.Creep is defined as the time-dependent strain that occurs under load at elevated temperature and operates in most applications of heat-resistant highalloy castings at normal service temperatures. or limiting stress. The stress that produces a specified minimum creep rate of an alloy or a specified amount of creep deformation in a given time is referred to as the limiting creep strength.

each will creep when the homologous temperature > 0.Since materials have its own different melting point.5 .

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Grain boundary sliding . Deformation by slip . .More slip systems operate at high temperature 2.Creep deformation produces inhomogeneity especially around grain boundaries. allowing dislocations to arrange themselves into a low-angle grain boundary. 3.1.Produced by shear process and promoted by increasing temperature/or decreasing strain rate. Subgrain formation .

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Q = the activated energy for the rate-controlling process A = the material structural constant T = the absolute temperature R = the universal gas constant .

. • Give elongation > 1000%.• Superplasticity is the ability to withstand very large deformation in tension without necking.

5 .For grain boundary diffusion For lattice self-diffusion L(bar) is the mean linear intercept measure of grain size.  m = 0. In this case n = 2.

) . which produces a steady-state creep rate (10-11 to 10-8 s-1.Creep strength is defined as the stress at a given temperature.

.Creep data can also be presented as a plot of stress and time to produce different amounts of total strain.

gas turbine engines. Failures may appear ductile or brittle. Cracking may be either transgranular or intergranular. An understanding of high temperature materials behavior is beneficial in evaluating failures in these types of systems.Creep occurs under load at high temperature. Boilers. While creep testing is done at constant temperature and constant load actual components may experience damage at various temperatures and loading conditions. Failures involving creep are usually easy to identify due to the deformation that occurs. . and ovens are some of the systems that have components that experience creep.

High temperature progressive deformation of a material at constant stress is called creep. A typical creep curve is shown below: . High temperature is a relative term that is dependent on the materials being evaluated.

normally showing a straight line. *Rupture strength and failure time are plotted. .Stress rupture testing is similar to creep testing except that the stresses used are higher than in a creep test.

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