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com

,
().

a a, .
a b cd

a b c d

1.

AB//CD

2.

,,C

3.

AB CD

4.

5.

C AB c

6.

a,b

7.

a b a c

a b a c

a b
cd

a b
c d
ab
ab
a b

a bc
ab

2ab
ab

1
p (a b c abc)
2

8.

Q AB,CD

9.

To CD

ab(c d) cd(a b)
ab cd

a c bd

R
bc a d

## 10. ABC , PQR

[1]

a c pr

bc qr

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a a 1
i
11. (ABC)= b b 1
4
c c 1
12. G ABC 3g a b c
13. S h 2s a b c
14. C
BC,CA,AB P,Q,R a

2qr
2rp
2pq
,b
,c
qr
rp
pq

2pqr(p q r)
(p q)(q r)(r p)

## 2[(pq)2 (qr)2 (rp) 2 pqr(p q r)]

h
(p q)(q r)(r p)
15. C u,v,w :
a=u2,b=v2,c=w2 uv, vw, wu AB,BC,CA
C,A,B i (uv vw wu)
16.

(xy xy)(x y)
xy xy

xy(x y)
xy xy

17. C

AC
a b
c
CB
1

18. - 1 1 1
1 0,1,,-1 k k , = ( 1)
z - 1
19. ACB

[2]

cb
ca
(cos i sin )
cb
ca

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1. AB / /CD

a b cd

a b cd

,
x. (
, , ).
-
- = ( + i) ,

= [(2-) + i(2-)],

= 2 + i2.

, -
- = r( + i) ,
= r[(2-) + i(2-)],

= 2 +i2

2 = 2 2 = 2

2 = 2 +2 = +, = 0 1, = = +
, //

2. ,,C

a b a c

a b a c

(1) AB//CD

a b a c

a b a c

d a, // C, , , C .

[3]

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3. AB CD

ab
cd

a b
c d

:
(1) , :
- - .
x ( , , ).
-
- = ( + i) ,
[(2-) + i(2-)],

= 2 + i2.

, -
- = r( + i) ,
= r[(2-) + i(2-)],

(+2) +i(+2)

2 = (+2) 2 = (+2), 2 = 2 + +2
= + /2 + , = 0 1,
= /2 = 3/2 + , .

[4]

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:
,, ( ) z1 , z 2 , z3 ,
:
(i) ,,
(ii) ,, / /
(iii) ,,
(iv) ,,
(v) ,,
(vi) ,, &

z1 x1 y1i, z2 x 2 y2i, z3 x 3 y3i A(x1 , y1 ),B(x 2 , y2 ), (x 3 , y3 ) .
AB (x 2 x1 , y2 y1 ),

A (x 3 x1 , y3 y1 ) .

## i) T A,B, AB / /A det(AB,A) 0 (x 2 x1 )(y3 y1 ) (x 3 x1 )(y2 y1 )

ii) , (x 2 x1 )(y3 y1 ) (x 3 x1 )(y2 y1 )
1

cos(BA, B)

2BAB | BA || B |
2
iii)

cos(B, A) 1
2BA | B || A |

.
90o ABA 0 (x x )(x x ) (y y )(y y ) 0
iv) A
2
1
3
1
2
1
3
1

## v) AB A cos(BA,B ) cos( B, A) iii)

vi) iv) v)

(i) R * z1 z2 z1 z3
(ii) R * z1 z2 z1 z3

## (iii) (ii) [ z1 z2 60o i60o z3 z1 120o i120o z3 z 2

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(iv) (ii) R z1 z2 i z1 z3

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(v) (ii) R z1 z2 i z1 z3
(vi) (ii) z1 z2 i z1 z3

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