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The Business of Definition and Cultural Management
Simon Roodhouse Introduction
he develop.mellt of creative industries is derived from a long history associated with defining and redefining the arts as an industry sector (Arts Council of Great Britain, 1985, 1988; Roodhouse and Roodhouse, 1997; Calhoun, Lupuma and Posrone, 1993) and the relationship of the arts and media as cultural industries, which others have addressed (O'Connor, 1999; Throsby, 2001; Pratt, 1997; Garnham, 1987). This has not been the territory of the United Kingdom alone; other countries, including Canada, Australia and New Zealand, have engaged in similar activities. The latest of these policy twists and turns to catch the imagination of policy-makers across the world was the introduction of the creative industries concept in 1998 by the New Labour government in the United Kingdom. Combining economics with the arts, creativity and business as part of the knowledge economy has rapidly spread from the United Kingdom across the world, to include countries such as China, Taiwan, South Korea, Austria, Bulgaria, Denmark, Brazil and Bolivia. Given this level of interest, there are som.e lessons to be derived from the British experience that may be of value to scholars and practitioners. Thisartide sets out to explore the definitional "jungle" and implications for cultural management practice through the British experience to date.
Definitional and Quantification Issues Arising from the Introduction of a Creative Industries Policy
ince the early 1980s, cultural economists, statisticians and cultural geographers have attempted to find suitable categorizations for the sector (Myerscough, 1988; O'Brien and Feist, 1995; Pratt, 1997,2004; Jeffcut, 2004). Pratt, for example, argues that "value chain" and "domain categorization" are useful mechanisms, whereas Jeffcut, from a knowledgemanagement perspective, suggests that the only way to understand the industry is as a "cultural ecology." Hearn, Pace and Roodhouse (2005) take this further by engaging with a value-chain ecology, which relies on a thorough understanding of networks. What seems to have emerged from. this work is a recognition that the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) both from the Office for National Statistics (a British government agency) - provide a common but imperfect mechanism. Roodhouse (2003a, 2003b) contributes to this discourse by designing definitional frameworks based on a synthesis of existing statements and discussions with practitioners that have been tested in designer fashion and graphic design. The data and quantification issues present acute problems for economists and statisticians (Barriere and Santagata, 1997; Evans, 1997;
Simon Roodhollse is P[ofesS(J! in Creative Industries at thp University ofthe Arts, LondG~. United Kingdom; Adjunct Professor in Creative Ind~stJiel. University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; and Oireclllf of Safe Hands (Management) Ltd., a strategic consultancy engaged in education and cultural industries. PreviaUllV he was Adjunct Profes5@r, CIRA(, Queensland Unive~il\ of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; and Visiting Professor, Creative Industri!~ University of Bolton, united Kingdom, and the University of CentraL England .. Until recently he was Chief Executive of the University Vocational Awards counciL a consortium dedicated to championing higher-lewl vocational Learning.
NAL J 0 U RNAL 0 F ARTS MANAGEME~I
NUMBER 1 • FALL 2008 17 . lology. 2003a). Wilding. He reports that international bodies define components of the creative industries and the arts differently. this shortcoming can only be perceived as a fundamental structural weakness. 2002). 1997).such as one that evaluatesthe economic importance of the creativeindustries in Plymouth (Plymouth City Council.rdsdc and industrial goods presents another issue for economists studying the cultural industries. Iniversity . Part of the difficulty of making this disti.djunr] DCA. where successive governments have redrawn the policy boundaries and aligned resources. The differentiation between a . how is it collected and how reliable is it? Data collection requires a definitional framework or classificatory system. The author investigates the history and rationale for the definition formulated by the British government. 1970).tJl t n1i1l eWorks become more apparent when me . lleworks are used to quantify and deter1[11e the va 1ue 0f artistic an d/· or aest heti . Davies and Lindley. Until lief In. Media and Sport (DCMS) has attempted to rectify the situation by developing a regional data framework (Wood. unreliable comparative data for performance measurement. and ultimately weak and unreliable advocacy. The need for consistency of frameworks and data collection is increasing with the establishment in the United Kingdom of home countries and regions and increased emphasis on locality (Roodhouse and Taylor. but this has not yet been accepted.lJ. counOh cated to er-level g.1. cultural management ---------AGEMENl VOLUME 11. who have attempted to quantify artists. have yet to be put in place (Roodhouse. Creative industries. He notes that practitioners are rarely consulted about their practice and how they would define it.~ess and inconsistencies of definitional Ir. and Hoggart. one mat assesses the impact and value of the arts and creative industries in the South West of England (Kelly and Kelly. management or practice. 2000. For arts managers this results in unreliable data for decision-making.nctionis that the total assimilation of art to commodities means mat art goods escape the ltandard rules of utilitarian market exchange (Barriereand Sancagata. not least because it does not universally conform to me national data-collection classifications and relies on generalized notions of domains and a limited interpretation of value chains. 2003). Cox et al. These problems can Jcrivity.. 2000). definitions. Wales (Welsh Economy Research Unit and . particularly in the fields of museums. and one that looks at the economic ies at the impact of the arts and cultural industries in ts. I Universi~ sbane. 1995. 2004).. The weakness. 1994) have attempted to clarify this by asserting that aesthetic pleasure has at least much value as the difference in returns ~rween works of art and financial assets. ting Indust~ell United University I. for cultural economists is the lack of claricy and consistency in denning cultural pracdee. revealing an increasing reliance on evidence to support and evaluate policy. explaining that the situation is worsened by an over-reliance on secondary data sources and that there is no framework for comparative verification. The Grl. is ProfessO! 2000). The author introduces the creative industries as a global phenomenon by describing the concept in the United Kingdom.·efllS. galleries and the creative industries. Any number of cultural economic impact studies . conceptual confusion leading to strategic uncertainty. . This not only demonstrates the confused conceptual landscape but also highlights the unreliability of collected and analyzed data. Despite spasmodic attempts to correct these inadequacies (O'Brien and Feist. 2004). the definitions employed are conditioned with little attempt to establish a common definitional framework that is transferable. etic and typologies. Similar problems are emerging in Australia when consideration is given to subsector data collection such as music (Cunningham et al. Authors such as Baumol (Baumol and B~llJ1'lO[. This Jrgument leads to the question of how to define work of art. . The consistent definitional frameworks needed to collect reliable data over time 1:0 inform cultural policy. In an era when increasing emphasis is placed on evidence-based cultural policy and comparative international benchmarking. een. For Davies and Lindley (2003). here. data.utilize different classifications ! Indust~el. md Direttor nagement) lnsultancy ion and Previously )fessor. international benchmarking and performance assessment at the practitioner level.. London. Where does this evidence come from. there remains a paucity of empirical evidence on the visual arts. 1998) . The Department for Culture.
primary government responsibility for culture resides within the DCMS. 1999) by the New Labour administration are examples of irrational boundarymaking practice. comment sont-elles recueiLlies et dans quelle mesure sentelles fiables? La collede de donnees exige un cadre definitionnel ou un systerne classificatoire. As an illustration. expliquant que la situation est ernpirec par une dependance excessive a des sources de donnees secondaires et par l'absence de cadre pour une verification comparative. une argumentation faible et moins credible. This intrinsic public structural framework works against interaction and connectivity and encourages isolationism between national. and the Department for Education and Skills (Allen and Shaw. des donnees de comparaison non fiables pour mesurer Le rendement. Urban regeneration (Roodhouse and Roodhouse. une conceptualisation confuse entrainant une incertitude au plan strateqique et. However. The reticence to establish definable boundaries based on a coherent rationale is perhaps the result of the government's administrative machinery responding to national policy by providing a manageable and controllable frame- work for the allocation of public funds. resulting in continuous turbulence in public cultural policy and practice since 1945. regional. revelant un recours croissant a des preuves pour soutenir et evaluer la politique. 1997) and the introduction of creative industries (Roodhouse. inclusive syst~m that is measurable and that conforms to the requirements of evidence-based policy (Solesbury. :2001).which are definitions with no obvious rationale except pragmatism explains where and why the lines are drawn. 1999). These definitions appear to be the result of a public sector domain engaged in restrictive practice . L'auteur etudie l'historique de la definition forrnuleepar le gouvernement britannique et le raisonnement qui La sous-tend. commencing with the establishment of the Arts Council of Great Britain (Pick and Anderton. S L'auteur presents les industries creatives com me un phenomena mondial. boundaries are constrained enough to match the level of available resources at any given time. Northern Ireland and Wales. Such a decision should be based on a rational. the Department of Trade and Industry supports creative industries through the Small Business Service. because it relies on departmentalization and compartmentalization as the organizational means of delivering public services. donnees. management cultural 18 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMENT . and local governments and agencies. D'ou viennent ces preuves. 2001) and the Higher Education Funding Council for England provide entry to work and workforce development in the cultural field. MOTS CLES Industries creatives. These examples exclude the devolved arrangements for Scotland. 1998.that is.s and their agencies have defined and redrawn their boundaries. with the establishment of the Arts Council of Great Britain. which is (he United Kingdom's international cultural agency. empirically informed. Contorted and Torturous Definitional Beginnings: The British Experience uccessive British national government. une analyse comparative et une evaluation du rendement a l'echelle internationale au niveau des praticiens. 2004). Il constate que des organisrnes internationaux definissent autrement les composantes des industries creatives et des arts. the Foreign and Commonwealth Office funds the British Council (British Council. ce sont la des resultats non fiables pour la prise de decisions. finale· ment. An example of this is the unwillingness of the Arts Council of Great Britain to recognize photography as a discipline worthy of support until the 1970s. galleries and musical bands. and to recognize architecture as such until an even later decade.be traced back to the 1970s and earlier. Il remarque aussi que les praticiens sont rarement consultes au sujet de leur pratique et de la rnaniere dont ils la detiniraient. definitions. en decrivant l'origine du concept au Royaume-Uni les gouvernements successifs y ont repenss la politique et aligne les ressources. pour les gestionnaires des arts. including the export efforts of these businesses. the Ministry of Defence resources a substantial number of museums. The determination of these boundaries .
Sector )r[5 . . lis Councils (SSCs) and local authorities. television. datos cotnpoiativos incieitos para medir el rendimienio. una evaluaci6n comcorativo iniemociono! y una evoluocion del tendimiento al nivel del profesionoi. Nota que los ptojesionaies tara vez son consultadcs soare su trabajo y c6mo 10 defmirio». Nos informa que los 6rgMas internccionales dejinetid» manera distinta los componentes de las industries creotivos y tasartes. donde los qobiemos sucesivos repensaron las poUticos y los recutsos coirespondientes. in economic terms arid in relation to the introduction of new technologies such as instant printing. las industries cteativos como un fen6meno tnundiai describiendo esie concepio en iii Reina Unido. Although some public cultural agencies have [tempted to form overarching regional stratgies. little cohesion exists among eseorganizations. described by the Greater London Council as the "traditional" arts. can· . Reflective evidence-based learning has yet beestablished as an effective mechanism for reviewingpolicy and management and for IIlteHlgentlynforming actions. 1993). y explica que la situocion 5e ve empeoreda pot Id dependencio excesivo de [uentes secundatias de datos y la fillta de un marco para una veriticocion comporotive. gesti6n cultural VOLUME 11.. . eI ns st n ur n e- PALABR. for Jmple). 2004a). As a result. como se tecolecian y basto que punto son fiables? La recolecci6n de datos es un trabajo dejim:cional 0 un sistema dosificatotio. esto tiene como resultado datos inciertos para 10 toma de decision.and fractured nature of cul. For the first time. Lupuma and Postone. 1985). I with Regional Development Agencies.Consorna. this sometimes results in uplic~ted effort (in data collection. EI autor investiga liJ histotia y 105 motivos que lievaron fI la definici6n formulada par el qobiemo btiuinico. The situation IS equ'ally con f' USlng he reO'ional level.lddicional public resources for coordination ]d increased bureaucracy. fewer eoOllfcesre available for direct intervention a o SL~pporthe growth of cultural businesses t Roodhouse. which in turn leads to the allocation . NUMBER 1 to FALL 2008 19 . there has been no shared understanding ofand agreement on a definitional framework oimplement and evaluate the effeCtiveness of these strategies. ':IT Business Service including Business Link J (11ft plethora of sub-regional interrnediarJH funded from the public purse and all I~suing different cultural agendas. .radio. he camp Iex tinual desire to invent new models and schemes without reflecting on and learning from past practices (Roodhouse. datos. The arts.. These circumstances gave rise to a reappraisal of the role and function of the "traditional'larts. as a contemporary reinvention of the Greater London Council-oriented cultural model of "Old Labour. una conjusion conceptual que desemboco en una esiroteqia incietto yen ultima estancia una defenso debil y poco jiable del sector. The successor body." The Labour-controlled Greater London Council posed a significant challenge to the definitional status quo in the early 198 Os during a period of high unemployment.. definiciones. '1 I t 1 A rts C-ounCI. aeld. industrial decline and diminishing public funds for the arts. A recent example of this desire for new models is the 1997 engagement by the New Labour government in the creative industries concept.IlS CLAVE Industiias creatives. were subsumed into a broader definitional framework that included "the electronic forms of cultural production and distribution . t h e le hura> .2004b). records and video -and the diverse range of popular cultures which exist in London" (Greater London Council. the Tourist Boards. There is a coni 10 ... the Council. Para los empresarios anistieos.' _ _ <. RESUMEN EI autor presenta. In practice. and the executive Mayor of London have picked up the theme again. cassette recording and video-making (O'Connor. with DCMS-sponsored Ihe _ P. combined With ~IP~l1itionalfluidity found at the national ~ .r tributes to the lack of policy cohesion I. y revela OS) que 5e depende cada vez mas en pntebos para oooyar y evaluar una poiitica. the London Assembly.urn Libranes and Archives Council. the concept of culture as an industry in a public policy context was informed by Bourdieu's thinking (Calhoun.. r avision and practlce. 1999). This was a significant contributor to the United Kingdom's knowledge economy. d De dan de vienen estes pruebos.
The concept was derived from an interest in the knowledge economy.' . establishing cultural activity as new industries and engaging with convergence arguments generated through advances in technology (Flew. 2002) than the DCMS-designated constituent activities (the subsectors). and the Department for Education and Skills . to take active steps to promote economic growth in the creative and cultural sector. The creative industry concept generated by DEMOS (Leadbetter and Oakley. 1998). Taking an important creative activity such as the visual arts and examining it is an effective mechanism for engaging with these issues. in the consciousness of those working in the field. the creative industries concept has more in common with the developing global interest in the knowledge economy (Leadbetter and Oakley. It does seem. and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property" (DCMS. architecture has much more in common with construction than with the art and antiques trade. designer fashion. This is indicative of an emerging policy construct that has yet to embed itself intellectually and practically. with ministers and officials from the Department of Environment. music.that is. the performing arts. 2002) has been enshrined in one of four key policy themes for the DCMS: economic value.chaired by the secretary of state for Culture. 2003c). which summarizes the inconsistent and unrelated definitions currently applied to the visual arts in Europe and Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics. confirmed early in his ministry that the creative industries were a growth sector of the UK economy: "Ir is incumbent on the government.with a focus on intervention in the creative industries networks and linkages (London Development Agency. 2002. Hawkins. effectiveness.Does It Exist and Can We Measure It? T he difficulty of defining the visual arts is painfully illustrated in Table 1. Media and Sport. Chris Smith. Of particular note in the creative industries proposition is a mechanism for engaging both the public and the private sector 011 a more equitable basis. the art and antiques market. At present. The Taskforce defined creative industries as "those activities which have their origin in 20 An Example: The Visual Arts . Cunningham et al. 1999) and constructed as a component of the knowledge economy model (Cunningham. through the DCMS~led Creative Industries Taskforce. Florida. 2001. Transport and Regions. If we do not do so. architecture." The department's interest and engagement with the creative industries through the establishment of the Creative Industries Task Force . crafts. publishing. 2001).are the predictable interests of any Labour government. value for money and market forces. HM Treasury. 2003). Fundamentally. Caves. Media and Sport. 2000. film. individual creativity. 1999.cannot be seen as other than a direct engagement by government in creative activity for economic gain. design. The other three themes -access. 2000). It also identified the following subsectors in the definitional framework: "advertising. efficiency. set about defining the boundaries of what it understood as the creative industries. 1998). in partnership with indus ny.. the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. software. then others will reap the economic reward" (DCMSo 1998). interactive leisure software. and the definition employed was largely pragmatic (Roodhouse. television and radio" (DCMS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAG-Ef1Et. 2002). the Department of Trade and Industry. Britain's first New Labour secretary of state for Culture. It is worth noting here that the subsectors identified as the creative industries would not recognize themselves as such. however. The government. skill and talent. this evolving conceptualization facilitates a reassessment of the traditional forms of policy intervention in support of arts and culture (Roodhouse. excellence and education . that the theme of economic value is a maturing of the Thatcherire ethos . for example. Smith (1998) reinforces this interpretation "as ensuring that the full economic and employment impact of the whole range of creative industries is acknowledged and assisted by government.
31/9 Artistic and Literacy creation and Interpretatio n Statistics ACLCcoding system Code 241 Visual Arts The classification consists of creation of one-off or limited series visual arts or crafts in either traditional or contemporary styles. unreliable data and a dearth of comparative research. to the fact that they are drawn up not by practitioners in the field but by economists. The unreliability of the definitional framework. Other industrial sectors would not tolerate such a position. This approach places greater emphasis on process as ac~ivity and on the use of product to define the ~ctivity. which someti1nesncludes process but often refers to prodi uct or function (for example. Statistics SIC code (ode 92.these descriptors rarely refer to their IOLitCe or assumptions. it is bound to produce different research findings" (p. 7). but we also have confusion as a result of inconsistent. this has led to "the paucity of alternative data sets with which to test the asserrionfs) in practice" (Arts Council England. reproduction and restoration The disparate nature of these definitions may be due. not only do we have definitional confusion and inconsistencies at every level. Primary activities: Art photography Artwork creation Cartoon drawi ng Ceramic work Digital artwork Illustrating or drawing Installation (art) Jewellery design Painting (art) Pottery creation Sculpting Texti le design Eurostat (LEG Report) visual arts descriptor The visual arts descriptors are found under the following domains: Creation Inclusive of the creation of visual works Production The production of visual arts (production of printed reproduction. to NeVenheless.generally. In terms of industrial activity. 'The main point is that whichever definition is used. the lack of consistency and resulting inadequacies of the evidence base (Department of Arts Policy and Management. bindings. EMENT ~DLUME 11. signatures and maps Arms and armour Metalwork Australian Bureau of. the visual arts exist in a complex and fast-moving arena that the classificatory Ij'stemscannot respond to. In other words. sich as national artists' associations.EUROPEAN AND AUSTRALIAN VISUAL ARTS DEFINITIONS Office of National oeMS Creative Industries classification Visual arts are found in the arts and antiques trade subsector Painting ScuLpture Works on paper Other fine art (tapestries) Furniture Collectables (mass-produced ceramics and glassware. etc. Moceover. There is an emerging international interestin establishing a product classification SYSfem complement existing arrangements. nor would managers. Further. national and international levels. 2000) call into question cultural policy-making at regional. For example. Over time. thereis an additional contortion around the lubjects of function and occupation. trading). nor do they draw from 111SUa! arts organizations with direct interests. 2003). statisticians and administrators. nationally and internationally. Visual artsis classified. in part. productions of casts. advertising and packaging) Couture (including jewellery) Textiles Antiques Books. as revisions of classincation occur infrequently . dolls and dolls' houses. who rely on high-quality management information to aid in operational and strategic decision-making. every !ix years.) Dissemination Exhibitions of visual works Organization of festivals Event organizing and awareness raising Trade Trade and sales in visual works in galleries. we cannot complete a fundamental exercise 21 . NUMBER 1 • FALL 2008 The consequences of this failure to establish a common workable visual arts definition is summed up by Towse (1996).
of the subsectors in the DCMS definition of the creative industries (DCMS.archivists. And yet the DCMS definition does not go far enough. who determines what an artist is by using eight criteria: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTS MANAGEMcNf industries VOLUME 1 . It fails to explain. as well as architecture. Architecture appears as one . However. musicians and so forth. A similar picture emerges when one considers the UK cultural aaencies and professional 1:> organizations (see Table 3). the Arts Council classi-fiesthe visual arts as a specific practice in its . architecture is included here. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) struggles with similar structural weaknesses and tends to define the visual arts as trade in cultural goods . 1998) . whereas Table 1 makes no reference to this domain. dissemination. This has been addressed by T owse (1996). An economic alternative to the visual arts definitions referred to in Tables 2 and 3. England. for example. Stoneware NT2 Pottery number of fields such as crafts. which focus on product and activity. is a focus on occupation. just to make life more difficult. why the work/activity of an architect justifies the location of architecture in the visual arts as opposed to the construction sector. There are strong arguments to be made for the view that another levelof descriptor is now needed. the primary support agency of the arts subsector in England. film and video. Noticeably. with the exception of the Arts Council England.and accurately count the number of visual artists in Europe including the United Kingdom because the SIC system is incompatible with the Eurostat system (the official classifications for the European Union). 2001) and is included in the UK standard cultural industrial/occupational dassifications along with artists. architecture and film and video are designated subsectors within the DCMS definition. Table 1 provides a comparative analysis of the current European and Australian definitions of visual arts and illustrates the spectrum of interpretations employed in describing the field. where the line is being drawn and on what basis. own terms . defines visual arcs activities as the creation. The Arts Council.an economic framework (UNESCO. the United Nations Educational. At the international level. regional. one that transcends the local. Vernacular architecture Graphic arts NTl Calligraphy NTl Drawing NT2 Technical drawing NTl Illustration Handicrafts NTl Engraving NTl Jewellery NTl Mosaics NTl Textile arts NT2 Carpets NT2 Tapestry Plastic arts NTl Art glass NT2 Stained glass NTl Art metalwork NTl Ceramic art UF Porcelain. The definitions are unsatisfactory in that they do not provide detailed descriptors of products such as sculpture or activity such as sculpting and do not make dear distinctions between fine or public art and sculpture or sculpting. and whether the profession recognizes itself as an integral part of the visual arts construct. In addition. 1998. exhibition and education of those practising in a 22 UNESCO VISUAL ARTS DEFINITIONS Architecture NTl Buildings NTl Monuments NT2 Historic monuments UF Historic sites NTl Palaces NTl Traditional architecture UF Bioclimabc architecture. contemporary Fine arts NTl Pai nti ng NT2 Paintings NT3 Miniature paintings NB Murals UF Frescoes NB Rock paintings UF Rock art NTl Sculpture Decorative arts NTl Furniture NTl Interior architecture UF Interior design Photography NTl Aerial photography NT1 Holography UF Holograms All of backto th visual arts and fine art.although it has broken the visual arts down as shown in Table 2.yet more conceptual confusion for the cultural manager. national and international definitional soup in which the visual arts is sometimes used as a definitional vehicle and is sometimes ignored.
1963). who constitutes works of art to be a nessential part of his life.that is. exhibition and education of those practising in the following areas: Crafts Contem porary visual arts Fine art Public art Architecture Photography New and emerging media Film and video Visual Arts and Galleries Association Activities in the visual arts sector include: Painting Sculpture Drawing Photography Installation Performance Multimedia (or new media) Public art Film Video Printmaking Artists Information Company Anything that is visual and you appreciate through viewing _ recognition among other artists _ quality of artistic work produced _ membership in a professional artists' group at association _ professional qualification in the arts _ subjective self-evaluation of being an artist tArtS Council England. 2004). whether or not he is bound by any relations or association. 2001)? For example. painting. after all. the problem seems to concernhow to categorize the creative and cultural industries. to be expected that the cteative output of creative individuals will continually challenge convention and regulation. drawing. artist among t h e genera I VISUAL ARTS DEFINITIONS BY CULTURAL AGENCIES AND PROFESSiONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM ArtsEngland (North-West) The visual arts sector includes the creation. Eurostar (European Union. who constitutes works of art to be an essential part of his life. dissemination. as described in the DCMS creative industries definitional framework (DeMS. sculpture. it is predictable that the conventional categories used in the United Kingdom and Europe. 2004b. 2000) SIC and SOC. graphic design (see Table 6). whether or not he isbound by any relations or association. the core and related activities of film and video are shown in Table 5. video or media installation (which is in itself problematic. design artwork and illustrations. But." "Workers within this group create artistic works by painting. or recreates works of art. who contributes in this way to the development of the arts and who is Of asks 10 be recognised as an artist. a position that is reinforced when one considers a related activity and occupation. crafts. there is overlap concerning how other Rlbsectorsof the creative industries (for example. as if this were not complex enough. 2003) level. Wood. and restoration of damaged pieces of art. So what is the rationale for making distinctions between the video and media installation activities of a creative sale trader with film and video. a definition of a visLlal arts occupation. will prove to be imprecise tools for measuring the creative industries (Roodhouse." cui ties referred to earlier and the "fluidity" of the sector. Given both the definitional diffiiEMENT At the international WORLD AGENCY AND UK OCCUPATIONAL DEfINITIONS OF VISUAL ARTIST UNESCO (1980) UK SOC Code 3411 ." This isan imprecise tool when it comes to rneasurillgthe visual arts as an occupation. and uncharted territory and should beavoided because of its constantly changing nature). although rhe SOC system does make an attempt (see Table4). sculpture and engraving. as this is the vely nature of the business (Wind. public ·civities . It is. who contributes in this way to the development of the arts and who is or asks to be recognised as an artist. contested. or recreates works of art. 23 VOLUME 11._ alTI0unt of time spent on artistic work _amount of income derived from artistic ~ _ reputatlon as an . NUMBER 1 • FALL 2008 . printing. filmand performing arts) are defined and broken down into their component parts. is provided by UNESCO (1998): "Any person who creates or gives creative expression (0. For statisticians.Artist "Any person who creates or gives creative expression to. or indeed any artistic OGwpation. AlI of these approaches ultimately take us backto the need to define the "practice" .
film web sites. seLLing of film and video distribution rights. TV fiLm production. exhibition Music soundtracks. set design building. film and tape deLivery and storage. performing arts. promotion. lighti ng. multimedia and digitaL media Television. video rentaL. photography.DCMS DESCRIPTION INDUSTRIES Core activities ReLated activities Screenwriting. videos on demand. including: Designer graphic Designer multimedia Designer web Designer typographicaL Designer exhibition Designer advertising design DCMSCreative Industry Design Subsector Corporate 10 Corporate literature Packaging and branding Consumer Literature Exhibitions MuLtimedia Advertising Interiors Product Retail Information International Council of Graphic Design Illustration Typography CaLligraphy Surface design for packaging or the design of patterns. distribution. or any form of visual communication Architecture StructuraL packaging Furniture design TV gra phics Related activities Graphic design Fine art Fashion design MuLtimedia design Crafts 24 . catering. advertising. OF FILM AND VIDEO SUBSECTOR OF CREATIVE production. costume design. merchandizing. sound recording. digital film distribution. advertisi ng. pubLishing. media. Related industries Source: Creative Industries digitaL GRAPHIC DESIGN COMPARATIVE ACTIVITY DEFINITIONS Design Council Communication Design (Incorporating Graphic Design) Typography ILlustration Packaging Corporate identity Magazine design TV and video graphics Digital/new media graphics Office of National Statistics Standard Occupational Coding System Including Graphic Design SOC Code 3421 Graphic designers. books. equipment manufacturer. music. and publicity material. computer games. training Mapping Document 2001. post production/special effects.
interactive leisure software. including drama. unconvincing and unreliable advocacy. and literary arts . The SSC footprint is as follows: dte Creative Industries and the Cultural Manager? research in the creative industries nationally f and internationally is to be taken seriously. care must be taken when applying value chain and ecology theoretical frameworksas a means of understanding the creative industries generally when. is just about impossible at present. then. galleries and heritage organizations. comparison of financial policy interventions at tbe regional level becomes at best gel1eralized. This precludes interregional objective comRarison of performance.design. dance. Another British example of conceptual confusion is the recent inrroduction of a national skills agency. the CCSSc.and the DCMS is the department that sponsors the Unreliable data for management decision1uaking.crafts. circus.the arts. musicals. encompassing performing arts. the Cultural and Creative Industries Sector Skills Council (CCSSC). computer services and architecture. for example. we cannotyer quantify sculpture or sculpting or reach acommon understanding of what graphic design represents. This is not a comfortable environment for cultural managers responsible for the allocation and administration of public funds. generates strategic uncertainty for practitioners working in a DCMS-defined subsector such as advertising. which IS not included in the national creative skills development activities of another government-inspired and funded agency. including spatial. This does not happen in other areas of government so why in the creative sector? No The introduction of this new public sector skills agency.which is common practice in the health and construction sectors . including museums. including designer-makers of contemporary and traditional crafts . including producing. Weak. the visual arts officer for a regional arts council has no reliable definfortn itionof visual arts that is benchmarked nationhow can he orshe rely 011 the data (whatever their source) to support policy development? As a result it is velY unlikely that the officer will know how many "artists" exist in the regIon or be able to compare his or her data with the data For other tegions and nations. as Tawse (1996) poibtsout. including archaeology and conservation Noticeably missing are advertising. visual arts. NUMBER 1 '"' FALL 2008 . music. This forms a large component of most managerial roles in the sector and there is a constant cry for reliable data to 25 -------SEMENT VOLUME 11. This calls for the sector and dIoseinvolved in it to cooperate in the building of shared definitional frameworks. with the additional conceptual chaos and territorial boundary changes referred to at the beginning of this article. graphic and communication and textiles and fashion . What Does This Mean for Conceptual confusion leading to strategic uncertainty. serious comparative research or evaluation can then rake place across regions. w~willneed to be precise about the use of classicality systems and move towards an international standard. which. opera. all of which are included in the DCMS definition of creative industries . The implications. which is an unsatisfaCtory position for a national governmenr to be in. endorsed by the DCMS. which by its very name would seem to cover all definitional eventualities. recording and publishing. If policy cannot be empirically evaluated and compared . In the absence of a common graphic design definition at the national level.cultural heritage. for example.If. product. For example.What the British experience tells us is that ractltlOners and practitioner groups must ~e involved in the verification of top-down definitional systems at every level and that Ihared definitions allow for the conduct of comparative research. Unreliable comparative data for measuring peiformance. Sse.then creative industries and cultural policy are unlikely to be taken seriously. street theatre and participatory arts. ally and internationally. for cultural management practice are as follows: I . Cultural managers are constantly concerned with attracting new resources to support their cultural activity.
Queensland University of Technology. a paucity of reliable and verifiable data . London: Higher Education Arts Council Funding Council for England. C. R. the Second International Conflrence on Cultural Polii] Research. The primary purpose of a cultural consortium is to produce at least a shared regional strategy and act as an advocate. Australian Bureau of Statistics. James M. A. on Arts and Cultural Management. J. Cultural Policy. A.. Policy C/llSS. Cox. London: Author. from the Brancusi Trail to the Economics of Semiotic Coeds. Creative industries.. 2001. 1985. "Defining Art. 23-37. Media and Sport. Brisbane's Creative Industries. M. Studies. 23-26 January. British Council. 1987.29 June--2 July. Cultura] Theory. "Concepts of Culture: Public and the Cultural InduSEfies. Lupuma and M. Australian Cultitre and Leisure Class(fications. Department Author. Media and Sport. E. 2002. Bourdieu.. Smith. and W. Research Report 31.----------------construct the case. and R. Baumel. Shaw. 1970. Creative Industries Mapping Document Sources Review." In Conference tural Map: A ResearchAgenda Jar the 21st Century. Hearn. London: Author. of cultural consortia... there is little agreement on shared interregional definitional frameworks and. Howkins. Continuing Profissional Development for the Creative Industries: A Review a/Provision in the Higher Education Sector. Community and Economic Development. 1998. for Culture. G. Queensland University of Technology. S. The Creative Economy: How People Make Money . 2000. Paris: UNESCO. Baumol." In On Mozart. Brussels: Author. 2001. Davies. Hearn. Artists in Figures: A Statistical Portrait a/Cultural Occupation.S. S. London: Arts Council of Great Britain. Wilding and R. R. London: Arts Council England.. 1998. which include the majority of the OCMS cultural agencies operating at the regional level. From Cultura! to Creative Industries: Theory. Britain's Design Industry: The Design Workshop o/the World. Critical Perspectives. Culsural Statistics in the EU Final Report a/LEe. A W. G. Report delivered to Brisbane City Council. and Policy Implications. Arts Council of Great Britain. London: Author. Green. 2004. 2002. income." Cultural n' 1. often manifested as economic impact studies. However. Caves.. 1997. San Francisco: Golden Gate University. England. European Union. Cambridge. MA: Hearn.. Cunningham. Artists in Figures: A Statistical Portrait o/Cultitral Occupation. K. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 26 OF ARTS MANAGEMENI . Leeds.. Another British example is the establishment. 2003. 2002. Consequently what is produced is ad hoc. Applications References Allen. Florida. Vol..from Ideas. London: Allen Lane. Queensland Music Industry Basics. G. Lindley. G. The Rise a/the Cr~ative York: Basic Books.. ed. Department Author. Queensland University of Technology. unrelated and difficult to compare. London: City University. 4902. Cunningham. Reliable data on employment.. Roodhouse. Garnhatn." In Proceedings Culfor Culture. Research Report. at a regional level. Research and Centre. 2003. London: British Council Creative Industries Unit. 344-353). Creative Industries jVfapping Document. Ninan. 2000. UK: University of tural Sites. Calhoun. Hoggarr. C. Adelaide: Author. "Measuring the Arts and Cultural Industries: Does Size Matter?" In The New CulS. R. London: Author. Keane. Brisbane: Creative Industries Applied Research Centre. 2000. 2000. This is dangerous territory for the advocate. C Pace and S. Flew. Wellington. Industry. Proceedings of the 4th International ConJetence. 2005. London: Author. and H.. Barriere.S. ed. Roodhouse and S. 1. p. 1988. Brisbane: Creative Industries Research and Applications Centre.. London: Creative Industries Mapping Document. Creative Industries. Cultura! Policy in Great Britain. 2004. Harvard University Press. The Arts Council Three-Year Plan 1988189--199019. W.d. participation and other factors are essential for this. 1985. subsequently. Cox. ed. Santagata. 1997. Roodhouse. T.. 1993. S. Wakefield. Cunningham.. "Beyond Ad Hoccry: Defining Creative Industries. and P. Brisbane: Creative Industries. New N. Evans... Postone. Brisbane: Creative Industries Research and Applications Centre. London Industrial Strategy: The Cultural Industries. New Zealan.. British Council. An Invitation to the Nation to Invest in the Arts: A Great Britain Success Story. 20(H. Cambridge and Oxford: Polity. "On the Econornics of Musical Composition in Mozart's Vienna. (p. Greater London Council. Industry and Employment Branch. Ninan and M. Morris. The Shift to Value Ecology Thinking: Unpublished paper. M. Queensland University of Technology. 2001. as more of the data become discredited. Departmenc of Arts Policy and Management. 2000. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1994.
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