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Chapter 1- Water Balance

Beberapa Definisi Hydrology : Study air, terjadi, distribusi, pergerakan, kimia air di dunia

Hydrogeology : Membahas hubungan material geology dan proses dengan air

Hydrauliques: teknik mengalirkan air dalam pipa, saluran, danau, dan sungai Hydrogeophysics:( Aplikasi metoda geofisika untuk hydrology)kuliah meliputi : nilai quantitative parameter hydrogeology parameter, pengukuran geof. dan proses

Subsurface water-Flowing

Water Table

Definisi Water Balance In hydrology, a water balance equation can be used to describes the flow of water in and out of a system. A system can be one of several hydrological domains, such as a column of soil or a drainage basin.

A general water balance equation is: P = Q + E + S where P is precipitation Q is runoff E is evapotranspiration S is the change in storage (in soil or the bedrock

Beberapa Terminology Lain

P R E S G

Inflow=Outflow+ds

P = Q + E + S

The different processes are as follows: Precipitation is condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface. Most precipitation occurs as rain, but also includes snow, hail, fog drip, graupel, and sleet.[1] Approximately 505,000 km of water fall as precipitation each year, 398,000 km of it over the oceans.[2] Canopy interception is the precipitation that is intercepted by plant foliage and eventually evaporates back to the atmosphere rather than falling to the ground. Snowmelt refers to the runoff produced by melting snow. Runoff includes the variety of ways by which water moves across the land. This includes both surface runoff and channel runoff. As it flows, the water may infiltrate into the ground, evaporate into the air, become stored in lakes or reservoirs, or be extracted for agricultural or other human uses. Infiltration is the flow of water from the ground surface into the ground. Once infiltrated, the water becomes soil moisture or groundwater.[3] Subsurface Flow is the flow of water underground, in the vadose zone and aquifers. Subsurface water may return to the surface (eg. as a spring or by being pumped) or eventually seep into the oceans. Water returns to the land surface at lower elevation than where it infiltrated, under the force of gravity or gravity induced pressures. Groundwater tends to move slowly, and is replenished slowly, so it can remain in aquifers for thousands of years. Evaporation is the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere.[4] The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation. Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants, though together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. Total annual evapotranspiration amounts to approximately 505,000 km of water, 434,000 km of which evaporates from the oceans.[5] Sublimation is the state change directly from solid water (snow or ice) to water vapor.[6] Advection is the movement of water in solid, liquid, or vapour states through the atmosphere. Without advection, water that evaporated over the oceans could not precipitate over land.[7] Condensation is the transformation of water vapour to liquid water droplets in the air, producing clouds and fog.[8]

Precipitasimm Water Balance Infiltrasi mm/time: Hortons formule:decay Evaporation Evapotranspiration:forset:grass:70:35 Rainfall-Runoff:fac(slope+infilt) Infil/rainf Satured f time

Precipitasi: Area Analisa durasi Freq Intensitas Nilai extreem

P
1

Area Presipitasi

1 p ( x).dx A
A

11 P p ( x, t ).dx T A
m 1 i 1 A i

Thiesen Polygon: Areal Precipitation

Catchment

Raingauge

Precipitation Depth Areal rain

30 40

Area

50

IsohyetTotal areaarea intra isohyetaverageisohyetvolumeCumm volAreal rain