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Items Acknowledgement Introduction 1.1 Objective 1.2 Importance of Ecological Study Soil Analysis 2.1 Soil Sampling technique 2.2 Soil Texture 2.3 Organic Matter and Humus of Soil 2.4 Water Content of Soil 2.5 Air Content of Soil 2.6 Soil pH Types of Soil Organism 3.1 Extraction of Soil Organism using Tullgren Funnel 3.2 Extraction of Soil Organism using Bearmenn Funnel Determination of the density of plant species in a habitat 4.1 Quadrate sampling technique 4.2 Line transect sampling technique Summary Appendices

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Page i 1-8 9-10 11 12 13-14 15-22 23-33 34-42 43-45 46-47 48-56 57-60 61-64 65-68 69-74 75-80 81

List of Figure Figure Figure 2.10 Figure 2.11 Figure 2.20 Figure 2.21 Figure 2.22 Figure 2.23 Figure 2.24 Figure 2.25 Figure 2.30 Figure 2.31 Figure 2.40 Figure 2.41 Figure 2.42 Figure 2.43 Figure 2.44 Figure 2.45 Figure 3.00 Figure 3.10 Figure 3.20 Figure 4.10 Title Soil Bore ‘Apple-Care” type Corer A Textural triangle Shapes of soil aggregate Sieves with different size of mesh openings The textural classes for soil sample A is loam The textural classes for soil sample B is loamy sand The textural classes for soil sample C is sandy clay. Microbial byproducts glue soil particles into waterstable aggregates. Effects of aggregation on water and air entry Soil Water Levels within Three Soil Types Gravitational Water Available Water Unavailable Sail Water Capillary force is illustrated by how far water rises in tubes of various diameters The relationship of soil water content and soil water tension. The soil is teeming with organisms that cycle nutrients from soil to plant and back again. Tullgren Funnel arrangement Bearmann Funnel arrangement Shape of Quadrates Page 13 14 16 17 19 21 21 22 25 26 34 35 35 35 36 38 49 58 62 68

List of Table Table Table 2.20 Table 2.21 Table 2.22 Table 2.23 Table 2.30 Table 2.31 Table 2.40 Table 2.41 Table 2.42 Table 3.00 Table 3.01 Table 3.02 Table 3.10 Table 3.20 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Title Size ranges of soil particles according ISSS (International Soil science Society ) standard Masses of stones, sand, slit and clay components of soil sample. Percentage of stones, sand, silt, and clay components of soil sample. Relative percentage of sand, slit, and clay components of soil sample Water entry into the soil after 1 hour Tillage effects on water infiltration and group cover. Soil Water Tension for Three Soil Textures. Available Water Capacity based on soil texture Effect of the soil depth on plant available water capacity Selected nutrient analyses of worm casts compared to those of the surrounding soil. Effect of crop management on earthworm population Weights of soil organisms in the top 7 inches of fertile soil Types of soil Organism Extracted by using Tullgren Funnel. Types of soil Organism Extracted by using Bearmann Funnel Measurement of frequency of each plant species in quadrat sampling. Measurement of density of each plant species in quadrat sampling Measurement of each species cover in quadrat sampling. Measurement of frequency of each plant species in quadrat sampling. Measurement of each species cover in quadrat sampling. Page 15 20 20 20 25 29 37 39 39 50 51 54 59 63 70 71 72 76 77

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