the well known outward division, so definite and pronounced. Under each section there is then a mass of difi'erent views and schools. Each exhibits a characteristic and has a founder and adherents, yet the last development, and most personal development of religiousness remains for each individual, and so much is it one with his nature that no one can fully acquire it but himself. And the more a
definite individual

whole nature, has a claim to belong to you, ye cultured, the more religion must reach this stage in him, for his higher feeling, gradually developing and uniting with other educated capacities, must be a characteristic product.

man, by

his

Or if, after unknown conception and rapid birth-pangs of the spirit, the higher feelings develope, to all appearance suddenly, is not then a characteristic personality born with
the religious life ? There a present and a future.
life is
is

a definite connection with a past,

linked in this

The whole subsequent religious to that moment and that state in way

It thus maintains its this feeling surprised the soul. connection with the earlier, poorer life, and has a natural uniform development. Nay more, in this initial consciousness there must already be a distinctive character. Only in a shape

which

and only under circumstances thoroughly
so

definite, could it

suddenly enter a

life

already developed.

This distinctive

displays and is thus the purest expression of the whole nature. The living spirit of the earth, rending itself from itself as it were, links
character, then,

every subsequent moment

himself as a finite thing to one definite moment in the series of organic evolutions and a new man arises, a peculiar
nature. His separate existence is independent of the mass and objective quality either of his circumstances or his

Q 2

228

FIFTH SPFECH.
It consists in the peculiar unity of the abiding is linked to that first moment, and in the
it

actions.

consciousness that

peculiar relation to Wherefore, in that

moment

which every later moment preserves. in which in anv man a defi,nite
it

consciousness of his relation to the highest Being has, as

were, original birth, an individual reHgious life originates. It is individual, not by an irreversible limitation to a
particular number and selection of feelings and intuitions, not by the quality of the religious matter. This matter all who have the spiritual birth at the same time and in the

same religious surroundings have in common. But it is individual by what he can have in common with no man, by the abiding influence of the peculiar circumstances in which
was first greeted and embraced by the Universe, and by the peculiar way in which he conducts his observation and reflection on the same. This character and tone
his spirit

of the

first

childhood of his religion are borne by the whole

subsequent course of his views and feelings, and are never lost, however far he may advance in fellowship with the
Eternal Fountainhead.

Every intelligent finite being announces its spiritual nature and individuality by taking you back to what I may call a previous marriage in him of the Infinite with the finite,
and your imagination refuses to explain it from any single In the same way prior factor, whether caprice or nature. must regard as an individual everyone who can point you to the birthday of his spiritual life and relate a wondrous tale of the rise of his religion as an immediate operation of He must be characthe Deity, an influence of His spirit. teristic and special, for such an event does not happen to
produce
in the

/

kingdom

of religion vain repetition.^*^
is

Every-

thing that originates organically and

self-contained can

If its origin and individuality only be explained from itself. are not regarded as mutually explanatory and identical, it

can never be quite understood. Thus you can only understand the religious person in so far as you know how to

THE RELIGIONS.
discover the whole in the notable

229

moment

that

began his

higher
life.

or from the developed manifestation can trace back this uniform character to the first, dimmest times of
life,

All this being well considered, it will not be possible for you, I believe, to be in earnest with this complaint against
the positive religions. If you still persist in it, it can only be from prejudice, for you are far too careless about the matter to be justified by your own observation. You have never felt the call to attach yourselves to the few religious

men you might be
attractive

able to discover.

Though they

are ever

and worthy enough of love, you have never tried by the microscope of friendship, or even of closer sympathy, to examine more accurately how they are organized both by and for the Universe. For myself I have diligently considered them, I have sought out as patiently and studied them with the same
reverent care that you devote to the curiosities of nature, and it has often occurred to me whether you would not be
led to religion simply by giving heed to the almighty way in which the Deity builds up, from all that has otherwise

been developed in man, that part of the soul in which He specially dwells, manifests His immediate operation, and mirrors Himself, and thus makes His sanctuary quite
peculiar
fies

and

distinct,
it

Himself in
I,

you only noticed how He gloriby the exhaustless variety and opulence of and
if

forms.

at least,

am

ever

anew astonished

at the

many

notable developments in a region so sparsely peopled as Men are distinguished by all degrees of receptivity religion. for the charm of the same object and by the greatest differ-

ence of

effect,

by the

variety of tone produced by the preponall sorts of idiosyn-

derance of one or other type of feeling, by
crasies

of

sensitiveness

and peculiarity

of

temperament,

the religious view of things nevertheless is perpetually prominent. Again T see how the religious character of a man is often something quite peculiar in him, strongly marked

and

230
off to the

FIFTH SPEECH.
common
eye from everything else shown in his The most quiet and sober mind may be
;

other endowments.

capable of the strongest, most passionate emotions

a sense

most

dull to

common and

earthly things feels deeply even
;

and sees clearly even to rapture and prophecy most timid in all worldly matters testifies even by martyrdom to the world and to the age. And how wonderfully is this religious character itself fashioned and composed. Culture and crudeness, capacity and limitation, tenderness and hardness are in each, in a peculiar way, mixed and interto sadness^

a heart

woven.
I seen all this? In the peculiar sphere of in its individual forms, in the positive religions religion, which you decry as utterly wanting in variety. I have seen
it

Where have

among

for

the heroes and martyrs of a definite faith in a way which the friends of natural religion are too cold, among

enthusiasts for living feeling, in a way they hold as too dangerous, among the worshippers of some new spruug There I will show you them, light and individual revelation.

there at

all

times and

they to be met.

among No man as

all

peoples.

Nowhere

else are

a mere single being can

come

the very fact of existence he is set in a world, in a definite order of things, and becomes an object among other objects, and a religious man, by attaining his
to actual existence.

By

by this very fact into a common life, some definite form of religion. The two things are simply one and the same divine act, and cannot be separated. If the original capacity of a man is too weak
individual
is
life,

enters

which

to say into

to reach this highest stage of consciousness, by fashioning itself in a definite way, the stimulus must also be too weak
to initiate the process of a characteristic
life.

and robust
It

religious

And now
now
i

I

have rendered you

my

account.

is

for

you

in respect of development and indiit stands with your boasted natural religions. viduality, Show me among its professors an equally great variety of
to tell

me how,

THE RELIGIONS.

231

For myself I must confess strongly marked cliaracters. that I have never found among them anything of the sort.

Your boast
its

of the freedom that this kind of religfion sfives

adherents to develope themselves religiously according to their own sense^ seems merely of freedom to remain undeveloped, freedom neither to be, nor to see, nor to feel

anything at

all

that

is

definite.
role.

Religion plays in their
is

mind

as if religion had no no vasculary system, no circulation, and so had no It has no character of its heat, no assimilative power. own, no peculiar presentation. Everywhere it shows itself dependent upon the cast of a man^s morals and sensibility.
far too

wretched a

It

pulse,

In union with them, or rather meekly following them, it moves idly and sparingly, and is only perceptible when it is patiently, and, as it were by drops, separated from them. Many estimable and strong religious characters, indeed, I have met,

whom

the adherents of the positive religions,

not without wondering at the phenomenon, regard as adherents of natural religion. But on closer view they
recognized them

Such persons have the original purity of the always swerved somewhat from
as their confreres.

religion of reason, and have accepted something arbitrary, as it is called, something positive.
distrust everyone who introduces into his religion ? They also

But why do those who respect natural religion any characteristic

at once

feature

would have uniformity, at the opposite extreme from sectariauism, the though uniformity of indefiniteness. So little is any special personal cultivation through the positive religions to be thought of, that its most genuine adherents do not even wish the
religion of

man

to

have any history of
event.

its

own

at all or to

Too much there has been already for their taste, moderation being for them the chief matter in religion, and all who can boast of from the depths of religious emotions issuing suddenly

commence with any notable

the heart, come at once into the evil repute of being in-

The belief in a personal God. truly religious men have never asked. They have a providence in a righteousness in general.232 FIFTH SPEECH. general. by bnlfful entluisiasm. so that the value of everything is perpetually if any common reference to one point. in ordering the elements of their religion. or sustain the desire for changing. on no special way of viewing or comprehending. but how he can demonstrate Thus they assume that he must have reached everyit. Any other and more definite middle. thing by demonstration. natural religion has pre-eminently fallen into the evil of being mixed with metaphysics and morals. nay. now in that. Now Or it is in this perspective and fore-shortening. such as how to remove obstacles from morality. The little that their meagre and attenuated religion does conplation — — tain is of great ambiguity. any one who joins them is not asked how he came to his faith. Hence. then. there is happiness. All must come to There must be them by instruction and education. it is to something alien to religion. that could be regarded as supernatural or even as nothing fected to singular. whereby in any characteristic way men might be aifected. does not unite religious . a divine education in general. I would not say that in making instruction and education everything. that of being changed into them : its adherents have not started from any living self-contem- and allowing nothing to mark their cast of thought. just as they becoine wise and prudent and everything else they should be. By little and little men are become religious. its still more scattered and This natural religion. they have no sure middle-point. and in a personal imthe mortality. or something else about which. more or less anthropomorphic. more or less dematerialized and sublimated two dogmas to which they reduce everything depends. Their scanty religious possessions are thereby dispersed. but this at least is clear. as they know themselves.point you would have difficulty in indicating.

It must be to show that the Yet it is indefinite also can have a certain existence. as it were. The religion of men of this uniformly kind is thus the inarticulate echo of the piety around They them. The epithet was meant to distinguish them from the works of living. and which. Tliose is 233 definite religious no no proper individual it representation in its of religion.THE RELIGIONS. to which they can properly only attain by the power of some force stronger and of a different kind from any they have been subjected to hereMore I cannot ascribe to them than the dim pretofore. were but crude utterances of superficial endowments. sentiments that precede that living consciousness in which religious There are certain life comes to visibility for man. but not enough by any to be swept into exists the its rotation. and are the same in all. they do not esteem it but they oppose more highly because they cannot reach it. conscious imitations. elements by one definite view and form. but are strangers whose home. which is here attracted by one and there by another. plastic science and art. The essence of natural religion consists almost entirely in denying everything positive and characteristic in religion and in violent polemics. They remind one of the liave who thin and dispersed mass said to float between the worlds. originate only in the collective life. The name was applied to such productions as lacked originality. Why it gods may know. it with all their might. At the highest it is natural religion in the sense in which men used to speak of natural philosophy and natural poetry. the hobby of . The better part found only in the productions of the religious societies. fill up the vacant spaces. if indeed they have any. territory no definite profess dwelling. without being clumsy. must be elsewhere. they do not wait for with longing. It is the worthy product of an age. dim impulses and conceptions that have no coherence with a man's individuality and only. only a waiting for existence.

Recall what the poet says of a state of souls before birth. and they are rude and uncultured. and this can only be a fact. from this enlightened natural There everyreligion to those despised positive religions. and subsequently any whicli was wretched in everything This same corruption you will find and sciences. Into religion also it has forced its way. Men would be self-produced and self-taught in religion. If a definite religion V may not begin with an original fact. unconnected impulses. seeing that from it also a school might will. if you are in earnest about beholding CGo religion in its definiteness. strong intuition has its definite content . and its product is this empty formless thing. Suppose someone were to object to come into the world because he would not be this man or that. Hence their resistance to the positive and arbitrary is resistance to the definite and real. and if they should light on anything whereby a religion of their own might be fashioned. and every feeling has its proper sphere and its peculiar You find somewhere every modification of reference. Two things are hated supremely.234 FIFTH SPEECH. back then. but a man in general The ! polemic of natural religion against the positive is this polemic against life and it is the permanent state of its adherents. a commencement in anything extraordinary and incomprehensible. for religion is not a name to be applied to loose. arise. And if a religion is not to be ground definite it is not a religion at all. thing appears active. it cannot begin at all. in all arts Every definite religion they resist because it is a school. tliat which generality and vain soberness was most hostile to true culture. For characteristic production they have neither power nor suggestion of a school. as is common with such persons. every single and its own relation to the rest. and secure. they would be as violent against it. There must be a common ground for selecting some one religious element and placing it at the centre.

and have been glorified Recollect that what is most noteworthy is often dishistorically and religiously tributed among but few. Often it must go about in the form of a servant. You must how it has growth from want of room to and how from childhood it has pined miserably from bad treatment and ill-chosen nourishment. communicated The and child-like longing with which new revelations of heavenly power are expected. do not abide by often been stunted in its exercise its powers.'' in this way. and that nothing has disappeared without leaving a monument. and without fail you will bring forth the heavenly stream to the delusion that it may all light of day. it will ever remain a diflScult business to discover the spirit of the religions and from But when. also the human which is to receive the not forget that religion bears traces of the culture of every age and of the history of every race of men. Do not be scared either by mysterious darkness or by wonderful dazzling grotesque traits. and the element visible from this standpoint shall be overlooked. And if you would comprehend the whole." guarantee that no enjoyed. Dig ever deeper where your magic rod has once pointed. 235 religiousness and every meatal state in which religion can place men. . with each of its effects somewhere complete. displaying in its surroundings Do and in its adorning the poverty of not overlook its home and its disciples. holy zeal with which it is contemplated. Do not admit the be imagination and romance. V eye.THE RELIGIONS. you have wholly and completely within your vision the right object. But regard divine. Common institutions and single utterances alike testify that religion is valued almost to forgetfulness of all else. Consider the variety of forms in which every single kind of fellowship with the Universe has already appeared. and remains hidden to the common in many ways by poets and sages. the various forms of religion that for centuries have shone and have dominated great peoples.

applies to every period of it and to every subordinate form of it. Without that. To it the whole development of this religion in all generations and indiis historically viduals linked. You cannot enough impress it upon yourselves that it all resolves itself into finding the fundamental relation. never forget the difference betweeli the will Even with essence of a religion. knowledge of details is unavailing. deduce all to interpret tliem. you are able to complete and define it in the way it would develope if its scope had been large enough. is and the religious culture of a great body of mankind. with that consciousness which they have made the centre Without referof their religion is always sacred for them. you have not found this principle of research as a touchstone. and come in the wander into a thousand vain end not to the spirit of thej-eli- gion but to a definite quantity of matter. you be exposed to a thousand errors. and that you cannot know it until. You will researches. You will remember that no religion has quite reached actuality. far removed from seeking it in a narrow space.236 it FIFTH SPEECH. how much more moment must be in which this infinite intuition was first of all set up in the world as the foundaand centre of one peculiar religion. istic in religion they never speak of what for them is characterand of the form to which in themselves it the ^ has attained. Now this sum of the religion. Once more I warn you not to try to it as an abstraction from tte elements common to the adherents. but it is also the source of great mis- The moment when they were first filled understandings. ence to i it. then. Above all. it is a definite form and religion in general and its unity as a 7 That is not Religious men are throughout historical. I beseech you. it And as this applies to every positive religion. . sacred tion still You can easily imagine. in so far as representation of school. and it till all details are fast bound in one. their smallest praise. for much will meet you to withdraw your eyes from the true path.

and the little mirror of this religion which he personThis fact then is glorified in all ways . authors lived in all sorts of circumstances in the world. but in this one only placed in the centre. and religion which should not be anywhere one. Nor do I exclude trifles merely. cannot be distinguished by the differences of morality. found in every other religion that would be complete. or that in it the character of religion is to be sought. nor ever exhibit any of its elements except in connection with this fact. this does not When they speak worldly wisdom belong to the faith. I beg you also not to regard everything found in the As heroes of religion or in the sacred sources as religion. and could not say at every word they wrote. so that was impossible to provide for the ex- And recall how the clusion of everything not religion. do not at once conclude that it must be forced into religion. or metaphysics and poetry. Men never speak of their religion. therefore. at least. some one universal religious relation. every ally exhibits. Never forget that the fund amental intuition of a religion must be some ^V intuition of the Infinite in the finite. a consequence nothing is more natural than that this fact should be confused with the fundamental intuition of the religion. Morality. or things that on any for estimate are foreign to religion. it pared. and almost from the earliest times. 2^7 something infinitely greater than a man's own religious life. Do not seek in everything the decisive spirit of that religion. which are always something to be got rid of. It is worshipped as the greatest and most blessed miracle of the Highest. have sought to distort and obscure the spirit of . should be everywhere only one. ornament of religious art is heaped upon it. This has misled almost everyone and distorted the view of almost all religions.'^ Above all I beg you not to be misled by the two hostile principles that everywhere. but things often mistaken Hecollect how undesignedly those sources were pi-eit.THE RELIGIONS. and morality.

Guard yourselves from both. or in unravelling the manifold. or to make religion more agreeable to the irreligious.nct Rome. forjjidaism is long since dead. Some woald circumscribe it to a single dogma. or from lack of religious sense. from hatred to polemics. found only among those who and ever advance in it without cherishing the folly that they embrace it all. Those who yet wear its livery are only sitting less existent as to lamenting beside the imperishable mummy. and exclude everything not fashioned in agreement with it.238 religion. I fear religion is only comprehensible through itself. Bu the . FIFTH SPEECH. and beginning original. indi^rentists you is With rigid systematizers or shallow will not find the spirit of a religion. but more or I * among ourselves. you may succeed in deciphering the rude and undeveloped religions of remote peoples. historical reference. Yet I could still wish to say a word on this type of religion. It live in it as their element. varied religious phenomena lying wrapped up in the beautiful mythologies of Greece a. and that its special architecture and characteristic difiference will not become clear till you yourselves belong to some one religion. I cannot be indifferent whether or not you find the right point of view. bewailing its departure and its sad legacy. decry everything characteristic as dead letter. when you would contemplate the different forms of the highest stage of religion which is not foreign or strange. eternal necessity. Of one form only I should speak. Whether with these precautions you will succeed in discovering the spirit of the religions I do not know. My reason is not that it was the forerunner of I hate that kind of Christianity. or from misunderstanding and ignorance of the matter. May your gods guide you ! But when you its approach the holiest in which the Universe in highest unity and comprehensiveness is to be perceived. I care How very little.. Each its relisfion has in is itself its own . others.

whereby this phenomenon is Forget the experiment of joining the state to religion. punishing. is only from the uniformity of this dealing. therefore. universal immediate retribution. is not an accident. moral as well. '^ ? was his The universal interweaving of parallelism. When the disciples asked Christ. being an abiding interchange between this attraction and this repulsion. fortune and misfortune. nor the value set on dialogue. of a peculiar reaction of the Infinite against every finite thing that can be regarded In this way everything is as proceeding from caprice ? and decay.THE RELIGIONS. gTOwth human soul freedom and caprice interchange with immediate operation of the Deity. forget that Judaism was. and what unity there is. and are always regarded in their bearing The Deity is throughout represented as rewarding. in a certain sense. '^ Who has sinned. Even regarded. and then say what is the human consciousness of man^s position in the Universe and his relation to the Eternal that every- by where Is it anything but a relation of shiijes through. and his answer : man ^^ ye that these have sinned more than others polemic against it. This so entirely overlaid. beautiful cliildlike cliaracter o£ is 239 Judaism charms me. All other recognized attributes of God express themselves in accordance with in the this principle. and we have here such a notable example of the corruption and utter extinction of religion in a great body in which it formerly existed^ that it will Remove everything political and well repay a few words. All history. and hence the sacredness of the tradition in which the connection of this great dialoo-ue . so God will. is presented as a colloquy in word and deed between God and man. Regard only its strictly religious elements. upon it. if I should not say to the church . an order founded on an ancient family history and sustained supposed to be characterized. priests. disciplining single things in single persons. this or his parents ? the religious spirit of Judaism ap" Think peared in its most pronounced form.

hangs and dries on the withered stem till the rudest season of the year. but a short duration. wherein the voice of the Lord must come to its original splendour. books were closed. like a solitary fruit. was necessarily a prominent feature of it was possible to hold fast the fundamental idea and original form of the Jewish religion. the simple course of patriarchal times.240 FIFTH SPEFCH. and the before the eyes. The more the adherents of this religion advanced on the the more scene of the world and had relations with other peoples. and. and. the natural T]ia- whole idea Christians are. abolishing intervening time and space. The belief in the Messiah was its highest product. childlike. so long as new sovereign noblest fruit. and hence also. impossibility of attaining religion^ except this initiation into was contained. and the difference of their customs. opposition of their forces. Just because of this view. as a It died. of prophecy ligion. the A was dumb. This faith has long persisted. Imagination had to anticipate the word which the Almighty would speak. without complications. and as its sacred religion. the strife connection. consequences of actions would not be disturbed or hindered. difficult did the exhibition of this idea become. but also its last effort. the intercourse of Jehovah with His people was looked upon as ended. The limited point of view allowed this religion. the through in later times. should again become general. among the sects about the posit session of this intercourse. bring the second part of the same transaction immediately That is the essence of prophecy. of the religion came to pass that the gift Judaism as in no other rein comparison. broken by the unpeaceful association of peoples. mere learners. where the whole being simple. to restore Zion. after all life has vanished. The political associa- . its effort after it Judaism. By the subjection of the peoples to the old law. was developed in Even It is in the highest degree could only work on a narrow scene.

even this that the. the image of the Infinite in every part of finite nature has gone extinct. and of the way the Deity treats this resistance. Christianity sees how He reconciles the hostility to Himself. all dealings of Divine Providence are calculated. a mechanical motion from which life and spirit have long vanished. They are never directed to the immediate results for feeling they . is it has completed the circuit of its a .consequence of the will. and sets bounds to the ever-increasing alienation by scattering points here and there over the / whole that are at once finite and infinite.swerved from the truth . everywhere rending itself from its something by sin. of this type of feeling. The of praise before God . With ever-increasing speed the spiritual world has departed from its perfection and All evil. connection with the Whole. more sublime. the heart is corrupt and has no spiritual world. fundamental elements tion. tion liuked with Till it 241 dragged on its still longer a feeble existence. finite imperishable beauty.THE RELIGIONS. very much later The original intuition of Christianity is more glorious. and by them the whole form of Christianity and the cast of all the religious matter con- tained in it are determined. Corruption and redemption. seeks to be Death itself has come on account of going from bad to worse. It is just the intuition of the Universal resistance of finite things to the unity of the Whole. this state of the spiritual world. hostility and mediaare the two indivisibly united. In pjccordance with do not consider the happiness or suffering which they pros . must decay before existence. The understanding being darkened has actually . and was that unpleasant phenomenon. more worthy of adult humanity. human and divine. is incapable any production in which the Divine Spirit lives. itself. of the self-seeking endeavour of the isolated nature that. external part endured. penetrates itself deeper into the spirit of systematic religion and extends further over the whole Universe.

. Wherefore He does signs and wonders that interrupt and shake the course of things. duce they are actions. And when man does seek through self-consciousness to enter into fellowship with the unity of the Whole.In vain is every Everything is swallowed up by the earthly sense. for. and his aim vanishes from his eyes. be it in morals or in thinking.242 FIFTH SPEECH. Relentlessly it unmasks every false morality. and with new powers to give birth to new creations. without mercy. revelations issue from the He setfs up over more exalted mediators between Himself and rflen. with more or less of divine spirit indwelling. the finite resists him. to pour out divine powers upon men. certain not even for hindering or forwarding They are simply calculated to check corruption in the great masses. and this most_distinguishes its character and determines its whole form. Spirit of This is God is never taken away. what can no more be restored. details He is defective. revelation. to It js__polemical in its its is through outward com- make deepest nature evident. munication. variable and attached to and non-essentials. Because it presupposes a widely-extended "gMtessness it and through polemical. to destroy. how Chri-^tianity most and best is conscious of It God. and sends ambassadors. He .nity ever more closely. every corruption must be laid bare. . and he seeks and does not find and loses what he has found. B^/^His principle. In every later ambassador the . Yet the ancient complaint that man cannot comprehend what is from the alone. It is thus_aiiigher power of rel igion. ever of the old. everything is swept away by the innate irreligrous The Deity *finds ever new devices. every . that men may learn to know the EternafTBeing. for religion. Above all it must expose the hostility to the consciousness of the Highest Being. which is the irreligious principle itself.Deity unites with hum&. and of the divine order in manipulates religion itself as matter religion and history.wills rather than gives heed. power bosom more 'glorious-.

fully idealized as in Christianity. to the higher view of things and to eternal life in God. the aim of Christianity. They never to recognize the outlines of the divine image. traces of irreligion and of the tenthe. its heralds tore open the whited sepulchres and brought the dead bones to light. Never content with its attainments. Everywhere. through its original postulate. even in its purest productions. and in the inmost fellowJust because religion is nowhere so ship of the saints. Boldly it led the heathen beyoDd the separation they had made between the world of the gods and the world of men. every evil that creeps in darkness. even is an infinite in its holiest feelings. is as sharply and strongly polemical w^ithin its own borders. just because the ungodly is everywhere operative. all because holiness actuality together appears unholy. saying it irreligious and godless to expect any other restoration than restoration to purer faiths. Had these first heroes of Christianity been philosophers. Not to live and move and have the being in God is to be entirely ignorant of Him. moreover. 243 bad religion^ every unhappy union of both for mutual covering of nakedness. this inner consciousness is lost amid a mass of sense impressions and desires. it seeks. E 2 . and degradations they saw hidden But as Christians they germ religion. Into the inmost secrets of the corrupt heart it presses and illumines. perpetual warfare against all that is actual in religion is I ') And presented as a duty that can never be sufficiently fulfilled. with the sacred torch of personal experience. all Behind distortions the heavenly were chiefly from God and needed a mediator.THE RELIGIONS. If this natural feeling.-. then. they would have spoken as failed was ]/ strongly against the corruption of philosophy. Almost its first work on appearing waste destroy its the last expectation of pious contemporaries. no religion has yet entered the narrow sense. -v dency of all finite things to turn away from the unity of . concerned with the individual who was far of Christianity.

not even what is most generally acknowledged. And this is how every man is to walk in the sacred circle. and the splendour of the heavenly colours more clearly in every pious impulse of the spirit. and in foreseeing command. In tlie tone of tlie highest inspiration an ancient writer criticizes the rehgious state of the community . as bitterly as He describes. . in their unbroken . as soon as its chemical powers have overcome outside resistance or reduced to shine it to equilibrium. and which. He is not only to be an inspired man and a teacher. or it external irreligion has admitted something may yet have in itself some principle of corruption. But what He did foresee. Whole. itself. (its struggle with alien. ^ So_itJs_witlj^. so utterly contrary to the spirit of religion.^' the Founder Himself said. to be removed. qr that wretched strife of words that deals with dead matter which living religion does not admit.This very nature. were those holy wars that spring necessarily from the essence of His teaching. rend hearts asunder and dissolve the most intimate relations of life.Christianity. not even what is most loved and dear. and eject it one and lest in its another element. take to fermenting. within it must be subThus impurities are jected to a severe and repeated test. does not avoid even the fiercest inward commotions to is eject the evil. but in humility he testing. In nature you often see a compound mass.244 FIFTH SPEECH. is to Nor shall present himself also to the universal anything be spared.. in simple openness the great apostles speak of themselves. the history of Christianity that is rooted in its '^ I am not come to bring peace. But not only are the elements of Christianity themselves subjected to this perpetual sifting. sibly have meant that His gentle soul could not posto occasion those bloody He was come commotions. it turns at last pol emical power against Ever anxious. but a sword. Though without it be praised as holy and be set up before the world as the essence of religion. nor shall anything be indolently put aside.

Piety should never rest. Nay. and there should never be anything so absolutely opposed as to be inconsistent with it. every love and every fear. existence and life 245 in the spirit there is an insatiable longing for ever stricter purification. as soon as it only rules certain portions of the life. That is the only name which It accompanies every joy and the language affords me.THE RELIGIONS. the noble with the common and the mean And what is the mood that urges intimately united ? at times to assume the universality of this combination. that feeling of an unsatisfied longing What do you which is directed is towards a great object. Religion has no other opposite than just the absence of religious purpose interruption of religion is irreligion. however they may feelings have arisen. you will find this feeling throughout dominant in the . it at once becomes conscious of hostility and remoteness. in its pride and in its humility it is the ground tone. Irreligion is thought to dominate every moment in which the religious principle is not evident in the mind. to which all others are referred. Christianity then demands as first and essential that piety be a It . the view Infinite. and which you are conscious infinite? impresses you on finding the sacred and the profane. From all finite things we should see the We should be in a position to associate religious and views with all sentiments. ever richer fulness. constant state. determines the characcall ter of its feelings is easy to discover. If the mind : is for every a moment without intuition and feeling of the Infinite. and with all actions. scorns to be satisfied. but is the dominant tone of holy all their religious feelings. If you can reconstruct the depths of a spirit from single features. whatever be their object. That is the true highest aim of mastery in Christianity. undisturbed by foreign elements that have come from who knows where. What every pain. you and to search for it everywhere ? With Christians this sadness is not occasional. How the fundamental view in Christianity. even wilh tli^ strongest displays of it.

is part of its funda- mental view of the world. as soon as it becomes human. you have certainly caught just the same tone. for every noble. And I will not go farther into doings are before you. as elsewhere. This idea was. and which. that a higher mediation to be in _that requires accord. Such is Christia nity. you will discover this tone in every word remaining to us from his bosom friend. guiding you through all From anomalies. the close union of high power with touching gentleness. and it is not the ijidivirl n?ih't y of TTig nlia. If a writer. is mysterious. it is not the purity of all B is moral tfiacJqing. His life I con- template the sacred image of Him who has been the author of the noblest that there has yet been in religion. who lias leffc but a few leaves in a simple speech is not too unimportant for your attention. for every beginis Vain folly it to wish to remove the ^ ning in religion. which but expressed what men who have come nature. have with Him to consciousness of their spiritual in common. can have greater value. The prying . that hides the rise of this idea in Him. tho gloriouii clearness to exhibit attained in is to But the trul y_divine element which the__great_idea He soul. and I believe I have given you the thread that. for the corruptibility of every holy thing. will make the closest scrutiny possible.^* And if ever a Christian has allowed you to listen in the sanctuary of his soul. salvation only to be found in veil redemption. the details of it. and too ready to imagine the is divine itself in this form. simple spirit must in a special situation display some traces of a great character. and the Its richness with which that first When. that I admire. in the mutilated delineations of idea has been developed. ruptions 1 will not spare. All those is. Founder of Christlauity. neither from its expression nor its beginning. the variety. Its distortions and manifold cor- . and that for man under the power of all came His finite the finite and particular. with the Deity. things are merely human.246 FIFTH SPEECH. first to last look only at the clearness.- racter.

It must belong to both sides. sustained by nothing without delay that Yea. from childhood. without seeing any outward institution for fellowship among His own actually set up. But what did He see arouud Him that was not finite and in need of mediation. it was the most glorious apotheosis. He uttered honour. and participating in the Divine Essence in the same way same sense in which it participates in human nature. forsaken in that is unspeakably unimportant. for But when. simply as we find it complete in Him. what mediates must not again require mediation. and He to whom the Son shall reveal Him. and of the power thereof to communicate itself and awake religion. 247 sacrilege that has attempted it can only distort the divine." This consciousness of the singularity of His knowledge of God and of His existence in God. He by declaring Himself only wished to utter its to be the Person they expected. He is supposed to have taken His departure from the ancient idea of His people.THE RELIGIONS. Let us consider the living sympathy for the spiritual world that filled His soul. when in the face of the solemn splendour of the old corrupt system that had so mightily-resisted Him. of the original way in which this knowledge was in Him. If all finite things require the mediation of a higher being. . by all that. in the the thought of being silenced for ever. and where was aught that could mediate but Himself ? '^ No man knoweth the Father but the Son. I would not speak of Him as standing opposed to the rude power of His foes without hope of longer life. if its -^dth the Whole is to be sustained and come to cod- sciousness. was at once the consciousness of His ofiice as mediator and of His divinity. He did most gloriously accomplish. if it is not to be ever further removed from the union Eternal and be dispersed into the void and transitory. when surrounded by all that could inspire awe and demand subjection. He had been taught to but that feeling. and abolition which. the greatest word mortal ever and no divinity spake. and cannot be purely finite.

of the immortalization of His memory. His disciples also were far from confusing this school suff"er He would even only the witb His religion.248 FIFTH SPEECH. so sure was He that own. were the whole extent of . perfectly initiated Pupils of the Baptist. were. if the principle from which His religion despirit. follow that the centre of all mediation^ the true Founder of redemption and "Vj/ reconciliation. I^ay. if I His mediatorship to be undecided. veloped in Himself and others were not blasphemed. already He had spoken among His who / attach themselves to hhould also be mediators with Him and form His Church Him and through Him. sets out from the same cardinal point. disciples to a secure existence. His idea were to be accepted on account of His person. whether his religion originates from himself or from another. without respect of school. who has become historically is. apostles as Christians the community.^^ Nor ^ He Himself did Christ say that the religious views and feelings could communicate. Everyone who. and not His person on account of His idea. a Christian. in his religion. conviction that they would suffice to bring the band of His •/ Nay. And regarded and treated by the and reckoned genuine members of it should be so still. but would leave behind a great school that would derive their With this faith in assurance that He was ? religion from His So certain was He that before it yet This He did in theexisted He appointed symbols for it. with prophetic enthusiasm. who can wonder at His not only a mediator for many. He Himself thus can be more certain than that which proclaimed/" Himself. It will naturally when Christ with His whole efficacy is shown him he must acknowledge Him. Yet He never maintained He was the only mediator. /And He as I never made His school equivalent to His religion. All the only one in whom His idea actualized itself. still only very iminto the nature of Christianity. without anything further.

divine essence and heavenly power dwelt. by a divine life . and forbid no other book to be or to become a bible. Anything written with like power they would willingly allow should not to be associated with themselves. 249 the religion that should proceed from this ground-feeling. And when.THE RELIGIONS. as far as they were concerned. though only Similarly with ''taking of His. in its own way. Nay. append even though there be inefi'aceably in the Spirit a special holiness and worth ? ''^ In accordance with this unlimited freedom. being dead. have ever protested against this unchristian proceeding. They never set limits to the Holy Spirit. this essential leading idea of Christianity of divine mediating powers has in many ways been developed. Nay. of the itself confidently. He always pointed to the living truth which. who still feel the life of religion in themselves or perceive — it in others. the first bloom of Christianity being past and it was appearing to rest from its works. whereby to draw near to the Deity in action. His unbounded freedom and the absolute unity of His revelations are everywhere acknowledged by them. while the Holy Spirit. Thus very soon Holy Scripture in which. first fruits every later utterance of the whole and therefore of the Divine Spirit. so far as they were contained in the sacred scriptures. and all intuitions and feelings of the indwelling of the Divine infinity. this ^ Being in finite nature have within Christianity been brought to perfection. a numerous party of Christians declare themselves ready to acknowledge everyone as a mediating and divine being who can prove. was an ethical mediator. in a later acceptation of the word. His disciples. was held as a logical mediator to open for the knowledge of God the finite and corrupt nature of the understanding. then. it was only brought about by those who took the slumber of the Spirit for death All religion. by their native power." would come after Him. church. those works. were regarded as a finished codex of religion. The sacred scriptures have. become a bible.

have. but a certain state of mankind. as soon as men lose the it. but it ever awakes again as soon as the season in the spiritual world is favourable for its revival and sets its sap in motion. into the dead shell of the letter. never to all others can no longer maintain itself in the feeling. is said of its speedy. To others Christ has remained one and all. is in itself eternal and universal. be either universal or eternal. it requires not only a certain mental attitude. in the same For to put the centre sense. They should be monuments of the past and deposited in the magazine of history. despite of what in the sacred books. for the whole being of man is not yet by any means embodied in the peculiar form of Christianity. for their life is gone. and this type of religion can no more endure. of religion just in that idea. made gone. for even a small circle. This is the case with all childlike religions.2SO FIFTH SPEECH. the principle is genuinely Other human situations Christian. For why should it be overthrown oft ? The living spirit of and long. or any impress of divinenesSj tliat lie has been. but. Is this indeed. of which there is no hint in the speeches of Christ or elsewhere Hereafter there will be more. tlie first quickening of the higher sense. that relation which. Thus in oft repeated cycle it renews itself in various ways. never to return. by its worth. being a component part of the infinite Whole in which all things mnst be eternal. its temporal existence may not. so long as it is free. Christianity will yet have a long history. own there selves Whatever failure may have been in form and matter. a torpid state. but its whole development. its already accomplished overthrow. dependent on consciousness of their essential power. collected as . in the free play of the universal life. in their relation to the central point of Christianity. The fundamental idea of every positive religion. slumbers state. return. while others have declared that their mediators have been their or some particular thing. It withdraws itself into it. been expressed by feelings and represented by images.

can no more directly observe the retrogression of human affairs. and every such epoch of humanity is a palingenesis of Christianity. it is when traverses The other improvement union of the certain brilliant half of the original Christian faith is that and divine points are the source of every in this corruption and of every new and closer finite with the Deity. I all is would fain see itself. as the sole type of religion. more historical and this in itn glory. to be universal and. exalted 251 above tliem all. can only believe that it lies beyond time. and the unarmed eye. is Christianity. Father be But when shall this time come all Ij_at least.THE RELIGIONS. . looking only at what is taking place. when humanity advances so uniformly and peacefully. I would gladly stand on the ruins of the religion I honour. I would willingly help to level But this equality of all equalities Times of corruption await all human New ambassadors things. that only the navigator who calculates its course by the stars knows thiDgs. from God will be required with exalted power to draw the recreant to itself and purify the corrupt with heavenly fire. — somewhat driven back on the great ocean it by a passing contrary wind. acknowledged A time w iU oomej ? when shall there shall no more be any mediator. And if there are always to be Christians. therefore. Cliristianity. that exalteth least possible. it. to rule alone in humanity ? It scorns t his autocracy. but the all in all. has expressly transitoriness of its temporal existence. half of the original intuition of Christianity is the corrnptibleness of all that is great and divine in human One If a time should come when this I will not say can no more be discovered. when the power that draws us to the Highest was so equally distributed among the great body of mankind. Should a time ever come. and awakes its spirit in a new and more beautiful form. even though of divine origin. that persons more strongly moved should cease to mediate for others. it more humble says. but no more obtrudes.

and fection that corruptibleness. new develop- . of its elements it Every one to see it it the centre of a whole of itself honours enough to be willing its own. It could see younger. such a moment might arrive. both proximity and in combination. all things agree to ensure to one among them a wideextended and enduring life. there should be a dim sense of The great moments must be few in which many religions. it is to be In all ways the Deity m times. at all many persons of the are deeply affected by the same impression Yet what may not be looked for from a divine. is more shipped. it and issue from all points even the utmost and most doubtful all religion of religions cannot collect material enough for its pure interest in things human. and desired that. Not only would cannot produce from its itself.'^ turning its thoughts to creative genius. however long such a moment may still linger.2 52 FIFTH SPEECH. The it. in its own often sad ever expecting a redemption from the imper- own now oppresses if it. and. produce in variety to infinity^ but would willingly that it see even outside all it Never forgetting that tality has the best proof of immor- in its history. it willingly sees other and possible. " is to be contemplated and worVaried types of religion are possible. and if it is necessary that every type be actualized at one time or another. such as the fiery spirits of pur time have. stronger and more beautiful types of religion arise outside of this corruption. soul. so nothing is more unchristian than to seek uniformity in religion. As nothing irreligious than to demand general uniformity in mankind. in which the same view is developed unanimously and irresistibly in a great body. is time that manifestly the border land between two If only the intense crisis were different orders of things ? so Even now a prophetic past. them arise close beside from such as appear to limits of religion. might perhaps indicate the point that is to be for the future generations the centre for But however it be. and their fellowship with the Deity.

THE RELIGIONS,

253

ments of religion, whether uader Christianity or alongside of it. must come and that soon, even thouofh for a lono^ time they are onl}^ discernible in isolated and fleeting maniOut of nothing a new creation always comes festations.
forth,

and in

all

living

men

in

whom

the intellectual

life

has power and fulness, religion is almost nothing. From some one of the countless occasions it will be developed in many and take new shape in new ground. Were but the

time of caution and timidity past
ness,

!

and in youth
it

especially,

which

for all things

Religion hates loneliis the time

of love,
is

wastes away in a consuming longing. When it developed in you, when you are conscious of the first
its

traces of

life,

enter at once into the one indivisible

fellowship of the saints, which embraces all religions and in which alone any can prosper. Do 3'ou think that because the saints are scattered and far apart, you must speak to
unsanctified

— enough
Spirit
?

ears

?

You ask what

language

is

secret

is it

speech, writing, deed, or quiet copying of the All ways, I answer, and you see that I have not

shunned the loudest. In them all sacred things remain secret and hidden from the profane. They may gnaw at
the shell as they are able, but to worship the you, do you not refuse us.

God

that

is

in

EXPLANATIONS OF THE FIFTH SPEECH.
213. As the question of the multiplicity of religion and unity of the charch, treated in earlier passages, is here expressed in
(1)

Page

short compass, I would take the occasion to add something to the explanations of this seemingly paradoxical statement. First, in every type of faith it is the narrower brethren who would make the society
so exclusive, that on the one hand they would absolutely take no part in the religious exercises of other types of faith, and would remain in entire ignorance of their nature and spirit and on the other, for the
;

slightest deviation, they are ready to found a distinct society. The more liberal and noble again seek to have an affectionate apprecia-

tion of the

mind

of strange fellow believers, not only as spectators,

but as far as may be by active participation in the divine services that have as their chief purpose the exhibition of this mind. Had this not taken place among the members of the two Evangelical churches, there could not be, even where they most mingle, any thought now, more than three hundred years ago, of union. Catholic could more easily be edified by the whole Evangelical service, in which he would only miss much that in another way is made up to him, than a Protestant with the Catholic service which, as it exhibits in the most positive way the difference between the two types of faith, cannot be the expression of his own. Even for a Protestant, however,

A

there

is a way of taking part in much, by recasting, adjusting, translating in one's own heart, that is not indifferentism. Only the Protestant who has done this can boast of understanding the Catholic

type, and of having guarded his own faith when put to the touch-stone of contrast. This leads us to the second jDoint. The endeavour to

found an all-embracing society
tolerance.
if

is

Though
it

the possibility of such a society

the true and blameless principle of may be remote

you take

different types of religion as

quite away, nothing would remain but to regard the an unavoidable evil. It is just like the
differently constituted states.
It continues

mutual toleration between

EXPLA NA TIONS.

155

"When this ceases intolerance assumed to interfere in the affairs of other people. This can only be done by an act, by a government, taking outward destructive action, and never by reasoning or even by plausibility. Only the narrow-minded, however, assume such a The more liberal seek everywhere to open up intercourse, and right.
because intercourse
is
still

possible.
is

enters,

and a supposed right

to

make manifest thereby the unity
also

of the

human

race.

Their love
all in-

to the constitution of their Fatherland does not in the least suffer,

and

in religion differentism.

true tolerance

is

far

removed from

This expression savours strongly of the time when this (2) Page 220. book was written. There was then no great common interest: every man estimated his own condition according to his individual circumstances, without the smallest trace of public spirit and the French Eevolution itself, though already it had largely developed as a historical
;

event, was regarded by us in a way thoroughly selfish and in the highest degree different and vacillating. Only at a later time, in the days of calamity which were the days of glory, did we again learn the power of common sentiments, and then the consciousness and

the consolation of

common

piety returned.

At

present the patriotic
other.

and the religious sentiment may easily be measured by each Where empty words, instead of the deed looked for, are given

in the

concerns of the Fatherland, piety is also empty, however zealous its pretence; and where the interest in the improvement of our condiinto morbid factions, piety again degenerates into It appears then that a quickening of natural, healthy public spirit contributes more to clearness in religion than all critical As is indicated by what follows in the Speech, analysis, analysis.

tion breaks

up

sectarianism.

too apt to become sceptical. When the weakened, piety is lamed and perplexed. Hence the religious societies that have a tendency to obscurity, do well to keep clear of all contact with other forms of religion. I have made slight changes here, rejecting a capri(3) Page 221. cious play on words that I might be more historical. The manifold divisions of one and the same type of faith are manifestly not all of

wanting

this

impulse,

is

great social interests are

equal worth. Such as recast the whole in a characteristic way have a natural worth, and have a good right to exist. All splits, however, about single points of small importance, as most of the separations from the great body of the church in the first centuries, owe their existence simply to the obstinacy of the minority. While they deviate in one point they may not, however, unless kept in breath

by persistent polemics, neglect the

rest.

Those only are most called

256

FIFTH SPEECH.

sects, and deserve only a name that indicates willing exclusion who absorb themselves in a few devious views and allow all the rest to

grow strange.
personality.

Such sects always rest on one narrow but

forcible

On the position assigned to this difference I hope (4) Page 222. I have already sufl5.ciently declared myself. This representation, however, of the antithesis between the personal and the pantheistic, as
going through all three stages, gives me an opportunity to explain the matter from another side. In the polytheistic stage this antithesis is
undeniable, only it
less
is less

pronounced.

Even when

clear as in everything imperfect antitheses are all that is known of their history is put

together, most of the gods of Hellenic mythology have little unity. For explanation it is necessary to go back to the rise of their service to their different countries and the character of the myths there prevalent. The personality being slight, the forms readily become symbolical. Many of foreign origin have received native names and are quite symbolical, such as the Ephesian Diana, which is a pure

representation of the universal life, natura naiurans, the direct opposite of the idea of personality. In the Egyptian and Indian systems the basis is either symbolic or hieroglyphic, and there is no

Such a purely symbolical representation of personality underneath. first causes has properly no conscious gods, but is really pantheistic. The dramatic or epic represeotation of the relation of the symbolic
or hieroglyphic being, however, produces an appearance of personality. The two forms of polytheism, the personal and pantheistic, thus

appear to mingle, but in principle they are easy to distinguish. Analogy would show that the same antithesis exists in the chaotic

and

stage or fetichism. Here, however, it is more difficult to recognize exhibit, there being but lai-vae of the gods which only by a later

development become psychic. I include in naturalism (5) Page 222.

all

the forms of religion

They are all, in the sense given above, impersonally polytheistic. The worship of the stars is not an Even the worship of the sun is only apparently monoexception. theistic, for a wider knowledge of the system of the world must at
usually
as worship of nature.

known

once reduce it to worship of the stars, and, therefore, to polytheism. This departure from common usage has the disadvantage that the

words naturalist and naturalism are employed among us

for

some-

thing quite different. I can only defend niyself by hoping that every reader who does not think of the ancient usage, but of the

and

present connection, will easily understand the expression employed find it appropriate. Still I would have refrained, if the manner

EXPLANATIONS.
in which naturalism

'

257

had the opinion, to which I have since it caused confusion. There is some sense, and more perhaps than is usually thought, in opposing reason to revelation, but there is no ground for a contrast between nature and revelation. For this antithesis the biblical foundation, to which a Christian will always return, entirely fails, and the more a matter is discussed from such a standpoint the more
I

as the opposite of pleased me. Even at that time

and rationalism were used almost synonymously supernaturalism had not even then so much dis-

given expression on different occasions, that

perplexed
(6)

it

will

expectation that some polytheistic religions would yet develope was not expressed at random. It rested on the view also hinted at in the Introduction to my " Glaubenslehre," that

Page

222.

—The

become.

many polytheistic systems have manifestly arisen from smelting together small idolatrous clan religions, and that they are of higher value than their elements. As long as races exist that have only a
fetich worship

such an occurrence

is possible,

and at a time when

Christian missions had almost gone to sleep, I regarded this as the natural road to improvement for the most rude societies. This probability has since greatly diminished, and it has grown more likely that tbey also can be taken hold of directly by Christianity. At one time the expression heretic was honourable (7) Page 223.

Among the Greeks the schools of the philosophers and physicians, the home of all the science and art of the time, were so called.
come nearer to our subject the different dogmatic schools Jews also bore among the Hellenists the same name. In ecclesiastical language the established faith of the church is no longer the orthodox or catholic heresy. Yet the exclusive use of the word for what is to be rejected does not rest on etymology. Probably it has arisen because with a different reference it is used in this bad sense in scrijDture. Here I use it of the positive religions in the sense in which it was used of the Hellenic schools, which together contained the whole national philosophy. It must be a bad philosophical system indeed that has not caught some truly philosophic element, and in some way sought to refer to it all other elemental. The same holds of the positive religions, and we may conclude that if they were all developed there would be contained in the sum of them the whole religion of the human race.
to

And

of the

This moJce is, of course, to be understood with a certain In writing it I lived in the good confidence that every one would complete it for himself. For example, it could not be my meaning that he alone is a true Chiistian who could himself have
(8)

Page 224.

limitation.

S

258

FIFTH SPEECH.
But
this

been Christ had not Christ already been before him.
be admitted, that

mnst

any man is a Christian only in so far as in prechristian times he would among the Jews have held and transmitted the messianic idea, and among the heathen been convinced of the inhis
sufficiency of .sensuous idolatry, only in so far as, by the feeling of need for redemption, Christianity had attracted him and drawn

him

to

itself.

What

serious with the statement that

follows shows clearly enough how little I was some or perhaps many could have

the germs of quite new types of religion outside of the historical forms, and that it should be their duty to bring them to the light.
its connection, could not easily be misunderstood, I would not leave it without a slight correction of both sense and expression. The expression has a certain appearance of giving countenance to the idea that it is
(9)

Page

226.

—Though I hope this passage, in

possible, in the sphere of religion to proceed to discovery or by set purpose to produce something. Everything that is new, in particular
if it is to

be true and unadulterated, must issue spontaneously, as by inspiration, from the heart. This appearance, however, will not deceive those who hold fast the expression and the connection of the whole. In the second place, the sense appears to be presented too broadly and with too little regard to the great difference in various forms of religion. Every religion of the highest stage, and especially

one that has constructed for itself a complete theology, must be in a position to review its whole domain. It is the business of systematic theology to draw such a map of it, that not only everything that has come to actuality in that form of religion finds its place, but that
at,

every possible place be indicated. And when such a map is looked we will not easily find any place empty, only some parts better
filled,

amaller sects

why

of religion and I have already shown these sects have a natural inclination not to deal with the
less.

some

None but

subordinate forms

fail to

aim at completeness.
and

whole mass
individuals

of religious matter,

may

differ too little to be able

in the smaller religious forma fully to complete one

another.

This book bears throughout the marks of opposition, (10) Page 228. and those who can call up that time will easily see that I am here
chiefly

religious

defending the cause of those who refer the beginning of their life to one definite moment. Yet this is by no means a

mere attempt to reduce the opponents of this view to silence, in the good assurance that they could not defend themselves. Singularly I have had to defend this position against an able man, now long departed, who was a distinguished teacher in a religious society I

EXPLANATIONS.

259

greatly value, and whose whole practice really rested on this assumption of definite moments of grace. He asked me if I actually believed in such moments and considered them necessary, so that a gradual
life would not suffice me. He raised an objection from an experience that must have struck all attentive readers of the lives of men who have been awakened. They have

imperceptible growth of religious

moments when they receive the assurance of divine grace, when they are born to a personal, individual religious life. But, sooner or later, to most of them times of relaxation come, when this certainty is again lost. Moments of confirmation must follow, and it may be easily doubted whether the first or the second experience

From this doubt it follows that the only in the gradual progress which the first moment prepared for, and the second and third confirmed. I reminded him of what I would here again recall, that! did not consider this the only form,
is

the true commencement.
is

truth

but acknowledged also the imperceptible rise and growth. The inner truth, however, I held to be the union of both, one being more prominent in one case and the other in another. It was, however, one
thing to postulate such moments and another to require that everyone should be able to specify it and have consciousness of the time. This idea I have further developed in a sermon. Thus we came to
agree. To the way, however, in which the matter is here presented as an extraordinary moment with each hfe produced from it necesFirst, even in sarily quite individual, two objections may be raised.

the early times of the church, by the preaching of the apostles, there were Christian awakenings in large numbers together, and even yet, at times, not only among members of other faiths, but particularly among Christians whose piety has succumbed to worldl}'- cares and
occupation, such awakenings are, as it were, epidemic, and cannot, Wherefore, secondly, it therefore, be regarded as extraordinary. is probable that all it produces is not extraordinary and individual,

more

especially

as

these awakenings often

appear as reactions

against uniform, extensive indifference and licentiousness. This conclusion is supported by experience. At different times we find, just among those who hold by such authentic decisive moments, only one

wearisomely uniform type of piety and the same, somewhat confused phraseology about the state of the soul that is conjoined with it. But this is connected with the uncertainty of those moments, and it is not in this sense that I contrast a life suddenly awaked with a life
gradually developed. elements dominate.

In

a

gradual

development,

the

common

By

their

moulded and subordinated.

power the individual elements are Characteristic features are rarer and
S

2

This is the undeniable blessing that rests on this method. In the measure of its vitality every religion has a desire to find in itself something divine yet unknown. and then.26o less FIFTH SPEECH. che inmost self is taken hold of by the divine. though only in a quite general and originally passing manner. — Of course it is not new revelations outside the (11) Page 235. Even those who effect the conversions have usually only one traditional type. These are rare occurrences. and a religious life is gradually established. own circle. By quiet thought and aspiration the positive is fashioned from that negative. principle there should still be divisions the largest sections will abide by it. Even the messianic hopes of the Jews were not a longing for something beyond Judaism. comprehending itself. consciousness of personal worthlessness and of divine grace increase together. though they were afterwards fulfilled by the appearing of Christ. is fitted to arouse the whether they are callous or have suffered defeat. and is consequently careful and troubled and but sparingly equipped. of But the religiousness that rests apparently on a awakening has the same character. for even its long- ing must naturally bear its own characteristic form. By the repetition of such moments. it is a phenomenon both elevating and humbling. it more or less suddenly comes forth. for they have not developed an individual stamp. If persons having such a history remain modestly in their they are for us worthy comrades. pronounced. Even if despite this Where this fails unity tends to say the strife between the Greek and Eoman Churches is between . life. though chaotic and indefinite. Just because their view requires such a moment. When they are highly cultured in an earthly sense and find themselves happy in this stage of religion. But it is to none of those persons I refer here. which. their persistent demand indifferent. rather they are prepared for by the ever renewed feeling that everything offered from without is precarious and inadequate. The moments I refer to are of quite a different They come to pass only where a religious tendency exists. A longing for such revelations could not exist in any positive religion. from moment its very limitation to a few strong formulas. actually prepares for it. circuit of any given religion that are here meant. In this sense we can new may be referred. Yet the life adheres rigidly to that type. Hence the historical consistency of any faith that is to have an extended influence for a long time is determined by its possession of some principle to which everything dissolution. They are not the result of external influences. but even the most careless observer cannot deceive himself into believing that he can exhaustively describe them by one general name.

This is the dominant character of what in the ancient sense of the word we call catholic. In the political sphere. It will It appears suffice. particularly Christianity. but who prefer their inward freedom. even if hedged in by narrow forms. What most easily finds an entrance with the multitude becomes great and is attention on every side. 26 1 the original and the translation. or if you will to circumspection. As this is chiefly thought of when it extended. (12) Page 235. A This even Judaism did. we are somewhat accustomed to such a procedure. JSTow this involves to some extent a direction of the attention without. there is not yet any appearance. whereby alone its size away from what impresses by was less to heretical than to individuals adhere to parties that are the individual retains a distinguished place among the ciitholic. which is usually that only to be reached by active mean between extremes which the character and development of Christianity are under discussion. for he only sees it through the . and nothing in this sphere with character and strength can remain small for ever. seemed to me right to direct the attention of earnest inquirers to what was smaller. and never can be the same till speculation in general is everywhere the same. Of this. But it marked by special partialities in the greater church who cannot manage to mediocrity. even if everyone who dealt with ethics set out from pure humanity.EXPLA NA TIONS. Its form is essentially speculative. Bat it is otherwise ment in the religious sphere. and are not vexed by obscurity. as all times witness that it never has been. strong religious life. sooner or later breaks through the limits of nationality. Many constitutions of great peoples appear to us clumsy or insignificant. Nor can its content be the same. might appear as if the great historical religions were put in the shade and the noteworthy sought only in smaller modifications. But I am speaking here especially of what takes place within the great forms of religion. despite the great fruitfulness of the last centuries in philosophy of universal validity. while the form of governof single towns with small dominion are admired and studied by historians as masterpieces of political art. that does not encourage an inward and characteristic development. Here it is quite otherwise. indeed. if I here adduce what is universally accepted. It has never seriously been my opinion that the (13) Page 237. to me that morality never can be everywhere the same. and that the strife between them both and the Evangelical Church ia between scripture and tradition. It — On similar grounds this passage requires a slight explanation. — doctrine of ethics should everywhere be one and the same.

yet there may be found among the adherents of one religion such marked difference that it is impossible for them (14) to have even a 246. and the more individual the more effective. a man to whom. may. John. It may appear that. it is true. Wherefore. according to the other evangelists. have spoken can be traced in Christ in the other evangeas soon we learn to understand them rightly through I have said that this sadness is the ground-tone in the pride I as in the humility of the Christian. In religion on the contrary. and providing itself with critical weapons. Hence the universal application is always rather apparent than is tained these Still the position here mainreal. But we are left how a Jewish rabbi of philanthropic dis- position. could have had such an effect as to produce a new But this must be fought out in a learned religion and a new church. tianity and of the person of Christ Himself than the view that John has mixed much of his own with the speeches of Jesus. Only by this subordination does the characteristic gain a right to make itself valid. some follies will have to be forgiven. a few miracles. accept one doctrine of morals. The sadness of the Christians of which lists also. and a talent for striking apothegms and parables. and all common elements arise simply from observing affinity and connection. so far right. it makes a bolder venture. Suppose it possible to have as correct or even exactly the same system built on the opposite mode of procedure. though it . even when they are conscious of their difference. any doctrine of morals of universal application can contain only the most general truths in formulas of varying worth. a man who could not have held water to Moses and Mahommed. and the friends and adorers of the Johannine Son of God are doubtless already girding themselves. somewhat Socratic morals. medium of his age and his personality. or what others took for miracles. manner. in that ethics applies another standard to differences than religion. and of the nature the men must have on whom they are founded. to find out for ourselves but a later writer invented this mystic Christ. but after strengthening itself in quiet. and now John did not write the gospel at all.262 FIFTH SPEECH. Hence many who are not yet conscious of their difference can adhere to one kind of religion. everything issues from the individual life. It even betrays small historical sense and understanding of what brings great events in general to pass. Page — Nothing betrays less sense of the nature of Chris- common moral doctrine. This assertion was formerly but a whisper. it would never reach the universal feeling and anywhere give it effect. It begins by subordinating the individual and therefore the characteristic to the general. if only their apprehension of human relations is the same. Many.

glorification of the Christian church in our need to recall all the Testament books. But that even in this pride there should be sadness about the still narrow limits in which fellowship with Christ is actually felt. and its Many an epthusiast has thought greatly of himself and died in that faith. that in this sj^here it does not appear as if there could be anything resembling pride. the divine power of this Still the vindication of abiding consciousness would approve itself. Chrut is the (16) Page 248. self-consciousness of Christ. It is always dangerous. but the later. In the Christian disposition. to rest faith in Christ on any one thing in Him. 263 is generally agreed that something exists which may be described as pride which is not to be blamed. the faith of the whole company of His and the joy of all disciples the martyrs of this faith are the reflection. humility so essential and so predominant. which offers Christ had ta believe that. even after the divine spirit of goodness has accomplished much in him.EXPLANATIONS. even though in civil morals we would not blame it. The former. I will not shield myself by is saying that I bave also put fear and love together. especially as here before un(15) Page 248. I might say that I was thinking of a human. must be of quite the opposite nature. There must be distinguished in the Christian his personal consciousness over against Christ from his personal consciousness in fellowship with Christ. Consider also that this claim did not have to do merely with inner Such a power the phenomena of the consciousness about which men could easily deceive themselves. Something — apparently similar may only too readily be compared with inner and essential difference may not be easy to detect. self-deception of any one soul never exercised. and perfect love casts out fear. if indeed the proper object of the faith is not the truth to whicb the error has attached itself. Now I know no other term that would express the contrast more To point out this feeling I only strongly. But of this rests only on an idiosyncrasy which cannot extend far. can be nothing but humility. it. As love is the mark of the Christian. it is somewhat venturesome to call it a Christian state of mind. consisting in the acquisition of all Christ's perfections. open and easily surveyed. faith it by any one thing is always incomplete. The conclusion of this exposition that. believers. that is an imperfect state of things. How often has an error been defended with the firmest conviction at the risk of life ! Such a rooted error. and to attempt to plant thereby in another is always hazardous. is a New matter of course. — . nor with some prospect in the distant future. circumstances. But my meaning was this. under unfavourable free play to fancy.

and the ecclesiasonly confirmed it. however. Again. which 249. to distinguish clearly the shell of the matter from the kernel. w^hen it is said further back that Christ has become a mediator for " many. tical deliverance How imperceptible the transition . This is said only in a tentative way. and only afterwards He is spoken of as having come. even when Christianity spreads over the whole earth. but the volume being declared not yet finished. so far." A particularist meaning is not to be drawn from my words. His school. a different consideration of the same matter from different points of view. and Catholics will consider it hyper-protestant the constitution of the Scriptures by the church not being acknowledged. ratification and application of that teaching of Christ as it is fashioned by faith and sealed by history. On the other hand. relation of man to Christ is limited. Our teaching about Christ is nothing but the extent. — now generally used. should connect all the details in it and comStill I would not have the reader plete what appears insnfficieDt. our church will perhaps consider what here said of the Scriptures to be Catholic. centre of all mediation. and also from the fact that at first the kingdom of God. that the actually experienced and ever will be. mously biblical to receive it into the canon. At that time the distinc- tion between the teaching of Christ and the teaching about Christ was hailed as a great discovery. with all the marks of authenticity. is is absolutely general and un- limited. This ie. Just this power has been the ground for determining the practice of the church. and He who was to come was announced. If there could be a book from an author like Mark or Luke or Jude. or at least only in accordance with doctrine as well as of the society rests I call. I acknowledge a purely inward and mysterious relation of Christ to human (17) nature generally.264 FIFTH SPEECH. That this my view set forth elsewhere. The is religion of Christ is that the idea of redemption and mediation the centre of religion. it is to be remembered that Christ Himself said that He would give his life a ransom for many. as the reference of this idea to a person was a historical process and on this reference the whole historical existence of the — by an expression was for Christ only secondary appears from what is here adduced. The application. Page — Many of the members of . overlook what I wish to make prominent. as the conclusion shows quite clearly. we would hardly agree unaniYet it would show its native power and be bible in fact. Even allowing its validity to some the idea of mediation must in every way be reckoned the teaching of Christ. And if I distinguish His school from His religion it is only.

a thing already shown in England and France to be a vain endeavour. It was not that the surfeit of a sense- time appeared in many as irreligion. of a return to ancient mythologies as of a the thought of seeing the fanatical Christ new salvation. in strength and beauty many productions of the church approach the canonical. There was also an itch for less Christianity at that innovation that. and both in power and purity.EXPLANATIONS. no Protestant with experience and love of (18) Page 252. . it can stand as a monument of the impression made on me and doubtless on many. an external existence. among not a few there was an endeavour to provide for natural religion. for it was to the honour of Christianity that they believed that where But Christianity was nothing religion generally was nothing. rejoiced at vanquished by the calm and cheerful Zeus. first — me too much of a challenge I again erased it. dreaming of a symbolized or gnostic Heathenism. how 265 from the canonical to the apocryphal. but as it seemed to history will deny. It was meant for the second edition. This is not an addition which I now make for the time. Now that those times are past.

EPILOGUE.
Before parting
clusion of
wltli you, let

me add

a word about the con-

my Speech. Perhaps you think that it had been better suppressed, because now, after several years, it is apparent that I was wrong in adducing as a proof of the power of the religious sentiment that it was in the act
of producing

new

forms.

As

nothing of the sort has any-

where come to pass, did I not wrongly presume to guess what they would be ? If you think so, you have forgotten that prophecy only deserves its name, in so far, as it is the first fore-runner of the future. It is an indication of what is to be, and in it, to the eyes of the prophet's kindred, the future is already contained. But the more the thing prophesied is great and comprehensive, and the more the prophesying itself is in the genuine lofty style, the less can the fulfilment be near. As in the far distance the setting sun makes, from the shadows of great objects, vast magic shapes on the grey east, prophecy sets up only in the far distance the shapes of the future which it has fashioned from the past and the present. Wherefore, what I said was in no sense to be to you a sign to prove the truth of my Speech, which should rather be clear to you by itself. I had no wish to prophesy, even if the gift had not been wanting, for it would have availed me nothing to point you
to a distant future.

some

All I wished was partly to demand, not of you, but of others, half in irony, whether they could perhaps proto boast,

duce that of which they appear

and partly

I

hoped

to

EPILOGUE.

267

lead you to trace for yourselves tlie course of the fulfilment. I was sure you would there find, what I would willingly

show you,

that,

in the

Christianity you whole knowing, doing and being. You would see that you cannot get away from it, and that you seek in vain to

so often despise,

very type of religion, which in you are rooted with your

imagine

its

destruction without the annihilation of
holiest in the

you hold dearest and
culture and

world — your

all

that

whole

mode

From

this it

your art and science. follows that, as long as our age endures,
of
life,

nothing disadvantageous to Christianity can come forth, either from the age or from Christianity itself, and from
all

strife

and battle

it

must issue renewed and

glorified.

This was

my

chief purpose, and

you can see that I could not

have meant to attach myself to some expressions of able and superior men, from which you understand that they wish to re-introduce the Heathenism of Antiquity, or even to create a new mythology, and by it to manufacture a new
In my opinion, rather, you can recognize, in the that everything connected with such an endeavour is way void and without result, the power of Christianity.
religion.

Above all, it is necessary that you understand what I have said of the fortunes of Christianity. This is not the place to expound and defend or even largely indicate my views, but I shall make a simple explanation that may
prevent

me from being

classed, in the usual

way

of refer-

ring everything to schools and parties, with persons with whom, in this respect at least, I have nothing in common.

From
nounced

the

first

there has almost always been

some pro-

natural, it always has a beginning, a middle, and an end. The hostile elements gradually separate, the division reaches a climax, and then gradually subsides until it fully disappears in another

antithesis in Christianity.

As

is

antithesis that has

meantime been developing. This has marked the whole history of Christianity, and at present Protestant and Catholic are the dominant antithesis in

268

EPILOGUE.
In each
tlie

Western Cliristendom.

idea of Christianity

has characteristic expression, so that, only by conjoining both, can the historical phenomenon of Christianity corre-

spond to the idea of Christianity. This antithesis, I say, is in operation and persists. Were I to interpret for the signs of the time, I would say it has reached the you
still

turn of the

tide,

but has not appreciably diminished or disap-

Let no one, therefore, be indifferent, but let every peared.^ man consider to what side he and his Christianity belong, and in which church he can lead a religious and edifying
life.

nature, and who follow

happy in having a healthy, strong it, can go astray.'^ At present there are some who appear to rescue themare
I

And none who

selves from the Protestant into the Catholic Church.

am

not speaking of those who in themselves are nothing and are dazzled like children by glitter and show^ or are talked

But there are some to whom I myself hare formerly drawn your attention who are somewhatable poets and artists who are worthy of honour and a host of followers, as is the fashion nowadays, has followed them. The reason given is that in Catholicism alone there is religion, and in Protestantism only irreligiousness, a
over by monks.
;

Let that godlessness growing out of Christianity itself. man be honoured by me who ventures on such a step solely on the conviction that he is following his nature. But if
is only at home in that form of Christianity, traces of this natural constitution will appear in his surely whole life. It must be capable of proof that his act has

his nature

only completed outwardly what inwardly and spontaneously

was strictly contemporaneous and anterior. There is another class also which I would pity excuse if I cannot honour. With the instinct of the which at times indeed is marvellously successful but also be dangerous, they take this step. Manifestly are in a state of dismay and weakness. Avowedly

and
sick,

may
they

they

require external support for a bewildered feeling or some

EPILOGUE.

269

incantations to allay anxious dread and bad headache, or they seek an atmosphere in which weak organs, being less stimulated, would feel better, as many sick people must not

seek the iree mountain

air

but the exhalations of animals.

whom I now refer, are neither one nor other, but, appear to me simply despicable, for they know
But the persons
to

in

not what they wish nor what they do. Is there any sense what they say ? Do the heroes of the Reformation

impress any uncorrupted mind with .godlessness and not with a truly Christian piety ? Is Leo X. actually more pious

than Lather, and Loyola's enthusiasm holier than Zinzendorf's ? And where are we to assign the greatest productions of

Protestantism

in every department of science, if godlessness and hell ? And in the same way that Protestantism is for them only irreligion, they love in the Roman church not what is in any way characteristic
is

modern times

corruption a clear proof that know not what they wish. Consider this purely histhey torically, that the papacy is in no way the essence of the
essential,
its

and

but only

Catholic Church, but its corruption.^ What they are really in search of
!

is idolatry.

The Pro-

testant Church, alas has also to contend with idolatry, but in a less gorgeous, and therefore less seductive form. And

because
they

it

is

fceek it

not pronounced and colossal enough here, beyond the Alps. For what is an idol, if not

what can be made, touched, and bn-oken with hands, and which yet, in its perishableness and fragility, is foolishly and
perversely set up to represent the Eternal, not merely in
its

own place, and according to its indwelling power and beauty, but as if a temporal thing could be the Eternal, as if the Eternal could be handled and magically weighed
and measured
at pleasure.

The highest they seek

is

this

superstition in church tion, and salvation.

thereby, for
itself in

it is

and priesthood, sacrament, absoluBut they will accomplish nothing a perverse state of things and will show
perversity.

them through increased

Leaving the

270

EPILOGUE,
sphere of culture, they will rush into a vain and and the portion of art that God has lent
This,
lies
if

common
them

fruitless activity,

will turn to foolishness.

you

will, is

a proto

phecy, the fufilment of which
expected.

near enough
sort,

be

And now

one more prophecy of a different

and may

you, as I hope, also see its fulfilment. It refers to the second point I have just touched upon, the persistence

of the opposition of the two parties. Unquestionably many in the Romish Church have rid themselves of her corruptions.

Now

it

should take place,
a large measure.
strong, and

if

might happen that outwardly also this not everywhere, and in all things, yet in

Seducers might then come, threatening the flattering the weak, persuading the Protestants as this corruption is held by many to be the sole ground that, of separation, they should return to the one, indivisible,

Even that is a foolish and perverse prooriginal church. It may attract and terrify many, but it will not sucject.
be the destruction of Christianity.
ceed, for the abolition of this opposition at present would I might challenge the

For him everything mightiest of the earth to attempt it. allow all power aud guile. Yet I is a game, and I would
prophesy he would fail and be put to shame, for Germany still exists, and its invisible power is not weakened. Once

more it would take up its calling with unsuspected power and would be worthy of its ancient heroes and its renowned descent. It was chiefly appointed to develope this phenomenon, and, to maintain it, it would rise again with giant
force."

Here you have a sign if you require it, and when this miracle comes to pass you will perhaps believe in the living power of religion and of Christianity. But blessed are they
by

whom

it

comes

to pass,

who do not

see

and yet

believe.

NOTES TO THE EPILOGUE.
(1)

Page
first.

268.

— This deliverance will now appear less strange than

it

time, looking from one side, it was easy to believe that both churches would unite in unbelief, in indiff erentism ;

did at

At that

from the

other, that they would soon be two forms of superstition, only outwardly and accidentally different. Lately, however, many events have not only quickened the consciousness that the opposition still actually exists, but have made it very clear what holds the two sections

cannot deny that the chief seat of the opposition is in In England, indeed, it is strong enough, but it is more It bepolitical, in France again it plays a very subordinate part. comes us Germans above all to comprehend it both historically and speculatively. This happens, alas too seldom. We have fallen sadly into impassioned ways. If anyone among us would speak of the
apart.

We

Germany.

!

matter impartially, he will certainly be suspected by his brethren as a crypto-catholic, and he would be exposed to many importunate and Praiseworthy exceptions, flattering advances from the Romanists.

when
rare.

truly thorough-going moderation is acknowledged, are very Leaving quite aside, therefore, the present state of things,

I will

from
still

indicate, in few words, wherein this opposition, regarded the point of view of its historical development, seems to me to exist. There is in both churches an evident disposition to b^

and as far as possible to ignore each other. Of this the almost inconceivable ignorance of one another's doctrine and usages gives sufficient proof. This disposition is natural enough in the mass of men, for each section finds religious stimulus and nourishment
exclusive,
little
its own narrow circle, and the other section, though but be wanting to it, appears, if not as impure as members of This tendency alien religions to the Jews, at least utterly strange. rules in quiet times. It is only interrupted in the mass of men by

enough in

may

in political

outbreaks of passion, when one section gains some decisive advantage matters or, in a large number of single cases in private

272

EPILOGUE.

As the educated, however, in whom a historical conscionsness life. should dwell, ought not to share this lazy exclusiveness, neither should they share this hurtful passionateness. Between both churches there
should be a living influence, even though it should not be direct. Quiet contemjjlation should stir up a keen rivalry in whatever in the other section is acknowledged to be good. The contrast in the character
fectioDS that the other
of both churches involves at least that one is receptive of the impermore suppresses. May the Catholics be edified

by seeing that the more prominently the religious tendency appears us, the more any return to any kind of barbarity is hindered. And if they would not deceive themselves as though there were no difference in this respect between us, let them see how far they can advance in the demand for individual freedom. And we should, as

among

passionlessly as possible, observe the secure position which in all outward matters the Catholic Church knows how to secure by strong organization. Let us then try how far we can attain to unity and

coherence, yet it must be done in our own spirit and not by setting the spiritual order over against the laity in a way quite opposed to this spirit. Such healthy influences appear, and the results are seen

from time

to time.
all

But the lazy exclusiveness

of the

mass checks

them and

passionate moments interrupt them. It may thereTill fore be long before the purpose of the disagreement is attained. then, we cannot say that the variance has reached its climax and

has begun to diminish.

When

that comes to pass, there will be a

common duty to exercise a vitalizing influence on the Greek Church. As it is almost quite defunct, both churches will need for along time
to employ all their powers and all their remedies. But, until they have succeeded in waking the dead, they cannot have fulfilled the destiny
of their division.

How seldom anyone in lands belonging entirely to (2) Page 268. one church, without interested views or artful suasion, but by a true inward impulse, is driven to the other church is apparent. In regions where the two sects commingle, how calmly we educate the children
of parents of one faith in the paternal religion,

and it does not

in the

least occur to us that they may have an inward destination for the other. As the different national character of Christian peoples was

not without influence on the course the Reformation took, should it not be thought that this spiritual attitude is a matter of inheritance or birth ? And is not this confirmed by the fact that when the adherents of another faith

come over

to Christianity,
till

we do not consider

the Christian sense pure and steadfast

For children

of

two generations. mixed marriages, therefore, the natural rule would
after

It is noteworthy.NOTES. but for each to follow the parent with whom there is more in- On the other side. however. and are only destined to display different forms. (3) Page 269. change in the prime of life would be rarer. according herited resemblance. It is hardly possible to avoid the conclusion that they have not apprehended the true character of the Catholic Church. After a faith has been apprehended with love. respects exceptions. T . or by persons who. however. Nor does it need much proof that the papal authority. 272. and then the child's own choice could be calmly and hopeWere there no foreign motives. not be for tlie sons to follovv the father and the daughter the mother. facilitating their union. from perverse guidance. it is not to be denied that the original relation of the two churches is not favourable to the hypothesis of a strictly innate inclination. has striven for aims almost always false and beyond the church's sphere. Under the special influence of this parent. no influences fully waited for. and are thereby driven to the opposite faith a thing not rare at present — in both churches. and were this natural course generally followed. Yet this may doit in two respects. not merely in the old sense. that the Catholic Church. — It would be bad if the very conclusion of a work could cause a smile that might efface any earlier good impressions. this step is always the result and the cause of conIt would be only taken by individuals who are in other fusion. there is the dread that Bonaparte could have some design against Protestantism. that almost all who fall away from our church become strong papists. It would rather lead us to expect a self-determination for one or other form. as it were capricious sallies of nature. would be for the children to follow the more strongly religious parent. that are almost violence. have been made to see very clearly the imperfection and narrowness of the accepted faith. whether considered in its rise or in its prevailing tendency. in any marked degree. the religious element would be most strongly developed. From this view the natural principle for mixed marriages and the principle that without extraneous interference would have effect. might shake off the papal authority and return from the monarchical to the aristocratic form of the episcopal system. (4) their religious incapacity in two Page 270. without removing the difference between the churches. but in the sense we understand when we contrast it with the Evangelical Church. — Only a few will require a defence of this position. for did he not afterwards threaten to go over with a large part of France to Protestantism. or. and has for a long time guided the life. to personal character. First.

what I said expressed too accurately our feelings in the years of ignominy that I should not let it stand as I then wrote it. . As the freedom of the Evangelical Church will remain the surest support of every noble eudeavour. Further progress of a Papistical Catholicism in Germany on many grounds necessarily involves a return to every kind of barbarity. at its expense. it cannot lie in the ways of Providence to weaken it and. However firmly he holds his hope. I persecuted as his most attached followers ? almost always speak as if all Germany were Protestant. On the other point let everyone take heed not to laugh too soon.274 EPILOGUE. and. were not the Protestants in the south of France Then. and it could not remain hidden from him that our religious sentiment and our political were intimately connected. again. I hold mine as firmly. In respect of the former possibility. So much had been taken from us that we might well fear that all was threatened. quite recently. Undeniably Napoleon acted in a quite different way in Protestant and in Catholic Germany. to allow Catholicism to prevail. and now many are hoping that sooner or later it will be once more altogether or almost Catholic.

16. ^Religion can only be for us a dead letter.^ P. The complimentary passage on us proud Islanders is even stronger in its original form.'^ a somewhat mighty figure has been weakened.. An atom impregnated with heavenly power. yea. kindled with celestial fire. is even from schools that are mere habitations and nurseries of the dead letter. national orthodoxy and the maintenance of superstitious we attachment to ancient usages. and announced to adoring mortals that the Deity had spoken. The spirit is neither to be confined in academies nor to be poured out into a row of ready heads. while our pursuit of knowledge limited to a miserable empiricism. and gradually expanded burst like a divine fate in a world whose atmosphere its last and produced in moments one of those heavenly meteors. doubtless as too youthdaring. In the first chapter there are many changes. last par. has lost something of the irony of the Romanticist. a sacred article for in the constitution without any are only occupied with fierce defence of reality. fell into their soul. but for the most part merely of single words and phrases. beginning "In is isolation.THE FIRST EDITION. till it and there assimilated all. It evaporates usually ear. T 2 .-" between the first mouth and the first On fully p. He heroes of religion. foot. one of offers too little resistance. ^^We have systems from all schools. 17. ^' speaking of the work of the true Only single noble thoughts flash through their soul. The magic thunder of an enchanting speech accompanied the high phenomenon.

metaphysics. but it is used to explain that he frequently returns to more childlike times. and you must." it in the incomprehensible moment of its The earlier portion of the Second Chapter (pp. therefore. ''^The theorists in religion who seek to know the nature of . a large part of it having been The opening passage is little altered. You must seek this heavenly spark which is produced when a holy soul is stirred by the Universe. but it a mixture of fragments of metaphysics and is time this idea was quite annihilated. for you do not admit that it can tread with the same firm step. Ultimately. Yet your instinct and opinions are against making religion one with metaphysics. has nothing to do with grounds and deductions and first causes. morals and religion have the same object. however. has been materially altered. or. of tlie origin of whicli none was ignorant. not from depreciation of the present but in order to discover religion more by itself.'' Religion. it commands and prohibits actions with absolute authority. too historical name. your transcendental philosophy ? It classifies the Universe. the entirely re-cast. deal with the same matter in a dififerent way. parallel drawn between the sociality of states and the combining of the mental activities is only verbally different. if you will not have that antiquated. '^What ' does your metaphysics do. tlie those significant signs of time." The common idea of religion is that it is ethics. foully immoral parts in its history. gives the grounds for what from deduces the necessity of the actual. itself developes from the nature of man and his relation to the Universe a system of duties. 26-66). for there are It must.276 THE FIRST EDITION. or with morals. the Universe. This has led to confusion. and with awe of which all mortals were filled. and spins the reality and the laws of the world. But religion cannot venture to use the Universe for the deduction of duties. or to contain a' code of laws. '' And what does your ethics do ? It exists. attend to formation.

man is the centre of to religion. the clay. are metaphysicians^ but discreet enough not to despise a little morals the practical persons. like all. enclosed not to remain hidden. he is. it is taken out Interrupt me now no more. '^ To have specula- . different but complementary. and had a principle of union of its own. But religion is like the diamond in. '^ I have been put out by your common idea. but it has overstepped the mark when the shell conceals the kernel. to whom the will of God is . They import the idea of the good into as the natural law of a Being without limits metaphysics and without wants. and metaphysics and ethics only sub-divisions. but to be all the more surely found. to be stirred and filled by the Universe's immediate influences. unavoidably and also of high design. but that such a glorious code might be prefaced by a picture of the law-giver. in childlike passivity. as it is. are moralists. Religion. religion regards man as needing to be what he is. It is neither thinkinsf nor actIt will regard the Universe ing. the Universe and of a Highest Being whose 277 work it is. advance and perfect the Universe by the power of freedom and the divine will of man.'^ To metaphysics. and they import the idea of an Original Being from metaphysics into morals that the great work should not be anonymous. the condition of all existence every other finite thing. the chief matter. religion must be the highest in philosophy." Were this mixture anything more than a selection for beginners. All these are found together even in the sacred books. whether he will or not.THE FIRST EDITION. but a manifestation of the Universe. but intuition and feeling. It is simply a device for subtle winning of the hearer. morals and metaphysics are equals.^' neither seeks like metaphysics to determine Religion and explain the nature of the Universe. It is reverent attention and submission. nor like morals to of the ^* way I trust. but a little in the metaphysical style. Morals proceeds from the consciousness of free. dom and seeks to expand the realm of freedom to infinity .

a miserable uniformity. knows only one ideal and forgets to cultivate man himself. determining its nature and fixing its boundaries. Practice taste is art. and as unjust goods he cannot prosper with limits. to know whether anything has and there is been rightly thought. 40." ^' it. '' All beginning must be from intuition of the Universe. audacious tion and practice without religion is mad. religion. p. latter receives. What is perceived is not the nature of things. and the ing." delusions for a system and words for thoughts ? From want of religion. and if the desire to have intuition of the Infinite is wanting.'^ Without religion. Every form. in consequence. The Universe is reveals itself to us at every creature. there is no touchstone need of none. whereof the symbol is variety and And why has speculation so long given individuality. but their action upon us. practice cannot get beyond venturesome or traditional forms. Modern Idealism is in need of religion. not it man from the hand of living nature is wanting. It my Speech hinges. the unholy sense of Prometheus. The feeling for infinite and to the Universe. '^ Without mechanical or chemical affection of " the organs. and moment. every occurrence is in unbroken activity. the highest formula of religion. and " Practice speculation is only a stiff and lean skeleton. presumption. combines and apprehends in accordance with its nature. who faintheartedly stole what he might have asked for in safety. every an action of the Universe upon . Man has but stolen the feeling of his infinity and likeness to God. religion is sense the Infinite. hostility to the gods. for opposes part of having received him as a It has. for he must also be conscious of his and speculation is science. and what is known or believed of this nature is beyond the range of intuition. *' All intuition proceeds from is On intuition of the Universe Avhole the influence of the thing perceived on the person perceivThe former acts originally and independently.278 THE FIRST EDITION. there is no perception.

THE FIRST EDITION.
us,

279

and religion is just tlie acceptance of each separate thing a part of the Whole, of each limited thing as an exhibition of the Infinite. What would go further and
as

penetrate deeper into the nature and substance of the Whole, is no more religion, and if it will nevertheless be

taken for religion, it invariably sinks into vain mythology." Then follows, almost unchanged, the passage on p. 49, about

what

in the

ancient world was religion, and what was
is

mythology.
Intuition

arrangement
is

Union and always single and distinct. into a whole are not the business of sense but

For religion, each intuition and unconnected and independent, immediate and feeling true by itself. As the Universe can be viewed from an infinite number of points of view, there can be no system. There can no more be a system of intuitions than of the
of abstract thinking.

The only system among them is the primitive endeavour to group them in definite but wretched and inappropriate figures. You may sketch the wain on the blue scroll of the worlds, but your neighbour is free to enclose them in quite other outlines. " This infinite chaos, where each point is a world, is the best and highest emblem of
stars.

religion."

you see a
arbitrary

At 'each difi"erent point of the material world new arrangement that leaves no trace of your figures, and there are new objects within your ken.

No

horizon could embrace all, and there could be no eye which nothing could escape. In religion, from each different point of view you will see new intuitions and different groupings of the old. The infinity of speculation is in the endless variety of action and passion between the same limited matter and the mind; the infinity of morals is the impossibility of inward completeness ; but religion is not
only infinite in these respects,
it is

infinite

on every

side, in

matter and in form and in way of perception.

The passage (pp. 54-56) follows little altered. ^* But to complete the general sketch of religion,

recol-

28o

THE FIRST EDITION.
from
its

lect tliat eacli intuition,

very nature,

is

linked to a

Your organs mediate tlie connection between the feeling. The influence of the object that and yourselves. object reveals its existence to you, must stimulate them in various
ways, and produce a change in your inner consciousness. Frequently it is hardly perceived. In other circumstances it

becomes
selves.'^

so violent that

you forget both the object and your-

Yet, even then, you will not ascribe the activity of your spirit that has been set in motion, to the influence
of external objects. tion of the Universe,
'^

also in religion the same operawhereby it reveals itself in the finite,

Thus

brings
state.""

it

also into a

new

relation to your

mind and

to

your

With the intuition you must necessarily have many The intuition does not, indeed, as in perception, feelings. preponderate so much over the feeling, but the eternal world
may,
like the sun, dazzle the eyes, casting its

image and

its

splendour long after on all objects. The kind of intuition of the Universe determines the type
of your
religion, the strength of feeling, its degree.

The

sounder the sense, the more clearly and definitely will each impression be apprehended ; the more ardent the thirst,
the more persistent the impulse to be always and everywhere impressed by the Universe, the more easy, perfect and dominant will the impressions be. The feelings of religion should possess us and we should give them expression,

but
If

if

they urge us to action, we are in another sphere.
will still

however good the All actions must be moral, action, it is only superstition. '' all should be religion accompanying as a sacred music, And even though done with religion, nothing from it." you do not admit that all actions are moral, the same is

you

consider

it

religion,

true of those

you exclude.
all

The

moralist, the politician,

the artist must

and discretion, not a possible thing if man is impelled to action by the violent feelings of religion. Religion, without any other impulse to activity, rather tends to inactive contemplation. To act
act with calmness

THE FIRST EDITION.
like

281

on tte Whole by feeling direct from the Whole^ would be acting towards a man according to the immediate

Morals condemns it impression he makes upon us. because it gives room for alien motives, and religion because it makes man cease to be what gives him religious
value

—a part of the
is

Whole
its
is

acting

by

its

own

free

power.

Action proceeding from
soul full of religion,

own proper

source with the

the aim of the pious.

Action from

the impulsion of bad spirits not good. The religion of angels with which the Father provided the Son legion were around Him not in Him.

The next matter to understand is intuitions and feelings. For clear consciousness, reflection and utterance they must
be considered apart, but the finest spirit of religion is thereby lost. In our original consciousness there are two activities,

one controlling and working outwards, and another subservient, sketching and copying. Straightway in the simplest matter the elements divide, one set combines into

tre of our being, dashes itself

an image of the object and the other penetrating to the cenupon our original impulses and developes a fleeting feeling. In the same way no
creation of the religious sense can escape this fate of diviYet intuition without feeling is nothing, and feeliDg

sion.

without intuition
in

is nothing. There is a mysterious moment sense perception, before intuition and feeling every ^^ It divide, when sense and object mingle and are one.

is fleeting

and indescribable, but I wish you could seize it and recognize it again in the higher, the divine religious
activity of the
spirit.^-*

This
it

moment

is

a kiss, an embrace, pp. 43, 44.

Without
which

religion is but a spinning of formulas, pp. 47, 48. The divine life is like a tender plant, the flowers of

are fertilized in the bud.

feelings that you can dry and preserve are but the calixes and corollas that soon open and soon fall. But out of them I

The holy

intuitions

and

would now wind a sacred wreath.

282

THE FIRST EDITION.
you
to

First I conduct
first

Nature as

tlie

outer court.

The

world and its Spirit is neither from fear of material forces nor from joy at physical beauty. Both had their place in preparing rude peoples, and may yet
intuition of the

through art have a higher influence, but these influences naturally diminish with civilizatiou, (p. 64) one god being

made

being
here

conquer another, and the beauties of the globe to be for universal matter pure delusion. " At a higher stage, perhaps, we shall see that to which
to

seen

we must submit, ruling universally in all the vault of heaven, and a sacred awe will fill us at the unity and universality of material forces, and we may some time
discover with

astonishment

in

this

delusion

the same

Spirit that quickens the Whole.^' After p. ^'o the alterations are less extensive.

On p. 93 the section on the idea of God has been re-cast, and some think entirely changed. 'For me the Deity is only one kind of religious intuition, of which any others there may be, are independent. I do not accept the position, No God, no religion.' The idea of God may be very difierent. To most men
*

God

is

merely the genius of humanity,

man

being the

prototype.

and His disposition and nature are determined by what man But to me mankind is takes to be His doings and dealings. not everything, but an infinitely small part, a fleeting form of the Universe. There may be many beings above humanity, but every race and individual is subordinated to the Universe. Can God in this sense then be anything for me but one type of intuition ? Let us proceed to the highest idea, a Highest Being, a Spirit of the Universe who rules with freedom and underthis
is

To

God mankind

everything,

standing.

On

this idea also religion is not
is

dependent.

To
and

have religion
without

to have an

intuition of the Universe,

while this idea of

God
still

suits

every intuition, a religion

God might

be better than another with God.

THE FIRST EDITION.
The stages
of religion

283

depend on the sense^ the idea of God " If your imagination attach itself to the consciousness of freedom so that it cannot think of what originally operates on it, except as a free being, you will personify the Spirit of the Universe and have a God. If it attach itself to understanding, so that you always clearly perceive that freedom has only meaning in the individual and for individuals, then you have a World and no God. You will not I trust consider it blasphemy that the belief in God should depend on the direction of the
on the direction of the imagination.
imagination.

You

will

know

that

imagination

is

the

highest and most original activity in man, and that all besides is only reflection upon it." Your imagination creates the world, and you could have no God without the world. " The knowledge of the source of this necessity will not make anyone less certain, nor enable him to escape the almost absolute necessity to have this idea of God. Only as operative can God be in religion, and no one has denied the divine life and action of the Universe. With the God of existence and command religion has

nothing to do.'^ In the Third Speech, p. 120, ''Everyone misses in him" self, etc.," was, till the third edition, Seeing I myself miss
not a
little

in myself."

p. 138 another interesting personal reference has been toned down. " Were it not impious to wish to be more than one is, I would wish that I could see as clearly how

On

by itself passes into religion, how despite the rest into which through each separate enjoyment the
the sense for art
spirit sinks, it yet feels itself urged to that progress which might lead to the Universe. Why are those who have gone this way, such silent natures ? I do not know this sense, it is my most marked limitation, it is the defect in my nature that I feel most deeply. But I treat it with I do not presume to see, but I believe. The esteem.

possibility of the matter stands clear before

my

eyes, only

284
it

THE FIRST EDITION,
Again, p. 139,
tlie

must remain a secret for me."
'^

By the sense
on the
to his

for art tlie

divine Plato raised

holiest mysticism

summit

of divineness

and humanness.

Let

me do homage
him and

the goddess to me unknown, that she cherished religion so carefully and disinterestedly."

In the Fourth Speech there are no changes of any
consequence. In the Fifth Speech, the first clause, *^ Man in closest *^ Man in the intuition of fellowship with the Highest," was, the Universe." That is the key-note of the changes.

Thus

Intuition of the Universe gives place to relation to God. " The whole of all p. 217, religions is nothing but the sum of all relations of man to God," replaces a passage that

derives the need of an endless mass of religious forms from the number, variety, and independence of intuitions
of the Infinite.

Later the additions are more striking than the changes. p. 224, when he asks whether it is necessary to belong '^ to an existing religion, he replies By no means,^' without

On

or any modification as in the paraProvisionally any Further additions are, on at the top of p. 225. graph 246 foot, '^ and that for man under the power of the finite, p. and particular, and too ready to imagine the divine itself in this form, salvation is only to be found in the redemp" ^^ Yet He never maintained He tion ; p. 248, after ^^ was the only mediator," the only one in whom His idea actualized itself. All who attach themselves to Him and form His Church should also be mediators with Him and through Him"; further on, on the same page, the reason given why the person who sets out from the same point as Christ is a " It will naturally follow that they will acknowChristian, ledge Him," and p. 249 the last clause in the second para-

*^

"

graph about the first-fruits of the Spirit having special '' I at and worth. Page 251, first paragraph. " I at least can only believe," was least fear."
holiness

INDEX.
Acts
of Apostles, 181.
of, 49, 65, 69. 3, lii., 51^ 256,

Communions, smaller, 196-197,
261.
183.
._-^

235,

America, 196, 197, 201, 205.
Ancients, religion Antithesis, xxix.,
267. Aristotle, xxiii.

Conversation, religion in, 150-151,
Conversion, 260.
Clergy, 153, 194, 206.

Art, xxxiii., xlii., Ivii., 29, 37, 68, 129, 138-141, 142, 146, 180, 283, 284. Asceticism, 62.

Creeds, 193-194, 206-2O7. Culture, 92.

Deism,
Baptism, 160, 200-201. Berkeley, xxx.
Berlin, 151.
xvii.,

xxi., 14.
ix., xxvii.,

Dilthey,
xlvii.,

xxxvi.

Divorce, xxxviii.

xxi.,

xxxvii.,

Dogma,

xlii.,

87, 195, 238.

Birth and death, 131. Braasch, ix., xl.

Dogmatics, liv., 109, 258. Drossen, xvii., xx.

Brinkmann,
Butler, xxii.

xvi,, xvii., xli.

Editions of " Speeches,"
xxxix.-xlvi.,
li.,

ix.,

xxxv.,

275-284.

Catholicism,

liv., 51,

254, 267-274.

Celibacy, 105. Charite, the, xxiv.

Education and the church, 199-200, 203-204 of to-day, 136. Ego, xxvii., 77, 78, 79, 84, 137, 138,
;

142, 145.

Chinese Emperor, 194.
Christ, historical, xx., xxxv., liii., 17, as media143, 187, 245, 262-263 tor, xl.,liv., 246, 248-249, 258, 263School of, 248. 264, 284
; ;

Emotions, 18. England, religious life in, 9, 23, 197, 271, 275 Episcopal Church of,
;

197.

Christianity, description of, xlr.xlvi., lii.-liii., 241-253,262 priesthood of, 185 spread of, 108, 187, 272 polemical, 243 ; catholic 188, in, 261; future of, xl., 265, 267;

Eudaimonists, 116, 117. Explanations, li.

;

Faith
113.

implicit, 23.
xlvii.,

;

Fichte, xxvii., xxviii., xxxvii.,

268, 270.

French,
192
;

the, 10, 23.
xix., 10, 255.

Church, Apostolic.
23,

Catholic,

French Revolution,

110, 182, 194, 195, 198, 205, 206, 260, 268; Evangelical or Protestant, 110, 194, 261, 273, 274; Greek, 23, 191, 194, 260, 272;

order
xlix.,
Iviii.,

in,
1.,

184 189;

;

Reformed,

xiii.,

and

State,

xlis.,

religious life in, 9, 197, 207, 208, 270, 271, 274. Glaubenslehre, xliii., li., 105-9, 1012, 114-5, 117, 145, 186-8, 192. God, existence of, xxvii., 22, 93-99,

Germany,

xxxiii,

164-176, 198-205; unity of, Visible and Invisible, 157-180, 190-193.
;

101,

115,
;

137;

Kingdom
of, xl.,

of,

17,

145

personality

xliii.,

95-

99, 116, 222, 256.

Ivii. Piety. . moments Grace. xxiii. 163 . 104. 139. 151.. Peter. 106. Proselytes.. 89. 51.... Pantheism. Jewish. xxvi. 153. xvi. 139. 141. 225. Music. . xlvl.. 139. xxiii. xiii. xx. xi.. Morals. Harms. 113. 98.. Patriotism. 270. 55. 110. Mystics. xlix. 267- Luther. xi. 119. 97. xlvii. 113.. 88. 59. 222. 186. Hi... 89. Greeks. 111. Lessing. 116. xlv.. Methodism.. Ivii. Idealism. xx. 112. Loyola. 23. 240. Individuality. liii. Ill. Hypocrisy. Mind. 223. 269.. xx. Imaginative natures. xxv. Mediators.. 185. 269. Papacy.-xxviii.-xv.. X.. 280. lii. 190. influence of.. 184. 99-101. Heresy.. 257. the.. XX. Illumination. 6. 200-202 273. xxx. x. Mythology. 172. xliv. 254. liii. Heathenism. 262. Paul. xl.. xxxvi. Nature. Letter. Iviii. xxxv.286 Goethe. liv. 269. xii. 208. Oratory. xi. 118. 83. Iviii.. 257. power in.. 256. laws of. xlvi.. 40. Lord's Supper. xxiv.. 113. Mysticism. xliii. 170. 261. 269. Humility. Immortality. 144-145.. 116.. 92.. xlviii. Klopstock. Hierarchists. xxxiv. 2. XXXV. Napoleon. 267 use of. 193. xxxix. 89. History.. 284. 273. Marriage. 283.. 8 lievers. xv. 67-7L Neander.. 143. xlvi.. xxxii. 17.. x. xxxiv. Priesthood of Humanity. 198. XXV. 203. 77. LANDSBERG. 93. Novalis.. 118. Proselytizing. 185. 115. Polytheism. xxviii. 267. Moravians. 181. 133-134. 126. Kantians. xliii. 169. Messiah. 143. Letters on.. seers of. 189. 238. liv. . The. 24.. Presentiment. 274. INDEX. Miracle. xxx. xxvii. 96. Hegel..' Halle. predominating xxxiii.. See "Eeligion. 256. 65-67..... Infinite. 260.. Lucinde. xi. 257. U. 112. 144. Heathen. Jacobi. 261. xlix.-xvii. 139. 282. Sacred. 130. 114 . study . Herder. 108. of Be- mediocre religious. xv. Oaths. . Monotheism. 133. Kui'ze Darstellung. xxiii. care of. j 228. 200. 184.. 1...... 151. 79. 19..... aim of. Humanity. .. John. xxv.. Prophecy. 284. xxi.. the Illumination.. Society of. 51. xxii. of. xxi. XV. liii. xxxix. Judaism. 109-110. Kant and xxii. Koran. xxviii. 108. Lipsius. Personality.. 255. 106senseless. xxvi. 71-78. Ivi. Liturgy. 107. . 197. Literature of edification. xlvii. liv. 195. 256. xxvi. 186. .. xiv.. 154. mixed. xlii. 27. Ivii. 107. 273. Musical temperament. 182-183 Poor." Pious. 139. xlvi. xxii. Protestantism. 207. 187-188. xi. 183. Inspiration. 2n6. 41. 153. Confidential xxxvi. xvi.. Plato. 238-241. 114. Intuition. of. Leo X. 79.. 155. Pietism. -xl. 259. 90.. 102. ix. Leibnitz. system of. xxlv. xxxi. 115. 152. Priests.-li. 117. Missions.. X. Mahommedanism. xlvii. Imagination. xix.

xlir. 109. conception .. 19-21. Spinoza. of.. Synodal government..INDEX. Understanding. . and the state. 272. 150.38-40.-xii... Stein.. . 259. 261. 234. xxviii. 264 . xxv. 120-121. WiLHELM MeISTER. 141. 230. 265. 254. in the family. 258. 115. xlii. Ritschl. 255. 37. 103 endowments of. systems of. xxxv. a logical mediator.. 54. Ivii. 277.. impelling to action. Universe. 148. aim of. Virtuosos.. Versatility. ... sics. 71. imitation of. 233.-xiv. Ivil. 34. 257. 111. xliii.. Zinzendorf. 181 . xlix. 23 .. estimates Purism.. parentage. 268.. monument of heroic time. ix.. 136. 161. 211. exposition of. 159. xlviii.. 125. 211-218. 24. . 36. birth. per- Eationalism. Stourdza. xviii. 284 uncle.. xxxiii. 97. Schlegel Friedrich. Iv. 276 its . xlv. 232. 15-18. . 136. li. and morality. xxxviii. 55. xxix. and metaphyxxxii.. 219. Socrates. xxxiii. Zeus. 262 . xiv.. people 125. 218. xxi. 214. of. xxxiv.. social. 9. X. . 145 true and false in. Uncultured. 35. xxxi. li. 141.-lvi. individuality in. 70. 82 as knowledge. sonal references. xxi. xxxix. 14. 29-3]. xxii. xxii. . xxiv. Uniformity. 220. 11. 225. . xlvii. 122. Strauss. xiii. 278. Sack.. plurality of.. Universal Lawgiver.. Soul. xxviii. and ethics. works of.. 231. xxvi. xii. 147 mastership in. its infinity. 74.. as xxxiii. xxi. 283. liv. times of. 275 and history. 111... XXV. 61. rise of. Schiller.. of. 212-214... 40- . 158. xlvi. 225-228. xxxvii. . 40. xlii. -Iviii. 152. 190 corruption of.... 41. 14. 198. Eeason. xliii. 258- Revelation.. x. xxvi. positive. 94. 106. ix. of. and piety. xliv. Sectarianism. xliii. 237 . of. 215216 definition of. heroes of. xvi. Unitarianism. marriage. .. . Theology. 141. life. . 12 and sensuous self- consciousness. 27-29 aim artistic xxxi.. 178.. 101-105.. . Taskmaster. 47.. 50. communication . xxxvi. Supernatural. xxix. Schelling. Religions. Women. lii. xxiii.. 34. . 38. 33-34. 131... ]. 60. 221. liv. xxiii. xxxiii.. 36-42. 23. Ivii. 154. works on. . Iviii. Scriptures. Xatural. Upheaval. 189 ... 55... xx. . 135. Rule of religious. 164 j perception. 184. 232. xxxvi. -XXXV. xix. 81. lii. 234. System. liii. 206. 237.. 265. piety of. as a system. xxviii. 217. 80-82 . 42-45. 178-179. 86. . .. 123. 132. 172-175. Utilitarianism. a malady. 37. 91 . xxxix. 35. Ivi.. 153. xvii. xli. 50-56 . death. 49. of.. not unmixed. xlvii. xlvi.. liii. 81. 56-62.. 149of. xxsvii. 195. XV. xxvi.. xliii. World-Spirit. . 84 representatives 135 . xli.... 182 . Keformation. xxxix. xxviii. xxxvi. xxxiv.. 257. 269. Spinozism. 109-110. Religion as activity.. Iviii. x. 162. Steffens. xxxiv. xl. xxvi. Iviii. rise. Schleiermacher. 122 teleological.. 223 . 102. the.. 108.. 127.. 135. 89-90. 22. canon of. 45feeling. lii. Schlobitten. xlviii. Science. Romantic School. Sense. xlviii. 56-59. active. 18. 237.. Piinjer. xl. 287 doubts. nature of. Iviii.. 128- Religious 260. 197.. ix. 163. not teachable. . 8. Rome.... 187 types . 275. 230.

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