Mixing and Gluten Development

Gluten is a substance made up of protein present in wheat flour called glutenin and gliadin. It gives structure and strength to baked goods. For the gluten to develop, the protein must first absorb water. As the dough is kneaded, the gluten forms long elastic strands. As the dough leavened, these strands captures gases in tiny pockets (the product rise). When it is heated, they coagulate, becoming firm or solidify. Thus, give structure to the baked goods. Controlling Gluten

Flour is mostly made of starch, it the gluten content that concern bakers the most. Baker must be able to control the gluten. For example, we want French bread to be firm and chewy – requires much gluten. Whereas, we want tender cakes – need very little gluten development.

Following are the factor that influences the gluten development;

Selection of flour

Strong flour – high protein content, high gluten Weak flour – low protein content, low gluten


Any fat used in baking shortens gluten strands, surrounding the particles and lubricating them – does not stick together. Fat are tenderizer. E.g. cookie/pastry very crumby, due to high fat content. Amount of fat affect tenderness for pie crust and crisp cookies. Liquid are to be kept at minimum to keep them tender. The more kneading or mixing, the more gluten develops.

Liquid Mixing method

from breads to cookies and cakes. Melting of shortenings 7. Trapping of the gases in air cells.4 g 454 g 1 kg 4. 1.035oz 1 oz 1 lb (16oz) 2. Evaporation of some of the water 6.57ml 237ml 950ml 1L . Crust formation and browning Units of Measurements Equivalents between Imperial and Metric units. The stages in the baking process take place as follows. Units of Measures Imperial Weight 0. Coagulation of proteins 4.9ml 29. Gelatinization of starches 5. 2. 3.The Baking Process The changes undergone by a dough or batter as it bakes are basically the same for all baked products. You should know what these changes are so you can learn how to control them.8 fl oz Metrics 1g 28. Formation and expansion of gases.2 lb Volume 1 tsp 1 fl oz 1 cup 1 quart 33.

018 * X = salt weight If the baker chooses to use 10 kg of flour. Total weight of ingredient -----------------------------------Total weight of flour X 100% = % of ingredient For example. the recipe would call for: 10 kg flour 3. Because of the way these percentages are stated. Flour-based recipes are more accurately conceived as baker's or formula percentage.35 * X = milk weight 0. and other pastries. as a percent of flour mass rather than of all ingredients. if a recipe calls for 1000 g of flour and 500 g of sugar. is a notation method indicating the flour-relative proportion of ingredients used when making breads. In baker's percentage.8% salt To derive the ingredient weights when any weight of flour is chosen: X = flour weight 0.04 * X = yeast weight 0. the corresponding formula percentages will be 100% and 50%. each ingredient is expressed in parts per hundred as a ratio of the ingredient's mass to the total flour mass (Flour = 100%). muffins. Example 1: A yeast-dough formula could call for the following ingredients: 100% flour 35% water 35% milk 4% fresh yeast 1.5 kg water (or 3.Temperature 0˚F 32˚F 212˚F -17˚C 0˚C 100˚C Baker’s Percentage Baker's percentage. sometimes called baker's math or formula percentage. the total will always exceed 100%.5 L) . cakes.35 * X = water weight 0.

18 kg salt (or 180 g) .3.4 kg fresh yeast (or 400 g) 0.5 kg milk 0.

35 ⟹ 35% 3.8% . all that's left is to calculate and multiply by 100 for percentage: Flour Water Milk fresh yeast Salt 10÷10 = 1.5÷10 = 0.18 kg The baker's percentage defines the flour as equal to 100%.4 kg ÷ 0. and uses uniform weight units in decimal form: Flour 10 kg Water 3. so divide all ingredient weights by the flour weight: Flour Water Milk fresh yeast Salt 10 kg ÷ 3.018 ⟹ 1.5 kg fresh yeast 0.4÷10 = 0.18÷10 = 0.35 ⟹ 35% 0.Example 2: The baker knows how much the recipe's ingredients weigh.5÷10 = 0.4 kg Salt 0.18 kg ÷ 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg 10 kg The uniform weight units cancel each other.5 kg ÷ 0.5 kg Milk 3.00 ⟹ 100% 3.5 kg ÷ 3.04 ⟹ 4% 0.

.Oven Temperature and Baking Times Temperature must be adjusted for the product being baked. Golden crust and hollow sound are a good indication of doneness. Lean Breads 205˚C to 220˚C Cutting or Scoring Some French Breads 220˚C to 245˚C Rich Breads 175˚C to 205˚C 1. b) Rich sweet dough are baked at lower temperature because of their ingredients content of fat. a) Larger pieces are baked at lower temperature for longer time than smaller rolls. c) French bread are generally made with no sugar and a long fermentation. Therefore. Slashes are made on the top of the loaf with a razor immediately before it is put in the oven. the tops of hard crusted breads are cut before baking. 2. At proper temperature. so they require a very high temperature to achieve desired crust. the insides become completely baked at the same time for the crust to achieve the desired color. To allow for this expansion. Smaller rolls are often baked without the cut. sugar and milk makes them browns faster. A break in the loaf is caused by contibued rising after the crust is formed.

Pizza Pizza For the base 250gm strong flour 18gm fresh yeast or 10gm dry yeast 150ml water 5gm castor sugar 1tbsp corn oil Sweet dough – yellow river Yellow river 200gm strong flour 65 ml milk 31 ml water 13 gm fresh yeast 32 gm castor sugar 1 no egg 25gm butter ½ tsp salt 65 gm raisin ½ tsp yellow coloring French Loaf French loaf 250gm soft flour 250gm strong flour 10gm format 10gm salt 25gm fresh yeast 315ml water Finishing/glazes/coating Egg wash Butter Sugar Finishing/topping/filling *chicken or beef filling ½ cup Mozzarella 3 tbsp tomato puree 3 nos red/green capsicum ring Onion rings Finishing/ glazes Salted water .

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