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Mark Holm Centerfield Technology
Introduce some useful advanced SQL programming techniques Show you how to let the database do more work to reduce programming effort Go over some basic techniques and tips to improve performance
V4R3 and higher syntax used in examples Examples show only a small subset of what can be done!
Joining files - techniques, do’s and don’ts Query within a query - Subqueries Stacking data - Unions Simplifying data with Views Referential Integrity and constraints Performance, performance, performance
Joining files Joins are used to relate data from different tables Data can be retrieved with one “open file” rather than many Concept is identical to join logical files without an associated permanent object (except if the join is done with an SQL view) 5 .
Join types Inner Join – Used to find related data Left Outer (or simply Outer) Join – Used to find related data and ‘orphaned’ rows Exception Join – Used to only find ‘orphaned’ rows Cross Join – Join all rows to all rows 6 .
Sample tables FirstName John Cindy Sally Department table LastName Doe Smith Anderson Dept 397 450 250 Dept 397 550 250 Area Development Marketing Sales Employee table .
Dept = Department.Using the JOIN Clause SELECT LastName. 8 .Using the WHERE Clause SELECT LastName. Only works on releases prior to V4R4.Dept • Method #2 .Inner Join • Method #1 . Division FROM Employee INNER JOIN Department ON Employee. Division FROM Employee. Department WHERE Employee.Dept = Department.Dept NOTE: This method is useful if you need to influence the order of the tables are joined in for performance reasons.
Results • Return list of employees that are in a valid department. • Employee ‘Smith’ is not returned because she is not in a department listed in the ‘Department’ table Result table LastName Doe Anderson Area Development Sales 9 .
Area FROM Employee LEFT OUTER JOIN Department ON Employee.Dept 10 .Dept = Department.Left Outer Join • Must use Join Syntax SELECT LastName.
Results • Return list of employees even if they are not in a valid department • Employee ‘Smith’ has a NULL Area because it could not be associated with a valid Dept Result table LastName Doe Smith Anderson Area Development Sales 11 .
Dept = Department. Area FROM Employee EXCEPTION JOIN Department ON Employee.Dept 12 .Exception Join • Must use Join Syntax SELECT LastName.
Results • Return list of employees only if they are NOT in a valid department • Employee ‘Smith’ is only one without a valid department Result table LastName Smith Area - 13 .
The result may be horrible performance…more on this topic later 14 . the database must join the tables in that order.WARNING! The order tables are listed in the FROM clause is important For OUTER and EXCEPTION joins.
if joined properly performance should be at least as good as an application 15 .Observations Joins provide one way to bury application logic in the database Each join type has a purpose and can be used to not only get the data you want but identify “incomplete” information With some exceptions.
Subqueries Subqueries are a powerful way to select only the data you need without separate statements. Example: List employees making a higher than average salary 16 .
LNAME FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE SALARY > (SELECT AVG(SALARY) FROM EMPLOYEE) SELECT FNAME. LNAME FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE SALARY > (SELECT AVG(SALARY) FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE LNAME = ’JONES’) 17 .Subquery Example SELECT FNAME.
Subqueries .types Correlated – Inner select refers to part of the outer (parent) select (multiple evaluations) Non-Correlated – Inner select does not relate to outer query (one evaluation) 18 .
Subquery Tips 1 Subquery optimization (2nd statement will be faster) – SELECT name FROM employee WHERE salary > ALL (SELECT salary FROM salscale) – SELECT name FROM employee WHERE salary > (SELECT max(salary) FROM salscale) 19 .
Subquery Tips 2 Subquery optimization (2nd statement will be faster) – SELECT name FROM employee WHERE salary IN (SELECT salary FROM salscale) – SELECT name FROM employee WHERE EXISTS (SELECT salary FROM salscale WHERE employee.salid = salscale.salid) 20 .
UNIONs Unions provide a way to append multiple row sets files in one statement Example: Process all of the orders from January and February SELECT * FROM JanOrders WHERE SKU = 199976 UNION SELECT * FROM FebOrders WHERE SKU = 199976 21 .
Unions Each SELECT statement that is UNIONed together must have the same number of result columns and have compatible types Two forms of syntax – UNION ALL -.allow duplicate records – UNION -.return only distinct rows 22 .
Views Views provide a convenient way to permanently put SQL logic Create once and use many times Also make the database more understandable to users Can put simple business rules into views to ensure consistency 23 .
HIRE_DATE) AS SELECT concat(concat(strip(last_name). CREATE VIEW HR/NEWBIES (EMPLOYEE_NAME.strip(first_name)). hire_date FROM WHERE HR/EMPLOYEE (year(current date)-year(hire_date)) < 2 24 . department.Views Example: Make it easy for the human resources department to run a report that shows ‘new’ employees. DEPARTMENT.').'.
Query optimizer takes responsibility for doing it ‘right’.Performance SQL performance is harder to predict and tune than native I/O. SQL provides a powerful way to manipulate data but you have little control over HOW it does it. 25 .
diagnosis Getting information about how the optimizer processed a query is crucial Can be done via one or all of the following: – STRDBG: debug messages in job log – STRDBMON: optimizer info put in file – QAQQINI: can be used to force messages – CHGQRYA: messages put out when time limit set to 0 26 .Performance .
Performance tips Create indexes – Over columns that significantly limit data in WHERE clause – Over columns that join tables together – Over columns used in ORDER BY and GROUP BY clauses 27 .
Performance tips Create Encoded Vector Indexes (EVI’s) – Most useful in heavy query environments with a lot of data (e.g. large data warehouses) – Helps queries that process between 20-60% of a table’s data – Create over columns with a modest number of distinct values and those with data skew – EVI’s bridge the gap between traditional indexes and table scans 28 .
Performance tips Encourage optimizer to use indexes – Use keyed columns in WHERE clause if possible – Use ANDed conditions as much as possible – OPTIMIZE FOR n ROWS – Don’t do things that eliminate index use Data conversion (binary-key = 1.5) LIKE clause w/leading wildcard (NAME LIKE ‘%JOE’) 29 .
Performance tips Keep statements simple – Complex statements are much more difficult to optimize – Provide more opportunity for the optimizer to choose a sub-optimal plan of attack 30 .
CHGQRYA.Performance tips Enable DB2 to use parallelism – Query processed by many tasks (CPU parallelism) or by getting data from many disks at once (I/O parallelism) – CPU parallelism requires IBM’s SMP feature and a machine with multiple processors – Enabled via the QQRYDEGREE system value. or the QAQQINI file 31 .
access to multi-member files Primary/Foreign keys .conditional calculations ALIAS .Other useful features CASE clause .referential integrity Constraints 32 .
CASE RegionCode WHEN 'E' THEN 'East Region' WHEN 'S' THEN 'South Region' WHEN 'M' THEN 'Midwest Region' WHEN 'W' THEN 'West Region' END FROM Locations 33 . Description.CASE Conditional calculations with CASE SELECT Warehouse.
CASE Avoiding calculation errors (e.g. Description. CASE NumInStock WHEN 0 THEN NULL ELSE CaseUnits/NumInStock END FROM Inventory 34 . division by 0) SELECT Warehouse.
ALIAS names The CREATE ALIAS statement creates an alias on a table. – CREATE ALIAS alias-name FOR table member Example: Create an alias over the second member of a multi-member physical file – CREATE ALIAS February FOR MonthSales February 35 . or member of a database file. view.
Referential Integrity Keeps two or more files in synch with each other Ensures that children rows have parents Can also be used to automatically delete children when parents are deleted 36 .
Referential Integrity Rules A row inserted into a child table must have a parent row (typically in another table). Parent rules – A parent row can not be deleted if there are dependent children (Restrict rule) OR – All children are also deleted (Cascade rule) OR – All children’s foreign keys are changed (Set Null and Set Default rules) 37 .
Primary key must be unique Primary Key Parent table Child table Foreign Key 38 .
Referential Integrity syntax ALTER TABLE Hr/Employee ADD CONSTRAINT EmpPK PRIMARY KEY (EmployeeId) ALTER TABLE Hr/Department ADD CONSTRAINT EmpFK FOREIGN KEY (EmployeeId) REFERENCES Hr/Employee (EmployeeId) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE RESTRICT 39 .
Salary CHECK (Salary>0 AND Salary<200000)) 40 . LastName CHAR(30).Check Constraints Rules which limit the allowable values in one or more columns: CREATE TABLE Employee (FirstName CHAR(20).
41 . Ensures that it is always done and closes “back doors” like DFU. Data checking done with display files or application logic can now be done at the database level. ODBC.Check Constraints Effectively does data checking at the database level. 3-rd party utilities….
as400network.com/pubs/html/as400/ Our web site at http://www.ibm.com AS/400 DB2 web site at http://www.Other resources Database Design and Programming for DB2/400 .book by Paul Conte SQL for Smarties .ibm.book by Joe Celko SQL Tutorial .centerfieldtechnology.boulder.com 42 .com/db2/db2main.as400.www.htm Publications at http://publib.
it can reduce the time it takes to build applications Once tuned. it can perform very close (and sometimes better) than HLL’s alone 43 .Summary SQL is a powerful way to access and process data Used effectively.
Good Luck and Happy SQLing .