A lathe ( /ˈleɪð/) is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perfo rm various operations such as cutting

, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformati on with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has sy mmetry about an axis of rotation. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wh eel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental l athes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The materia l can be held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can b e moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. Other workholding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or co llet, or to a faceplate, using clamps or dogs. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders, cue sticks, table legs, bowls, baseball bats, musical instruments (especially w oodwind instruments), crankshafts and camshafts. Parts Parts of a wood lathe A lathe may or may not have a stand (or legs), which sits on the floor and eleva tes the lathe bed to a working height. Some lathes are small and sit on a workbe nch or table, and do not have a stand. Almost all lathes have a bed, which is (almost always) a horizontal beam (althou gh CNC lathes commonly have an inclined or vertical beam for a bed to ensure tha t swarf, or chips, falls free of the bed). Woodturning lathes specialised for tu rning large bowls often have no bed or tailstock, merely a free-standing headsto ck and a cantilevered toolrest. At one end of the bed (almost always the left, as the operator faces the lathe) is a headstock. The headstock contains high-precision spinning bearings. Rotatin g within the bearings is a horizontal axle, with an axis parallel to the bed, ca lled the spindle. Spindles are often hollow, and have exterior threads and/or an interior Morse taper on the "inboard" (i.e., facing to the right / towards the bed) by which workholding accessories may be mounted to the spindle. Spindles ma y also have exterior threads and/or an interior taper at their "outboard" (i.e., facing away from the bed) end, and/or may have a handwheel or other accessory m echanism on their outboard end. Spindles are powered, and impart motion to the w orkpiece. The spindle is driven, either by foot power from a treadle and flywheel or by a belt or gear drive to a power source. In most modern lathes this power source is an integral electric motor, often either in the headstock, to the left of the h eadstock, or beneath the headstock, concealed in the stand. In addition to the spindle and its bearings, the headstock often contains parts to convert the motor speed into various spindle speeds. Various types of speed-c hanging mechanism achieve this, from a cone pulley or step pulley, to a cone pul ley with back gear (which is essentially a low range, similar in net effect to t he two-speed rear of a truck), to an entire gear train similar to that of a manu al-shift auto transmission. Some motors have electronic rheostat-type speed cont rols, which obviates cone pulleys or gears. The counterpoint to the headstock is the tailstock, sometimes referred to as the loose head, as it can be positioned at any convenient point on the bed, by undo ing a locking nut, sliding it to the required area, and then relocking it. The t ailstock contains a barrel which does not rotate, but can slide in and out paral lel to the axis of the bed, and directly in line with the headstock spindle. The barrel is hollow, and usually contains a taper to facilitate the gripping of va rious type of tooling. Its most common uses are to hold a hardened steel centre, which is used to support long thin shafts while turning, or to hold drill bits for drilling axial holes in the work piece. Many other uses are possible.[3] Metalworking lathes have a carriage (comprising a saddle and apron) topped with a cross-slide, which is a flat piece that sits crosswise on the bed, and can be

cranked at right angles to the bed. Sitting atop the cross slide is usually anot her slide called a compound rest, which provides 2 additional axes of motion, ro tary and linear. Atop that sits a toolpost, which holds a cutting tool which rem oves material from the workpiece. There may or may not be a leadscrew, which mov es the cross-slide along the bed. Woodturning and metal spinning lathes do not have cross-slides, but rather have banjos, which are flat pieces that sit crosswise on the bed. The position of a b anjo can be adjusted by hand; no gearing is involved. Ascending vertically from the banjo is a toolpost, at the top of which is a horizontal toolrest. In woodtu rning, hand tools are braced against the tool rest and levered into the workpiec e. In metal spinning, the further pin ascends vertically from the tool rest, and serves as a fulcrum against which tools may be levered into the workpiece. [edit] Accessories A steady rest See also: Lathe center Unless a workpiece has a taper machined onto it which perfectly matches the inte rnal taper in the spindle, or has threads which perfectly match the external thr eads on the spindle (two conditions which rarely exist), an accessory must be us ed to mount a workpiece to the spindle. A workpiece may be bolted or screwed to a faceplate, a large, flat disk that mou nts to the spindle. In the alternative, faceplate dogs may be used to secure the work to the faceplate. A workpiece may be mounted on a mandrel, or circular work clamped in a three- or four-jaw chuck. For irregular shaped workpieces it is usual to use a four jaw ( independent moving jaws) chuck. These holding devices mount directly to the Lath e headstock spindle. In precision work, and in some classes of repetition work, cylindrical workpiece s are usually held in a collet inserted into the spindle and secured either by a drawbar, or by a collet closing cap on the spindle. Suitable collets may also b e used to mount square or hexagonal workpieces. In precision toolmaking work suc h collets are usually of the draw-in variety, where, as the collet is tightened, the workpiece moves slightly back into the headstock, whereas for most repetiti on work the dead length variety is preferred, as this ensures that the position of the workpiece does not move as the collet is tightened. A soft workpiece (wooden) may be pinched between centers by using a spur drive a t the headstock, which bites into the wood and imparts torque to it. Live center (top); dead center (bottom) A soft dead center is used in the headstock spindle as the work rotates with the centre. Because the centre is soft it can be trued in place before use. The inc luded angle is 60°. Traditionally, a hard dead center is used together with suitab le lubricant in the tailstock to support the workpiece. In modern practice the d ead center is frequently replaced by a live center, as it turns freely with the workpiece — usually on ball bearings — reducing the frictional heat, especially impo rtant at high speeds. When clear facing a long length of material it must be sup ported at both ends. This can be achieved by the use of a travelling or fixed st eady. If a steady is not available, the end face being worked on may be supporte d by a dead (stationary) half centre. A half centre has a flat surface machined across a broad section of half of its diameter at the pointed end. A small secti on of the tip of the dead centre is retained to ensure concentricity. Lubricatio n must be applied at this point of contact and tail stock pressure reduced. A la the carrier or lathe dog may also be employed when turning between two centers.[ 4] In woodturning, one variation of a live center is a cup center, which is a cone of metal surrounded by an annular ring of metal that decreases the chances of th e workpiece splitting. A circular metal plate with even spaced holes around the periphery, mounted to t

he spindle, is called an "index plate". It can be used to rotate the spindle to a precise angle, then lock it in place, facilitating repeated auxiliary operatio ns done to the workpiece. Other accessories, including items such as taper turning attachments, knurling t ools, vertical slides, fixed and traveling steadies, etc., increase the versatil ity of a lathe and the range of work it may perform. [edit] Modes of use When a workpiece is fixed between the headstock and the tailstock, it is said to be "between centers". When a workpiece is supported at both ends, it is more st able, and more force may be applied to the workpiece, via tools, at a right angl e to the axis of rotation, without fear that the workpiece may break loose. When a workpiece is fixed only to the spindle at the headstock end, the work is said to be "face work". When a workpiece is supported in this manner, less force may be applied to the workpiece, via tools, at a right angle to the axis of rot ation, lest the workpiece rip free. Thus, most work must be done axially, toward s the headstock, or at right angles, but gently. When a workpiece is mounted with a certain axis of rotation, worked, then remoun ted with a new axis of rotation, this is referred to as "eccentric turning" or " multi axis turning". The result is that various cross sections of the workpiece are rotationally symmetric, but the workpiece as a whole is not rotationally sym metric. This technique is used for camshafts, various types of chair legs. [edit] Varieties The smallest lathes are "jewelers lathes" or "watchmaker lathes", which are smal l enough that they may be held in one hand. The workpieces machined on a jeweler 's lathes are metal, jeweler's lathes can be used with hand-held "graver" tools or with compound rests that attach to the lathe bed. Graver tools are generally supported by a T-rest, not fixed to a cross slide or compound rest. The work is usually held in a collet. Common spindle bore sizes are 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm. Th e term W/W refers to the Webster/Whitcomb collet and lathe, invented by the Amer ican Watch Tool Company of Waltham, Massachusetts. Most lathes commonly referred to as watchmakers lathes are of this design. In 1909, the American Watch Tool c ompany introduced the Magnus type collet (a 10-mm body size collet) using a lath e of the same basic design, the Webster/Whitcomb Magnus. (F.W.Derbyshire, Inc. r etains the trade names Webster/Whitcomb and Magnus and still produces these coll ets.) Two bed patterns are common: the WW (Webster Whitcomb) bed, a truncated tr iangular prism (found only on 8 and 10 mm watchmakers' lathes); and the continen tal D-style bar bed (used on both 6 mm and 8 mm lathes by firms such as Lorch an d Star). Other bed designs have been used, such a triangular prism on some Boley 6.5 mm lathes, and a V-edged bed on IME's 8 mm lathes. Smaller metalworking lathes that are larger than jewelers' lathes and can sit on a bench or table, but offer such features as tool holders and a screw-cutting g ear train are called hobby lathes, and larger versions, "bench lathes". Even lar ger lathes offering similar features for producing or modifying individual parts are called "engine lathes". Lathes of these types do not have additional integr al features for repetitive production, but rather are used for individual part p roduction or modification as the primary role. Lathes of this size that are designed for mass manufacture, but not offering the versatile screw-cutting capabilities of the engine or bench lathe, are referred to as "second operation" lathes. Lathes with a very large spindle bore and a chuck on both ends of the spindle ar e called "oil field lathes". Fully automatic mechanical lathes, employing cams and gear trains for controlled movement, are called screw machines. Lathes that are controlled by a computer are CNC lathes. Lathes with the spindle mounted in a vertical configuration, instead of horizont al configuration, are called vertical lathes or vertical boring machines. They a re used where very large diameters must be turned, and the workpiece (comparativ ely) is not very long. A lathe with a cylindrical tailstock that can rotate around a vertical axis, so as to present different tools towards the headstock (and the workpiece) are turr

et lathes. A lathe equipped with indexing plates, profile cutters, spiral or helical guides , etc., so as to enable ornamental turning is an ornamental lathe. Various combinations are possible: for example, a vertical lathe have CNC as wel l (such as a CNC VTL). Lathes can be combined with other machine tools, such as a drill press or vertic al milling machine. These are usually referred to as combination lathes. [edit] Major categories [edit] Woodworking lathes A modern woodworking lathe. Woodworking lathes are the oldest variety. All other varieties are descended fro m these simple lathes. An adjustable horizontal metal rail - the tool rest - bet ween the material and the operator accommodates the positioning of shaping tools , which are usually hand-held. With wood, it is common practice to press and sli de sandpaper against the still-spinning object after shaping to smooth the surfa ce made with the metal shaping tools. There are also woodworking lathes for making bowls and plates, which have no hor izontal metal rail, as the bowl or plate needs only to be held by one side from a metal face plate. Without this rail, there is very little restriction to the w idth of the piece being turned. Further detail can be found on the woodturning p age. [edit] Metalworking lathes A metalworking lathe Main article: Lathe (metal) In a metalworking lathe, metal is removed from the workpiece using a hardened cu tting tool, which is usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting, either a toolpo st or a turret, which is then moved against the workpiece using handwheels and/o r computer controlled motors. These (cutting) tools come in a wide range of size s and shapes depending upon their application. Some common styles are diamond, r ound, square and triangular. The toolpost is operated by leadscrews that can accurately position the tool in a variety of planes. The toolpost may be driven manually or automatically to pro duce the roughing and finishing cuts required to turn the workpiece to the desir ed shape and dimensions, or for cutting threads, worm gears, etc. Cutting fluid may also be pumped to the cutting site to provide cooling, lubrication and clear ing of swarf from the workpiece. Some lathes may be operated under control of a computer for mass production of parts (see "Computer Numerical Control"). Manually controlled metalworking lathes are commonly provided with a variable ra tio gear train to drive the main leadscrew. This enables different thread pitche s to be cut. On some older lathes or more affordable new lathes, the gear trains are changed by swapping gears with various numbers of teeth onto or off of the shafts, while more modern or expensive manually controlled lathes have a quick c hange box to provide commonly used ratios by the operation of a lever. CNC lathe s use computers and servomechanisms to regulate the rates of movement. On manually controlled lathes, the thread pitches that can be cut are, in some w ays, determined by the pitch of the leadscrew: A lathe with a metric leadscrew w ill readily cut metric threads (including BA), while one with an imperial leadsc rew will readily cut imperial unit based threads such as BSW or UTS (UNF,UNC). T his limitation is not insurmountable, because a 127-tooth gear, called a transpo sing gear, is used to translate between metric and inch thread pitches. However, this is optional equipment that many lathe owners do not own. It is also a larg er changewheel than the others, and on some lathes may be larger than the change wheel mounting banjo is capable of mounting. The workpiece may be supported between a pair of points called centres, or it ma y be bolted to a faceplate or held in a chuck. A chuck has movable jaws that can grip the workpiece securely.

There are some effects on material properties when using a metalworking lathe. T here are few chemical or physical effects, but there are many mechanical effects , which include residual stress, microcracks, workhardening, and tempering in ha rdened materials. [edit] Cue lathes Cue lathes function similar to turning and spinning lathes allowing for a perfec tly radially-symmetrical cut for billiard cues. They can also be used to refinis h cues that have been worn over the years. [edit] Glassworking lathes Glassworking lathes are similar in design to other lathes, but differ markedly i n how the workpiece is modified. Glassworking lathes slowly rotate a hollow glas s vessel over a fixed or variable temperature flame. The source of the flame may be either hand-held, or mounted to a banjo/cross slide that can be moved along the lathe bed. The flame serves to soften the glass being worked, so that the gl ass in a specific area of the workpiece becomes malleable, and subject to formin g either by inflation ("glassblowing"), or by deformation with a heat resistant tool. Such lathes usually have two headstocks with chucks holding the work, arra nged so that they both rotate together in unison. Air can be introduced through the headstock chuck spindle for glassblowing. The tools to deform the glass and tubes to blow (inflate) the glass are usually handheld. In diamond turning, a computer-controlled lathe with a diamond-tipped tool is us ed to make precision optical surfaces in glass or other optical materials. Unlik e conventional optical grinding, complex aspheric surfaces can be machined easil y. Instead of the dovetailed ways used on the tool slide of a metal turning lath e, the ways typically float on air bearings and the position of the tool is meas ured by optical interferometry to achieve the necessary standard of precision fo r optical work. The finished work piece usually requires a small amount subseque nt polishing by conventional techniques to achieve a finished surface suitably s mooth for use in a lens, but the rough grinding time is significantly reduced fo r complex lenses. [edit] Metal spinning lathes Main article: metal spinning In metal spinning, a disk of sheet metal is held perpendicularly to the main axi s of the lathe, and tools with polished tips (spoons) are hand held, but levered by hand against fixed posts, to develop large amounts of torque/pressure that d eform the spinning sheet of metal. Metal spinning lathes are almost as simple as woodturning lathes (and, at this p oint, lathes being used for metal spinning almost always are woodworking lathes) . Typically, metal spinning lathes require a user-supplied rotationally symmetri c mandrel, usually made of wood, which serves as a template onto which the workp iece is moulded (non-symmetric shapes can be done, but it is a very advanced tec hnique). For example, if you want to make a sheet metal bowl, you need a solid c hunk of wood in the shape of the bowl; if you want to make a vase, you need a so lid template of a vase, etc. Given the advent of high speed, high pressure, industrial die forming, metal spi nning is less common now than it once was, but still a valuable technique for pr oducing one-off prototypes or small batches where die forming would be uneconomi cal. [edit] Ornamental turning lathes The ornamental turning lathe was developed around the same time as the industria l screwcutting lathe in the nineteenth century. It was used not for making pract ical objects, but for decorative work - ornamental turning. By using accessories such as the horizontal and vertical cutting frames, eccentric chuck and ellipti cal chuck, solids of extraordinary complexity may be produced by various generat ive procedures. A special purpose lathe, the Rose engine lathe is also used for ornamental turni ng, in particular for engine turning, typically in precious metals, for example to decorate pocket watch cases. As well as a wide range of accessories, these la thes usually have complex dividing arrangements to allow the exact rotation of t he mandrel. Cutting is usually carried out by rotating cutters, rather than dire

ctly by the rotation of the work itself. Because of the difficulty of polishing such work, the materials turned, such as wood or ivory, are usually quite soft, and the cutter has to be exceptionally sharp. The finest ornamental lathes are g enerally considered to be those made by Holtzapffel around the turn of the 19th century. [edit] Reducing lathe Many types of lathes can be equipped with accessory components to allow them to reproduce an item: the original item is mounted on one spindle, the blank is mou nted on another, and as both turn in synchronized manner, one end of an arm "rea ds" the original and the other end of the arm "carves" the duplicate. A reducing lathe is a specialized lathe that is designed with this feature, and which incorporates a mechanism similar to a pantograph, so that when the "readin g" end of the arm reads a detail that measures one inch (for example), the cutti ng end of the arm creates an analogous detail that is (for example) one quarter of an inch (a 4:1 reduction, although given appropriate machinery and appropriat e settings, any reduction ratio is possible). Reducing lathes are used in coin-making, where a plaster original (or an epoxy m aster made from the plaster original, or a copper shelled master made from the p laster original, etc.) is duplicated and reduced on the reducing lathe, generati ng a master die. [edit] Rotary lathes A lathe in which softwood, like spruce or pine, or hardwood, like birch, logs ar e turned against a very sharp blade and peeled off in one continuous or semi-con tinuous roll. Invented by Immanuel Nobel (father of the more famous Alfred Nobel ). The first such lathes were set up in the United States in the mid-19th centur y. The product is called wood veneer and it is used for finishing chipboard obje cts and making plywood. [edit] Watchmaker's lathes Watchmaker's lathe Watchmakers lathes are delicate but precise metalworking lathes, usually without provision for screwcutting, and are still used by horologists for work such as the turning of balance shafts. A handheld tool called a graver is often used in preference to a slide mounted tool. The original watchmaker's turns was a simple dead-centre lathe with a moveable rest and two loose headstocks. The workpiece would be rotated by a bow, typically of horsehair, wrapped around it. [edit] Gallery [edit] Examples of lathes • Small metalworking lathe • Large old lathe • Belt-driven metalworking lathe in the machine shop at Hagley Museum [edit] Examples of work produced from a lathe • Lathe exercise • Turned chess pieces BED The bed of the lathe provides the foundation for the whole machine and holds the headstock, tailstock and carriage in alignment. The surfaces of the bed that ar e finely machined - and upon which the carriage and tailstock slide - are known as "ways". Some beds have a gap near the headstock to allow extra-large diameters to be tur ned. Sometimes the gap is formed by the machined ways stopping short of the head stock, sometimes by a piece of bed that can be unbolted, removed--and lost. Some very large lathes have a "sliding bed" where the upper part, on which the c arriage and tailstock sit, can be slid along a separate lower part - and so make

the gap correspondingly larger or smaller. SADDLE The casting that fits onto the top of the bed and slides along it is known, almo st universally, as the "Saddle" - a self-explanatory and very suitable term. APRON The vertical, often flat and rectangular "plate" fastened to the front of the "S addle" is known as the "Apron" and carries a selection of gears and controls tha t allow the carriage to be driven (by hand or power) up and down the bed. The me chanism inside can also engage the screwcutting feed and various powered tool fe eds, should they be fitted. The leadscrew, and sometimes a power shaft as well, are often arranged to pass through the apron and provide it with a drive for the various functions. The sophistication of the apron-mounted controls, and their ease of use, is a reliable indicator of the quality of a lathe. Virtually all sc rew-cutting lathes have what is commonly-called a "half-nut" lever that closes d own one and sometimes two halves of a split nut to grasp the leadscrew and provi de a drive for screwcutting. Apron design can be roughly divided into "single-wall" and "double-wall" types. The "single-wall" apron has just one thickness of metal and, protruding from it (and unsupported on their outer ends) are studs that carry gears. The "double-wa ll" apron is a much more robust structure, rather like a narrow, open-topped box with the gear-carrying studs fitted between the two walls - and hence rigidly s upported at both ends. This type of construction produces a very stiff structure - and one that is far less likely to deflect under heavy-duty work; another adv antage is that the closed base of the "box" can be used to house an oil reservoi r the lubricant ion which is either splashed around or, preferably, pumped to su pply the spindles, gears and even, on some lathes, the sliding surfaces of the b ed and cross slide as well. COMPOUND SLIDE REST consisting of the CROSS SLIDE and TOP SLIDE Sitting on top of the "Saddle" is the "Cross Slide" - that, as its name implies, moves across the bed - and on top of that there is often a "Top Slide" or "Tool Slide" that is invariably arranged so that it can be swivelled and locked into a new position. Very early lathes had a simple T-shaped piece of metal against which the turner "rested" his tool (all turning being done by hand) but when it became possible t o move this "Rest" across the bed by a screw feed it became known, appropriately enough, as a "Slide-rest". The earliest known example of a "Slide-rest" is illu strated in Mittelalterliche Hausbuch, a German publication of about 1480. After the "Top Slide" became a more common fitting the term "Slide-rest" was not so frequently used - and the different functions of the two slides led to their specific names being more widely adopted. When two slides are provided (or sometimes, on watchmaker's lathes, three) the c omplete assembly is known as the "Compound" or "Compound Slide" or even "Compoun d Slide-rest". Some makers have been known to label the "Top Slide" as the "Comp ound Rest" or even the "Compound Slide" - but as "to compound" means the 'joinin g of two or more' - not 'one' - this use of the term in incorrect. The top and c ross slide together should be referred to as "the compound". CARRIAGE The whole assembly of Saddle, Apron, Top and Cross Slide is known as the "Carria ge". Some American publications (even makers' handbooks) have been known to casu ally refer to this as the "Saddle" - but this incorrect. HEADSTOCK. The lathe Headstock used, at one time, to be called the "Fixed Headstock" or "Fi xed Head", and the rotating shaft within it the "Mandrel". Today the mandrel is usually called the "Spindle", but this can cause confusion with the tailstock, w here the sliding bar is known variously as the "ram", "barrel" - and "spindle".

The headstock is normally mounted rigidly to the bed (exceptions exist in some p roduction, CNC, automatic and "Swiss-auto" types) and holds all the mechanisms, including various kinds and combinations of pulleys or gears, so that the spindl e can be made to turn at different speeds. HEADSTOCK SPINDLE The end of the headstock spindle is usually machined so that it can carry a face plate, chuck, drive-plate, internal or external collets - or even special attach ments designed for particular jobs. In turn, these attachments hold the workpiec e that is going to be machined. The "fitting" formed on the end of the spindle is normally one of five types: 1) - a simple flange through which threaded studs on a faceplate or chuck (for e xample) can pass and be tightened into place with nuts. This is a secure method, and allows high-speed reverse, but is very inconvenient on a general-purpose la the. 2) - A threaded nose onto which fittings screw. This is perfectly acceptable for smaller lathes, but unsatisfactory on larger industrial machines where, for rea sons of production economy, the spindle may need to be reversed at high speed. R eversing a screwed-on chuck causes it to unscrew - with potentially disastrous r esults. 3) - A "D1-taper Camlock" fitting - a long-used, standard system that employs th ree or more "studs" that are turned to lock into the back of chucks and faceplat es, etc. 4) - A taper - either of the simple Hardinge type or, for bigger lathes, the "ta per-nose, long-key drive" - an older but excellent American design where a large screwed ring was held captive on the end of the spindle and used to draw the ch uck, or other fitting, onto a long, keyed taper formed on the spindle end. An id eal system for the rigid mounting of heavier chucks, it has now largely fallen i nto disuse. The fitting was available in various sizes starting at L00 (L zero z ero) and worked up through L0, L1, L2, etc. 5) - various fittings that became increasingly complex and apparently invented f or the sake of being able to claim a National Standard (the famous not-inventedhere syndrome). All these succeeded in doing was to raise manufacturing costs by preventing the interchange of spindle-nose tooling between machines and requiri ng firms to keep larger inventories of spares and numbers of duplicated firings. Some of these included: British and ISO Standard Spindle Noses - Direct Mountin g; British & ISO Short Taper with Bolt or Stud Fixing; British & ISO Short Taper with Camlock Fixing; British & ISO Short Taper with Bayonet Ring Fixing and, of course, German Standard Spindle Noses. Unbelievably, there appears never to hav e been a French standard - and we still await official announcement of the rumou red Botswana-Standard Triple-cam with Over-locking Nose and Chinese-designed New Moon Slide-and-Snap-Approximately fittings. BACKGEAR As its name implies, "backgear" is a gear mounted at the back of the headstock ( although in practice it is often located in other positions) that allows the chu ck to rotate slowly with greatly-increased torque (turning power). Backgeared la thes are sometimes referred to a "BG" or "BGSC" - the latter meaning "backgeared and screwcutting". At first, the ability to run a workpiece slowly might seem u nnecessary, but a large-diameter casting, fastened to the faceplate and run at 2 00 rpm (about the slowest speed normally available on a lathe without backgear) would have a linear speed at its outer edge beyond the turning capacity of a sma ll lathe. By engaging backgear, and so reducing the speed but increasing the tor que, even the largest faceplate-mounted jobs can be turned successfully. Screwcutting also requires slow speeds, typically between 25 and 50 rpm - especi ally if the operator is a beginner, or the job tricky. A bottom speed in excess of those figures (as usually found on most Far Eastern and European machines but not those built in the United Kingdom) means that screwcutting - especially int ernally, into blind holes - is, in effect, impossible. These lathes are advertis ed as "screwcutting" but what that means in reality is just power feed along the

bed. Even if you go to the trouble of making up a pulley system to reduce the s pindle speeds you will find the torque needed to turn large diameters at low spe eds causes the belts to slip. The only solution is a gear-driven low speed and s o a proper small lathe, with a backgear fitted, not only becomes capable of cutt ing threads but can also tackle heavy-duty drilling, big-hole boring and large-d iameter facing: in other words, it is possible to use it to the very limits of i ts capacity and strength. Beginners are sometimes confused about how to engage backgear - especially if th e lathe lacks a handbook - but with a little care anyone can work out how it sho uld be done, at least on a conventional machine. On the main spindle of the lath e, the one carrying the drive pulley, will be found a large gear, generally refe rred to as the "Bull Wheel". The Bull Wheel is attached to the pulley by a nut a nd bolt, a spring-loaded pin, a pawl that presses into a gear on the pulley (or some other means) and, if this fastening is undone - by slackening the nut and p ushing it towards the pulley, or by pulling the pin out - it should be found tha t the pulley will spin freely on the shaft. By moving the "backgears" into posit ion - they generally slide sideways, or are mounted on an eccentric pin - the me chanism will come into operation. If the pulley will not spin on the shaft, or t here seems to be no obvious way of disconnecting the Bull Wheel from the pulley, it may be that you are dealing with an "over-engineered" machine where some cle ver device has been introduced to make life "easy" for the operator. Sometimes t here will be a screw, flush with the surface of the drive pulley and beneath thi s a spring-loaded pin that pushes into the back face of the Bull Wheel. Quick-ac tion "Sliding-cam" mechanisms are occasionally used (as on the Drummond and Myfo rd M Series lathes) where a knob on the face of the Bull Wheel has to be pushed sideways, and so ride up a ramp, which action disengages the connecting pin auto matically. Some lathes, with enclosed headstocks (like later Boxford models) hav e a "single-lever" backgear; in this system moving the first part of the lever's movement disengages the connection whilst the next brings the backgear into mes h. LEADSCREW Originally termed a "master thread", or described as the "leading screw", but no w always referred to as the "leadscrew", this is a long threaded rod normally fo und running along the front of the bed or, on some early examples running betwee n the bed ways down the bed's centre line. By using a train of gears to connect the lathe spindle to the leadscrew - and the leadscrew to the lathe carriage - t he latter, together with its cutting tool, could be forced to move a set distanc e for every revolution of the spindle. TAILSTOCK The Tailstock was once known in England as the "loose stock", " Ppoppet head" or "loose head" - the latter old-fashioned term being used by Harrison and other E nglish firms in some of their advertising literature until the early 1970s. The unit is arranged to slide along the bed and can be locked to it at any convenien t point; the upper portion of the unit is fitted with what is variously called a "barrel", "spindle" "ram" or "shoot" that can be moved in and out of the main c asting by hand, lever or screw feed and carries a "Dead Centre" that supports th e other end of work held (by various means) in the headstock. Special centres, which rotate with the work, can be used in the tailstock ; thes e are known as "Rotating Centres" and should not be referred to as "live centres " - that term being reserved for the centre carried in the headstock spindle. Long ago centres were referred to by turners as "Poppets" - presumably from "pop it in" - and they carried their own with them, secured in cotton waste and jeal ously guarded in the top pocket of their overalls. COUNTERSHAFT (in the USA sometimes referred to as a "jackshaft") Most small electric motors in Britain spin at 1425 rpm, whilst those in the USA and Europe are usually marked a little faster at 1600 to 1700 rpm or so. If the lathe spindle was to be driven directly from one of these motors, even us

ing a small pulley on the motor shaft, and a larger one on the lathe, it would b e turning far too quickly to be useful for the great majority of jobs; hence, it is necessary to introduce some way of reducing the lathe's spindle speed - and that is the job of the countershaft. In a typical arrangement, illustrated here, the motor is fastened to an upright, hinged, cast-iron plate and fitted with a small pulley on its spindle. Because the 1500 rpm motor is driving a much larger pulley in a ratio of something like 5 : 1 - the speed is reduced to 300 rpm (1500 divided by 5). On the same shaft as the very large pulley is a set of three smaller pulleys, ar ranged in the "reverse" order from those on the lathe. If the middle pulley on t he countershaft is made to drive the identically-sized pulley on the lathe spind le that too, of course, will turn at 300 rpm. The pulleys each side of it are no rmally arranged to halve and double that speed - hence the creation of a speed s et covering a useful 150 rpm, 300 rpm and 600 rpm. It is a simple matter to fit both a small and a large pulleys to the motor shaft , and two correspondingly larger pulleys on the countershaft, and so double the number of available speeds to six. If a two-speed electric motor is used the ran ge doubles again to 12 and, should the lathe designer have managed to squeeze a four-step pulley between the spindle bearings, a total of 16 would be available; with a backgear fitted the total would rise to thirty-two speeds that, typicall y, might start at 25 r.p.m. and extend all the way up to over 3000 rpm. CHANGEWHEELS and TUMBLE REVERSE These are the gears that take the drive from the headstock spindle down to the l eadscrew. They are normally contained within a cover at the extreme left-hand si de of the lathe - but many older lathes, built in times when manufacturers were not concerned with saving people from their own carelessness, left them exposed. Called "changewheels" because of the necessity to change them every time a diffe rent thread, or rate of tool feed, was required, the expression goes back to the earliest time that gears were used for this purpose. The gear train is usually carried on a quadrant arm able to be adjusted by being swung on its mounting to allow the mesh of the topmost gear with the output gear on the spindle (or tumbl e reverse mechanism) to be set. In Great Britain the arm is sometimes called the "Banjo" - although this expression should really be limited to those types with just one slot. Some manufacturers, to make life difficult for themselves and th eir customers, tried other systems as well. A drive through changewheels often i ncorporates a tumble-reverse mechanism by which means the drive to the leadscrew can be instantly reversed - and hence the cutting tool made to move towards or away from the headstock at will. In its "neutral" position it also allows the he adstock spindle to rotate freely and quietly without having to drive the screwcu tting changewheels and leadscrew. Some lathes ( especially larger ones) often have chucks with integral threads or other mounting mechanisms - Long-nose Taper, Camlock, ISO, etc. - but most smal l lathes (and older larger ones) use a simple "backplate" where a suitably threa ded disc - preferably made from drawn cast iron - is screwed on (or otherwise at tached) to the spindle nose and then turned very carefully so that a spigot, rai sed in its centre, will fit closely into a recess in the back of the chuck. At a ll costs avoid steel backplates; they can bruise or otherwise damage the spindle nose and, if they become stuck, will be much more difficult to remove. Contrary to popular belief, the bolts that pass through the backplate and screw into the body of the chuck do not provide a location - they simply clamp the two components together; the alignment of the chuck on the backplate (and hence its position relative to the centre line of the headstock spindle) depends upon the spigot, (machined on the backplate), being made a very close fit within the chu ck body. A further important consideration concerns the surfaces of the backplate and chu ck that come into hard contact with each other. This is determined (of course) b y which surfaces the mounting bolts pass through - and can be either on the rais ed outer ring (annulus) of the chuck, or the circle formed inside it. Whichever surfaces come into contact make sure that the other two (non-contact surfaces) h

ave a little clearance between them - about 0.025" (0.5 mm) is sufficient - in o ther words, the depth of the spigot must not be too deep, nor too shallow. Needless to say, if you have more than one chuck each will require fitting to it s own backplate. Even when chucks have identical backs removing and refitting th em (on a shared backplate) would not only waste time but introduce inaccuracies. Mounting a New Chuck 1. Make sure that the threads of the (cast-iron) backplate and spindle are thoro ughly cleaned and very lightly oiled. Screw the backplate on firmly, using hand pressure only. 2. ow ll ng Before machining starts find a suitable bar, mount it between centres and all the tailstock to apply a little pressure towards the headstock. Doing this wi eliminate any spindle end-play (if it exists) - a vital requirement when maki very accurate facing cuts.

3. Use a pair of inside calipers to measure the diameter of the recess in the ba ck of the chuck; transfer this measurement to a pair of outside calipers and mac hine a spigot that is oversize by about 1/64" (0.5 mm); if you doubt your skill to do this, simply leave the spigot a little larger. The face of the backplate that the chuck pulls up against must be dead flat; onc e the oversize spigot has been formed spend several minutes raising just "dust" across this surface to make sure that it is as flat and as smooth as possible. Y ou might want to test this by running a dial-test indicator over it; ideally, th e run-out should not exceed 0.0002" (0.005 mm). 4. At the junction of the "flange face" and the "vertical wall" of the spigot (F ig. 2), a small undercut should be made. This will allow the finishing cuts on t he wall to be taken right down so that there is no interference between the "cor ners" on the backplate and those on the chuck.. 5. Before the last cuts are taken, the turning tool should be changed for one sh aped so that it will cut down the wall of the spigot - the tool being moved back wards and forwards along the lathe bed, not across. It's very easy to get the size of the spigot approximately right, but the final cuts, when its diameter is approaching the size that will allow it to be pressed firmly into the back of the chuck, must be taken very carefully indeed - only " dust" should be raised from the surface by the cutting tool. The chuck should be tried for fit after each pass of the tool - and remember, th e one deeper cut made to save time will be the one that ruins the job. As the to ol reaches the bottom of the spigot wall allow it to enter the previously-formed undercut section. As an alternative to using the whole carriage to move the cutting tool, some exp erienced turners suggest using the top slide only; this is done by locking the c arriage to the bed and ensuring that, when the top slide is set on its zero mark , it cuts parallel - a test cut on some other material to verify this will be ti me well spent. 6. Leave the chuck on a hot radiator for an hour to expand it slightly before st arting the machining operation; if you decide to do this, remember to pick it up whilst wearing an insulated glove - and don't overdo the heating, otherwise you will have a difficult-to-remove "shrink" fit rather than one that can be assemb led with a firm push or a very light tap with a hide-faced mallet. If time is short put the chuck into a strong plastic bag and lower it into a buc ket of hot water for 10 minutes. 7. When the backplate is the correct size, mark out and drill the bolt holes. Th is is easily done if engineers' blue, or a smear of red-oxide paint (or even cha lk) is put on the backplate before fitting it to the chuck; when the plate is re moved the location of the bolt holes will be apparent. Carefully mark out and dr ill the holes so that, as the bolts pass through the backplate, there is no poss

ibility of them touching the sides and straining the backplate out of line; make them at least 1/16" (1.5 mm) oversize on diameter. As final check make sure that the mounting bolts do not bottom out in their tapp ed holes and that chuck and backplate are drawn solidly together. 8. If the backplate is a larger than the chuck, finish turn it to the chuck-body diameter and, for safety, radius the rear edge; when this is done, scribe a fin e line across the chuck body and backplate so that, when the chuck is removed fo r dismantling and cleaning, it can be replaced in the same position. 9. If your 3-jaw chuck has two or more key holes, one of them may have a circle, or other mark, stamped alongside it to show that it should used for final tight ening. As a chuck wears it is not unknown for one of the other key holes to prov ide a more accurate grip. 10. If you check the accuracy of your new chuck, make sure that you use a piece of precision ground bar and mount the magnetic base (or other device) holding th e dial-test indicator onto the lathe bed, not the saddle or compound slide rest. Chuck makers cover their backs by quoting pessimistic figures for alignment - t ypically 0.005" two inches away from the jaws; in practice, a good chuck can be within 0.001" at this distance, or even better - but you will not find anyone wi lling to guarantee it. 11. When using the chuck remember its intended purpose - a precision work-holdin g device: it is not a Record No. 32 all-steel bench vice. The most common fault found on 3-jaw chucks (apart from wear) is one or more broken jaw threads caused by over-tightening when opened out to maximum capacity. 12. If you can afford it, have two 3-jaw chucks in operation; one for "rough" wo rk, to take the stress and strains of heavy use, the other employed only for the finest finishing of materials already part-machined. By doing this you will alw ays have one chuck that remains an accurate, easily-used and reliable work holde r. Making a Backplate for a Screwed Spindle Thread Unfortunately there are several factors that combine to make this a rather more difficult task than it at first appears. Because the diameter and pitch of a spi ndle-nose thread is often not to a "standard" (and combined with wear in use), m achining a thread inside a backplate to match it can be tricky - unless the spin dle is removed from the lathe and is used to check the job as it progresses. You can't remove the job from the lathe and try it on the spindle - once removed, i t can never be replaced with sufficient accuracy for a cut to start where it lef t off. Of course, if spindle thread is a Whitworth or metric standard you may be able t o locate a tap of the appropriate size and find that a thread cut with is perfec tly satisfactory; however, large-diameter taps are hard to find, and expensive. There is one well-known technique that will enable an accurate measurement of th e thread diameter to be made and the problem of making a backplate with accurate threads solved. The "3-wire method" This makes use of freely-available brazing rods. A diameter of rod needs to be c hosen so that, once in position it protrudes just above thread crests. The illus tration below should make it clear as to the shape to be used - this cleverly al lowing the wire to stay in place whilst readings are being taken. Using a microm eter measure the diameter over the wires at six points along the length of the t hread and average the result. If a sketch is now produced showing: • the length of the thread • the length and diameter of any plain "register" inboard of the thread • the number of pitches per inch (or mm pitch) • the thread angle (usually 55 or 60 degree) -

• the average diameter over the two "3-wires" a skilled turner should - having possession of the wire - be able to reproduce t he thread accurately. Of course, as mentioned earlier, if the spindle can be removed from the lathe an d tried into the backplate as work progresses, the whole process is made so much easier. A note on the "register" of the spindle end might also appropriate - the registe r being that small length of plain shaft between the thread and the abutment fac e. Although by its name one might assume this to be a critical part of the assem bly it is not, and has no bearing on the accuracy of the backplate-to-spindle fi tting. Tony Griffiths Lathe Machine is very basic machine tool which is capable of producing almost al l kinds of output jobs with its wide range of operations. In this article, I wil l try to explain some of basic lathe operations which have brought importance to lathe machine. 1. Turning: This is most basic and important lathe operation. It can be said that, Turning i s the operation which has brought lathe into existence. Job is held at chuck and rotates at particular RPM. Tool held at tool post. With carriage assembly tool is fed into job parallel to axis of rotation of job. This operation is used to m ake job circular and to reduce the diameter of the job as per need. 2. Taper Turning: This is similar to turning. Apart from turning, tool path cuts the axis of rotat ion of tool at a particular angle. This motion of tool is achieved through combi ned motions of carriage assembly and cross slide. knurling Knurling is not a cutting operation. Knurling is achieved using knurling tool. T his tool has two wheels with slashed lines on it. This tool is pressed against r otating job to get knurled part. Knurling is achieved using plastic deformation of job material. 4. Drilling: Drilling at the lathe machine is achieved in bit different way than other lathe operations. Drilling tool is held in the tail stock and fed into job using handl e on tailstock. 5. Threading: For threading operations to be done accurately, tool must be fed into job with c onstant speed. This constant motion is achieved by attaching carriage assembly w ith lead screw. Lead screw is connected to the driving mechanism through gear tr ains. So, for particular rpm of job there is constant rpm of lead screw. Threadi ng is of two types viz. External Threading, Internal Threading. a. External Threading: External threading is done by V shaped tool. It is easier than internal threadin g. b. Internal Threading: Internal threading is also done by V shaped tool. But in this case tool is mount ed on thin bar which can be able to go into bore of the workpiece where threadin g is to be done. Shaping tool for this operation is work of skilled worker. 6. Chamfering: Chamfering is slash cutting of the edges of the workpiece. It can be called as v ery small taper turning but still taper turning needs a lot more accuracy and sk ill than chamfering. Also, both have very different sets of uses. 7. Grooving: Grooving is generally needed to be done before external threading. In this, groo ving tool is fed perpendicular to axis of rotation of job. 8. Parting: Parting is like that of grooving. Parting is done for cutting of job into part. MACHINING OPERATIONS Up to this point, you have studied the preliminary steps leading to the performa nce of machine work in the lathe. You have learned how to mount the work and the

tool and which tools are used for various purposes. Now, you need to consider h ow to use the proper tools in combination with the lathe to perform various mach ining operations. FACING Facing is the machining of the end surfaces and shoulders of a workpiece. In add ition to squaring the ends of the work, facing provides a way to cut work to len gth accurately. Generally, only light cuts are required since the work will have been cut to approximate length or rough machined to the shoulder. Figure 9-26 shows the facing of a cylindrical piece. The work is placed between centers and driven by a dog. A right-hand side tool is used as shown. Take a lig ht cut on the end of the work, feeding the tool (by hand crossfeed) from the cen ter toward the outside. Take one or two light cuts to remove enough stock to tru e the work Then reverse the workpiece, install the dog on the just finished end, and face the other end to make the work the proper length. To provide an accura te base from which to measure, hold another rule or straightedge on the end you faced first. Be sure there is no burr on the edge to keep the straightedge from bearing accurately on the finished end. Use a sharp scribe to mark off the dimen sion desired. Figure 9-27 shows the use of a turning tool in finishing a shoulde red job having a fillet corner. Take a finish cut on the small diameter. Machine the fillet with a light cut. Then use the tool to face the work from the fillet to the outside of the work. In facing large surfaces, lock the carriage in position, since only crossfeed is required to traverse the tool across the work. With the compound rest set at 90° (parallel to the axis of the lathe), you can use the micrometer collar to feed t he tool to the proper depth of cut. TURNING Turning is the machining of excess stock from the periphery of the workpiece to reduce the diameter. In most lathe machining operations requiring removal of lar ge amounts of stock, a series of roughing cuts is taken to remove most of the ex cess stock Then a finishing cut is taken to accurately “size” the workpiece. Rough Turning When a great deal of stock is to be removed, you should take heavy cuts to compl ete the job in the least possible time. This is called rough turning. Select the proper tool for taking a heavy chip. The speed of the work and the amount of fe ed of the tool should be as great as the tool will stand. When you take a roughing cut on steel, cast iron, or any other metal that has a scale on its surface, be sure to set the tool deep enough to get under the scale in the first cut. Unless you do, the scale on the metal will dull or break the point of the tool. Rough machine the work to almost the finished size; then take careful measuremen ts. Bear in mind that the diameter of the work being turned is reduced by an amount equal to twice the depth of the cuts; thus, if you desire to reduce the diameter of a piece by 1/4 inch, you must remove 1/8 inch of metal from the surface. Figure 9-28 shows the position of the tool for taking a heavy cut on large work. Set the tool so that if anything Figure 9-28.—Position of the tool for a heavy cut. ` Figure 9-29.—Machining to a shoulder. occurs during machining to change the position of the tool, it will not dig into the work, but rather will move in the direction of the arrow-away from the work Finish Turning When you have rough turned the work to within about 1/32 inch of the finished si ze, take a finishing cut. A fine feed, the proper lubricant, and, above all, a k een-edged tool are necessary to produce a smooth finish. Measure carefully to be sure you are machining the work to the proper dimension. Stop the lathe when yo u take measurements. If you must finish the work to close tolerances, be sure the work is not hot whe n you take the finish cut. If you turn the workpiece to exact size when it is ho

t, it will be undersize when it has cooled. Perhaps the most difficult operation for a beginner in machine work is to make a ccurate measurements. So much depends on the accuracy of the work that you shoul d make every effort to become proficient in the use of measuring instruments. Yo u will develop a certain “feel” in the application of micrometers through experience alone; do not be discouraged if your first efforts do not produce perfect resul ts. Practice taking micrometer measurements on pieces of known dimensions. You w ill acquire skill if you are persistent. Turning to a Shoulder Machining to a shoulder is often done by locating the shoulder with a parting to ol. Insert the parting tool about 1/32 inch from the shoulder line toward the sm all diameter end of the work Cut to a depth 1/32 inch larger than the small diam eter of the work. Then machine the stock by taking heavy chips up to the shoulde r. This procedure eliminates detailed measuring and speeds up production. Figure 9-29 illustrates this method of shouldering. A parting tool has been used at P and the turning tool is taking a chip. It will be unnecessary to waste any time in taking measurements. You can devote your time to rough machining until the necessary stock is removed. Then you can take a finishing cut to accurate me asurement. Boring Boring is the machining of holes or any interior cylindrical surface. The piece to be bored must have a drilled or cored hole, and the hole must be large enough to insert the tool. The boring process merely enlarges the hole to the desired size or shape. The advantage of boring is that a true round hole is obtained, an d two or more holes of the same or different diameters may be bored at one setti ng, thus ensuring absolute alignment of the axis of the holes. Work to be bored may be held in a chuck, bolted to the faceplate, or bolted to t he carriage. Long pieces must be supported at the free end in a center rest. Whe n the boring tool is fed into the hole of work being rotated on a chuck or facep late, the process is called single point boring. It is the same as turning excep t that the cutting chip is taken from the inside. The cutting edge of the boring tool resembles that of a turning tool. Boring tools may be the solid forged typ e or the inserted cutter bit type. When the work to be bored is clamped to the top of the carriage, a boring bar is held between centers and driven by a dog. The work is fed to the tool by the au tomatic longitudinal feed of the carriage. Three types of boring bars are shown in figure 9-30. Note the center holes at the ends to fit the lathe centers. Figure 9-30, view A, shows a boring bar fitted with a fly cutter held by a headl ess setscrew. The other setscrew, bearing on the end of the cutter, is for adjus ting the cutter to the work Figure 9-30, view B, shows a boring bar fitted with a two-edged cutter held by a taper key. This is more of a finishing or sizing cutter, as it cuts on both sid es and is used for production work. The boring bar shown in figure 9-30, view C, is fitted with a cast-iron head to adapt it for boring work Figure 9-30.–Boring bars. Figure 9-31.–Tapers. of large diameter. The head is fitted with a fly cutter similar to the one shown in view A of figure 9-30. The setscrew with the tapered point adjusts the cutte r to the work TAPERS Although you will probably have little need to machine tapers, we have provided the following explanation for your basic knowledge. A taper is the gradual decrease in the diameter of a piece of work toward one en d. The amount of taper in any given length of work is found by subtracting the s ize of the small end from the size of the large end. Taper is usually expressed as the amount of taper per foot of length or taper per inch of length. We will t ake two examples. (See fig. 9-31.)

Example l.–Find the taper per foot of a piece of work 2 inches long. The diameter of the small end is 1 inch; the diameter of the large end is 2 inches. The amount of taper is 2 inches minus 1 inch, which equals 1 inch. The length of the taper is given as 2 inches. Therefore, the taper is 1 inch in 2 inches of l ength. In 12 inches of length the taper is 6 inches. (See fig. 9-31.) Example 2.–F ind the taper per foot of a piece 6 inches long. The diameter of the small end i s 1 inch; the diameter of the large end is 2 inches. The amount of taper is the same as in example 1, that is, 1 inch. However, the length of this taper is 6 in ches; hence the taper per foot is 1 inch times 12/6, which equals 2 inches per f oot (fig. 9-31). SAFETY PRECAUTIONS In machining operations, always keep safety in mind, no matter how important the job is or how well you know the machine you are operating. Listed here are some safety precautions that you MUST follow: 1. Before starting any lathe operations, always prepare yourself by rolling up y our shirt sleeves and removing your watch, rings, and other jewelry that might b ecome caught while you operate the machine. 2. Wear goggles or an approved face shield at all times whenever you operate a l athe or when you are near a lathe that is being operated. 3. Be sure the work area is clear of obstructions that you might fall or trip ov er. 4. Keep the deck area around your machine clear of oil or grease to prevent the possibility of slipping or falling into the machine. 5. Always use assistance when handling large workpieces or large chucks. 6. NEVER remove chips with your bare hands. Use a stick or brush, and always sto p the machine. 7. Always secure power to the machine when you take measurements or make adjustm ents to the chuck. 8. Be attentive, not only to the operation of your machine, but also to events g oing on around it. NEVER permit skylarking in the area. 9. Should it become necessary to operate the lathe while the ship is underway, b e especially safety conscious. (Machines should be operated ONLY in relatively c alm seas.) 10. Be alert to the location of the cutting tool while you take measurements or make adjustments. 11. Always observe the specific safety precautions posted for the machine you ar e operating.

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