Circuit Analysis II

with MATLAB® Applications
Steven T. Karris

num=[0 1100 0]; den=[1 1100 10^5]; w=logspace(0,5,100); bode(num,den,w); grid

Orchard Publications, Fremont, California www.orchardpublications.com

with MATLAB® Applications

Circuit Analysis II

Students and working professionals will find Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications to be a concise and easy-to-learn text. It provides complete, clear, and detailed explanations of advanced electrical engineering concepts illustrated with numerous practical examples.

This text includes the following chapters and appendices: • Second Order Circuits • Resonance • Elementary Signals • The Laplace Transformation • The Inverse Laplace Transformation • Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms • Frequency Response and Bode Plots • Self and Mutual Inductances - Transformers • One and Two Port Networks • Three Phase Systems • Introduction to MATLAB • Differential Equations • Matrices and Determinants • Constructing Semilog Plots with Microsoft Excel • Scaling Each chapter contains numerous practical applications supplemented with detailed instructions for using MATLAB to obtain quick and accurate answers.

Steven T. Karris is the president and founder of Orchard Publications. He earned a bachelors degree in electrical engineering at Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, a masters degree in electrical engineering at Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, and has done post-master work at the latter. He is a registered professional engineer in California and Florida. He has over 30 years of professional engineering experience in industry. In addition, he has over 25 years of teaching experience that he acquired at several educational institutions as an adjunct professor. He is currently with UC Berkeley Extension.

Orchard Publications, Fremont, California Visit us on the Internet www.orchardpublications.com or email us: info@orchardpublications.com

ISBN 0-9709511-9-1

$39.95 U.S.A.

Circuit Analysis II
with MATLAB® Applications
Steven T. Karris

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications Copyright 2003 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A. URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks , Inc., and Microsoft Corporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Library of Congress Control Number: 2003094467 Copyright Number TX-745-064

ISBN 0-9709511-9-1 Disclaimer
The publisher has used his best effort to prepare this text. However, the publisher and author makes no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied with regard to the accuracy, completeness, and computer codes contained in this book, and shall not be liable in any event for incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the performance or use of these programs.

This book was created electronically using Adobe Framemaker .

Preface
This text is written for use in a second course in circuit analysis. The reader of this book should have the traditional undergraduate knowledge of an introductory circuit analysis material such as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications by this author. Another prerequisite would be knowledge of differential equations, and in most cases, engineering students at this level have taken all required mathematics courses. It encompasses a spectrum of subjects ranging from the most abstract to the most practical, and the material can be covered in one semester or two quarters. Appendix B serves as a review of differential equations with emphasis on engineering related topics and it is recommended for readers who may need a review of this subject. There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers, especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas. Chapter 1 is an introduction to second order circuits and it is essentially a sequel to first order circuits that were discussed in the last chapter of as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications. Chapter 2 is devoted to resonance, and Chapter 3 presents practical methods of expressing signals in terms of the elementary functions, i.e., unit step, unit ramp, and unit impulse functions. Thus, any signal can be represented in the compex frequency domain using the Laplace transformation. Chapters 4 and 5 are introductions to the unilateral Laplace transform and Inverse Laplace transform respectively, while Chapter 6 presents several examples of analyzing electric circuits using Laplace transformation methods. Chapter 7 begins with the frequency response concept and Bode magnitude and frequency plots. Chapter 8 is devoted to transformers with an introduction to self and mutual inductances. Chapter 9 is an introduction to one- and two-terminal devices and presents several practical examples. Chapter 10 is an introduction to three-phase circuits. It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical introduction to MATLAB. As shown on the front cover of this text the magnitude and phase plots can be easily obtained with a one line MATLAB code. Moreover, MATLAB will be invaluable in later studies such as the design of analog and digital filters.

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

As stated above, Appendix B is a review of differential equations. Appendix C is an introduction to matrices, Appendix D provides instructions on constructing semilog templates to be used with Bode plots, and Appendix E discusses scaling methods. In addition to numerous real-world examples, this text contains several exercises at the end of each chapter. Detailed solutions of all exercises are provided at the end of each chapter. The rationale is to encourage the reader to solve all exercises and check his effort for correct solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was written to serve as a self-study or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a resource to test his knowledge. The author has accumulated many additional problems for homework assignment and these are available to those instructors who adopt this text either as primary or supplementary text, and prefer to assign problems without the solutions. He also has accumulated many sample exams. The author is indebted to the class of the Spring semester of 2001 at San Jose State University, San Jose, California, for providing several of the examples and exercises of this text. Like any other new book, this text may contain some grammar and typographical errors. Accordingly, all feedback for errors, advice, and comments will be most welcomed and greatly appreciated. Orchard Publications info@orchardpublications.com

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Contents
Chapter 1
Second Order Circuits

The Response of a Second Order Circuit ....................................................................................1-1 The Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation ...............................................................................1-2 Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation ................................................................1-5 Response of Series RLC Circuits with AC Excitation ..............................................................1-11 The Parallel GLC Circuit...........................................................................................................1-14 Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation............................................................1-16 Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with AC Excitation............................................................1-26 Other Second Order Circuits .....................................................................................................1-29 Summary....................................................................................................................................1-36 Exercises....................................................................................................................................1-38 Solutions to Exercises................................................................................................................1-40

Chapter 2
Resonance

Series Resonance .........................................................................................................................2-1 Quality Factor Q0s in Series Resonance.......................................................................................2-4 Parallel Resonance.......................................................................................................................2-6 Quality Factor Q0p in Parallel Resonance ....................................................................................2-9 General Definition of Q.............................................................................................................2-10 Energy in L and C at Resonance ...............................................................................................2-11 Half-Power Frequencies - Bandwidth .......................................................................................2-12 A Practical Parallel Resonant Circuit ........................................................................................2-16 Radio and Television Receivers ................................................................................................2-17 Summary....................................................................................................................................2-20 Exercises....................................................................................................................................2-22 Solutions to Exercises................................................................................................................2-24

Chapter 3
Elementary Signals

Signals Described in Math Form .................................................................................................3-1 The Unit Step Function ...............................................................................................................3-2 The Unit Ramp Function ...........................................................................................................3-10
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

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The Delta Function ....................................................................................................................3-12 Sampling Property of the Delta Function ..................................................................................3-12 Sifting Property of the Delta Function ......................................................................................3-13 Higher Order Delta Functions ...................................................................................................3-15 Summary....................................................................................................................................3-19 Exercises....................................................................................................................................3-20 Solutions to Exercises................................................................................................................3-21

Chapter 4
The Laplace Transformation

Definition of the Laplace Transformation ...................................................................................4-1 Properties of the Laplace Transform ...........................................................................................4-2 The Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time...........................................................4-12 The Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms......................................................................4-23 Summary....................................................................................................................................4-29 Exercises....................................................................................................................................4-34 Solutions to Exercises................................................................................................................4-37

Chapter 5
The Inverse Laplace Transformation

The Inverse Laplace Transform Integral .....................................................................................5-1 Partial Fraction Expansion...........................................................................................................5-1 Case for m n............................................................................................................................5-13 Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion.......................................................................5-15 Summary....................................................................................................................................5-18 Exercises....................................................................................................................................5-20 Solutions to Exercises................................................................................................................5-22

Chapter 6
Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms

Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency ........................................................6-1 Complex Impedance Z(s) ............................................................................................................6-8 Complex Admittance Y(s).........................................................................................................6-10 Transfer Functions.....................................................................................................................6-13 Summary....................................................................................................................................6-17 Exercises....................................................................................................................................6-18 Solutions to Exercises................................................................................................................6-21

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Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Chapter 7
Frequency Response and Bode Plots

Decibel ............................................................................................................................................................. 7-1 Bandwidth and Frequency Response .......................................................................................................... 7-3 Octave and Decade ........................................................................................................................................ 7-4 Bode Plot Scales and Asymptotic Approximations .................................................................................. 7-5 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Real............................................................ 7-6 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex .................................................7-12 Corrected Amplitude Plots .........................................................................................................................7-25 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................7-36 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................7-38 Solutions to Exercises..................................................................................................................................7-39

Chapter 8
Self and Mutual Inductances - Transformers

Self-Inductance ............................................................................................................................8-1 The Nature of Inductance ............................................................................................................8-1 Lenz’s Law ..................................................................................................................................8-3 Mutually Coupled Coils...............................................................................................................8-3 Establishing Polarity Markings..................................................................................................8-11 Energy Stored in a Pair of Mutually Coupled Inductors ...........................................................8-14 Circuits with Linear Transformers.............................................................................................8-20 Reflected Impedance in Transformers .......................................................................................8-25 The Ideal Transformer ...............................................................................................................8-28 Impedance Matching..................................................................................................................8-32 A Simplified Transformer Equivalent Circuit ...........................................................................8-33 Thevenin Equivalent Circuit ......................................................................................................8-34 Summary ....................................................................................................................................8-38 Exercises ....................................................................................................................................8-42 Solutions to Exercises ................................................................................................................8-44

Chapter 9
One- and Two-port Networks

Introduction and Definitions .......................................................................................................................9-1 One-port Driving-point and Transfer Admittances .................................................................................9-2 One-port Driving-point and Transfer Impedances ..................................................................................9-7 Two-Port Networks.....................................................................................................................................9-12
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The y Parameters..........................................................................................................................................9-12 The z parameters..........................................................................................................................................9-19 The h Parameters .........................................................................................................................................9-24 The g Parameters .........................................................................................................................................9-29 Reciprocal Two-Port Networks.................................................................................................................9-34 Summary........................................................................................................................................................9-38 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................9-43 Solutions to Exercises .................................................................................................................................9-45

Chapter 10
Three-Phase Systems

Advantages of Three-Phase Systems.........................................................................................10-1 Three-Phase Connections ..........................................................................................................10-1 Transformer Connections in Three-Phase Systems...................................................................10-4 Line-to-Line and Line-to-Neutral Voltages and Currents .........................................................10-5 Equivalent Y and Loads .......................................................................................................10-10 Computation by Reduction to Single Phase ............................................................................10-20 Three-Phase Power ..................................................................................................................10-21 Instantaneous Power in Three-Phase Systems.........................................................................10-23 Measuring Three-Phase Power................................................................................................10-27 Summary..................................................................................................................................10-30 Exercises..................................................................................................................................10-32 Solutions to Exercises..............................................................................................................10-33

Appendix A
Introduction to MATLAB®

MATLAB® and Simulink®.......................................................................................................A-1 Command Window.....................................................................................................................A-1 Roots of Polynomials..................................................................................................................A-3 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots ............................................................................A-4 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values ........................................................................A-6 Rational Polynomials..................................................................................................................A-8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots................................................................................................A-10 Subplots ....................................................................................................................................A-19 Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation ...........................................................................A-20 Script and Function Files..........................................................................................................A-26 Display Formats........................................................................................................................A-31

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Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

.................................................................................Appendix B Differential Equations Simple Differential Equations ............... B-24 Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Matrix Definition ..................................................................D-2 Appendix E Scaling Magnitude Scaling .................................................... B-3 Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................D-1 Instructions for Constructing Semilog Plots ........................................................................................................................C-12 Cramer’s Rule ....................................................................................................................................................................... B-20 Exercises ....................................................................C-1 Matrix Operations .............C-16 Gaussian Elimination Method ............................................................... C-21 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices.................. C-20 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................C-5 Determinants ......................................................................................................................................................................................... C-21 The Inverse of a Matrix .............................................................................................. C-30 Appendix D Constructing Semilog Plots with Microsoft Excel The Excel Spreadsheet Window ............................................................................. E-1 Exercises ........................... C-23 Exercises ................................................................. E-9 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications v ............. B-10 Using the Method of Variation of Parameters for the Forced Response .............. C-19 The Adjoint of a Matrix ..................................... B-8 Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response........................................................................................................ B-1 Classification .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. E-8 Solutions to Exercises .................................................C-9 Minors and Cofactors........................................................................................................ E-1 Frequency Scaling.........................................C-2 Special Forms of Matrices ........................ B-6 Solution of the Homogeneous ODE .......................

NOTES vi Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

if necessary. We evaluate the constants of the forced response by substitution of the assumed forced response into the differential equation and equate terms of the left side with the right side. if a circuit contains an inductor and a capacitor. We write the differential or integrodifferential (nodal or mesh) equation describing the circuit. For example. We differentiate. Since the excitation in our work here will be either a constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC) in nature. solve the homogeneous differential equation using the characteristic equation. it is said to be a second-order circuit and the differential equation that describes it is a second order differential equation. along with other devices such as resistors. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-1 . These are called state equations* but these will not be discussed here. to describe a circuit having two energy storage devices with a set of two first-order differential equations.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits T his chapter discusses the natural. 3. We will consider both DC (constant) and AC (sinusoidal) excitations. we expect the forced response to have the same form as the excitation. a circuit which has three energy storage devices with a set of three first-order differential equations and so on. and its solution is obtained as follows: 1. 1. in other words. 5. Add the forced and natural responses to form the complete response. ISBN 09709511-3-2 by this author. We obtain the forced (steady-state) response. * State variables and state equations are discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. These circuits are characterized by linear second-order differential equations whose solutions consist of the natural and the forced responses.1 The Response of a Second Order Circuit A circuit containing n energy storage devices (inductors and capacitors) is said to be an nth-order circuit. inductors and capacitors. We evaluate the constants of the complete response from the initial conditions. It is possible. to eliminate the integral. Refer to Appendix B for the general expression of the forced response (particular solution). forced and total responses in circuits containing resistors. The response is found from the differential equation describing the circuit. however. and the differential equation describing the circuit is an nth-order differential equation. 4. 2. We obtain the general form of the natural response by setting the right side of the differential equation equal to zero. or two capacitors or two inductors.

DC or AC. we must first specify the nature of the excitation v S .+ --.1) and by differentiation 2 d i i dv S di .2) The characteristic equation of (1.= 0 C * The unit step function is discussed in detail in Chapter 3.1) will be zero and thus the forced response component i f = 0 . Since in this section we are concerned with DC excitations.1. Series RLC Circuit For this circuit di 1 . the right side of (1.+ --.Ri + L ---.2 The Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation Let us consider the series RLC circuit of Figure 1. v C 0 = V 0 . For our present discussion it will suffice to state that u 0 t = 0 for t 0 and u 0 t = 1 for t 0 .+ L -----. and u 0 t is the unit step function. If v S is DC ( v S =constant).R ---.* We want to find an expression for the current i t for t 0 . 1-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ------2 dt C dt dt t 0 To find the forced response.R ---.1) will be another sinusoid and therefore i f = I cos t + . the right side of (1. The natural response is found from the homogeneous equation of (1. R vS u0 t + i t C L Figure 1. d i i di .Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits 1.+ L -----. the right side will be zero and thus the total response will be just the natural response. If v S is AC ( v S = V cos t + .1 where the initial conditions are i L 0 = I 0 .+ --dt C t i dt + V 0 = v S 0 t 0 (1. that is.2) is 2 1 Ls + Rs + --. that is.= 0 2 dt C dt 2 (1.1).

3) We will use the following notations: S R = ----2L 0 1 = ----------LC S = 2 S – 2 0 nS = 2 0 – 2 S or Damping Coefficient Resonant Frequency Beta Coefficient Damped Natural Frequency (1.s + -----.9) A typical overdamped response is shown in Figure 1. This results in the overdamped natural response and has the form in t = k1 e s1 t 2 S 2 0 + k2 e s2 t (1. the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. This plot was created with the following MATLAB code: 1-3 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4) where the subscript s stands for series circuit.3) as s1 s2 = – S 2 S – 2 0 = – S S if 2 S 2 0 (1. and unequal. This results in the critically damped natural response and has the form in t = e – St 2 S 2 k1 + k2 t (1.– -----2 LC 4L (1.= 0 L LC 2 from which R s 1 s 2 = – ----2L R 1 -------. and equal.8) Case III: If . negative. negative. Then.5) or s1 s2 = – S 2 0 – 2 S = – S nS if 2 0 2 S (1.The Series RLC Circuit with DC Excitation or R 2 1s + -.2 where it is assumed that i n 0 = 0 .6) Case I: If . This is known as the underdamped or oscillatory natural response and has the form in t = e – St 2 0 2 S k 1 cos n S t + k 2 sin n S t = k 3 e – St cos n S t + (1.7) Case II: If = 0 . the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates. we can express (1.

45.2.*t)). title('Overdamped Response for 4. Typical critically damped response A typical underdamped response is shown in Figure 1.*(exp( 2. grid.*t))') Figure 1.3. xlabel('t').*t.*t))') Figure 1.ft). This plot was created with the following MATLAB code: t=0: 0..*t)).*(exp( t)-exp( 6...ft). Typical overdamped response A typical critically damped response is shown in Figure 1. ylabel('f(t)').45..01: 6. grid. plot(t.. ft=8.*(exp( 2.*(exp( t) exp( 6.*t. This plot was created with the following MATLAB code: 1-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8. title('Critically Damped Response for 420. ylabel('f(t)').4 where it is assumed that i n 0 = 0 .4.01: 6. plot(t.. xlabel('t'). ft=420.3 where it is assumed that i n 0 = 0 .Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits t=0: 0.

1 Solution: This circuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation 1-5 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . plot(t..4. and the 0. Example 1. v C 0 = 2.5.5 resistor represents the + 15u 0 t V i t 1 mH 100 6 mF Figure 1.3 Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation Depending on the circuit constants R . grid.*t)). Circuit for Example 1.1 For the circuit of Figure 1.5.ft).5.*sin(sqrt(2). may be overdamped.Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation t=0: 0. Typical underdamped response 1. and C .5. In this section we will derive the total response of series RLC circuits that are excited by DC sources.01: 10.. Compute and sketch i t for t 0 .5 resistance of the inductor. title('Underdamped Response for 210.*sqrt(2).*t)') Figure 1.*sqrt(2). ylabel('f(t)').5 V . i L 0 = 5 A .. xlabel('t').*sin(sqrt(2). the total response of a series RLC circuit that is excited by a DC source. ft=210. critically damped. L .*t). or underdamped.*t)). 0.*(exp( 0.*(exp( 0.

+ -----.+ L -----.5 V . from (1.= 0 2 dt dt C 2 or i d i R di -----.+ -.13) We need another equation in order to compute the values of k 1 and k 2 . Thus from the first initial condition i L 0 = i 0 = 5 A and (1. Since i C t = i t = C -------..10) Differentiating and noting that the derivatives of the constants v C 0 and 15 are zero.R ---. v C 0 = 2. With this equation we will C make use of the second initial condition. that is. L .11) The roots of the characteristic equation of (1. Then. and C 2 di d i -----. we obtain the homogeneous differential equation d i i di .= – 200k 1 e –200 t – 300k 2 e –300 t and ---dt dt = – 200k 1 – 300 k 2 t=0 + (1. we evaluate it at t = 0 + .= 0 . we dif- dv dt ferentiate (1.Ri + L ---. Ri 0 + di + L ---dt + vc 0 t=0 + + = 15 1-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..+ --.12) we get i 0 = k1 e + k2 e = 5 k1 + k2 = 5 0 0 (1. and we equate it with this initial condition.11) are s 1 = – 200 and s 2 = – 300 .12) The constants k 1 and k 2 can be evaluated from the initial conditions. at t = 0 + . The total response is just the natural response and for this example it is overdamped.+ 60000i = 0 2 dt dt (1.+ --dt C t i dt + v C 0 = 15 t 0 0 (1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits di 1 . Therefore. di di ---.2 L dt LC dt 2 and by substitution of the known values R .---.7).12).14) Also. i t = in t = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t = k1 e – 200 t + k2 e – 300 t (1.+ 500 ---.

.e.. disp('1st initial condition is satisfied since at t = 0.11) to verify % that correct solution was obtained.. i. equating (1. % Compute the second derivative of y0. i0 = '). disp(y).. By substitution into (1. disp(y1)..5. disp('2nd initial condition is also satisfied since vC+vL+vR=15 and vC0 = ').14) with (1. C=100*10^( 3)/6. % Compute the first derivative of y0..e.. disp(i0).17) % into differential equation of (1. % Let solution i(t)=y0 y1=diff(y0).15) t=0 + Next.. i.. disp('1st derivative of solution is y1 = ').15) we get: – 200k 1 – 300 k 2 = 10000 – k 1 – 1.e. vC0= R*i0 L*( 23000*exp( 200*0)+33000*exp( 300*0))+15.. di2/dt2 % Substitute the solution i(t). i.2). i0=115*exp( 200*0) 110*exp( 300*0). fprintf(' \n'). disp(y2)...5 5 – 2..Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation ---and solving for di dt t=0 + we get di ---dt 15 – 0. L=10^( 3)....= 10000 –3 10 (1.16) yields k 1 = 115 and k 2 = – 110 . disp(vC0).5 k 2 = 50 (1. disp(y0).. di/dt y2=diff(y0. disp('Differential equation is satisfied since y = y2+y1+y0 = ').17) Check with MATLAB: syms t.. % We must also verify that the initial % conditions are satisfied y=y2+500*y1+60000*y0. equ (1..16) Simultaneous solution of (1.. % Define symbolic variable t R=0....5 = --------------------------------------.12) we find the total response as i t = i n t = 115e – 200 t – 110 e – 300 t (1. fprintf(' \n') Solution was entered as y0 = 115*exp(-200*t)-110*exp(-300*t) 1-7 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . disp('2nd derivative of solution is y2 = ').13) and (1.. disp('Solution was entered as y0 = ')..% Circuit constants y0=115*exp( 200*t) 110*exp(-300*t)..

and therefore the total response will contain both the natural and forced components. iT').0001: 0. i2.Ri + L ---.. grid.*(exp( 200.1 In the above example.i2. i0 = 5 2nd initial condition is also satisfied since vC+vL+vR=15 and vC0 = 2. differentiation eliminated (set equal to zero) the right side of the differential equation and thus the total response was just the natural response.. iT=i1 i2. To illustrate. Plot for i t of Example 1.i1.+ --dt C t i dt = 15 u 0 t – (1. xlabel('t').iT). 1 The capacitor voltage. plot(t. i2=110.5000 We will use the following MATLAB code to sketch i t . ylabel('i1.025.t. we will use the following approach.*t)). may not set the right side equal to zero.*t)).Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits 1st derivative of solution is y1 = -23000*exp(-200*t)+33000*exp(-300*t) 2nd derivative of solution is y2 = 4600000*exp(-200*t)-9900000*exp(-300*t) Differential equation is satisfied since y = y2+y1+y0 = 0 1st initial condition is satisfied since at t = 0.*(exp( 300.. A different approach however. title('Response iT for Example 1. the circuit can be represented by the integrodifferential equation di 1 . t=0: 0.6. may be expressed as v C t = --t – C i dt and as before.18) 1-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .t.1') Figure 1. i1=115. for all time t .

Response of Series RLC Circuits with DC Excitation and since dv C i = i C = C -------dt we rewrite (1. the forced response will also be a constant and we denote it as v C f = k 3 . v C t = v C n t + v Cf = k 1 e – 200 t + k2 e – 300 t + 15 (1.20) is the same as of that of (1. the constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions.22). This presents no problem since we can obtain the current by differentiation of the expression for v C t .10 . using v C 0 = 2.21) and (1.20) The characteristic equation of (1. the solution of (1. By substitution into (1.+ 60000v C = 9 2 dt dt 10 u 0 t 5 (1.22) The total solution then is the summation of (1.23) As before.5 0 0 or 1-9 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get v C 0 = k 1 e + k 2 e + 15 = 2.19) We observe that this is a non-homogeneous differential equation whose solution will have both the natural and the forced response components. Substitution of the given values into (1. that is.20) we get 0 + 0 + 60000k 3 = 900000 or v C f = k 3 = 15 (1.+ LC --------.18) as dv C dv C RC --------.+ 1 dt 10 –3 dv C 100 –3 -------------.11) and thus the natural response is vC n t = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t = k1 e – 200 t + k2 e – 300 t (1.5 V and evaluating (1.21) Since the right side of (1.+ 500 ------.19) yields 50 ----6 10 –3 dv C -------. First.+ v C = 15 u 0 t 2 dt dt 2 (1.20) is a constant.23) at t = 0 .+ v C = 15 u 0 t 2 6 dt 2 or 2 dv C dv C ------. Of course.19) will give us the capacitor voltage v C t .

= -------dt 6 10 –3 6900e – 200t – 6600 e – 300t = 115e – 200t – 110 e – 300t A (1.= – 200k 1 e – 300k 2 e and -------dt dt = – 200k 1 – 300k 2 t=0 (1.= 300 100 C –3 -------.2) % The second derivative of y(t) y2 = 1980000*exp(-300*t)-1380000*exp(-200*t) y=y2+500*y1+60000*y0 % Summation of y and its derivatives y = 900000 Using the expression for v C t we can find the current as dv C 100 i = i L = i C = C -------.5k 2 = 1.= --.27). we obtain the total solution as v C t = 22e – 300 t – 34.5 (1. dv C i L = i C = C ------dt dv C i L dv C -------.24) Also.5*exp( 200*t)+15.and -------dt C dt iL 0 5 = ----------.25) and (1.23).5 (1. By substitution into (1. we differentiate (1.5 e – 200 t + 15 u 0 t (1.25). we get k 1 = – 34. dv C dv C – 200 t – 300 t ------.26) we get – 200k 1 – 300k 2 = 300 or – k 1 – 1.10 6 (1.27) From (1.24) and (1. y1=diff(y0) % Define symbolic variable t % The total solution y(t) % The first derivative of y(t) y1 = -6600*exp(-300*t)+6900*exp(-200*t) y2=diff(y0. Then.26) Equating the right sides of (1.29) 1-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .28) Check with MATLAB: syms t y0=22*exp( 300*t) 34. we evaluate it at t = 0 and equate it with (1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits k 1 + k 2 = – 12.= -----------------------.5 and k 2 = 22 .23).25) t=0 Next.

Solution: This circuit is the same as that of Example 1. vc1=22. and since it represents the AC steady-state condition. vcT').4 Response of Series RLC Circuits with AC Excitation The total response of a series RLC circuit.t.8.vc1.+ --dt C t resistor represents the i dt + v C 0 = 200 cos 10000t 0 t 0 (1..29) is the same as (1.1') Figure 1.. vc3=15.t..t. vc2. will also consist of the natural and forced response components. therefore it can be represented by the integrodifferential equation di 1 . or underdamped. vc2= 34. we can use phasor analysis to find it. ylabel('vc1.Ri + L ---. As we found in the previous section.. We will use the following MATLAB code to sketch i t . xlabel('t').*(exp( 200.Response of Series RLC Circuits with AC Excitation We observe that (1. v C 0 = 2. t=0: 0.*(exp( 300. vc3.5. vcT=vc1+vc2+vc3. or critically damped. i L 0 = 5 A . Example 1. which is excited by a sinusoidal source.vc3.2 For the circuit of Figure 1. The forced component will be a sinusoid of the same frequency as that of the excitation.5 resistance of the inductor.*t)).7. plot(t.vc2.. Compute and sketch i t for t 0 .1 1.*t)). The following example illustrates the procedure.30) 1-11 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 except that the circuit is excited by a sinusoidal source. and the 0.. grid. the natural response can be overdamped.001: 0. Plot for v C t of Example 1. title('Response vcT for Example 1.vcT).03.17).5 V .

Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits 0.= -------------------------. Z = o 0.15 o o V 200 0 I = -.32).25 + 99.15 20 cos 10000t – 87.5 and this yields and thus = 1.15 . V is the phasor voltage.31) where the constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions after i f t has been found.15 o = if t 1-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . by substitution into (1. R 2 = 0.= tan 0. To find i f t we will use the phasor analysis relation I = V Z where I is the phasor current. We start with i t = in t + if t = k1 e – 200 t + k2 e – 300 t + if t (1.8.5 9. as we know.= 6 4 –3 C 10 100 6 10 Then.5 –1 2 = 0.994 -----------0. is Z = R+j L–1 C = R + 2 L–1 C 2 tan –1 L–1 C R (1.15 o Z 10 87.= --------------------------------------------. Then.2 whose solution consists of the summation of the natural and forced responses.= 20 – 87.88 Also. Circuit for Example 1. tan L–1 C 10 – 6 10 R = tan ----------------------------------.52 rads = 87.88 o = 10 87. The steady state (or forced) response will have the form i f t = k 3 cos 10 000t + in the time domain ( t -domain) and has the form k 3 in the frequency domain ( j -domain). and Z is the impedance of the phasor circuit which.5 + 200 cos 10000t u 0 t V i t 1 mH 100 6 mF Figure 1.32) The inductive and capacitive reactances are XL = L = 10 4 10 –3 = 10 10 –3 and 1 1 X C = ------. We know its natural response from the previous example.25 and L–1 –1 C 2 = 10 – 6 –3 10 –1 –3 2 = 99.

36) with (1.33) The constants k 1 and k 2 are evaluated from the initial conditions.37) Next. Since i C t = i t = C -------.5 –35 – 2. di ---. equating (1.33) and the first initial condition i L 0 = 5 A we get i 0 = k 1 e + k 2 e + 20 cos – 87. Then.5 = 195000 -----------------------------------------10 (1. we differentiate dv dt (1. we evaluate it at t = 0 .= – 200k 1 e –200 t – 300k 2 e –300 t – 2 dt 10 sin 10000t – 87.Response of Series RLC Circuits with AC Excitation The total solution is i t = in t + if t = k1 e – 200 t + k2 e – 300 t + 20 cos 10000t – 87.15 5 o (1.33). v C 0 = 2. that is.34) We need another equation in order to compute the values of k 1 and k 2 .5k 2 = 25 (1. From (1. at t = 0 + Ri 0 ---and solving for di dt + di + L ---dt + vc 0 t=0 + + = 200 cos 0 = 200 we get t=0 + di ---dt t=0 + = 200 – 0. di ---dt = – 200k 1 – 300k 2 – 2 t=0 10 sin – 87.37) we get – 200k 1 – 300 k 2 = – 5000 or k 1 + 1. and we equate it with this initial condition.35) and at t = 0 .15 i 0 = k 1 + k 2 + 20 k1 + k2 = 4 0 0 o = 5 0.15 6 o = – 200k 1 – 300k 2 + 2 10 5 (1.5 V .36) Also.15 o (1.. This equation will make use C of the second initial condition.38) 1-13 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .05 = 5 (1.

9..t. i3. grid.t.*(exp( 200.*t)). iS u0 t v t iG G iL L iC C Figure 1.10.2') Figure 1. v C 0 = V 0 . We want to find an expression for the voltage v t for t 0 ..005: 0. i2=42. iT=i1+i2+i3.*t)).5 The Parallel GLC Circuit Consider the circuit of Figure 1.31)..*(exp( 300. Then. xlabel('t'). Plot for i t of Example 1. i1= 38. i2.i2. by substitution into (1.20.15 o A (1.34) and (1. iT'). title('Response iT for Example 1.. plot(t./180). i3=20. Parallel RLC circuit For this circuit 1-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .i3.10 where the initial conditions are i L 0 = I 0 ..15.39) The plot is shown in Figure 1. the total response is i t = – 38 e – 200 t + 42e – 300 t + 20 cos 10000t – 87.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits Simultaneous solution of (1.38) yields k 1 = – 38 and k 2 = 42 .*t 87.9 and was created with the following MATLAB code: t=0: 0. and u 0 t is the unit step function..i1. ylabel('i1.*pi.2 1.*cos(10000.t.iT).

42) as 1-15 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .40).+ G ----. If i S is AC ( i S = I cos t + .1-------.= 0 L or G 2 is + --.+ G ----. P G = -----2C 0 1 = ----------LC P = 2 P – 2 0 nP = 2 0 – P 2 or Damping Coefficient Resonant Frequency Beta Coefficient Damped Natural Frequency (1. If i S is DC ( v S =constant). the right side of (1. that is DC or AC. that is. Since in this section we are concerned with DC excitations. we can express (1.C ------.40) will be zero and thus the forced response component v f = 0 .– -----2 4C LC 2 (1. we must first specify the nature of the excitation i S . 2 dv v di S dv.43) where the subscript p stands for parallel circuit.= i S dt t 0 By differentiation.40) will be another sinusoid and therefore v f = V cos t + . the right side will be zero and thus the total response will be just the natural response.+ -.s + -----. the right side of (1. dv v dv .= 0 C LC from which Gs 1 s 2 = – -----2C G .= 0 2 dt L dt 2 (1.= -----2 dt L dt dt t 0 (1. The natural response is found from the homogeneous equation of (1.40) To find the forced response.The Parallel GLC Circuit iG t + iL t + iC t = iS t or 1 Gv + -L t 0 dv v dt + I 0 + C ----.+ -.41) whose characteristic equation is 2 1 Cs + Gs + -.42) and with the following notations.C ------.

In this section we will derive the total response of a parallel GLC circuit which is excited by a DC source using the following example. and equal. i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V . negative. the natural response of a parallel GLC circuit may be overdamped.4) and (1.45) Note: From (1. the roots s 1 and s 2 are real.47) Case III: If 2 0 2 P. or underdamped. critically damped.6 Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation Depending on the circuit constants G (or R ).43) we observe that P As in a series circuit. This results in the underdamped – Pt – Pt or oscillatory natural response and has the form vn t = e k 1 cos nP t + k 2 sin nP t = k 3 e cos nP t + (1. the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates.44) or s1 s2 = – P 2 0 – P = – P S 2 nP if 2 0 2 P (1. Example 1. This results in the overs1 t s2 t damped natural response and has the form vn t = k1 e + k2 e (1.3 For the circuit of Figure 1. the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. and C . critically damped or underdamped. This results in the critically 0 P damped natural response and has the form vn t = e – Pt k1 + k2 t (1. the natural response v n t can be overdamped. Case I: If 2 2 0 P . 1-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and unequal. negative.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits s1 s2 = – P 2 P – 2 0 = – P P if 2 P 2 0 (1. Compute and sketch v t for t 0 .46) Case II: If 2 = 2 .48) 1. L .11.

45).49) and when steady-state conditions have been reached we will have v = v L = L di dt = 0 . From the initial condition v C 0 = v 0 = 5 V and (1.= --------------------------. However.= ---------. Then will use (1.= 10 2C 2RC 2 32 1 640 2 P or = 100 and 2 0 1 1 = -----. Therefore.46). we will skip these steps and start with v t = vf t + vn t (1. or oscillatory.46) we get v t = vn t = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t = k1 e –4 t + k2 e – 16 t (1. and find the roots of the characteristic equation from the homogeneous differential equation as we did in the previous section. critically damped.3 Solution: We could write the integrodifferential equation that describes the given circuit. To find out whether the natural response is overdamped. or (1.43) and the values of s 1 and s 2 using (1. v f = 0 and v t = v n t . For this example. or (1.11.Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation iR v t 10u 0 t A 32 iL iC 10 H 1 640 F Figure 1.50) we get 1-17 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .47). the natural response is overdamped and from (1.44) or (1. P G 1 1 = -----.= -----------------------------------.50) and the constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions. differentiate.48) as appropriate.= 64 LC 10 1 640 2 P Then s1 s2 = – P – 2 0 = – 10 6 or s 1 = – 4 and s 2 = – 16 . Circuit for Example 1. we need to compute the values of P and 0 using (1.

we differentiate (1.50).53) we get – 4k 1 – 16 k 2 = 502 or – 2k 1 – 8 k 2 = 251 (1. Since i C t = C -------. and by substitution into (1. y1=diff(y0) % Define symbolic variable t % Let solution v(t) = y0 % Compute and display first derivative y1 = -194*exp(-4*t)+696*exp(-16*t) 1-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . dv dt dv dt evaluate it at t = 0 + .= C ----.e = -. i L 0 = 2 A . equating (1.52) Also.e – -------.51) The second equation that is needed for the computation of the values of k 1 and k 2 is found from C other initial condition.= 502 1 640 (1.53) t=0 + Next.= – 4k 1 e –4 t – 16k 2 e –16 t and dv dt dt = – 4k 1 – 16 k 2 t=0 + (1. at t = 0 + dv 1 -..291e – 261 e V 6 6 6 (1. and we equate it with this initial condition.52) with (1. dv --------.54) Simultaneous solution of (1.50) we get the total response as 291 –4 t 261 –16 t 1 –4 t – 16 t v t = v n t = -------. that is.Then.55) Check with MATLAB: syms t y0=291*exp( 4*t)/6 261*exp( 16*t)/6.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits v 0 = k1 e + k2 e = 5 0 0 or k1 + k2 = 5 (1.54) yields k 1 = 291 6 . k 2 = – 261 6 .51) and (1.v 0 + + i L 0 + + C ----dt R ----and solving for dv dt t=0 + = 10 t=0 + we get dv ----dt 10 – 5 32 – 2 = -----------------------------.

56) by e –16t yields – 1164e 12t + 4176 = 0 or 1-19 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .12... and solve for t ./6).*(exp( 16.56) Division of (1.3 From the plot of Figure 1. title('Response vT for Example 1.t..vT). v1=(291.01: 1.*(exp( 4.Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation y2=diff(y0. Plot for v t of Example 1. ylabel('v1. v2.10 and 0.v1.t.*t))./6).3') Figure 1.40) is satisfied y = 0 The plot is shown in Figure 1. vT').55).*t)).. grid.12 sec. set it equal to zero. vT=v1+v2.2) % Compute and display second derivative y2 = 776*exp(-4*t)-11136*exp(-16*t) y=y2/640+y1/32+y0/10 % Verify that (1.v2. v2= (261.. If we desire to compute precisely the maximum voltage and the exact time it occurs.. dv ----dt = – 1164e t=0 –4 t + 4176e – 16 t = 0 (1. we can find the derivative of (1. Thus. plot(t. we observe that v t attains its maximum value somewhere in the interval 0. xlabel('t').12. and the maximum voltage is approximately 24 V .12 where we have used the following MATLAB code: t=0: 0..

0.2376 V .Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits e 12t 348 = -------97 or 348 12t = ln -------.106 – 261 e = 23. meaning to decrease the amplitude of v t to approximately zero. is the settling time.106 s 12 By substitution into (1.= 0.291e – 261e 6 (1.005 = – 5.55) 1 – 4 x0. and the resistor is to be adjusted so that the natural response will be critically damped. Compute and sketch v t for t 0 .291e 6 or – 4 t S = ln 0.57) A useful quantity. 1-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Then.58) and we need to solve for the time t .32 or t S = 1. For this example. This expression then simplifies to –4 ts 1 0.106 – 16 x0.2775 97 and 1.= 1.2775 t = t max = --------------.291e 6 (1.76 = 0. we neglect the second term inside the parentheses of (1.01 23.55). To simplify the computation.4 For the circuit of Figure 1. 1 – 4t – 16t 0. i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V .76 V v max = -.2376 = -. Therefore.01v max = 0.59) Example 1. especially in electronic circuit analysis.2376 = -. and it is defined as the time required for the voltage to drop to 1% of its maximum value.13.33 s (1. t S is an indication of the time it takes for v t to damp-out.58) since this component of the voltage damps out much faster than the other component. and we can find t S by substitution into (1. denoted as t S .

61) and (1. Please refer to (1.= 8 R 0 = 1 -----. Circuit for Example 1. We obtain the derivative using MATLAB as follows: syms t k2.= 8 LC or 2 1-------.= ---------. v0=exp( 8*t)*(5+k2*t). v1=diff(v0).= ----640 40 or R = 40 and thus s 1 = s 2 = – v t = vn t = e – Pt P = – 8 .13.= 2C 2RC 1 -.60) Using the initial condition v C 0 = 5 V and evaluating (1. We must also have P G 1 = -----. % v1 is 1st derivative of v0 v1 = -8*exp(-8*t)*(5+k2*t)+exp(-8*t)*k2 1-21 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation iR v t 10u 0 t A iL iC 10 H 1 640 F Figure 1.60) at t = 0 .43).60) simplifies to v t = e – 8t 5 + k2 t (1.62) As before. we must have 2 = 64 because the L and C val0 ues are the same as in the previous example. The natural response will have the form or v t = v n t = e – 8t k1 + k2 t k1 + k2 t (1. we need to compute the derivative dv dt in order to apply the second initial condition and find the value of the constant k 2 . we get v 0 = e k1 + k2 0 = 5 0 or k1 = 5 (1.4 Solution: Since the natural response is to be critically damped.

66) and by substitution into (1.14 where we have used the following MATLAB code: 1-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . y0=exp( 8*t)*(5+5080*t).64) t=0 + or dv ----dt IS – vC 0 R – iL 0 10 – 5 40 – 2 7.= 5040 C 1 640 1 640 (1.= --------------.63) with (1.= -----------------------------------------C C + + + = – 40 + k 2 t=0 (1. we obtain the total solution as v t = e – 8t 5 + 5080t V (1.and dt dt C dv ----dt iC 0 IS –iR 0 – iL 0 = -------------.or dv = --.65) and solving for k 2 we get – 40 + k 2 = 5040 or k 2 = 5080 (1. see (1. i C = C ----.= -----------------------------.2) % Compute 2nd derivative y2 = 64*exp(-8*t)*(5+5080*t)-81280*exp(-8*t) y=y2/640+y1/40+y0/10 % Verify differential equation.875 = -----------------------------------------------. y1=diff(y0)% Compute 1st derivative y1 = -8*exp(-8*t)*(5+5080*t)+5080*exp(-8*t) y2=diff(y0.65) t=0 Equating (1.63) (1.62).67) Check with MATLAB: syms t.= – 8e –8t 5 + k 2 t + k 2 e –8t dt and dv ----dt iC dv ----Also. dv ----.40) y = 0 The plot is shown in Figure 1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits Then.

We can also show that v t approaches zero as t approaches infinity with L’Hôpital’s rule as follows: lim v t = lim e t t – 8t 5 + 5080t 5080 5 + 5080t = lim --------------------------. iR v t 10u 0 t A 50 iL iC 10 H 1 640 F Figure 1.*t). v t = 5 V and thus the second initial condition is satisfied. For this example. 1-23 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= lim d 5 + 5080t dt = lim ----------.. Compute and sketch v t for t 0 .67). xlabel('t').68) Example 1.Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation t=0: 0.5 For the circuit of Figure 1. i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V .15. we see that at t = 0 . We can verify that the first initial condition is also satisfied by differentiation of (1.01: 1. Plot for v t of Example 1..= 0 --------------------------------------8t 8t 8t t t t e d e 8e dt (1..*t). ylabel('vt'). plot(t. vt=exp( 8. title('Response vt for Example 1.vt). grid.4') Figure 1.67).14.15.4 By inspection of (1.5 Solution: This is the same circuit as the that of the two previous examples except that the resistance has been increased to 50 . Circuit for Example 1.*(5+5080.

32/5 t) cos(24/5 t + phi) . 2 0 1 1 = -----.69) we get v 0 = ke cos 0 + 0 = 5 or k cos = 5 (1.= -----------------------------------.96 = 23.4t cos 4.8 Since v f = 0 . from (1. we evaluate it at t = 0 .= ---------. y1=diff(y0) y1 = -32/5*k*exp(-32/5*t)*cos(24/5*t+phi)-24/5*k*exp(-32/5*t)*sin(24/ 5*t+phi) pretty(y1) . the total response is just the natural response.8*t+phi).8t + ----dt – 4.= 6.8ke – 6.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits P G 1 1 = -----. dv = – 6.= 64 LC 10 1 640 Also.4t sin 4. the natural response is underdamped with natural frequency nP = 2 0 – 2 P = 64 – 40.70) To evaluate the constants k and we differentiate (1.96 and as before.04 = 4. 2 0 2 P .4 2C 2RC 2 50 1 640 2 P or = 40.8t + (1. Then.4t cos 4.32/5 k exp(. y0=k*exp( 6.24/5 k exp(.8t + (1.= --------------------------.32/5 t) sin(24/5 t + phi) Thus.4*t)*cos(4.4ke –6.71) and 1-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Using MATLAB we get: syms t k phi. we write the equa- tion which describes the circuit at t = 0 + . v t = v n t = ke – Pt cos nP t + = ke – 6.48). From the initial condition v C 0 = v 0 = 5 V and (1.69).69) and the constants k and will be evaluated from the initial conditions. Therefore. and we equate these two expressions.

566 = 5 or 5 k = ----------------------------.72) t=0 + or dv ----dt IS – vC 0 R – iL 0 = -----------------------------------------------.70). the total solution is v t = 1042e – 6.8t – 89.8k sin t=0 By substitution of (1.566 rads = – 89.= 1042 cos – 1.4t cos 4.and dt dt C dv ----dt IS –iR 0 – iL 0 iC 0 = -------------.Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with DC Excitation dv ----dt = – 6.73) t=0 Equating (1.8k sin = 5056 or k sin = – 1060 (1.74) by (1.8k sin t=0 (1.70). the above expression simplifies to dv ----dt iC dv ----Also.= – 212 5 or = tan –1 – 212 = – 1. Then.69).73) we get – 32 – 4.4k cos – 4. i C = C ----.or dv = --.9 -----------------------------1 640 C 640 = 5056 (1.= tan k cos – 1060 = -------------.74) The phase angle can be found by dividing (1.16 where we have used the following MATLAB code: 1-25 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .70) as k cos – 1.75) The plot is shown in Figure 1. k sin -------------.73 (1.72) with (1.= -----------------------------------------C C + + + = – 32 – 4.= 10 – 5 50 – 2 = 7.73 deg The value of the constant k is found from (1.566 and by substitution into (1.

71 4. and since it represents the AC steady-state condition.5. we can use phasor analysis to find the forced response. ylabel('vt').*t).*cos(4.*pi.75) and setting it equal to zero.8.5 We can also use a spreadsheet to plot (1. vt=10.005: 1. 1-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..*t 89.7 Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with AC Excitation The total response of a parallel GLC (or RLC) circuit that is excited by a sinusoidal source also consists of the natural and forced response components. critically damped.. Plot for v t of Example 1.79 v (V) 266. plot(t. i L 0 = 2 A and v C 0 = 5 V .17.6 For the circuit of Figure 1. Compute and sketch v t for t 0 . Example 1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits t=0: 0.4.*exp( 6. we can find the maxima and minima by differentiating the response of (1.75).73./180). xlabel('t'). The forced component will be a sinusoid of the same frequency as that of the excitation.. or underdamped.42. title('Response v(t) for Example 1. 1.13 0.vt).05 Alternately.16. t (sec) Maximum Minimum 0. grid. We will derive the total response of a parallel GLC (or RLC) circuit which is excited by an AC source with the following example. From the columns of that spreadsheet we can read the following maximum and minimum values and the times these occur.5') Figure 1. The natural response will be overdamped.

Response of Parallel GLC Circuits with AC Excitation iR v t iS 50 iL iC 10 H 1 640 F i S = 20 sin 6400t + 90 u 0 t A Figure 1.72 and j -domain to t -domain transformation yields V = 2 – 89. Circuit for Example 1.72 Y 10 89. The t -domain to j -domain transformation yields i s t = 20 sin 6400t + 90 = 20 cos 6400t I = 20 0 The admittance Y is Y = G+j 1 C – ------.17.4t (1.= -------------------------.= 10 89.= ----------------------.72 v f t = 2 cos 6400t – 89.= L C = 6400 G + 2 1 C – ------L 2 –1 tan 1C – -----L G where 1 1 G = -.= 10 and ------.72 The total solution is v t = v n t + v f t = ke – 6. and the forced response v f t which is the AC steady-state response.72 cos 4.. we find the phasor voltage V as I 20 0 V = -. R 50 1 1 1 1 -------.72 50 Now. The total response will consist of the natural response v n t which we already know from the previous example.= ----.8t + + 2 cos 6400t – 89. will be found by phasor analysis.6 Solution: This is the same circuit as the previous example where the DC source has been replaced by an AC source.= 2 – 89.76) 1-27 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -------------L 6400 10 64000 640 2 –1 and thus Y = 1 ----50 2 1 + 10 – -------------64000 tan 1 10 – -------------64000 1 ----.

5688 and dv ----dt = – 6.4*t)*cos(4.80) and solving for k we get – 4.4k cos – 4.8k sin + 12800 t=0 (1. and then we evaluate it at t = 0 .and dt dt C dv ----dt iC 0 iS 0 –iR 0 – iL 0 = -------------.4k cos – 4.78) With (1.8t + dt – 4.5688 = – 6.79) iC dv ----Also. we differentiate (1.72 0 = 5 or k cos 5 (1.76) becomes v 0 = v C 0 = ke cos + 2 cos – 89.8k sin – 12800 sin – 1.79) with (1.8k sin + 12832 (1.77) To make use of the second initial condition.= 20 – 5 50 – 2 = 11456 -----------------------------1 640 C + (1.or dv = --. i C = C ----.5688).4ke cos 4.8k sin + 12832 = 11456 1-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits Now.4t sin 4. syms t k phi. we need to evaluate the constants k and .77) we get dv ----dt = – 32 – 4.= – 6.76) y1 = -32/5*k*exp(-32/5*t)*cos(24/5*t+phi)-24/5*k*exp(-32/5*t)*sin(24/ 5*t+phi)-12800*sin(6400*t-1961/1250) or – 6.8*t+phi)+2*cos(6400*t 1.8k sin + 12800 t=0 – 4. With the initial condition v C 0 = 5 V (1.4t dv ----.80) t=0 Equating (1.8t + – 12800 sin 6400t – 1.8ke – 6. y0=k*exp( 6. y1=diff(y0). % Differentiate v(t) of (1.76) using MATLAB as follows.= ---------------------------------------------------C C + + + + t=0 + or dv ----dt iS 0 – vC 0 R – iL 0 = ----------------------------------------------------------.

18.77) and (1.82) With MATLAB we get the plot shown in Figure 1.4 By substitution into (1.8 Other Second Order Circuits Second order circuits are not restricted to series RLC and parallel GLC circuits.4t cos 4. we obtain the total solution as v t = 279. Figure 1. k sin -------------.4e – 6. that is.53 rad = 89 The value of the constant k is found from (1. 1-29 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . It is beyond the scope of this text to analyze such circuits in detail.= tan k cos or = 1.6 1.76).72 (1. k = 5 cos 89 = 279.18.= 57.81) Then with (1.77). Other second order circuits include amplifiers and filters.8t + 89 + 2 cos 6400t – 89.4 5 (1.Other Second Order Circuits or k sin = 287 287 = -------. Plot for v t of Example 1.81). In this section we will use the following example to illustrate the transient analysis of a second order active low-pass filter.

+ ---.83) At node v 2 : dv out v2 – v1 -------------.v 1 + C 1 ------.= 0 t dt R3 R1 R2 0 (1.87) 1-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v in R1 dt R 2 R1 R2 R3 (1.7 The circuit of Figure 1.25 cos 6280tu 0 t Figure 1.+ -------------. Compute and sketch v out t for t 0 .= – R 3 C 2 ------------2 dt dt (1.85) and dv out v 1 = – R 3 C 2 ---------dt (1.v out = ---.84) we get dv 1 1 1 1 1 1 ----.+ ------------------. C2 10 nF R2 R1 + 200 K 40 K 50 K v1 R 3 25 nF v2 + vin C1 vout v in t = 6.+ ---.19.7 Solution: At node v 1 : v 1 – v in dv 1 v 1 – v out v 1 – v 2 ----------------.– ----.+ C 1 ------. Collecting like terms and rearranging (1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits Example 1.19 a known as a Multiple Feed Back (MFB) active low-pass filter.86) Differentiation of (1. For this circuit.84) We observe that v 2 = 0 (virtual ground). the initial conditions are v C1 = v C2 = 0 .86) yields 2 dv 1 dv out ------.= C 2 -----------dt R3 (1. Circuit for Example 1.83) and (1.

– 0. substitution of (1.6 6 10 v in 5 or d v out --------------.90) Next.25 2 dt 2 dv out –7 10 -----------. 1-31 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .25 dt 10 –4 v out = 10 v in –4 Division by – 125 10 –13 yields d v out --------------.5 v in or – 125 10 – 13 d v out --------------.91) – 0. syms s.+ 2 dt 10 v out = – 1.87).+ 25 dt –4 10 –4 –9 –5 10 –4 d v out -------------2 dt 10 –5 2 (1.05 10 –3 –5 dv out 10 -----------.+ ----------------.Other Second Order Circuits and by substitution of given numerical values into (1.+ ----------------.25 10 v out = 0.89) v1 = –5 dv 1 ------.25 dt 10 –4 v out = 0.– 0.= – 5 dt dv out –4 10 -----------dt – 4 d v out 10 -------------2 dt 2 (1.v 1 + 25 5 4 4 2 10 4 10 5 10 10 –9 dv 1 1 1 ------.88) yields 0.v in 5 dt 4 10 4 2 10 or 0.+ 2 2 dt 2 dv out 3 10 -----------.88) (1.+ 2 dt 10 v out = – 10 cos 6280t 6 6 (1.v out = ----------------.05 10 –3 v 1 + 25 10 –9 dv 1 ------.92) We use MATLAB to find the roots of the characteristic equation of (1.90) into (1.85) through (1.– ----------------.89) and (1.92).– 0.+ 2 2 dt 2 dv out 3 10 -----------.5 10 –5 v in (1. we get 1 1 1 ----------------. y0=solve('s^2+2*10^3*s+2*10^6') y0 = [ -1000+1000*i] [ -1000-1000*i] that is.

s 2 = – j = – 1000 j1000 Therefore. The coefficients k 3 and k 4 will be found by substitution of (1.96) is done with MATLAB. the forced response has the form v f t = k 3 cos 6280t + k 4 sin 6280t (1. y0=k3*cos(6280*t)+k4*sin(6280*t). for the derivation of the forced response we could use phasor analysis but we must first derive an expression for the impedance or admittance because the expressions we’ve used earlier are valid for series and parallel circuits only. the natural response is oscillatory and has the form vn t = e – 1000t k 1 cos 1000t + k 2 sin 1000t (1.93) where s 1 .2) y2 = -39438400*k3*cos(6280*t)-39438400*k4*sin(6280*t) y=y2+2*10^3*y1+2*10^6*y0 y = -37438400*k3*cos(6280*t)-37438400*k4*sin(6280*t)12560000*k3*sin(6280*t)+12560000*k4*cos(6280*t) Equating like terms with (1. Instead. 1-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . for the natural response v n t we will use the general expression v n t = Ae s1 t + Be s2 t = e – t k 1 cos t + k 2 sin t (1.95) Of course.94) Since the right side of (1.92) and then by equating like terms.92) we get – 37438400 k 3 + 12560000 k 4 cos 6280t = – 10 cos 6280t – 12560000 k 3 – 37438400 k 4 sin 6280t = 0 6 (1. y1=diff(y0) y1 = -6280*k3*sin(6280*t)+6280*k4*cos(6280*t) y2=diff(y0.95) into (1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits s 1 .92) is a sinusoid.96) Simultaneous solution of the equations of (1.s 2 = – j = – 1000 j1000 = 1000 – 1 j1 We cannot classify the given circuit as series or parallel and therefore. we should not use the damping ratio S or P . Using MATLAB we get: syms t k3 k4.

0240 y.k3 ans = 0..99) + 0.008 .024 and thus (1. eq1= 37438400*k3+12560000*k4+10^6.008 sin 6280t – 1000t (1.024 cos 6280t – 0.98) simplifies to v out t = e – 1000t – 0.97) The total response is v out t = v n t + v f t = e k 1 cos 1000t + k 2 sin 1000t + 0.Other Second Order Circuits syms k3 k4.008 sin 6280t (1.98) We will use the initial conditions v C1 = v C2 = 0 to evaluate k 1 and k 2 .024 cos 0 – 0 = 0 0 or k 1 = – 0.008 sin 6280t To evaluate the constant k 2 .= – 10 -----------4 dt 5 10 1-33 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 0 dt R3 or dv out v1 – 0 –8 ---------------.024 cos 1000t + k 2 sin 1000t (1. We observe that v C1 = v 1 and by KCL at node v 1 we have: dv out v1 – v2 -------------.+ C 2 -----------.024 cos 6280t – 0. eq2= 12560000*k3-37438400*k4+0. We observe that v C2 = v out and at t = 0 relation (1.0081 that is.k4 ans = -0.024 cos 6280t – 0. we make use of the initial condition v C1 0 = 0 ..024 and k 4 = – 0. y=solve(eq1..98) becomes v out 0 = e k 1 cos 0 + 0 + 0.eq2) y = k3: [1x1 sym] k4: [1x1 sym] y. Then. by substitution into (1. k 3 = 0.95) v f t = 0.

.026 and by substitution into (1.100).+ 1000k 2 – 1256 ----------125 25 (1.cos 1000t + k 2 sin 1000t -----------. evaluate it at t = 0 .100) with (1.008*sin(6280*t).026 sin 1000t + 0. y1=diff(y0) y1 = -1000*exp(-1000*t)*(-3/125*cos(1000*t)+k2*sin(1000*t))+exp(1000*t)*(24*sin(1000*t)+1000*k2*cos(1000*t))-3768/ 25*sin(6280*t)-1256/25*cos(6280*t) or dv out – 1000t – 3 -------.024*cos(6280*t) 0.102) 1-34 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .008 sin 6280t (1.101) t=0 Simplifying and equating (1.99).024*cos(1000*t)+k2*sin(1000*t)).= – 1000e 125 dt +e – 1000t 24 sin 1000t + 1000k 2 cos 1000t 1256 3768 – ----------.cos 6280t 25 25 and dv out -----------dt – 3= – 1000 -------.99). +0.100) The last step in finding the constant k 2 is to differentiate (1.024 cos 1000t + 0.sin 6280t – ----------.101) we get 1000k 2 – 26. and equate it with (1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits or v1 = –5 10 –4 dv out -----------dt and since v C1 0 = v 1 0 = 0 .24 = 0 or k 2 = 0.. This is done with MATLAB as follows: y0=exp( 1000*t)*( 0.024 cos 6280t – 0. it follows that dv out -----------dt = 0 t=0 (1. v out t = e – 1000t – 0.

03 0. Plot for Example 1. 0.20. In Column A we enter several values of time t and in Column B v out t .Other Second Order Circuits We use Excel to sketch v out t .002 0.01 -0.02 -0.006 0.02 Voltage (V) 0.004 0.01 0. The plot is shown in Figure 1.03 0.00 -0.20.7 1-35 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .008 Time (s) Figure 1.000 0.

the forced response is zero and thus the total response is just the natural response. negative. critically damped. an RLC circuit is a second order circuit. The natural response of a second order circuit may be overdamped. If a circuit is excited by a sinusoidal (AC) source. Thus. and unequal. negative.9 Summary Circuits that contain energy storing devices can be described by integrodifferential equations and upon differentiation can be simplified to differential equations with constant coefficients. and equal. For a series RLC circuit. the roots s 1 and s 2 are found from s1 s2 = – S 2 S – – 2 0 = – = – = S S if if 2 S 2 0 or s1 s2 = – S 2 0 2 S S nS 2 S 2 0 2 0 2 S where S R = ----2L 0 1 = ----------LC S – nS = 2 0 – 2 S 2 If 2 S 0 . the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. or underdamped depending on the values of the circuit constants.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits 1. the forced response is zero and thus the total response is just the natural response. If the differential equation describing a series RLC circuit that is excited by a constant (DC) voltage source is written in terms of the current. This results in the overdamped natural response and has the form in t = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t If 2 = 2 . A second order circuit contains two energy storing devices. If the differential equation describing a parallel RLC circuit that is excited by a constant (DC) current source is written in terms of the voltage. The total response is the summation of the natural and forced responses. the forced response is never zero. the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. This results in the critically damped S 0 natural response and has the form in t = e – St k1 + k2 t 1-36 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

the natural response if found from yn = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t or or yn= e – t yn = k1 + k2 t e s1 t k 3 cos t + k 4 sin t = e – t k 5 cos t+ depending on the roots of the characteristic equation being real and unequal. the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates. This is known as the underdamped or oscillatory natural response and has the form in t = e – St 2 0 2 S k 1 cos n S t + k 2 sin n S t = k 3 e – St cos n S t + For a parallel GLC circuit. the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. the roots s 1 and s 2 are found from s1 s2 = – P 2 P – 2 2 0 = – P P if 2 P 2 0 or s1 s2 = – P 2 0 – P = – P = 2 nP 2 0 if 2 0 2 P 2 0 2 where P G= -----2C 0 1 = ----------LC P P – nP = – P If 2 P 2 0 . or complex conjugates respectively. the roots s 1 and s 2 are complex conjugates. This results in the underdamped or oscil– Pt – Pt latory natural response and has the form vn t = e k 1 cos nP t + k 2 sin nP t = k 3 e cos nP t + If a second order circuit is neither series nor parallel. real and equal. This results in the overdamped natvn t = k1 e s1 t ural response and has the form + k2 e s2 t If 2 P = 2 0 . negative. the roots s 1 and s 2 are real. and unequal. This results in the critically damped vn t = e – Pt natural response and has the form k1 + k2 t 2 0 2 If P. negative. 1-37 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and equal.Summary If .

23. Circuit for Exercise 2 3. Compute and sketch 5H 21. 100 20 H S t = 0 + 100 V + 400 vC t 1 120 F Figure 1.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits 1.23. it is known that v C 0 v C t and i L t for t 0. For the circuit of Figure 1. Compute v C t for t 0 . Circuit for Exercise 3 1-38 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .21.21. For the circuit of Figure 1. the switch S has been closed for a very long time and opens at t = 0 . it is known that v C 0 v C t and i L t for t 0.83 mF + 100u 0 t V + vC t Figure 1. In the circuit of Figure 1.22. iL t 10 0. iL t 4 = 0 and i L 0 = 0 .10 Exercises 1. Circuit for Exercise 1 2. Compute and sketch + 100u 0 t V + vC t Figure 1.22.2 H 8 mF = 0 and i L 0 = 0 .

Exercises 4. the switch S has been closed for a very long time and opens at t = 0 . In the circuit of Figure 1.25. the switch S has been closed for a very long time and opens at t = 0 . Circuit for Exercise 5 6.26. S t = 0 2 A 2H 4 B 1 4F + 12 V Figure 1.24.25. Compute v AB t for t 0 .24. In the circuit of Figure 1. In the circuit of Figure 1. Compute v C t for t 0 . Circuit for Exercise 6 1-39 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .26. Circuit for Exercise 4 5. Find the value of R that will cause the circuit to become critically damped and then compute v C t and i L t for t 0 3 t = 0 A B S R 6 + 12 V 2 1 12 F + 3H vC t iL t Figure 1. 100 vS 20 H S t = 0 + + 400 v S = 100 cos t u 0 t V vC t 1 120 F Figure 1. the switch S has been in position A for closed for a very long time and it is placed in position B at t = 0 .

For the exercises that you are uncertain. for your benefit. review this chapter and try again. You should follow this practice with the rest of the exercises of this book.11 Solutions to Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain the solutions to the exercises. 1-40 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . make an honest effort to find the solutions to the exercises without first looking at the solutions that follow.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits 1. It is recommended that first you go through and work out those you feel that you know. You must. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those exercises at a later date.

+ -------------------------------.---------. the above becomes t 0 dv dt dv C d vC RC -------. and To evaluate k 2 we make use of the second initial condition i L 0 i = i C = C dv C dt .+ v C = 100 dt C and since i = i C = C -------.2 8 10 dt 2 dv C d vC ---------.2 dt 0.+ 625 v C = 62500 2 dt dt 2 From the characteristic equation s + 50s + 625 = 0 2 we get s 1 = s 2 = – 25 (critical damping) and The total solution is v C t = v C f + v C n = 100 + e – St S = R 2L = 25 k 1 + k 2 t = 100 + e – 25 t k1 + k2 t (1) 0 With the first initial condition v C 0 = 0 the above expression becomes 0 = 100 + e k 1 + 0 or k 1 = – 100 and by substitution into (1) we get v C t = 100 + e – 25 t k 2 t – 100 (2) = 0 and since i L = i C .+ -----.+ v C = 100 2 dt dt 2 d v C R dv C 1100 .---------.v C = -------------------------------–3 2 –3 0.+ 50 ------.2 8 10 0.v C = -------2 L dt LC LC dt 2 d v C 10 dv C 1 100 .+ -----.. we differentiate (2) using the following MATLAB code: 1-41 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ -.2 H 8 mF + 100u 0 t V i + vC t di Ri + L ---.------.+ LC ---------. iL t 10 0.------.Solutions to Exercises 1.

v1=diff(v0) v1 = -25*exp(-25*t)*(k2*t-100)+exp(-25*t)*k2 Thus.= --.= --.= 0 (4) C From (3) and (4) k 2 + 2500 = 0 or k 2 = – 2500 and by substitution into (2) v C t = 100 – e – 25 t 2500t + 100 (5) We find i L t = i C t by differentiating (5) and multiplication by C . dv C – 25t – 25t ------. iL=diff(i0) iL = 1/5*exp(-25*t)*(100+2500*t)-20*exp(-25*t) Thus.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits syms t k2 v0=100+exp( 25*t)*(k2*t 100). Using MATLAB we get: syms t C=8*10^( 3).= k 2 e – 25e k 2 t – 100 dt and dv C ------dt C C L Also.and at t = 0 = k 2 + 2500 (3) t=0 dv dt i C i C dv C ------dt t=0 iL 0 = -------------. i0=C*(100-exp( 25*t)*(100+2500*t)). -------. 1-42 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i L t = i C t = 0.2e – 25t 100 + 2500t – 20e – 25t The plots for v C t and i L t are shown on the next page.

+ -.83 mF + 100u 0 t V + vC t The general form of the differential equation that describes this circuit is same as in Exercise 1.399 0.0204 0.694 6.082 5.076 4.7191 0. that is. iL t 4 5H 21.075 55.010 2.030 17.951 0.358 7.080 59.5 Time iL(t) Amps 4 2 0.115 78.894 5.015 5.4 6.536 0.+ -----.027 0.5 Time 2.---------.212 0.085 62.060 44.3 0.085 7.305 7.2 0.741 0.516 3.050 35.295 7.244 0 0.Solutions to Exercises t 0.v C = -------2 L dt LC LC dt 2 t 0 2 dv C d vC ---------.000 vC(t) 0 0.------.413 5.27 0.206 3.3 0.424 0.217 0.4977 0.16v C = 916 2 dt dt From the characteristic equation s 2 + 0.040 26.065 60 40 20 0 0.6499 0.100 71.090 65.+ 0.020 9.104 3.0 0.418 4.8s + 9.743 4.095 68.1 8 6 100 80 vC(t) Volts 6.0 0.16 = 0 and the MATLAB code below 1-43 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .803 3.02 0.91 0.745 0.311 0.953 6.838 0.8 ------.055 39.1 0.677 0.163 6.691 7.011 0.005 0.336 0.155 6.045 31.608 0.2 0.4 0.105 73.+ 9. d v C R dv C 1 100 .070 52.139 iL(t) 0 2.025 13.4 0.035 21.065 48.751 5.110 76.

Therefore. roots(s) ans = -0.4k cos – 3k sin t=0 and with (2) dv C ------dt C C L Also.3.4t ------. syms t k phi. the total solution is v C t = v C f + v C n = 100 + ke – St cos nS t + where S = R 2L = 0.= --. v0=100+k*exp( 0.4 + j3 and s 2 = – 0.4t cos 3t + (1) or and with the initial condition v C 0 = 0 we get 0 = 100 + k cos 0 + k cos = – 100 (2) To evaluate k and v1 = we differentiate (1) with MATLAB and evaluate it at t = 0 .4000 .= --.16 = 3 Thus.= 0 (4) C 1-44 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 – j3 .4k e cos 3t + dt dv C ------dt – 3ke – 0.0000i -0.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits s=[1 0. v1=diff(v0) -2/5*k*exp(-2/5*t)*cos(3*t+phi)-3*k*exp(-2/5*t)*sin(3*t+phi) Thus. dv C – 0.16 – 0.4*t)*cos(3*t+phi).= – 0. -------.4 2 and nS = 2 0 – 2 S = 1 LC – R 4L = 2 9.4t sin 3 t + = – 0.4000 + 3.and at t = 0 - = 40 – 3k sin t=0 (3) dv dt i C i C dv C ------dt t=0 iL 0 = -------------.16].8 9. v C t = 100 + ke – 0.0000i we find that s 1 = – 0.

4t sin 3t – 7. 412587/62500 ans = 0.4*t)*cos(3*t 0.6 The plots for v C t and i L t are shown on the next page.6 The value of k can be found from either (2) or (5).= ----------k cos – 100 3 tan = – 0.6e – 0.8 e – 0. vC=100 100. we use MATLAB to differentiate (6). C=0.1236 = – 100 – 100 k = -------------------------------.6 (6) Since i L t = i C t = C dv C dt . 1-45 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8802 ans = 6.4 = tan –1 – 0.6 + 6.= – 100.4 3 = – 0.6014 i L t = 0.1326 rad = – 7.4t cos 3t – 7.4t cos 3t – 7. From (2) k cos – 0.Solutions to Exercises From (3) and (4) 3k sin = 40 (5) and from (2) and (5) 3k sin 40 ----------------.88e – 0.1236 and by substitution into (1) v C t = 100 – 100. iL=C*diff(vC) iL = 137529/156250*exp(-2/5*t)*cos(3*t-663/5000)+412587/62500*exp(2/5*t)*sin(3*t-663/5000) 137529/156250.8 cos – 0. syms t.1326).02183.8*exp( 0.

7224 0.020 0.198 0.2 A .014 -0.534 1.100 4.030 0.975 1.405 2. Also.060 1.714 1.238 2.164 1.010 0.130 7.080 2.160 11.002 vC(t) 6 9 12 iL(t) 6 9 12 3. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below.784 0.009 iL(t) 0.3046 0.5851 0. Then.1798 0.3185 0.394 0.73 2. 1-46 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . iL 0 = 100 100 + 400 = I 0 = 0.35 1. For t 0 the circuit is as shown below.8407 0.57 2.5082 0.150 9.1129 0.050 1.1677 0.2 = V 0 = 80 V and this establishes the first initial condition as V 0 = 80 V .7094 0.040 0.887 -10 0 3 10 -50 0 3 50 150 0.120 6.0313 0.070 2.4115 0.3684 0.140 8.6034 0. 100 20 H iL 0 + 100 V + 400 vC 0 1 120 F At this time the inductor behaves as a short and the capacitor as an open.591 0.090 3. vC 0 = v 400 = 400 iL 0 = 400 0.2 A and this establishes the first initial condition as I 0 = 0.892 2.000 -0.110 5.066 2.395 0.Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits t vC(t) 0.

Solutions to Exercises 100 20 H + 100 V + vC t 1 120 F The general form of the differential equation that describes this circuit is same as in Exercise 1.+ 6v C = 600 2 dt dt t 0 From the characteristic equation s 2 + 5s + 6 = 0 we find that s 1 = – 2 and s 2 = – 3 and the total response for the capacitor voltage is v C t = v C f + v C n = 100 + k 1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t = 100 + k 1 e – 2t + k2 e – 3t (1) Using the initial condition V 0 = 80 V we get vC 0 = V 0 = 80 V = 100 + k 1 e + k 2 e k 1 + k 2 = – 20 (2) 0 0 or Differentiation of (1) and evaluation at t = 0 yields dv C ------dt C C L Also.------.= 24 (4) 1 120 C – 2k 1 – 3k 2 = 24 (5) Equating (3) and (4) we get and simultaneous solution of (2) and (5) yields k 1 = – 36 and k 2 = 16 .= --. that is.2 = -------------.v C = -------2 L dt LC LC dt 2 dv C d vC ---------.+ -----.= --.and at t = 0 = – 2k 1 – 3k 2 (3) t=0 dv dt i C i C dv C ------dt t=0 iL 0 0.---------. 1-47 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . -------. 2 d v C R dv C 1 100 .+ 5 -------.= --------------.+ -.

= 1. We will find the forced (steady-state) response using phasor circuit analysis where j L = j20 . the total response is v C t = 60 2 cos t – 135 + k1 e – 2t + k2 e – 3t (1) Using the initial condition v C 0 = 0 and (1) we get 1-48 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 100 vS 20 H S t = 0 + + 400 v S = 100 cos t u 0 t V vC t 1 120 F This is the same circuit as in Exercise 3 where the DC voltage source has been replaced by an AC source that is being applied at t = 0 + . Therefore.= 60 2 – 135 100 + j100 100 + j20 – j120 100 2 45 and in the t -domain v C f = 60 2 cos t – 135 .Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits By substitution into (1) we find the total solution as v C t = v C f + v C n = 100 – 36 e – 2t + 16e – 3t 4. the circuit constants are the same and thus the natural response has the form v C n = k 1 e –2t + k 2 e –3t .100 0 = ------------------------. No initial conditions were given so we will assume that iL 0 = 0 and v C 0 = 0 . The phasor circuit is shown below. – j C = – j120 . 100 VS j20 – j 120 + V S = 100 0 V + VC Using the voltage division expression we get – j120 – j120 120 – 90 100 0 V C = --------------------------------------.100 0 = --------------------------------------------------. and 100 cos t 100 0 . Also.

Then.= --.and at t = 0 = 60 – 2k 1 – 3k 2 (3) t=0 dv dt i C i C dv C ------dt t=0 iL 0 = -------------.Solutions to Exercises vC 0 = 0 = 60 2 cos – 135 + k1 + k2 and since cos – 135 = – 2 2 the above expression reduces to k 1 + k 2 = 60 (2) Differentiating (1) we get dv C ------. by substitution into (1) v C t = 60 2 cos t – 135 + 120e – 60 e 6 – 2t – 3t 5. The condition for critical damping is 2 = 0 and P – 2 0 = 0 where P = G 2C = 1 2R'C 1-49 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 60 2 sin t + 45 dt + – 2k 1 e – 3k 2 e – 2t – 3t and dv C ------dt = 60 2 sin 45 – 2k 1 – 3k 2 t=0 dv C ------dt C C L Also. -------.= --.= 0 (4) C Equating (3) and (4) we get 2k 1 + 3k 2 = 60 (5) Simultaneous solution of (2) and (5) yields k 1 = 120 and k 2 = – 60 . 3 t = 0 A B S R + 12 V 2 1 12 F + 3H vC t iL t We must first find the value of R before we can establish initial conditions for i L 0 vC 0 = 0 .

2 V and iL 0 v6 7.where R' = R + 2 3 1 12 .= -----. 6 3 1 + v6 + iL 0 vC 0 + 12 V From the circuit above vC 0 = v6 6 = -------------------3+1+6 12 = 7. Then. or R + 2 = 36 4 = 9 .= 2 and thus 2 1 + 2 1 12 vC t = e –2 t k1 + k2 t (1) 1-50 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 1 -------------------------P = 2R' 1 12 2 2 2 = 2 2 0 1 = --------------------. or R + 2 = 3 and thus R = 1 .Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits and 2 0 = 1 LC .2 A 6 6 At t = 0 + the circuit is as shown below. 12 -------------------2 R+2 6 = 4 .2 = -------. Therefore. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below.= 1. or -----------R+2 = 4 . 1 iR t 2 6 iL t iC t 1 12 F + 3H vC t Since the circuit is critically damped. the solution has the form vC t = e – Pt k1 + k2 t where P 1 = --------------------------------------.

2 + 14. v C 0 = 12 V .4e t + 1 i L t = – ----.2e – 2t 2t + 1 We find i L t from i R t + i C t + i L t = 0 or i L t = – i C t – i R t where i C t = C dv C dt and i R t = v R t 1 + 2 = vC t 3 .4e 2t + 1 + 14.4e 12 3 6.e 2t + 1 = – 2.and at t = 0 = k 2 – 2 7.2 V relation (1) becomes 7.2 + k 2 t (2) and dv C ------dt C C Also.2 = e k 1 + 0 or k 1 = 7. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where i L 0 the initial conditions have been established.4 (3) t=0 dv dt i C dv C ------dt t=0 iC 0 0 = ----------.= --. and thus 2 4 + 12 V iL 0 A 2H 1 4F + B vC 0 1-51 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= --.2 –2t – 2t – 2t – 2t – -----.4t = 7.= k 2 e – 2e 7.4 and by substitution into (2) vC t = e –2 t 7. = 12 2 = 6 A . Then. -------. Equating (3) and (4) we get k 2 – 14.= 0 (4) C C because at t = 0 the capacitor is an open circuit.4 = 0 or k 2 = 14. 1 7.– 14.2 + k 2 t dt = 7.Solutions to Exercises With the initial condition v C 0 and (1) simplifies to Differentiating (2) we get dv C –2 t –2 t ------.2 + 0 = k 2 – 14.2 V vC t = e –2 t 0 7.

+ 3 -------.+ -----.= – k 1 e – 2k 2 e dt and dv C ------dt C C L Also.+ v C = 0 2 dt dt 2 R 1 + R 2 dv C 1 d vC ---------.-------.+ ---------------------.v C = 0 2 dt LC L dt 2 dv C d vC ---------.+ 2v C = 0 2 dt dt 2 The characteristic equation of the last expression above yields s 1 = – 1 and s 2 = – 2 and thus vC t = k1 e + k2 e –t – 2t (1) With the initial condition v C 0 = 12 V and (1) we get k 1 + k 2 = 12 (2) Differentiating (1) we get dv C –t – 2t ------.and at t = 0 - = – k 1 – 2k 2 (3) t=0 dv dt i C i C 1-52 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits For t 0 the circuit is as shown below.= --.= 0 dt and with i L = i C = C dvC dt the above relation can be written as d vC dv C R 1 + R 2 C ------. iL t R1 2 A L 2H 1 4F C R2 4 + B vC t For this circuit di L R 1 + R 2 i L + v C + L -----.= --. -------.+ LC ---------.

5e 1-53 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . By substitution into (1) we get v C t = 48e – 36 e –t – 2t Then.= --------.5 -----.Solutions to Exercises dv C ------dt iL 0 6 = ----------.– v C t 2 dt dt d–t – 2t = 0.= 24 (4) C 1 4 – k 1 – 2k 2 = 24 (5) t=0 From (3) and (4) and from (2) and (5) k 1 = 48 and k 2 = – 36 . di L d iC v AB = v L t – v C t = L -----.48e – 36 e 2 dt = 0.– v C t = LC --------.5 48e – 144 e = – 24 e – 108 e –t – 2t –t – 2t 2 2 – 48e – 36 e –t – 2t – 2t –t – 2t – 48e – 36 e –t = – 24 e + 4.

Chapter 1 Second Order Circuits NOTES 1-54 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

4) The components of Z are shown on the plot of Figure 2.= ----. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-1 .= R + j I j C Phasor Current 1 L – ------C (2. Series RLC phasor circuit The impedance Z is VS 1 Phasor Voltage Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------.1.2. VS I j L R 1 j C Figure 2.3) and Z = tan –1 L–1 C R (2.Chapter 2 Resonance T his chapter defines series and parallel resonance. the magnitude and phase angle of the impedance are: Z = R + 2 L–1 C 2 (2.= R + j L + --------. The quality factor Q is then defined in terms of the series and parallel resonant frequencies. The half-power frequencies and bandwidth are also defined in terms of the resonant frequency.1) or Z = R + 2 L–1 C 2 tan –1 L–1 C R (2.2) Therefore.1 Series Resonance Consider phasor series RLC circuit of Figure 2. 2.1.

Chapter 2 Resonance Series Resonance Curves |Z| Magnitude of Impedance L R 0 0 1/ C L 1/ C Radian Frequency Figure 2. and V C0 . compute I 0 . V L0 .3.6) We observe that at resonance Z 0 = R where Z 0 denotes the impedance value at resonance.2. C . and V C0 . Then. V R0 . and Z = 0 . The resonant frequency is denoted as or f 0 and these can be expressed in terms of the inductance L and capacitance C by equating the reactances. draw a phasor 2-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 0L 1= --------0C 1= -----LC 2 0 0 1 = ----------LC (2. The components of Z in a series RLC circuit The frequency at which the capacitive reactance X C = 1 C and the inductive reactance X L = 0 L are equal is called the resonant frequency. In our subsequent discussion the subscript zero will be used to indicate that the circuit vari- ables are at resonance. 0. Example 2. V L0 .1 For the circuit shown in Figure 2. that is.5) and 1 f 0 = ----------------2 LC (2. diagram showing V R0 .

2 VS 120 0 V I jX L = j10 L=0. V L0 .I 0 = ---------------------------------------–6 0C 50000 2 10 The phasor diagram showing V R0 .2 Since X L0 = 0L = 10 it follows that 0 10 10 = ----.= ----------------------.2 10 1 X C0 = X L0 = 10 = --------0C Therefore.2 mH C –j XC Figure 2. and V C0 is shown in Figure 2.2 10 –3 = 50000 100 = 1000 100 = 1000 V and 11 V C0 = --------. jX L = – jX C and thus Z 0 = R = 1.= 2 10 50000 F Now.1 Solution: At resonance.= 100 A 1.Series Resonance R = 1.= 50000 rad s –3 L 0. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-3 . 120 V I 0 = -------------.2 Then.4.2 V L0 = 0 LI 0 100 = 120 V 0.3. Circuit for Example 2. V R0 = RI 0 = 1. or 1 C = -------------------------.

Phasor diagram for Example 2.8) At series resonance the left sides of (2. and the quality factor for parallel resonant circuits as Q 0P .4 reveals that V L0 = V C0 = 1000 V and these voltages are much higher than the applied voltage of 120 V .7) and 1 1 VS 1 .-------.V S R R (2. This illustrates the useful property of resonant circuits to develop high voltages across capacitors and inductors.V C0 = --------.I 0 = --------.V S 0C 0C R 0 RC (2.= ------------. 2. 1 0L --------. Its definition is derived from the following relations: At resonance.= --------.7) and (2.2 Quality Factor Q0s in Series Resonance The quality factor * is an important parameter in resonant circuits.1 Figure 2.8) are equal and therefore. 0L 1= --------0C and VS I 0 = -------R Then V L0 = 0 LI 0 = 0L VS 0L -------. 2-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ------------R 0 RC * We denote the quality factor for series resonant circuits as Q 0S .4.Chapter 2 Resonance |VL0| = 1000 V VR0 = 120 V |VC0| = 1000 V Figure 2.

2 Relative Response (gain) 1. Thus. represents the resistance of the inductor and thus the quality factor Q 0S is a measure of the energy storage property of the inductance L in relation to the energy dissipation property of the resistance R of that inductance.0 0. and 100 where we observe that highest Q provides the best frequency selectivity. and 100 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-5 .= ----VS VS 120 3 The quality factor Q is also a measure of frequency selectivity.10) and therefore. In terms of Q 0S . the magnitude of the voltages across the inductor and capacitor are V L0 = V C0 = Q 0S V S (2. we say that a circuit with a high Q has a high selectivity.6 0.5 shows the relative response versus for Q = 25 50 .0 1 0 2 1. we say that there is a “resonant” rise in the voltage across the reactive devices and it is equal to the Q 0S times the applied voltage.1. The high frequency selectivity is more desirable in parallel circuits as we will see in the next section. V C0 V L0 1000 25 Q 0S = ----------.= ----------. by definition 1 0L Q 0S = --------.8 Q=100 r/s Figure 2. Thus in Example 2.. Figure 2. Selectivity curves with Q = 25 50 . i.4 0. the resistance R in the definition of Q 0S above.5.2 0.= ------------R 0 RC Quality Factor at Series Resonance (2.= ----------.9) In a practical circuit. higher rejection of signal components outside the bandwidth BW = 2 – 1 which is the difference in the 3 dB frequencies. Selectivity Curves for Different Qs Q=25 Q=50 0. whereas a low Q circuit has low selectivity.Quality Factor Q0s in Series Resonance Then.e.

11) We also observe from (2.8. Resonance at Constant L and Variable C Relative Response 0. say L . the relative response “shifts” as shown in Figure 2.6.6. constant while varying C .9) that selectivity depends on R and this dependence is shown on the plot of Figure 2.3 Parallel Resonance Parallel resonance (antiresonance) applies to parallel circuits such as that shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Resonance We will see later that 0 -----------------------------------------------------Q = ----------------. 2-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . but the general shape does not change.7. High and Low Q Curves Dependence on R R Relative Response 2R Figure 2.7. Selectivity curves with different values of R If we keep one reactive device.= Resonant Frequency Bandwidth – 1 2 (2. Relative response with constant L and variable C 2.5C C Figure 2.

15) as before. Since 0C 1 – --------0L 1 = --------0L then. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-7 . Parallel GLC circuit for defining parallel resonance The admittance Y of this circuit is given by IS 1------------------------------------Admit tan ce = Y = Phasor Current = --.14) L and the capacitive susceptance 0 The frequency at which the inductive susceptance B L = 1 BC = 0 C are equal is.13) and Y –1 C–1 L = tan -------------------------------G (2.= G + j C + -------.Parallel Resonance IS + V G IG L IL C IC Figure 2. The components of Y are shown on the plot of Figure 2.12) Therefore.2. the magnitude and phase angle of the admittance Y are: Y = G + 2 C–1 L 2 (2.= G + j Phasor Voltage j L V 1C – -----L or Y = G + 2 C–1 L 2 tan –1 C–1 L G (2. 0C and 0 1 = ----------LC (2. again. called the resonant frequency and it is also denoted as We can find in terms of L and C as before.8.

i L t . Then.= ---------------------------------------.16) (2. the given circuit operates at parallel resonance with 0 = 5000 rad s .= 0.02 –3 L 5000 10 10 –1 and since B L = B C . Compute i G t . Circuit for Example 2. i S t = 10 cos 5000t mA . Y0 = G (2.17) and Y = 0 Example 2.02 –1 and 1 1 B L = -----.10. + v t iS t G L iG t 0.Chapter 2 Resonance Parallel Resonance Curves |Y| Magnitude of Admittance C G 0 0 1/ L C 1/ L Radian Frequency Figure 2.2 For the circuit of Figure 2. 2-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The components of Y in a parallel RLC circuit We observe that at this parallel resonant frequency.10.01 –1 iL t C 10 mH iC t 4 F Figure 2.2 Solution: The capacitive and inductive susceptances are BC = C = 5000 4 10 –6 = 0. and i C t .9.

01 In phasor form.02 – 90 A i L0 t = 0.02 – 90 A A Now. I C0 = 0.Quality Factor Q0p in Parallel Resonance Y 0 = G = 0.4 Quality Factor Q0p in Parallel Resonance At parallel resonance.I S G G (2. I C0 = jB C V 0 = 1 90 0. iG t --------------------------------------v 0 t = ----------. For this example. to compute i L t and i C t . I C0 = 0 CV 0 = 0C IS 0C -----. v 0 t = cos 5000t V V0 = 1 0 = 0. we must first find v 0 t . I L0 = 0.= --------.02 1 0 and in the t -domain. 2. I L0 = – jB L V 0 = 1 – 90 0.01 –1 and i G t = i S t = 10 cos 5000t mA Next.02 90 A A and in the t -domain.02 1 0 = 0. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-9 .= 10 cos 5000t mA = 1000 cos 5000t mV = cos 5000t V –1 G 0. 0C 1 = --------0L and IS V 0 = -----G Then.18) Also.02 cos 5000t – 90 or i L0 t = 20 sin 5000t mA Similarly.02 90 A i C0 t = 0.02 cos 5000t + 90 or i C0 t = – 20 sin 5000t mA We observe that i L0 t + i C0 t = 0 as expected.

-------. This was found to be true in Example 2.20) The above expressions indicate that at parallel resonance.Chapter 2 Resonance 1 1 VS 1 I L0 = --------.21) Essentially.11 where at the instant of maximum current the energy is all stored in the inductance. 2. by definition 1 0C Q 0P = --------.11.19) are equal and therefore. and at the instant of zero current all the energy is stored in the capacitor. This can be seen from Figure 2. 1 0C --------. the resonant frequency is the frequency at which the inductor gives up energy just as fast as the capacitor requires it during one quarter cycle. it is possible to develop high currents through the capacitors and inductors. WL & WC in Series RLC Circuit WL Energy (J) WC vC iL Figure 2.18) and (2.5 General Definition of Q The general (and best) definition of Q is Maximum Energy Stored Q = 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Energy Dissipated per Cycle (2. Waveforms for W L and W C at resonance 2-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ------------G 0 GL Quality Factor at Parallel Resonance (2.= ------------.19) At parallel resonance the left sides of (2. and absorbs energy just as fast as it is released by the capacitor during the next quarter cycle.I S L L G 0 0 0 GL (2.= ------------G 0 GL Now.V 0 = --------.2.

Cv = -.25) and (2. 0L 1= --------0C or 1L = --------2 0C By substitution into (2.I p L cos t + ---------.24) and this expression is true for any series circuit.= 2 ------------------------------.6 Energy in L and C at Resonance For a series RLC circuit we let dv C i = I p cos t = C -------dt Then.23) Therefore.I p L = -.22) and WC 1 2 1 Ip 2 = -.25) shows that the total energy W T is dependent only on the circuit constants L .I p L cos 2 0t + L sin 2 0t 1 2 1 2 1 = -. using the general definition of Q we get: Q 0S 1 2 Ip L f0 L Maximum Energy Stored = 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------.LI p cos t 2 2 (2. 1 2 1 2 2 W L = -. the total energy W T at any instant is 2 2 1 2 1 W T = W L + W C = -.sin t C Also.= 2 -----2 R Energy Dissipated per Cycle 1 2 Ip R f0 2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-11 . by (2.Li = -.22) and (2. at resonance.23). However. 1 2 2 W T = -. that is.sin t 2 2 C (2. Next.I p --------2 2 2 C 0 (2.Energy in L and C at Resonance 2. the circuit need not be at resonance. C and resonant frequency. but it is independent of time. Ip v C = ------.sin t 2 2 2 C 2 (2.24).--------.

= 2 ------------------------------------------.12 shows the magnitude of the voltage response versus radian frequency for a typical parallel RLC circuit.= ------------2 0 RC 0 RC (2.12.7 Half-Power Frequencies .28) and this is the same as (2. Similarly.radian frequency in a parallel RLC circuit 2-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The plot of Figure 2. 2.27) and this is also the same as (2.Chapter 2 Resonance or 0L Q 0S = --------R (2.9). Relative voltage vs.707Vp 1 0 2 Figure 2.Bandwidth Parallel resonance is by far more important and practical than series resonance and therefore.26) and we observe that (2.9).= 2 -------------2 2 Energy Dissipated per Cycle 1 2 Ip R f0 0 RC 2 or 1 0 Q 0S = ---------------. Following the same procedure for a simple GLC (or RLC ) parallel circuit we can show that: 1 0C Q 0P = --------.20).26) is the same as (2. the remaining discussion will be on parallel GLC (or RLC ) circuits.= ------------G 0 LG (2. Q 0S 1 2 Ip 1 2 C f0 0 Maximum Energy Stored = 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------. Bandwidth in Parallel RLC Circuit Vp Relative Voltage 0.

12 are the frequencies at which the magnitude of the input admittance of a parallel resonant circuit.5 since 2 2 2 = 0. Bandwidth = BW = 2 – 1 (2. is less than the magnitude at resonance by a factor of 2 as shown above. that 1 and 2 are not exactly equidistant from 0 .– ----0 (2. or equivalently.– ----------------G 0 0 LG Recalling that for parallel resonance 1 0C Q 0P = --------. this assumption will be followed in the subsequent discussion. The difference 2 – 1 is the half-power bandwidth BW . However. that is. the frequencies at which the magnitude of the input impedance of a parallel resonant circuit.Half-Power Frequencies . it is convenient to assume that they are equidistant. the half-power frequencies 1 and 2 in Figure 2. and 2 the upper half-power point.5 . We call 1 the lower half-power point. We observe also. then Y = G Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-13 .Bandwidth By definition. is greater than the magnitude at resonance by a factor of 2 . and unless otherwise stated. we get 0G 0C 0 Y = G + jG ------------. The bandwidth BW can also be expressed in terms of the quality factor Q as follows: Consider the admittance Y = G+j 1 C – -----L 0 Multiplying the j term by G ---------.= ------------G 0 LG by substitution we get 0 Y = G 1 + jQ 0P ----.30) and if = 0.29) The names half-power frequencies and half-power bandwidth arise from the fact that the power at these frequencies drop to 0..

We must also set 1 0 Q 0P ----.. the magnitude of the admittance is ence.33) or f0 BW = f 2 – f 1 = -------Q 0P (2. the geometric mean* of 1 and 1 2 are not equidistant from 2.31) yields BW = 2 – 1 0 = -------Q 0P (2..34) 0 As mentioned earlier.Chapter 2 Resonance Next.– ----0 1 = –1 for = 1. a 1 a 2 2-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . if we use the half-power points as refer- points.35) an * The geometric mean of n positive numbers a 1 .32) from (2. In fact.31) 2 1 + -----------2Q 0P and 1 = 1 1 + -----------2Q 0P 2 1 – -----------2Q 0P (2. At the half-power 2 2 Y p and.. the resonant frequency 0 is and that is. we want to find the bandwidth 2 – 1 in terms of the quality factor Q 0P . a 2 . we get (2.. then to obtain the admittance value of |Y max = 2G = 1 we must set 2 0 Q 0P ----.– ----0 2 for = 2. a n is the nth root of the product. Recalling that 1 j1 = 2 and solving the above expressions for = 1 1 + -----------2Q 0P 2 1 and 2. 0 = 1 2 (2.32) Subtraction of (2.

BW d.Bandwidth This can be shown by multiplication of the two expressions in (2.33). 2 0 1 1 = -----. 4 –6 5 10 0.= 50000 – 1250 = 48750 rad s 2 + BW = 50000 + 1250 = 51250 rad s -------2 e.= 2500 = rad s Q 0P 20 d.13.3 For the network of Figure 2.= 25 –3 –6 LC 1 10 0.= 20 –3 G 10 c.= ----------------------------------------------. e.Half-Power Frequencies .3 Solution: a. 1 = 0 BW – -------.4 10 0C Q 0P = --------.32) and substitution into (2. Network for Example 2.= -------------------------------------------------. 50000 0 BW = -------.31) and (2. 0 b. 1 2 Y G L C 0. Q 0P c. 2 = 0 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-15 .001 –1 1 mH 0.4 10 0 10 8 or = 50000 r s b.13. Example 2. find: a.= -------------.4 F Figure 2.

= j C V 1 j C where Re I L R = -------------------------. for simplicity.Chapter 2 Resonance 2.14 is a practical parallel resonant circuit.15. but a real inductor has some resistance. we proceed as follows: The resonant frequency is independent of the conductance G and. A practical parallel resonant circuit To derive an expression for its resonant frequency.14. Re I C and Im I C = 2-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .V 2 2 R + L – L = -------------------------.V 2 2 R+j L R + L and V I C = --------------------.8 A Practical Parallel Resonant Circuit In our previous discussion. + V R IT L IL C IC Figure 2. G L Y R C Figure 2.V 2 2 R + L = 0 C V and Im I L Also. R –j L V I L = -----------------. find an expression for the network of Figure 2. we assumed that the inductors are ideal.15.15. Simplified network for derivation of the resonant frequency For the network of Figure 2.14. it is omitted from the network of Figure 2. The circuit shown in Figure 2.= -------------------------. We will therefore.

9 Radio and Television Receivers When a radio or TV receiver is tuned to a particular station or channel. Therefore. will change the resonant frequency.---------. that is. the inductance is kept constant and the capacitor value is changed as we select different stations or channels.Radio and Television Receivers Then.– ----2 LC L 2 (2.– R LC L 2 2 0 = (2. (2. As we have seen.-----. We have also seen that one particular inductor and one particular capacitor will resonate to one frequency only. Generally. a parallel circuit has high impedance (low admittance) at its resonant frequency. it is set to operate at the resonant frequency of that station or channel. it attenuates signals at all frequencies except the resonant frequency. LC 2. Varying either the inductance or the capacitance of the tuned circuit. at resonance.36) Now. the imaginary component of I T must be zero.37) reduces to 0 1 = ----------.37) or 1 1 R2 f 0 = ----.16 is a typical AM (Amplitude Modulation) radio receiver. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-17 .38) We observe that for R = 0 . The block diagram of Figure 2.V = 0 2 2 R + 0L and solving for 0 we get 1 . I T = I L + I C = Re I L + Im I L = Re I T + Im I T V V + Re I C + Im I C V V = Re I L + Re I C + Im I L + Im I C (2.as before. Im I T = Im I L + Im I C = 0C 0L – ---------------------------.

in order to hear the signal at 850 KHz the radio receiver must be retuned to that frequency and the local oscillator frequency will be changed to 850 KHz + 456 KHz = 1306 KHz so that the difference of these frequencies will be again 456 KHz . The RF amplifier also serves as a preselector. we are setting the RF circuit to 740 KHz and at the same time the local oscillator is set at 740 KHz + 456 KHz = 1196 KHz . This is accomplished by the capacitor in the RF amplifier which is also ganged to the local oscillator. the local oscillator will be set to 600 KHz + 456 KHz = 1056 KHz so that the IF signal will again be 456 KHz . Then.Chapter 2 Resonance Antenna Local Oscillator Speaker Radio Frequency Amplifier Mixer Intermediate Frequency Amplifier Detector Audio Frequency Amplifier Figure 2. This interference is called image-frequency interference and it is reduced by the RF amplifier before entering the mixer circuit and for this reason the RF amplifier is said to act as a preselector. Now. say 850 KHz . The function of the detector circuit is to convert the IF signal which contains both the carrier and the desired signal to an audio signal and this signal is amplified by the Audio Frequency ( AF ) Amplifier whose output appears at the radio speaker. The IF amplifier is always set at 456 KHz and therefore if the antenna picks another signal from another station. it would be mixed with the local oscillator to produce a frequency of 1196 KHz – 850 KHz = 346 KHz but since the IF amplifier is set at 456 KHz . let us suppose that a powerful nearby station broadcasts at 1512 KHz and this signal is picked up by the mixer circuit. one of 740 KHz and the other of 1196 KHz . Of course. When we tune to a station of. 2-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . this is the difference between these two frequencies ( 1196 KHz – 740 KHz = 456 KHz ).16. These two signals. This preselection suppresses the image-frequency interference as explained below. The IF amplifier will then amplify both signals and the result will be a strong interference so that the radio speaker will produce unintelligent sounds. the unwanted 850 KHz signal will not be amplified. say 740 KHz . The difference between this signal and the local oscillator will also be 456 KHz 1512 KHz – 1056 KHz = 456 KHz . Block diagram of a typical AM radio receiver The antenna picks up signals from several stations and these are fed into the Radio Frequency ( RF ) Amplifier which improves the Signal-to-Noise ( S N ) ratio. are fed into the mixer whose output into the Intermediate Frequency ( IF ) amplifier is 456 KHz . Now let us assume that we select a station at 600 KHz .

1 10 77. What is the value of conductance G if Q 0P = 75 ? c. If a nearby radio station transmits at 740 KHz and both signals picked up by the antenna have the same current amplitude I ( A ).5 10 b. 0C Q 0P = --------G or 5 – 12 2 f0 C 2 8.5 mH is tuned to a radio station transmitting at 810 KHz frequency. a. 1 C = ---------------------------------------------------------------------.= --.= -------------------------–6 Y 810 KHz Y0 G 5. I V 740 KHz = ---------------------Y 740 KHz where Y 740 KHz = G + 2 1C – -----L 2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-19 .= 5.= 77.24 10 (2.39) Also.4 A radio receiver with a parallel GLC circuit whose inductance is L = 0.Radio and Television Receivers Example 2.2 pF –3 3 2 2 810 10 4 0.= ---. What is the value of the capacitor of this circuit at this resonant frequency? b. what is the ratio of the voltage at 810 KHz to the voltage at 740 KHz ? Solution: a.4 75 Q 0P –1 c. I I I I V 810 KHz = ---------------------. 2 0 1= -----LC or 2 1 f 0 = ---------------2 4 LC Then.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------.2 10 G = -------------.

39) and (2.= ------------R 0 RC In a parallel GLC circuit. the resonant frequency is 2-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . again. the frequency at which the capacitive reactance X C = 1 inductive reactance X L = L are equal. –6 –6 V 810 KHz 71.24 10 ----------------------.40). 2.40) Then from (2.6 –6 –6 V 740 KHz I 71.10 Summary In a series RLC circuit.= -------------------------------. the voltage developed across the parallel circuit when it is tuned at f = 810 KHz is 13.24 10 (2.2 10 5. is called the resonant frequency.Chapter 2 Resonance or Y 740 KHz = 5. 0 C and the The resonant frequency is denoted as or f 0 where 0 1 = ----------LC and 1 f 0 = ----------------2 LC The quality factor Q 0S at series resonance is defined as 1 0L Q 0S = --------. called the resonant frequency and it is also As in a series RLC circuit.5 10 2 or Y 740 KHz = 71.2 –1 and I V 740 KHz = -------------------------–6 71.= 13.2 10 (2.= -------------------------.2 10 I 5.2 10 – 12 1 – -----------------------------------------------------------------3 –3 2 740 10 0.24 10 –6 2 + 2 740 10 3 77.41) that is.6 times larger than the voltage developed at f = 740 KHz . the frequency at which the inductive susceptance B L = 1 capacitive susceptance B C = denoted as 0 L and the C are equal is.

is greater than the magnitude at resonance by a factor of 2 . the half-power frequencies 1 and 2 are the frequencies at which the magnitude of the input admittance of a parallel resonant circuit.= ------------G 0 GL The general definition of Q is Maximum Energy Stored Q = 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Energy Dissipated per Cycle In a parallel RLC circuit. Bandwidth = BW = 2 – 1 The bandwidth BW can also be expressed in terms of the quality factor Q as BW = 2 – 1 0 = -------Q 0P or f0 BW = f 2 – f 1 = -------Q 0P Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-21 . or equivalently. is less than the magnitude at resonance by a factor of 2 . The difference – 1 is the half-power bandwidth BW . that is. We call 2 1 the lower half-power point.Summary 0 1 = ----------LC The quality factor Q 0P at parallel resonance is defined as 1 0C Q 0P = --------. the frequencies at which the magnitude of the input impedance of a parallel resonant circuit. and 2 the upper half-power point.

18 with the capacitance C adjusted to 1 F . Using the approximate value of the resonant frequency. Circuit for Exercise 3 4. Compute the magnitude of the admittances Y 1 and Y 2 corresponding to the half-power frequencies f 1 and f 2 .18. A series RLC circuit is resonant at f 0 = 1 MHz with Z 0 = 100 is BW = 20 KHz . 2. L . and C for this circuit. Circuit for Exercise 4 2-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Z 2 = 3 + j4 and Z 3 = 4 – j3 .19.17. the half-power frequencies are f 1 = 925 KHz and f 2 = 1075 KHz .17. c. compute the values of Q op .19. Compute the exact resonant frequency.Chapter 2 Resonance 2. C . and I 0 for this circuit. The GLC circuit of Figure 2. To what value should Z 1 be adjusted so that the network will operate at resonant frequency? Z1 Z IN Z2 Z3 and its half-power bandwidth Figure 2. Use MATLAB to plot Y in the 100 KHz f 1000 KHz range. and L . G L C Figure 2. Compute L . For the network of Figure 2. b. a. the impedance Z 1 is variable. Find R .11 Exercises 1. Network for Exercise 2 3. Compute the approximate resonant frequency. G . a. b. + V G L C Figure 2. For the circuit of Figure 2. is resonant at f 0 = 500 KHz with V 0 = 20 V and its half-power bandwidth is BW = 20 KHz .

and the series part is made resonant to the frequency we wish to pass. Accordingly.20. 1 and 2 d. For the circuit of Figure 2.Exercises 5. Circuit for Exercise 5 6. v s = 170 cos t and Q 0 = 50 . Afterwards. 0 b. we can adjust C 1 to make the entire circuit series resonant at the desired frequency thus making the total impedance minimum so that maximum current will flow into the load. It is suggested that you use MATLAB to plot v LOAD versus frequency f in the interval 1 KHz f 100 KH to verify your answers. Circuit for Exercise 6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-23 . we can adjust capacitor C 2 to achieve parallel resonance which will reject the unwanted frequency by limiting the current through the resistive load to its minimum value. C2 + C1 R1 100 L 2 mH + RL v LOAD 1 v S = 170 cos t Figure 2. will behave as a filter if the parallel part is made resonant to the frequency we want to suppress.21.21. Compute the values of C 1 and C 2 that will achieve these values. Find: a. BW c. For this circuit. The series-parallel circuit of Figure 2. we want to set the values of capacitors so that v LOAD will be maximum at f 1 = 10 KHz and minimum at f 2 = 43 KHz .20. V C0 R1 1 C L 1 mH 10 1 F R2 vs Figure 2.

Chapter 2 Resonance 2.12 Solutions to Exercises
1. At series resonance Z 0 = R = 100 and thus R = 100
0

. We find L from Q 0S =
6

0L

R where

= 2 f 0 . Also, 2 10 0 0 Q 0S = ----------------- = -------- = -------------------------------- = 50 3 BW 2– 1 2 20 10

Then,
R Q 0S 100 50 L = ---------------- = -------------------- = 0.796 mH 6 0 2 10

and from

2 0

= 1 LC 1 1 C = --------- = ------------------------------------------------------------- = 31.8 pF 2 2 6 –4 2 10 7.96 10 0L

Check with MATLAB:
f0=10^6; w0=2*pi*f0; Z0=100; BW=2*pi*20000; w1=w0-BW/2; w2=w0+BW/2;... R=Z0; Qos=w0/BW; L=R*Qos/w0; C=1/(w0^2*L); fprintf(' \n');... fprintf('R = %5.2f Ohms \t', R); fprintf('L = %5.2e H \t', L);... fprintf('C = %5.2e F \t', C); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

R = 100.00 Ohms 2.

L = 7.96e-004 H

C = 3.18e-011 F

Z1 Z IN Z2 Z3

Z IN = Z 1 + Z 2 Z 3

where
j 12 – j9 + j16 + 12 7 – 3 + j4 4 – j3 Z 2 Z 3 = ----------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------- --------7–j 7+j 3 + j4 + 4 – j3 168 + j49 – j24 + 7 175 + j25 = ---------------------------------------------- = ---------------------- = 3.5 + j0.5 2 2 50 7 +1

We let Z IN = R IN + jX IN and Z 1 = R 1 + jX 1 . For resonance we must have
Z IN = R IN + jX IN = R 1 + jX 1 + 3.5 + j0.5 = R IN + 0 = R 1 + jX 1 + 3.5 + j0.5

2-24

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Solutions to Exercises
Equating real and imaginary parts we get
R IN = R 1 + 3.5 0 = jX 1 + j0.5

and while R 1 can be any real number, we must have jX 1 = – j0.5 and thus
Z 1 = R 1 – j0.5

3. a. BW = f 2 – f 1 = 1075 – 925 = 150 KHz . Then,
f 0 = f 1 + BW 2 = 925 + 150 2 = 1000 KHz

b. The exact value of f 0 is the geometric mean of f 1 and f 2 and thus
f0 = f2 – f1 f1 f2 = 925 + 1075 10 = 997.18 KHz
3

f0 0C ----------c. Q 0P = ------------- = 1000 = 20 3 . Also, Q 0P = --------- . Then 150 G
6 –6 2 f0 C 3 2 10 10 0C G = --------- = -------------- = ------------------------------------- = ----- = 0.94 Q 0P Q 0P 20 3 10 –1

and
1 1 1 L = --------- = ------------------ = ------------------------------------------ = 0.025 2 2 2 12 –6 C 0 4 10 10 4 f0 C H

4.
f0 0C -------a. Q 0P = -------- = 500 = 25 . Also, Q 0P = --------- or BW 20 G
–3 Q 0P G 25 10 C = ----------------- = ----------------------------- = 7.96 5 0 2 5 10 –9

10

F = 7.96 nF
–6

1 1 1 L = ---------- = ------------------ = ----------------------------------------------------------------------- = 12.73 2 2 2 10 –9 C 0 4 f0 C 4 25 10 7.96 10 I 0 = V 0 Y 0 = V 0 G = 20 10
–3

10

H = 12.73

H

A = 20 mA

b. f 1 = f 0 – BW 2 = 500 – 10 = 490 KHz and f 2 = f 0 + BW 2 = 500 + 10 = 510 KHz

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

2-25

Chapter 2 Resonance
Y
f = f1

= G+j = 10
–3

1C

1 – --------1L 490 10
3

+j 2

7.96

10

–9

1 – -----------------------------------------------------------------------3 –6 2 490 10 12.73 10

Likewise,
Y
f = f2

= G+j = 10
–3

1C

1 – --------1L 510 10
3

+j 2

7.96

10

–9

1 – -----------------------------------------------------------------------3 –6 2 510 10 12.73 10

We will use MATLAB to do the computations.
G=10^( 3); BC1=2*pi*490*10^3*7.96*10^( 9);... BL1=1/(2*pi*490*10^3*12.73*10^( 6)); Y1=G+j*(BC1 BL1);... BC2=2*pi*510*10^3*7.96*10^( 9); BL2=1/(2*pi*510*10^3*12.73*10^( 6));... Y2=G+j*(BC2-BL2); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magY1 = %5.2e mho \t', abs(Y1));... fprintf('magY2 = %5.2e mho \t', abs(Y2)); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n')

magY1 = 1.42e-003 mho magY2 = 1.41e-003 mho We will use the following MATLAB code for the plot
f=100*10^3: 10^3: 1000*10^3; w=2*pi*f;... G=10^( 3); C=7.96*10^( 9); L=12.73*10^( 6);... BC=w.*C; BL=1./(w.*L); Y=G+j*(BC-BL); plot(f,abs(Y));... xlabel('Frequency in Hz'); ylabel('Magnitude of Admittance');grid

The plot is shown below.

2-26

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Solutions to Exercises
5.
R1 1 C L 1 mH

j L
10 R2

Z IN

1 --------j C

1

F

a. It is important to remember that the relation

0

= 1
0.

LC applies only to series RLC and

parallel GLC circuits. For any other circuit we must find the input impedance Z IN , set the imaginary part of Z IN equal to zero, and solve for
1 Z IN = R 1 + --------j C

Thus, for the given circuit

1 j C 10 + j L R 2 + j L = 1 + ----------------------------------------------10 + j L – 1 C 10 + j L – 1 C + 10 j C + L C 10 – j L – 1 C = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------10 + j L – 1 C 10 – j L – 1 C

100 + j10 L – 1 C + 100 j C + 10L C – j10 L – 1 C = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 100 + L – 1 C L – 1 C – 10 C L – 1 C – jL C L – 1 C + -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 100 + L – 1 C L–1 C 100 + 10L C + L – 1 C – 10 C = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 100 + L – 1 C 100 j C – jL C L – 1 C + -------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 100 + L – 1 C
2 2

For resonance, the imaginary part of Z IN must be zero, that is,
100 jL ----------- – ---j 0C C j - -------– --- 100 + L C 0 100 + -------0 2 2 0 0L 0L

1 – --------- = 0 0C 1– --------0C = 0

0L

2

L– --------- = 0 0C

L C

+ 100C – L = 0

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

2-27

Chapter 2 Resonance
2 0 9 8 1 100 1 100 = ------ – -------- = --------------------------- – --------- = 10 – 10 = 9 2 –3 –6 –6 LC L 10 10 10

10

8

and thus
0

=

9

10 = 30 000 r s

8

b.
BW =
0

Q = 30 000 50 = 600 r s

c.
1 2

= =

0 0

– BW 2 = 30 000 – 300 = 29 700 r s + BW 2 = 30 000 + 300 = 30 300 r s
4 –3

d. At resonance, j 0 L = j3 10 10 = j30 The phasor equivalent circuit is shown below.
V C0 VS 1

and 1 j

0C

= – j10

–4

10

6

3 = – j100 3 .

j30 10 – j100 3

170 0 V

We let z 1 = 1

, z 2 = – j100 3

, and z 3 = 10 + j30

. Using nodal analysis we get:

V C0 – V S V C0 V C0 --------------------- + -------- + -------- = 0 z1 z2 z3 VS 1 1 1 --- + --- + --- V C0 = ----z1 z2 z3 z1

We wil use MATLAB to obtain the value of V C0 .
Vs=170; z1=1; z2= j*100/3; z3=10+j*30; Z=1/z1+1/z2+1/z3; Vc0=Vs/Z;... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('Vc0 = %6.2f', abs(Vc0)); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n')

Vc0 = 168.32 6. First, we will find the appropriate value of C 2 . We recall that at parallel resonance the voltage is maximum and the current is minimum. For this circuit the parallel resonance was found as in (2.37), that is,

2-28

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Solutions to Exercises

0

=

1 - ---------- – R LC L 2

2

or
2 43 000 = 10 1 -------------------------- – ------------------–3 –6 2 10 C 2 4 10
4 2 4

10 10 -------- = ------------------- + 2 –6 2C 2 4 10

3

4

4.3

10
–6

4.3 10 4 10 = 10 + 2 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------–6 4 10 10
–9

4

4 2

–6

4 10 C 2 = 500 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 6.62 4 4 2 –6 4.3 10 4 10 10 + 2

F = 6.62 nF

Next, we must find the value of C 1 that will make the entire circuit series resonant (minimum impedance, maximum current) at f = 10 KHz . In the circuit below we let z 1 = – jX C1 ,
z 2 = – jX C2 , z 3 = R 1 + jX L , and z LOAD = 1 .
C1 C2 R1 100

+

– jX C1 Z IN

– jX C2 jX L
L 2 mH

+ RL

v LOAD
1

V S = 170 0 V

Then,
Z IN = z 1 + z 2 z 3 + z LOAD

and
Z IN f = 10 KHz = z 1 + z 2 z 3
f = 10 KHz

+ z LOAD = z 1 + z 2 z 3

f = 10 KHz

+ 1 (1)

where z 2 z 3

f = 10 KHz

is found with the MATLAB code below.

format short g; f=10000; w=2*pi*f; C2=6.62*10^( 9); XC2=1/(w*C2); L=2*10^( 3);... XL=w*L; R1=100; z2=-j*XC2; z3=R1+j*XL; Zp=z2*z3/(z2+z3)

Zp = 111.12 + 127.72i and by substitution into (1)
Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

2-29

Chapter 2 Resonance
Z IN f = 10 KHz = z 1 + 111.12 + j127.72 + 1 = z 1 + 113.12 + j127.72

(2)

The expression of (2) will be minimum if we let z 1 = – j127.72 capacitor C 1 value must be such that 1
C = 127.72 or 10
–7

at f = 10 KHz . Then, the

1 C 1 = ------------------------------------------- = 1.25 4 2 10 127.72

F = 0.125

F

Shown below is the plot of V LOAD versus frequency and the MATLAB code that produces this plot.
f=1000: 100: 60000; w=2*pi*f; Vs=170; C1=1.25*10^( 7); C2=6.62*10^( 9);... L=2.*10.^( 3);... R1=100; Rload=1; z1= j./(w.*C1); z2= j./(w.*C2); z3=R1+j.*w.*L; Zload=Rload;... Zin=z1+z2.*z3./(z2+z3); Vload=Zload.*Vs./(Zin+Zload); magVload=abs(Vload);... plot(f,magVload); axis([1000 60000 0 2]);... xlabel('Frequency f'); ylabel('|Vload|'); grid

This circuit is considered to be a special type of filter that allows a specific frequency (not a band of frequencies) to pass, and attenuates another specific frequency.

2-30

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Chapter 3
Elementary Signals

T

his chapter begins with a discussion of elementary signals that may be applied to electric networks. The unit step, unit ramp, and delta functions are then introduced. The sampling and sifting properties of the delta function are defined and derived. Several examples for expressing a variety of waveforms in terms of these elementary signals are provided.

3.1 Signals Described in Math Form
Consider the network of Figure 3.1 where the switch is closed at time t = 0 .
R vS t = 0

+

v out open terminals

+

Figure 3.1. A switched network with open terminals.

We wish to describe v out in a math form for the time interval – nient to divide the time interval into two parts, – For the time interval – other words,
t t 0 , and 0 t

t

+ . To do this, it is conve-

.

0 the switch is open and therefore, the output voltage v out is zero. In v out = 0 for – t 0

(3.1)

For the time interval 0 t i.e.,

the switch is closed. Then, the input voltage v S appears at the output,
v out = v S for 0 t

(3.2)

Combining (3.1) and (3.2) into a single relationship, we get
v out = 0 – vS 0 t t 0

(3.3)

We can express (3.3) by the waveform shown in Figure 3.2.

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-1

Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
vS 0 v out t

Figure 3.2. Waveform for v out as defined in relation (3.3)

The waveform of Figure 3.2 is an example of a discontinuous function. A function is said to be discontinuous if it exhibits points of discontinuity, that is, the function jumps from one value to another without taking on any intermediate values.

3.2 The Unit Step Function u 0 t
A well-known discontinuous function is the unit step function u 0 t
u0 t = 0 1 t t 0 0
*

that is defined as (3.4)

It is also represented by the waveform of Figure 3.3.
1 0 u0 t t

Figure 3.3. Waveform for u 0 t

In the waveform of Figure 3.3, the unit step function u 0 t changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at t = 0 . But if it changes at t = t 0 instead, it is denoted as u 0 t – t 0 . Its waveform and definition are as shown in Figure 3.4 and relation (3.5).
1 0 t0 u0 t – t0 t

Figure 3.4. Waveform for u 0 t – t 0

* In some books, the unit step function is denoted as u t , that is, without the subscript 0. In this text, however, we will reserve the u t designation for any input.

3-2

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Unit Step Function
u0 t – t0 = 0 1 t t t0 t0

(3.5)

If the unit step function changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at t = – t 0 , it is denoted as u 0 t + t 0 . Its waveform and definition are as shown in Figure 3.5 and relation (3.6).
1 u0 t + t0 t

t0 0

Figure 3.5. Waveform for u 0 t + t 0 u0 t + t0 = 0 1 t t –t0 –t0

(3.6)

Example 3.1 Consider the network of Figure 3.6, where the switch is closed at time t = T .
R vS t = T

+

v out open terminals

+

Figure 3.6. Network for Example 3.1

Express the output voltage v out as a function of the unit step function, and sketch the appropriate waveform. Solution: For this example, the output voltage v out = 0 for t T , and v out = v S for t T . Therefore,
v out = v S u 0 t – T

(3.7)

and the waveform is shown in Figure 3.7.

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-3

Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
v out 0 T vS u0 t – T t

Figure 3.7. Waveform for Example 3.1

Other forms of the unit step function are shown in Figure 3.8. t
(a) –A u0 t Au 0 – t Au 0 – t + T

0 A

0 A

t
(b) A –A u0 t – T Au 0 – t – T

0

(c) –A u0 t + T

t

A 0

A 0 (e)

A 0

(d)

t

t

(f)

t

0 A –A u0 –t

(g)

t

0 A

(h)

t
–A u0 – t – T

0 A

(i)

t

–A u0 – t + T

Figure 3.8. Other forms of the unit step function

Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions such as the rectangular pulse shown in Figure 3.9.
1 0 1 a u0 t

t

0 b

t

1 0 c –u0 t – 1

t

Figure 3.9. A rectangular pulse expressed as the sum of two unit step functions

Thus, the pulse of Figure 3.9(a) is the sum of the unit step functions of Figures 3.9(b) and 3.9(c) is represented as u 0 t – u 0 t – 1 .

3-4

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Unit Step Function
The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltage or current source. For example, a constant voltage source of 24 V applied at t = 0 , can be denoted as 24u 0 t V . Likewise, a sinusoidal voltage source v t = V m cos t V that is applied to a circuit at
t = t 0 , can be described as v t = V m cos t u 0 t – t 0 V . Also, if the excitation in a circuit is a rect-

angular, or triangular, or sawtooth, or any other recurring pulse, it can be represented as a sum (difference) of unit step functions. Example 3.2 Express the square waveform of Figure 3.10 as a sum of unit step functions. The vertical dotted lines indicate the discontinuities at T 2T 3T and so on.
v t A T 0 –A Figure 3.10. Square waveform for Example 3.2 2T 3T t

Solution: Line segment has height A , starts at t = 0 , and terminates at t = T . Then, as in Example 3.1, this segment is expressed as
v1 t = A u0 t – u0 t – T

(3.8)

Line segment as

has height – A , starts at t = T and terminates at t = 2T . This segment is expressed
v 2 t = – A u 0 t – T – u 0 t – 2T

(3.9)

Line segment

has height A , starts at t = 2T and terminates at t = 3T . This segment is expressed as
v 3 t = A u 0 t – 2T – u 0 t – 3T

(3.10)

Line segment

has height – A , starts at t = 3T , and terminates at t = 4T . It is expressed as
v 4 t = – A u 0 t – 3T – u 0 t – 4T

(3.11)

Thus, the square waveform of Figure 3.10 can be expressed as the summation of (3.8) through (3.11), that is,

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-5

Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
v t = v1 t + v2 t + v3 t + v4 t = A u 0 t – u 0 t – T – A u 0 t – T – u 0 t – 2T +A u 0 t – 2T – u 0 t – 3T – A u 0 t – 3T – u 0 t – 4T

(3.12)

Combining like terms, we get
v t = A u 0 t – 2u 0 t – T + 2u 0 t – 2T – 2u 0 t – 3T +

(3.13)

Example 3.3 Express the symmetric rectangular pulse of Figure 3.11 as a sum of unit step functions.
A i t

–T 2

0

t T 2

Figure 3.11. Symmetric rectangular pulse for Example 3.3

Solution: This pulse has height A , starts at t = – T 2 , and terminates at t = T 2 . Therefore, with reference to Figures 3.5 and 3.8 (b), we get
T i t = Au 0 t + -2 T – Au 0 t – -2 T = A u 0 t + -2 T – u 0 t – -2

(3.14)

Example 3.4 Express the symmetric triangular waveform of Figure 3.12 as a sum of unit step functions.
1 v t

–T 2

0

T 2

t

Figure 3.12. Symmetric triangular waveform for Example 3.4

Solution: We first derive the equations for the linear segments and shown in Figure 3.13.

3-6

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Unit Step Function
2 -- t + 1 T

1

v t

2 – -- t + 1 T

–T 2

0

T 2

t

Figure 3.13. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 3.12

For line segment

,
2 T v 1 t = -- t + 1 u 0 t + -- – u 0 t T 2

(3.15)

and for line segment

,
2 T v 2 t = – -- t + 1 u 0 t – u 0 t – -T 2

(3.16)

Combining (3.15) and (3.16), we get
v t = v1 t + v2 t 2 = -- t + 1 u 0 t + T – u 0 t -T 2 2 + – -- t + 1 u 0 t – u 0 t – T -T 2

(3.17)

Example 3.5 Express the waveform of Figure 3.14 as a sum of unit step functions.
v t
3

2 1

t
0 1 2 3

Figure 3.14. Waveform for Example 3.5.

Solution: As in the previous example, we first find the equations of the linear segments ure 3.15. and shown in Fig-

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-7

Chapter 3 Elementary Signals
v t
3 2

2t + 1
1

–t+3 t
1 2 3

0

Figure 3.15. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 3.14

Following the same procedure as in the previous examples, we get
v t = 2t + 1 u 0 t – u 0 t – 1 + 3 u0 t – 1 – u 0 t – 2 + – t + 3 u0 t – 2 – u0 t – 3

Multiplying the values in parentheses by the values in the brackets, we get
v t = 2t + 1 u 0 t – 2t + 1 u 0 t – 1 + 3u 0 t – 1 – 3u 0 t – 2 + – t + 3 u 0 t – 2 – – t + 3 u 0 t – 3

or
v t = 2t + 1 u 0 t + – 2t + 1 + 3 u 0 t – 1 + – 3 + – t + 3 u0 t – 2 – – t + 3 u0 t – 3

and combining terms inside the brackets, we get
v t = 2t + 1 u 0 t – 2 t – 1 u 0 t – 1 – t u 0 t – 2 + t – 3 u 0 t – 3

(3.18)

Two other functions of interest are the unit ramp function, and the unit impulse or delta function. We will introduce them with the examples that follow. Example 3.6 In the network of Figure 3.16, where i S is a constant source, the switch is closed at time t = 0 .
R iS t = 0 C

+

vC t

Figure 3.16. Network for Example 3.6

3-8

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Unit Step Function
Express the capacitor voltage v C t as a function of the unit step. Solution: The current through the capacitor is i C t = i S = cons tan t , and the capacitor voltage v C t is
1 v C t = --C
t –

iC

d *

(3.19)

where

is a dummy variable.

Since the switch closes at t = 0 , we can express the current i C t as iC t = iS u0 t and assuming that v C t = 0 for t 0 , we can write (3.19) as
1 v C t = --C
t –

(3.20)

iS u0

d =

iS --C

0 –

u0 0

d

iS + --C

t

u0
0

d

(3.21)

or
iS v C t = ---- tu 0 t C

(3.22)

Therefore, we see that when a capacitor is charged with a constant current, the voltage across it is a linear function and forms a ramp with slope i S C as shown in Figure 3.17.
vC t slope = i S C 0 t

Figure 3.17. Voltage across a capacitor when charged with a constant current source.

* Since the initial condition for the capacitor voltage was not specified, we express this integral with – lower limit of integration so that any non-zero value prior to t 0 would be included in the integration.

at the

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-9

Chapter 3 Elementary Signals 3.3 The Unit Ramp Function u 1 t
The unit ramp function, denoted as u 1 t , is defined as
u1 t =
t –

u0

d

(3.23)

where

is a dummy variable.

We can evaluate the integral of (3.23) by considering the area under the unit step function u 0 t from
to t as shown in Figure 3.18.
Area = 1 = = t

1 t Figure 3.18. Area under the unit step function from – to t

Therefore, we define u 1 t as
u1 t = 0 t t 0 t 0

(3.24)

Since u 1 t is the integral of u 0 t , then u 0 t must be the derivative of u 1 t , i.e.,
d ---- u 1 t = u 0 t dt

(3.25)

Higher order functions of t can be generated by repeated integration of the unit step function. For example, integrating u 0 t twice and multiplying by 2, we define u 2 t as
u2 t = 0 t
2

t t

0 0

or

u2 t = 2

t –

u1

d

(3.26)

Similarly,
u3 t = 0 t
3

t t

0 0

or

u3 t = 3

t –

u2

d

(3.27)

and in general,

3-10

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

The Unit Ramp Function
un t = 0 t
n

t t

0 0

or

un t = 3

t –

un – 1

d

(3.28)

Also,
1d - u n – 1 t = -- ---- u n t n dt

(3.29)

Example 3.7 In the network of Figure 3.19, the switch is closed at time t = 0 and i L t = 0 for t 0 .
R iS iL t L Figure 3.19. Network for Example 3.7 t = 0

+
vL t

Express the inductor current i L t in terms of the unit step function. Solution: The voltage across the inductor is
di L v L t = L -----dt

(3.30)

and since the switch closes at t = 0 , iL t = iS u0 t Therefore, we can write (3.30) as
d v L t = Li S ---- u 0 t dt

(3.31)

(3.32)

But, as we know, u 0 t is constant ( 0 or 1 ) for all time except at t = 0 where it is discontinuous. Since the derivative of any constant is zero, the derivative of the unit step u 0 t has a non-zero value only at t = 0 . The derivative of the unit step function is defined in the next section.

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-11

5 Sampling Property of the Delta Function The sampling property of the delta function states that f t t–a = f a t t (3.36) 3-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 3.20 (a). let us represent the unit step u 0 t as shown in Figure 0 Figure (a) t Area =1 0 1 2 Figure (b) t Figure 3. zero width.4 The Delta Function t t . in the limit. Figure 3. but the area of the rectangle Figure 3.34) To better understand the delta function 3. Two useful properties of the delta function are the sampling property and the sifting property. we can think of t as approaching a very large spike or impulse at the origin. t .35) or. Representation of the unit step as a limit. denoted as defined as t – d = u0 t (3. 1 2 becomes unbounded.33) and t = 0 for all t 0 (3.20 (b) is the derivative of 0 .20. when a = 0 . is the derivative of the unit step u 0 t . It is also The unit impulse or delta function.Chapter 3 Elementary Signals 3. The function of Figure 3.20 (a) becomes the unit step as 0 . where we see that as remains 1 .20 (a). Therefore. with unbounded amplitude. and area equal to 1 . f t t = f 0 t (3.

37) over the interval – t to t and using (3. (3. The study of discrete-time systems is based on this property.41) Differentiating both sides of (3. t = 0 for t 0 and t 0 (3.42) 3.39) The first integral on the right side of (3. we get t t t = f 0 Sampling Property of (3. this can be written outside the integral.40) The second integral of the right side of (3.Sifting Property of the Delta Function that is.38).6 Sifting Property of the Delta Function The sifting property of the delta function states that t Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-13 .37) We rewrite f t as f t = f 0 + f t –f 0 (3. multiplication of any function f t by the delta function t results in sampling the function at the time instants where the delta function is not zero.39) contains the constant term f 0 . that is. t f 0 – d = f 0 t d – (3.38) Integrating (3.41). we get t f – d = f 0 – d + t f – –f 0 d (3.39) reduces to t f – d = f 0 t d – (3. and replacing f t with t . Proof: Since t = 0 for t 0 and t f t 0 then.39) is always zero because t = 0 for t 0 and t 0 and f –f 0 =0 = f 0 –f 0 = 0 Therefore.

we let x = f t . y = u 0 t – . u 0 t – b a – b a u0 t – f t dt (3. Also. and thus the first term of the right side of (3.44) We will use integration by parts to evaluate this integral. then.47) reduces to f b .46). if we multiply any function f t by value of f t evaluated at t = . We recall from the derivative of products that d xy = xdy + ydx or xdy = d xy – ydx (3.45) and integrating both sides we get x dy = xy – y dx (3. therefore.48) Sifting Property of 3-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we will obtain the that is. the integral on the right side is zero for a .Chapter 3 Elementary Signals f t – t– t– dt = f (3.46) t– Now. We also let dy = tion into (3. we get t– dt = f t (3.47) as b f t a t– dt = f b – for any f t – b f t dt = f b – f b + f and letting a – and b .43) to + . dx = f t . we can replace the lower limit of integration a by . Proof: Let us consider the integral b and integrate from – f t a t– dt where a b (3. We can now rewrite (3. By substitu- f t a t– dt = f t u 0 t – b . we get b . then. and therefore.47) We have assumed that a = 0 for a .

51) t= Example 3. – 2 4 t–1 t t – 2 dt c. f t = t and t – 2 dt = f 2 = t t=2 =2 c.50) Also.u 0 t dt (3. n n t = ---. Then. The sampling property states that f t a = 1 . The sifting property states that Then. the derivation of the sifting property of the delta function can be extended to show that f t – n t– nd dt = – 1 ------. By a procedure similar to the derivation of the sampling property of the delta function.8 Evaluate the following expressions: a. 3t 4 t–a = f a 3t 4 t=1 t – a For this example. 3t b. '' t is called triplet.f t n dt n (3. we use the relation Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-15 . For this example. 4 t–1 = f t – t–1 = 3 b. f t = 3t and t–1 = 2. The given expression contains the doublet. t – t– dt = f . and so on. that is.7 Higher Order Delta Functions An nth-order delta function is defined as the nth derivative of u 0 t . therefore. we can show that f t ' t–a = f a ' t–a –f' a t–a (3. t ' t – 3 Solution: a.Higher Order Delta Functions 3.49) The function ' t is called doublet.

and we get v t = 2t u 0 t + 1 – u 0 t – 1 + 2 u0 t – 1 – u0 t – 2 + u0 t – 4 – u0 t – 5 + – t + 5 u0 t – 2 – u0 t – 4 + – t + 6 u0 t – 5 – u0 t – 7 (3. we express v t in terms of the unit step function u 0 t .52).Chapter 3 Elementary Signals f t ' t–a = f a ' t–a –f' a t–a t–3 Then.21 as a sum of unit step functions for the time interval – 1 t 7 s . We first derive the equations for the linear segments of the given waveform. Next.22.21.t dt = 9 ' t–3 –6 t–3 2 t=3 t=3 Example 3.52) Multiplying and collecting like terms in (3.9 Solution: a. for this example. Waveform for Example 3. t ' t–3 = t 2 d 2 ' t – 3 – ---. v t 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 V t s 1 2 Figure 3. Using the result of part (a).9 a. Express the voltage waveform v t shown in Figure 3. b. we get 3-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . These are shown in Figure 3. compute the derivative of v t and sketch its waveform.

Equations for the linear segments of Figure 3. by application of the sampling property.22. and t – 5 = 0 .53). t – 1 = 0 .= 2u 0 t + 1 + 2t dt t + 1 – 2u 0 t – 1 + – 2t + 2 t – 2 + u0 t – 4 + t – 4 t – 5 + u0 t – 7 + t – 6 t–1 t–4 t–7 – u0 t – 2 + – t + 3 – u0 t – 5 + – t + 5 (3. 2t –t+3 t–6 t+1 = t–2 = t–7 = 2t t = –1 t + 1 = –2 t=2 t+1 t–2 t–7 –t+3 t–6 t–2 = t–7 = t=7 and by substitution into (3. The derivative of v t is dv ----. t = 2 . Therefore. and t = 7 . t – 4 = 0 . Also. we observe that discontinuities occur only at t = – 1 . we get Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-17 .Higher Order Delta Functions v t 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 V –t+5 v t –t+6 t s 1 2 2t Figure 3.53) From the given waveform. and the terms that contain these delta functions vanish.21 v t = 2tu 0 t + 1 – 2tu 0 t – 1 – 2u 0 t – 1 – 2u 0 t – 2 – tu 0 t – 2 + 5u 0 t – 2 + tu 0 t – 4 – 5u 0 t – 4 + u 0 t – 4 – u 0 t – 5 – tu 0 t – 5 + 6u 0 t – 5 + tu 0 t – 7 – 6u 0 t – 7 or v t = 2tu 0 t + 1 + – 2t + 2 u 0 t – 1 + – t + 3 u 0 t – 2 + t – 4 u0 t – 4 + – t + 5 u0 t – 5 + t – 6 u0 t – 7 b.

and the delta functions. We observe that a negative spike of magnitude 2 occurs at t = – 1 . and two positive spikes of magnitude 1 occur at t = 2 . syms k a t. MATLAB* has built-in functions for the unit step.23. dv ----dt 2 V s 1 1 0 1 1 t–2 2 3 4 5 6 t–7 7 t s –2 t+1 Figure 3.54) t – 2 + u0 t – 4 – u0 t – 5 + u0 t – 7 + The plot of dv dt is shown in Figure 3. These are denoted by the names of the mathematicians who used them in their work.23. Their use is illustrated with % Define symbolic variables % Create unit step function at t = a u = k*Heaviside(t-a) d=diff(u) % Compute the derivative of the unit step function d = k*Dirac(t-a) * An introduction to MATLAB® is given in Appendix A. u=k*sym('Heaviside(t a)') t is referred to as Dirac(t). 3-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Plot of the derivative of the waveform of Figure 3. and the delta function the examples below. These spikes occur because of the discontinuities at these points.23. The unit step function u 0 t is referred to as Heaviside(t).Chapter 3 Elementary Signals dv = 2u t + 1 – 2 ----0 dt + t + 1 – 2u 0 t – 1 – u 0 t – 2 t–7 (3. and t = 7 .

Summary int(d) % Integrate the delta function ans = Heaviside(t-a)*k 3. is defined as u1 t = t – u0 d The unit impulse or delta function. is the derivative of the unit step u 0 t . denoted as defined as t – t . The unit ramp function. denoted as u 1 t .8 Summary The unit step function u 0 t that is defined as u0 t = 0 1 t t 0 0 The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltage or current source. It is also d = u0 t and t = 0 for all t 0 The sampling property of the delta function states that f t t–a = f a t = f 0 t t or. when a = 0 . f t The sifting property of the delta function states that f t – t– dt = f The sampling property of the doublet function ' t states that f t ' t–a = f a ' t–a –f' a t–a Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-19 .

Evaluate the following functions: a. cos 2t t – -4 c. sin t 2. Waveform for Exercise 2 3-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . b. v t 20 V – 2t v t e 10 0 1 10 20 2 3 4 5 6 7 t s Figure 3. 1 t – -2 a. sin t t – -6 b.24. tan 2t t – -8 2 –t 2 e.Chapter 3 Elementary Signals 3. and sketch its waveform. Using the result of part (a). as a sum of unit step functions for the time interval 0 t 7 s .9 Exercises 1. Express the voltage waveform v t shown in Figure 3.24. compute the derivative of v t . cos t t – -2 d. – t e 2 t – 2 dt f.

v t = e – 2t u0 t – u0 t – 2 + 10t – 30 u 0 t – 2 – u 0 t – 3 + 10t – 70 u 0 t – 5 – u 0 t – 7 + – 10 t + 50 u 0 t – 3 – u 0 t – 5 or Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-21 .= -.= sin -6 6 t – -.1 + cos 2 2 t – -8 f t – 1 t – -. cos 2t t – -.54 We recall that the sampling property for the doublet states that f t ' t–a = f a ' t–a –f' a t–a Thus.1 – cos 2t 2 1 = -.= 0. We recall that the sampling property states that f t a.Solutions to Exercises 3.– sin 2 t – -2 2.= cos -2 4 1 2 c. sin t t – -.– ---.= -. cos t t – -.= -.5 6 t – -4 = 0 b.1 + 1 2 1 t= 2 t – -.= tan 2t 8 t= 8 t – -. 1 = -. tan 2t t – -. We apply the sampling property of the t function for all expressions except (e) where we apply the sifting property.sin t dt 2 1 t= 2 t – -2 t= 1 f.10 Solutions to Exercises 1.= 2 2 t – -2 t – -. a. For part (f) we apply the sampling property of the doublet.= sin t 6 t= 6 t–a = f a t – -6 t – a .1 – 1 2 2 t – -8 dt = f t – -. Thus. Thus.= cos 2t 4 t= 4 t – -.= 0 2 d. – 2 –t t– .1 + cos 2t 2 2 t= 2 1 t – -. t e t – 2 dt = t e 2 –t t=2 = 4e –2 = 0.– sin 2t 2 t – -. t – -. sin t 2 1 t – -2 = sin t 2 1 t= 2 d 2 t – -.= tan -4 8 = We recall that the sampling property states that e.

Therefore. and t = 5 . t = 3 .= – 2e u 0 t + e dt t + 2e – 2t + 10 u 0 t – 2 + – e – 2t + 10t – 30 t–2 t–5 – 20u 0 t – 3 + – 20t + 80 – 10u 0 t – 7 + – 10t + 70 t – 3 + 20u 0 t – 5 + 20t – 120 t–7 (1) Referring to the given waveform we observe that discontinuities occur only at t = 2 . Also. t = 0 and t – 7 = 0 . by the sampling property of the delta function –e – 2t + 10t – 30 t – 2 = –e – 2t + 10t – 30 t=3 t=2 t–2 t–3 t–5 – 10 t–2 – 20t + 80 20t – 120 t – 3 = – 20t + 80 t – 5 = 20t – 120 t – 3 = 20 t – 5 = – 20 t=5 and with these simplifications (1) above reduces to dv dt = – 2e – 2t u 0 t + 2e – 2t u 0 t – 2 + 10u 0 t – 2 – 10 t – 3 + 20u 0 t – 5 – 20 – 20 t–2 – 20u 0 t – 3 + 20 = – 2e – 2t t – 5 – 10u 0 t – 7 + 20 t–3 u 0 t – u 0 t – 2 – 10 t – 2 + 10 u 0 t – 2 – u 0 t – 3 – 10 u 0 t – 3 – u 0 t – 5 t – 5 + 10 u 0 t – 5 – u 0 t – 7 The waveform for dv dt is shown below. – 2t – 2t dv ----. dv dt 20 10 – 10 – 20 – 2e V s 20 t – 3 1 – 2t 2 – 10 t–2 3 4 – 20 5 t–5 6 7 t s 3-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Elementary Signals v t = e – 2t u0 t – e – 2t u 0 t – 2 + 10tu 0 t – 2 – 30u 0 t – 2 – 10tu 0 t – 3 + 30u 0 t – 3 – 10tu 0 t – 3 + 50u 0 t – 3 + 10tu 0 t – 5 – 50u 0 t – 5 + 10tu 0 t – 5 – 70u 0 t – 5 – 10tu 0 t – 7 + 70u 0 t – 7 = e – 2t u0 t + –e – 2t + 10t – 30 u 0 t – 2 + – 20t + 80 u 0 t – 3 + 20t – 120 u 0 t – 5 + – 10t + 70 u 0 t – 7 b.

4.5) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-1 . In most problems.1) and (4.1 Definition of the Laplace Transformation The two-sided or bilateral Laplace Transform pair is defined as L f t = F s = – +j –j –1 f t e – st dt (4. if f t e 0 – st dt (4. s = + j . and since the initial conditions are generally known.4) The Laplace Transform of (4. that is. The initial value and final value theorems are also discussed and proved.5) To determine the conditions that will ensure us that the integral of (4. and s is a complex variable whose real part is . and properties of the Laplace transformation.2) simplifies to the unilateral or one-sided Laplace transform defined as L f t = F s = t0 +j –j f t e – st dt = 0 f t e – st dt (4.3) converges.2) where L f t denotes the Laplace transform of the time function f t . we are concerned with values of time t greater than some reference time. that is. the two-sided Laplace transform pair of (4. definitions. we rewrite (4.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation T his chapter begins with an introduction to the Laplace transformation.3) L –1 F s 1 = f t = ------2 j F s e ds st (4.1) L –1 F s 1 = f t = ------2 j F s e ds st (4.3) has meaning only if the integral converges (reaches a limit). It concludes with the derivation of the Laplace transform of common functions of time. and imaginary part . and the Laplace transforms of common waveforms. say t = t 0 = 0 . L F s denotes the Inverse Laplace transform.

4) to obtain the Inverse Laplace transform. 4-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 Properties of the Laplace Transform 1. i.4) involves contour integration in the complex plane.9) where Re s denotes the real part of the complex variable s .7) Fortunately. we can express (4.8). and thus.10) 4. In our subsequent discussion. L f t Re s = 0 exists if (4.7) as. in most engineering applications the functions f t are of exponential order*.8) 0.6) has magnitude of unity. Linearity Property The linearity property states that if f1 t f2 t fn t have Laplace transforms * A function f t is said to be of exponential order if f t ke 0t for all t 0. we will denote transformation from the time domain to the complex frequency domain. and therefore. as f t F s (4. and thus the condition The term e in the integral of (4. Then. that many Laplace transforms can be inverted with the use of a few standard pairs. e for convergence becomes f t e 0 – t dt (4. converges if Therefore.. there is no need to use (4. f t e 0 – t dt 0 ke 0t e – t dt (4. in the next chapter. and we see that the integral on the right side of the inequality sign in (4. We will see. Evaluation of the integral of (4. we conclude that if f t is of exponential order.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation as f t e 0 –j t – t –j t e dt –j t (4. it will not be attempted in this chapter. and vice versa.6) = 1 .e.

f t – a u0 t – a e – as F s (4. Thus.Properties of the Laplace Transform F1 s F2 s Fn s cn respectively. t = + a and dt = d . 2. Time Shifting Property The time shifting property states that a right shift in the time domain by a units.13) Now. then. With these substitutions. this multiplication will produce a shift of the s variable in the complex frequency domain by a units. c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + + cn fn t c1 F1 s + c2 F2 s + + cn Fn s (4.11) Proof: L c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + + cn fn t = t0 c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + f1 t e – st + c n f n t dt – st = c1 t0 dt + c 2 t0 f2 t e dt + + cn t0 fn t e – st dt = c1 F1 s + c2 F2 s + + cn Fn s Note 1: It is desirable to multiply f t by u 0 t to eliminate any unwanted non-zero values of f t for t 0 . Frequency Shifting Property The frequency shifting property states that if we multiply some time domain function f t by an exponential function e where a is an arbitrary positive constant. Thus. corresponds to multiplication by e – as in the complex frequency domain. the second integral on the right side of (4. and c1 c2 are arbitrary constants. we let t – a = .13) becomes f 0 e –s +a d = e – as 0 f e –s d = e – as F s 3. then. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – at 4-3 .12) Proof: L f t – a u0 t – a = a 0e 0 – st dt + a f t–a e – st dt (4.

a a (4.F -. 4. the function f t after scaling the time axis. d f ' t = ---.= -a a f 0 e – s a d 1 s = -. the scaling property states that f at 1 s -. we simply interpret f 0 5. Thus. Thus. then. becomes f at .15) Proof: L f at = 0 f at e – st dt and letting t = a .14) Proof: L e – at f t = 0 e – at f t e – st dt = 0 f t e – s+a t dt = F s + a Note 2: A change of scale is represented by multiplication of the time variable t by a positive scaling factor a . minus the initial value of f t at t = 0 . the initial value of f t is taken at t = 0 to include any discontinuity that may be present at t = 0 . we get L f at = 0 f e –s a 1 d -.16) Proof: L f' t = 0 f' t e – st dt 4-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .F -a a Note 3: Generally.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation e – at f t F s+a (4. If it is known that no such discontinuity exists at t = 0 . (4. Scaling Property Let a be an arbitrary positive constant. Differentiation in Time Domain The differentiation in time domain property states that differentiation in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by s in the complex frequency domain.f t dt sF s – f 0 as f 0 .

dv = – se – st . when all initial conditions are zero.f t 3 dt s 2 F s – sf 0 –f' 0 (4.19) and in general d ------.f t dt and as we found above. L f '' t L g' t = sL f ' t 2 = sL g t –f' 0 –g 0 –f 0 –f' 0 = s sL f t = s F s – sf 0 –f' 0 Relations (4.17) – st we let du = f ' t and v = e L f' t – st .20) can be proved by similar procedures. this corresponds to F s multiplied by s to the nth power. and thus f t e – st a = f t e +s 0 0 f t e – st dt = lim a + sF s 0 = lim e a – sa f a –f 0 + sF s = 0 – f 0 + sF s The time differentiation property can be extended to show that d2 ------. Then. We must remember that the terms f 0 f ' 0 f '' 0 .18). and we differentiate a time function f t n times. we let dg t = f ' t = ---.Properties of the Laplace Transform Using integration by parts where v du = uv – u dv (4.20) To prove (4.f t 2 dt d3 ------. u = f t .f t n dt n s F s –s n n–1 f 0 –s n–2 f' 0 – –f n–1 0 (4. Therefore. represent the initial conditions. and so on.19) and (4. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-5 . Then.18) s3 F s – s2 f 0 – sf ' 0 – f '' 0 (4.

.+ f 0 s s (4. corresponds to multiplication of f t by t in the time domain.--------------------. a and b are constants independent of x and x ---------------. t f t n nd – 1 ------. That is. also divided by s . In other words.F s ds (4.= d 4-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .23) * This rule states that if a function of a parameter known function of integration x and the parameter tial derivative f is defined by the equation F b a = b f x a dx where f is some . Differentiation in Complex Frequency Domain This property states that differentiation in complex frequency domain and multiplication by minus one. tf t d – ---. then -----.dx . and applying Leibnitz’s rule* for differentiation under the integral. we get dd---. t f – d F s . 7.F s n ds n (4. and the par- dF exists and it is continuous.21) Proof: L f t = F s = 0 f t e – st dt Differentiating with respect to s.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation 6.F s = ---ds ds = – 0 f t e 0 – st dt = 0 s e – st f t dt = 0 –t e – st f t dt tf t e – st dt = – L tf t In general.22) The proof for n 2 follows by taking the second and higher-order derivatives of F s with respect to s . Integration in Time Domain This property states that integration in time domain corresponds to F s divided by s plus the initial value of f t at t = 0 .

26) and the proof of (4. represents a constant value since neither the upper.24). and will prove (4. We will find the Laplace transform of this constant. the transform of the second integral on the right side of (4.23) as two integrals. t f – d = 0 f – d + t f 0 d (4. L g' t = G s = sL g t sL g t L g t t –g 0 = G s –0 = G s G s = ----------s = F s---------s L 0 f d (4. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-7 .25) = f 0 f 0 f 0 0 – – ----------. and this constant is an initial condition denoted as f 0 .= ----------s s This is the value of the first integral in (4.24) The first integral on the right side of (4.23) by the linearity property.24).24). g' t = f and g 0 = 0 f 0 d = 0 Now. L f 0 = 0 f 0 e – st dt = f 0 0 e – st e dt = f 0 ------–s – st 0 (4.Properties of the Laplace Transform Proof: We express the integral of (4. we will show that t f 0 d F s---------s t We let g t = f 0 d then. Next.25) and (4. that is.26). Thus.23) follows from (4. nor the lower limits of integration are functions of time.

27) Proof: F s = 0 f t e – st dt Integrating both sides from s to . ------t 0 t f t ------t F s ds s (4.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation 8. provided that the limit lim f t . Time Periodicity The time periodicity property states that a periodic function of time with period T corresponds to the integral T f t e 0 – st dt divided by 1 – e – sT in the complex frequency domain.28) 4-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i. Integration in Complex Frequency Domain This property states that integration in complex frequency domain with respect to s corresponds to division of a time function f t by the variable t . Thus. we interchange the order of integration. if we let f t we get the trans- be a periodic function with period T . F s ds = s 0 s e – st ds f t dt and performing the inner integration on the right side integral with respect to s .exists.e.. f t = f t + nT . that is. Thus.–st ------.e dt = L t f t------t 9. we get F s ds = s 0 –1e -t – st s f t dt = 0 f t . we get F s ds = s s 0 f t e – st dt ds Next. for n = 1 2 3 form pair T f t + nT f t e dt 0 ---------------------------– sT 1–e – st (4.

in the third t = + 2T .30) reduces to T L f f e d 0 = --------------------------------– sT –e –s 10.29) Since the function is periodic. L f t = T f 0 e –s d + T f 0 +T e = f –s +T d + T f 0 + 2T e –s + 2T d + (4.31) we find that expression (4. Initial Value Theorem The initial value theorem states that the initial value f 0 from its Laplace transform multiplied by s and letting s s of the time function f t can be found .29) as L f = 1+e +T = f T + 2T = = f + nT .. we can write – sT +e – 2sT + f 0 e –s d (4. f (4.That is.32) lim f t = lim sF s = f 0 t 0 Proof: From the time domain differentiation property. Then. (4. that is. d ---. The areas under each period of f t are equal.f t dt sF s – f 0 or Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-9 . and thus the upper and lower limits of integration are the same for each integral.30) By application of the binomial theorem.Properties of the Laplace Transform Proof: The Laplace transform of a periodic function can be expressed as L f t = 0 f t e – st dt = T f t e 0 – st dt + 2T f t e T – st dt + 3T f t e 2T – st dt + In the first integral of the right side. in the second t = + T .e. and so on. i. we let t = . 1+a+a +a + 2 3 1 = ----------1–a (4.

f t dt = sF s – f 0 0 . we get = lim s T lim T 0 d---.f t dt lim e s – st dt and since lim e s – st = 0 the above expression reduces to lim sF s – f 0 s = 0 or lim sF s = f 0 s 11. we get lim sF s – f 0 s = lim T 0 T d---. d ---. (4.33) lim f t = lim sF s = f Proof: From the time domain differentiation property. Final Value Theorem The final value theorem states that the final value f its Laplace transform multiplied by s.f t e – st dt dt Taking the limit of both sides by letting s 4-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .f t e –st dt dt Taking the limit of both sides by letting s lim sF s – f 0 s .f t dt = sF s – f 0 = 0 d ---.f t e – st dt dt Interchanging the limiting process. we get = 0 d ---.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation d L ---.f t dt sF s – f 0 or d L ---. then. letting s t s 0 of the time function f t can be found from 0 . That is.

35) f1 dt d We let t – = . then. lim sF s = f s 0 12.f t e – st dt dt and by interchanging the limiting process. The convolution of two time functions f 1 t and f 2 t is denoted as f 1 t *f 2 t .35).f t dt = lim dt T 0 T f t –f 0 = lim f T – f T 0 =f and therefore.Properties of the Laplace Transform lim sF s – f 0 s 0 = lim s 0 T lim T 0 d ---. t = + . and by definition. Convolution in the Time Domain Convolution* in the time domain corresponds to multiplication in the complex frequency domain. since lim e s 0 – st = 1 the above expression reduces to lim sF s – f 0 s 0 = lim T 0 T d ---. that is. * Convolution is the process of overlapping two signals.f t dt lim e s 0 – st dt Also.34) Proof: L f 1 t *f 2 t = L = 0 – f1 f2 t – f2 t – 0 d e – st = 0 0 f1 f2 t – d e – st dt (4. we get lim sF s – f 0 s 0 = lim T 0 T d ---. f 1 t *f 2 t = – f1 f2 t – d where is a dummy variable. f 1 t *f 2 t F1 s F2 s (4. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-11 . It is discussed in detail Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications by this author. and dt = d . By substitution into (4.

Example 4. we have summarized the Laplace transform pairs and theorems in Table 4.F 1 s *F 2 s 2 j F1 For easy reference.1. we will present several examples for finding the Laplace transform of common functions of time.1 Find L u 0 t 4-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation L f 1 t *f 2 t = 0 f1 0 f2 e –s + d d = 0 f1 e –s d 0 f2 e –s d = F1 s F2 s 13. we get L f1 t f2 t = 0 1 ------2 j +j –j +j –j F1 e d f2 t e 0 t f2 t e – s– t – st dt 1 = ------2 j F1 dt d We observe that the bracketed integral is F 2 s – L f1 t f2 t 1= ------2 j +j –j .37) and recalling that the Inverse Laplace transform from (4. corresponds to multiplication in the time domain.2) is 1f 1 t = ------2 j +j –j F1 e d t by substitution into (4. 4.37). Convolution in the Complex Frequency Domain Convolution in the complex frequency domain divided by 1 2 j .36) Proof: L f1 t f2 t = 0 f1 t f2 t e – st dt (4. therefore. F2 s – d 1= ------.3 The Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time In this section. That is.F 1 s *F 2 s 2 j (4. f1 t f2 t 1------.

a a sF s – f 0 d – ---.F 1 s *F 2 s 2 j Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-13 .+ -----------s s F s ds s T f t e dt 0 ------------------------------– sT 1–e – st 8 Frequency Integration f t ------t f t + nT 9 Time Periodicity 10 11 12 13 Initial Value Theorem t lim f t 0 lim sF s = f 0 s lim sF s = f s 0 Final Value Theorem t lim f t f 1 t *f 2 t f1 t f2 t Time Convolution Frequency Convolution F1 s F2 s 1 ------.F -.18) through (4.22) Time Integration tf t t – f d F s f 0 ---------.1 Summary of Laplace Transform Properties and Theorems Property/Theorem Time Domain c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + + cn fn t e Complex Frequency Domain c1 F1 s + c2 F2 s + – as F s + cn Fn s 1 Linearity 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time Shifting Frequency Shifting Time Scaling f t – a u0 t – a e – as f t F s+a 1 s -.The Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time TABLE 4.20) dt Frequency Differentiation See also (4.f t See also (4.F s ds f at Time Differentiation d ---.

L f t = F s = 0 f t e – st dt For this example.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation Solution: We start with the definition of the Laplace transform. L u0 t = 0 1e – st –e dt = -------s st 0 1 = 0 – – -s 1 = -s Thus. * This condition was established in (4. 4-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .* We apply the definition L f t = F s = 0 f t e – st dt and for this example.2 Find L u 1 t Solution: 0 .39). L u1 t = L t = 0 te – st dt We will perform integration by parts recalling that u dv = uv – v du (4.39) We let u = t and dv = e – st then. we have obtained the transform pair u0 t 1 -s (4. that is.38) for Re s = Example 4. –e du = 1 and v = ---------s – st By substitution into (4.9).

we consider the limit lim ---------. we have obtained the transform pair t 1 --s2 (4. the ratio of two functions. lim ---------. and we wish to find this limit. for some value of x.41) for 0.f x ----. we use L’Hôpital’s rule which states that if f a = g a = 0 . we get L t = ---2 s Thus.40). To g x f x work around this problem.= 0 st st st d t t t e se e dt 1 Evaluating the second term of (4. we apply L’ Hôpital’s rule*. lim te t – st d t t = lim d t 1 = lim ------------------. that is.– s 0 – st L t 0 – t e .40) produces an indeterminate form.– e ---------2 s s s – st – st – st (4.= lim x a as x g x x a d----.= lim -------.------– e .g x dx Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-15 . then.The Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time –t e = -----------. if it exists. Example 4. such as ---------.42) * f x Often..f x dx d----. results in an indeterminate form. To find this x a g x d d limit. we must first review the gamma or generalized factorial function n defined as n = 0 n x n – 1 –x e dx (4.dt = -----------. say a.40) 0 Since the upper limit of integration in (4.3 Find L t u 0 t Solution: To find the Laplace transform of this function.g x dx dx f x approaches a exists.. and if the limit ----.

we have * Improper integrals are two types and these are: b a.42) can be evaluated by performing integration by parts.= 0 x x m–n x x ne x e n–m x n d m–1 m–1 nx n–1 Therefore. We will now derive the basic properties of the gamma function.= lim d x ----------------------------------. –x xdu = – e dx and v = ---n n and (4.42). Then. It also vanishes at the upper limit as x ferentiating both numerator and denominator m times.= lim -----------------.42) is written as x e n = ----------n n –x 1 + -n x=0 x e dx 0 n –x (4. where m n .= lim ------. the first term on the right side of (4. This can be proved with L’ Hôpital’s rule by difx = 0 . and its relation to the well known factorial function n! = n n – 1 n – 2 3 2 1 The integral of (4. in (4.42) is an improper integral* but converges (approaches a limit) for all n 0 .Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation The integral of (4. Thus. 4-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . d n –x n x m m x e dx xlim ----------.= m m–1 x x n x x x ne d d x ne ne m m–1 dx dx n–1 n–2 n–m+1 n n–1 n–2 n–m+1 x = lim ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= lim ------------------------------------------------------------------.39) we let u = e –x and dv = x n–1 Then. a b f x dx where the limits of integration a or b or both are infinite f x dx where f(x) becomes infinite at a value x between the lower and upper limits of integration inclusive.43) reduces to 1 n = -n x e dx 0 n –x and with (4. a b. (4.43) vanishes at the lower limit .43) With the condition that n 0 .

46) for n 0 . For n = 1 .45) for n 0 .42) yields 1 = 0 e dx = – e –x –x 0 = 1 (4. we see that infinite as n 0 .45).44) By comparing the integrals in (4.46) n becomes It is convenient to use (4. we obtain 2 = 1 3 = 2 4 = 3 1 = 1 2 = 2 1 = 2! 3 = 3 2 = 3! (4. it establishes the relationship between the function and the factorial n! We now return to the problem of finding the Laplace transform pair for t u 0 t . and (4. L t u0 t n n n = 0 t e n – st dt (4.49) and in general n + 1 = n! (4.The Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time n = 0 x n– 1 1 –x e dx = -n x e dx 0 n –x (4. and Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-17 . or t = y s .51) To make this integral resemble the integral of the gamma function. that is.50) is a noteworthy relation.47) and thus we have the important relation.44). 1 = 1 (4. we observe that n + 1n = -------------------n (4. (4.50) for n = 1 2 3 The formula of (4.45) or n n = n+1 (4.48) From the recurring relation of (4. we let st = y . From (4.46).

52) for positive integers of n and Example 4. we have obtained the transform pair t u0 t n n! ---------n+1 s (4. we have the transform pair t 1 (4. L t = 0 t e – st dt and using the sifting property of the delta function.= ---------n+1 n+1 s s Therefore. we get L t–a = 0 t–a e – st dt = e – as 4-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we rewrite (4.51) as L t u0 t n = 0 y s n y –y e d s 1 = ---------n+1 s 0 n –y n + 1n! y e dy = ------------------.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation thus dt = dy s .5 Find L Solution: L t–a = 0 t–a t–a e – st dt and again. Now. we get L t = 0 t e – st dt = e –s 0 = 1 Thus. Example 4.4 Find L Solution: t 0.53) for all . using the sifting property of the delta function.

55) for –a .56).6 Find L e Solution: L e – at – at u0 t u0 t = 0 e – at – st e dt = 0 s+a t 0 e – s+a t dt 1.The Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time Thus.57) Then. Example 4.e s+a 1= ---------s+a Thus. we will use the transform pair of (4. replacing s with s + a in (4. we get the transform pair Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-19 .7 Find L t e Solution: For this example. t u0 t n n – at u0 t n! ---------n+1 s (4.e.52).– = – ---------. we have the transform pair t–a e – as (4.56) and the frequency shifting property of (4.54) for 0. we have the transform pair e – at u0 t 1 ---------s+a (4. e – at f t F s+a (4. Example 4.14). i.. that is.

we get the transform pair te – at u0 t 1 -----------------2 s+a (4. and – a Thus. and the use of (4.j This can also be derived from sin t = ---..– -------------.61) for –a Example 4.60) and in general. Therefore. the sum of these terms corresponds to the sum of their Laplace transforms.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation t e n – at u0 t n! ------------------------n+1 s+a (4.59) for –a . L sin tu 0 t 11 1 = ---. for n = 1 .58) where n is a positive integer.8 Find L sin t u 0 t Solution: L sin t u 0 t = 0 sin t e – st dt = lim a a sin t e 0 – st dt and from tables of integrals* ax ----------------------------------------------------e sin bx dx = e a sin bx – b cos bx 2 2 a +b ax Then.e j2 t –e –j t .------------. By the lins+a earity property.= ----------------j2 s – j s+j s2 + 2 4-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . t e n – at u0 t n! ------------------------n+1 s+a (4.55) where e – at u0 t 1---------. * 1. For n = 2 . we get the transform t e 2 – at u0 t 2! -----------------3 s+a (4.

f t 1 d= L --.62) for 0 Example 4.---. L cos t u 0 t e – s cos t + sin t = lim ---------------------------------------------------------2 2 a s + = lim a – as – st a 0 s e s – s cos a + sin a -------------------------------------------------------------. we have the fransform pair 1 j We can use the relation cos t = -.= ---------------2 2 2 2 2 2 s + s + s + Thus.The Laplace Transform of Common Functions of Time L sin t u 0 t e – s sin t – cos t = lim ---------------------------------------------------------2 2 a s + = lim a – as – st a 0 e – s sin a – cos a -------------------------------------------------------------.= ----------------2 2 2 s + s + 2 . as in the derivation of the transform dt sF s – f 0 dof sin t on the footnote of the previous page.s ----------------.sin tu 0 t dt 1 s = --.sin tu 0 t dt 1 d= --. We can also use the transform pair ---.+ ---------------. we have obtained the transform pair sin t u 0 t ---------------2 2 s + (4.e 2 t –j t * +e and the linearity property. we get L cos tu 0 t Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-21 . Applying this transform pair for this derivation.9 Find L cos t u 0 t Solution: L cos t u 0 t = 0 cos t e – st dt = lim a a cos t e 0 – st dt and from tables of integrals* ax e acos bx + b sin bx e cos bx dx = ----------------------------------------------------2 2 a +b ax Then.= ---------------2 2 2 2 2 2 s + s + s + Thus. this is the time differentiation property of (4.16).L ---.+ ---------------.

66) for 0 and a 0. and we get e – at cos t u 0 t s+a ------------------------------2 2 s+a + (4. we replace s with s + a .2.10 Find L e Solution: Since sin tu 0 t ---------------2 2 s + – at sin t u 0 t using the frequency shifting property of (4.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation cos t u 0 t s ---------------2 2 s + (4. Example 4. 4-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .14).11 Find L e Solution: Since cos t u 0 t s ---------------2 2 s + – at cos t u 0 t using the frequency shifting property of (4. and we get e – at sin t u 0 t ------------------------------2 2 s+a + (4. For easy reference. we have summarized the above derivations in Table 4.63) for 0 Example 4. e – at f t F s+a (4.65) for 0 and a 0.64) we replace s with s + a . that is.14).

1. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-23 .2. The subscript P stands for pulse.The Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms TABLE 4. we will present some examples for deriving the Laplace transform of several waveforms using the transform pairs of Tables 4.12 Find the Laplace transform of the waveform f P t of Figure 4.2 Laplace Transform Pairs for Common Functions f t F s 1 s 1 s 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 u0 t t u0 t t u0 t t t–a e – at n ---------n+1 s 1 e – as n! u0 t u0 t 1 ---------s+a n! ------------------------n+1 s+a ---------------2 2 s + s ---------------2 2 s + ------------------------------2 2 s+a + s+a ------------------------------2 2 s+a + t e n – at sin t u 0 t cos t u 0 t – at e sin t u 0 t cos t u 0 t e – at 4.4 The Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms In this section.1 and 4. Example 4.

f t – a u0 t – a e 1 s A s – as A – as F s and from Table 4.1. fL t 1 t 0 1 2 Figure 4.13 4-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . u0 t For this example.= -. Waveform for Example 4. Then. The subscript L stands for line. by the linearity property.– e -.1 is A u0 t – u0 t – a A –as A A -.2.1.13 Find the Laplace transform for the waveform f L t of Figure 4.1 – e – as s s s Example 4.2. the Laplace transform of the pulse of Figure 4.4. Waveform for Example 4. fP t = A u0 t – u0 t – a (4.12 Solution: We first express the given waveform as a sum of unit step functions. Au 0 t and Au 0 t – a e -s Then. from Table 4.67) Next.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation A fP t t 0 a Figure 4.

1. Solution: We must first derive the equations of the linear segments. fT t 1 0 t 1 2 Figure 4. Waveform for Example 4. fL t = t – 1 u0 t – 1 From Table 4.5.3. Then.13 with the equation of the linear segment For this example. f t – a u0 t – a e – as F s and from Table 4. tu 0 t 1--2 s Therefore. This is shown in Figure 4. the Laplace transform of the linear segment of Figure 4.14 Find the Laplace transform for the triangular waveform f T t of Figure 4. we express the given waveform in terms of the unit step function.2 is t – 1 u0 t – 1 –s 1 e --s2 (4. fL t 1 t–1 t 0 1 2 Figure 4. Then.3.4. we express the given waveform in terms of the unit step function. Waveform for Example 4.68) Example 4.2.The Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms Solution: We must first derive the equation of the linear segment. These are shown in Figure 4.4.14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-25 .

3 is fT t 1 --.6. 4-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .69) Example 4.1 – e –s 2 s 2 (4.1 – 2e – s + e – 2s 2 s Therefore.+ e --2 2 2 s s s Then.– 2e --.2. tu 0 t 1 --2 s –s 1 – 2s 1 1--. fT t = t u0 t – u0 t – 1 + – t + 2 u0 t – 1 – u0 t – 2 = tu 0 t – tu 0 t – 1 – tu 0 t – 1 + 2u 0 t – 1 + tu 0 t – 2 – 2u 0 t – 2 and collecting like terms. f T t = tu 0 t – 2 t – 1 u 0 t – 1 + t – 2 u 0 t – 2 From Table 4.1. Waveform for Example 4.5. tu 0 t – 2 t – 1 u 0 t – 1 + t – 2 u 0 t – 2 or tu 0 t – 2 t – 1 u 0 t – 1 + t – 2 u 0 t – 2 1--.15 Find the Laplace transform for the rectangular periodic waveform f R t of Figure 4.13 with the equations of the linear segments For this example.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation fT t 1 t 0 1 –t+2 t 2 Figure 4. the Laplace transform of the triangular waveform of Figure 4. f t – a u0 t – a e – as F s and from Table 4.

– e + 1 + e –e – 2as s 1–e – as A – as – 2as A 1–e = --------------------------.-------------------------------------------------------------s 1 + e –as s e as 2 e –as 2 + e –as 2 e –as 2 –e e Ae = -.------------. and thus we can apply the time periodicity property T L f f e d 0 = -----------------------------– sT 1–e –s where the denominator represents the periodicity of f t . Waveform for Example 4.+ ------– 2as s 0 s 1–e a or L fR t A – as – 2as – as = --------------------------. For this example.–e = -------------------.-------------------------------s e – as 2 e as 2 + e –as 2 – as 2 as 2 – as 2 – as as 2 – as 2 – as 2 – as 2 A sinh as 2 = -.1 – 2e + e = ------------------------------------------------– 2as – as – as s 1–e s 1+e 1–e 2 A 1–e e –e e A e = -.The Laplace Transform of Common Waveforms fR t A t 0 A a 2a 3a Figure 4.---------.tanh ---s 2 (4.70) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-27 .6.= -.15 Solution: This is a periodic waveform with period T = 2a . L fR t 1 = -------------------– 2as 1–e 2a fR t e 0 a – st 1 dt = -------------------– 2as 1–e 2a a Ae 0 – st dt + 2a a –A e – st dt – st – st A e .---------------------.---------------------------s cosh as 2 or fR t A as -.

We will apply the time periodicity property T L f f e d 0 = -----------------------------– sT 1–e –s where the denominator represents the periodicity of f t .71) 4-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .e s sin t – cos t = -------------------.16 Find the Laplace transform for the half-rectified sine wave f HW t of Figure 4.16 Solution: This is a periodic waveform with period T = 2 .----------------------------------------–2 s 2 s +1 1–e 0 1+e 1 = -----------------.7.----------------------------------------------2 – s – s s +1 1+e 1–e or f HW t 1 -----------------------------------------2 – s s +1 1–e (4.------------------------2 –2 s s +1 1–e – s L f HW t 1 1+e = -----------------.7. L f HW t 1 = -------------------–2 s 1–e 2 f t e 0 – st – st 1 dt = -------------------–2 s 1–e sin t e 0 – st dt – s 1 .Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation Example 4. For this example. Waveform for Example 4. 1 sint f HW t 2 3 4 Figure 4.

s = + j .F -a a The differentiation in time domain property states that d f ' t = ---. The unilateral or one-sided Laplace transform defined as L f t = F s = t0 denotes . and s is a complex variable whose real part is part .Summary 4.f t dt sF s – f 0 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-29 . and vice versa. that is. as f t F s c1 F1 s + c2 F2 s + + cn Fn s The linearity property states that c1 f1 t + c2 f2 t + + cn fn t The time shifting property states that f t – a u0 t – a e – as F s The frequency shifting property states that e – at f t F s+a The scaling property states that f at s 1 -. L the Inverse Laplace transform. and imaginary F s f t e – st dt = 0 f t e – st dt We denote transformation from the time domain to the complex frequency domain.5 Summary The two-sided or bilateral Laplace Transform pair is defined as L f t –1 = F s = – f t e +j –j – st dt L F s 1 = f t = ------2 j F s e ds –1 st where L f t denotes the Laplace transform of the time function f t .

f t 3 dt s 2 F s – sf 0 –f' 0 s3 F s – s2 f 0 – sf ' 0 – f '' 0 and in general d ------. t f t n The integration in time domain property states that t f – d F s f 0 ---------. ------t 0 t The time periodicity property states that T f t + nT f t e dt 0 ---------------------------– sT 1–e – st The initial value theorem states that lim f t = lim sF s = f 0 t 0 s 4-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation d 2------.f t 2 dt d 3------.F s ds d – 1 ------. The differentiation in complex frequency domain property states that tf t d – ---. and so on.exists.F s n ds n n and in general.f t n dt n s F s –s n n–1 f 0 –s n–2 f' 0 – –f n–1 0 where the terms f 0 f' 0 f '' 0 . represent the initial conditions.+ -----------s s The integration in complex frequency domain property states that f t ------t F s ds s provided that the limit lim f t .

corresponds to multiplication in the time domain.F s *F 2 s 2 j 1 The Laplace transforms of some common functions of time are shown below. u0 t t t u0 t t t–a e te – at n 1 s 1 s2 n! ---------n+1 s 1 e – as u0 t 1 ---------s+a 1 -----------------2 s+a 2! -----------------3 s+a n! ------------------------n+1 s+a ---------------2 2 s + s ---------------2 2 s + – at u0 t t e 2 – at u0 t t e n – at u0 t sin t u 0 t cos t u 0 t Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-31 . f1 t f2 t 1 ------.Summary The final value theorem states that lim f t = lim sF s = f t s 0 Convolution in the time domain corresponds to multiplication in the complex frequency domain. that is. That is. f 1 t *f 2 t F1 s F2 s Convolution in the complex frequency domain divided by 1 2 j .

= -.tanh ---s 2 4-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation e – at sin t u 0 t ------------------------------2 2 s+a + s+a ------------------------------2 2 s+a + e – at cos t u 0 t The Laplace transforms of some common waveforms are shown below.1 – e – as s s s t 0 1 2 –s 1 e --s2 t – 1 u0 t – 1 fT t 1 0 1 2 t 2 fT t fR t 1--. A fP t t 0 A u0 t – u0 t – a fL t 1 a A – as A A -.1 – e –s 2 s A 0 A t a 2a 3a fR t A as -.– e -.

Summary 1 sint f HW t 2 3 4 f HW t 1 -----------------------------------------2 – s s +1 1–e Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-33 .

3 sin 5t u 0 t d. 12 b. Find the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions: a. 5e – 5t 5 u0 t u0 t d. j5 – 90 c. 8t e 7 – 5t e. 3 2t – 3 c. 15 t – 4 3. t + 3t + 4t + 3 u 0 t t–3 3 2 b. 5tu 0 t e. 3t sin 5t u 0 t b. 2t cos 3t u 0 t c.6 Exercises 1. 5 cos 3t u 0 t e. 4t u 0 t 2. Find the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions: a. 2e – 5t 2 sin 5t 4-34 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 24u 0 t – 12 d. Find the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions: a. j8 b. 2 tan 4t u 0 t Be careful with this! Comment and skip derivation. 6u0 t c. Find the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions: a. 4.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation 4.

-------t b. d t e 7.d - Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-35 . d e sin 2t 2 – 2t e. 8e e. 4te – 3t 2 t–2 cos 2t u 0 t 6. d t cos 2t – 2t d. 5tu 0 t – 3 b. 2t – 5t + 4 u 0 t – 3 t–3 e – 2t 2 u0 t – 2 u0 t – 3 d. Find the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions: a. c. t cos ---------. Find the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions: a.d sin at c.Exercises d. -----------t d. 2t – 4 e e. – 3t cos 4t t– 4 cos t 5. d 3e dt dt dt dt 2 c. Find the Laplace transform of the following time domain functions: sin t a. d sin 3t dt – 4t b. t 0 sin --------.

Find the Laplace transform for the sawtooth waveform f ST t of Figure 4.8. Waveform for Exercise 8. t e -----. f FR t 1 Full Rectified Waveform sint a 2a 3a 4a Figure 4. Waveform for Exercise 9 4-36 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .d – 8.8. 9.9. Find the Laplace transform for the full rectification waveform f FR t of Figure 4.9. f ST t A a 2a 3a t Figure 4.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation e.

= -. we must use the Laplace transform definition 0 2 tan 4t e dt and this requires integration by parts.2 and the linearity property 3! + 3 32! + ---.d. 12 s b. 4 a. we cannot con1 clude that ---------- f t f2 t F1 s -----------. For this exercise f 1 t F2 s 1 f 2 t = sin 4t ------------.= ----------------------2 2 2 2 s + 25 s + 25 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-37 .2 we get: 7! 5 – 4s a.--------------ds s 2 + 5 2 – 5 2s 30s = – 3 ----------------------.Solutions to Exercises 4.e. e – 12s 5! 24 ----. From the definition of the Laplace transform or from Table 4. 5 s 2 e. From the definition of the Laplace transform or from Table 4. 4 ---6 s s 2.e. ----------. From (4. This answer looks sus2 2 s s s +2 one correspondence between the time domain and the complex frequency domain. The interested reader may try to find the answer with the MATLAB code syms s t.-------------4 2 s s s s b.. 6 s c.8 2 --------------------------. 2*laplace(sin(4*t)/cos(4*t)) 4. From Table 4. a.7 Solutions to Exercises 1. 3 --------------. j8 s b. that is. 5 s c.F s n ds n Then. 8 -----------------.d. 15e 8 s+5 s+5 3. 2 tan 4t = 2 ------------2 2 2 2 s +5 cos 4t s +3 picious because 8 s 8u 0 t and the Laplace transform is unilateral. 5 1 d 3 – 1 ---.d.22) t f t n nd – 1 ------.+ 3 ---. 3 2t – 3 t – 3 = 3 2t – 3 t=3 t–3 = 9 t – 3 and 9 2 t–3 2 9e – 3s s sin 4t 5 c. We skip this analytical derivation. 5 --------------.2 we get: a.and as we’ve learned cos 4t – st multiplication in the time domain corresponds to convolution in the complex frequency domain. Accordingly.. there is one-to- 4 s +2 . The fallacy with this procedure is that if we assume that f 1 t F 1 s and f 2 t F 2 s .

-----.= -----------------------------2 2 2 s + 5 + 25 s+5 +5 d.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation b.+ 3 --.-------------------2 2 2 ds 2 ds s +9 s +9 s + 9 – 2s – 2 s + 9 2s – s + 9 = 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 2 s +9 – 2s – 18s + 4s – 36s s + 9 – 2s – 4s – s + 9 = 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------.---------------------------------.= e e 2 2 s+2 s+2 s+2 4-38 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3 2 s s s c. cos t 4 t– 4 = 2 2 t– 4 and 2 2 t– 4 2 2 e – 4 s 5.4s s – 27 = 2 ---------------------.--------------2 2 2 ds s + 3 2 d –s +9 d s + 3 – s 2s = 2 ---.+ --. a.– --------------. t–3 e – 2t u0 t – 2 = e t–2 –1 e –4 e u0 t – 2 e – 2s –4 – 2s – s + 1 1 1 ----------------------------------.= 2 ------------------------------------------------------3 3 2 2 s +9 s +9 2 2s – 54s 2s s – 27 .e 2 s s s s b.= 2 ---. s 2 d 2 – 1 ------.+ 15 = -.+ -.= -----------------------------2 2 2 s+3 +4 s + 3 + 16 e.= -------------------------3 3 3 2 2 2 s +9 s +9 s +9 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 c. 2t – 5t + 4 u 0 t – 3 = 2 t – 3 = 2 t–3 = 2 t–3 = 2 t–3 2 2 2 2 2 + 12t – 18 – 5t + 4 u 0 t – 3 + 7t – 14 u 0 t – 3 + 7 t – 3 + 21 – 14 u 0 t – 3 + 7 t – 3 + 7 u0 t – 3 –2 t – 2 –4 e – 3s 2 2! 7 7 ------------.= 2 -------------------------. 5tu 0 t – 3 = 5 t – 3 + 15 u 0 t – 3 e – 3s 5 –3s 1 5. 10 2 5 -----------------------------. 8 s+3 8 s+3 ----------------------------.

= – 4 ---.Solutions to Exercises d. sin 3t d sin 3t dt 3 --------------2 2 s +3 d ---.= – 4 ----------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 ds s + 6s + 13 s + 6s + 13 2 s + 6s + 13 – 2s – 6s – 6s – 18 4 s + 6s + 5 – 4 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------.– ------------------. cos 2t 2 t cos 2t 2 s 2 d – 1 ------. t cos 2t 2 2s s – 12 -------------------------3 2 s +4 2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-39 .s + 4 – s 2s s + 4 – 2s – – s + 4 s + 4 2 2s ---.= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 4 2 ds 2 ds 2 s +4 s +4 s +4 – 2s – 8s + 4s – 16s 2s s – 12 s + 4 – 2s – – s + 4 4s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------.---------------------------------2 2 2 ds s + 6s + 9 + 4 ds s + 3 + 2 d s+3 s + 6s + 13 – s + 3 2s + 6 – 4 ---.– 0 = ------------2 2 2 s +3 s +9 3 ---------s+4 d ---.– s + 4d.= -------------------------3 3 3 2 2 2 s +4 s +4 s +4 2 2 3 3 2 Thus.----------------------------.= 2e e 2 2 s+3 s+3 s+3 e. 4te – 3t cos 2t u 0 t d s+3 s+3 1 d 4 – 1 ---.= ---.– 3 = ---------.= ---------------------------------------------------.-------------------------------.+ --------------.f t dt – 4t t=0 b. 3e – 4t sF s – f 0 f 0 = 3e = 3 – 4t d 3e dt 33s 3 s+4 – 12 s ---------. 2t – 4 e 2 t–2 u0 t – 3 = 2 t – 3 + 6 – 4 e e –2 –2 t – 3 e u0 t – 3 –2 e – 3s s+4 –2 – 3s 2 2 ----------------------------------.= ----------------------------------2 2 2 2 s + 6s + 13 s + 6s + 13 2 2 2 6.-------------------. a.------------2 2 ds s + 4 2 2 2 2 2 d.---------------------------.= ---------s+4 s+4 s+4 s+4 s --------------2 2 s +2 2 c.f t dt sF s – f 0 f 0 = sin 3t t=0 = 0 3 3s s --------------.

sin t From (a) above -------t t 0 tan –1 1 s and since t f – d F s .– 0 = --------------------------2 2 s+2 +4 s+2 +4 2 – 2t e.ds .Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation and d t 2 cos 2t dt sF s – f 0 2 2 2s s – 12 2s s – 12 s -------------------------. t 2 2! ---3 s t e 2! -----------------3 s+2 d---.f t dt sF s – f 0 d 2 – 2t t e dt 2! 2s s -----------------. ------------.but to find L --------t 2 t s +1 sin we must show that the limit lim --------t exists. From tables of integrals 2 s +1 1 –1 –1 1 1 ---------------. Thus. sin t –1 –1 lim f t = lim sF s = lim s tan 1 s + C = 0 and -------tan 1 s t t s 0 s 0 b.– 0 = -----------------3 3 s+2 s+2 7. it follows that ---------. Since t 0 t sin t sin x lim --------.f t dt sF s – f 0 d e – 2t sin 2t dt 2 2s s --------------------------.– 0 = ----------------------------3 3 2 2 s +4 s +4 2 d.dx = -.tan 1 s s 4-40 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. a. sin 2 t 2 --------------2 2 s +2 e – 2t sin 2t 2 --------------------------2 s+2 +4 d ---.d –1 1 -.+ -----------.f 0 s s sin --------.ds = tan 1 s + C and the constant of inte2 2 2 a s +1 x +a gration C is evaluated from the final value theorem. sin t sin 1 ------------.= 1 this condition is satisfied and thus -------t x 0 x s 1 ------------. Then.tan x a + C .

e –t e 1 ---------.dx = -. cos t s s .we s s get t e -----.cos ------------.tan -------.F -. sin t From (a) above -------t sin at -----------at tan –1 1 s and since f at tan –1 1 s -. and from tables of integrals 2 2 t s s +1 s +1 s 1 1 x ---------------. it follows that . Then.ds ..ds = -.ln ax + b . ---------.ln x 2 + a 2 + C .+ -----------.ln s + 1 s f ST t A 8.ln s 2 + 1 2s –t s e.dx = -. ------------.ln s + 1 + C = 0 and using t s 0 s 0 2 f – d F s f 0 ---------.ds = ln s + 1 + C and the constant of integration C s+1 2 ax + b is evaluated from the final value theorem.ds . A -. 1 2 lim f t = lim sF s = lim s -.a a –1 1 1 s sin at -. ----s+1 t 1 ---------.d - 1 ---. Thus. and from tables of integrals s+1 1 1 1 -------------.ln s 2 + 1 + C and the constant of inte2 2 2 2 2 s +1 x +a t gration C is evaluated from the final value theorem.d - – 1 -.+ -----------.t a a 2a 3a t This is a periodic waveform with period T = a and its Laplace transform is Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-41 .Solutions to Exercises c..or -----------a a t a s d. ---------t ------------.we s s get t cos ---------. Thus. lim f t = lim sF s = lim s ln s + 1 + C = 0 t s 0 s 0 and using t f – d F s f 0 ---------.. Then.

+ ------2 s s – st – st 0 a – as – as 1 – as 1.2 and limits of integration 0 to a we get L t a 0 = a te 0 – st te e dt = – --------.1 + as 1 – e – as 2 2 s s By substitution into (1) we get A A 1 – as .= ---.coth ----2 – s 2 2 s +1 1–e s +1 4-42 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . This is a periodic waveform with period T = a = 1 F s = ----------------– sT 1–e T and its Laplace transform is sin te 0 – st f t e 0 – st 1 dt = ---------------------– s 1–e dt From tables of integrals ax e asin bx – b cos bx sin bxe dx = ----------------------------------------------------2 2 a +b ax Then.Chapter 4 The Laplace Transformation 1 F s = ----------------– as 1–e a A –st A -.------------------.– ---------------------2 – as – as as s 1–e as as 1 – e 1 + as 1 – e – as – as 9.– ae – -------.= --.F s = ------------------------. 1 e s sin t – cos t F s = -----------------s ----------------------------------------– 2 1–e s +1 – s – st 0 1 1+e = -----------------s -----------------– 2 1–e s +1 – s 1 1+e 1 s = ------------.e = --.te dt = ------------------------– as a 0 a 1–e a te 0 – st dt (1) and from (4.-----------------.= ------------.1 + as 1 – e – as = -----------------------------– as 2 2 – as a 1–e as 1 – e s A 1 + as a A 1 + as Aa = ----------------------.1 + as – 1 + as e – as = --.1 – 1 + as e 2 2 2 s s s s Adding and subtracting as we get L t a 0 1 1 – as – as = --.40) of Example 4.-----------.– ---------------------------.--.– ------2 s s – st – st a 0 te e = --------.

and if the highest power m of N s is less than the highest power n of D s . i. F s is said to be expressed as a proper rational function. If m n .3) The coefficients a k and b k are real numbers for k = 1 2 n . the roots of N s in (5. m n . and Common Laplace transform pairs to lookup the Inverse Laplace transform. it is repeated here for convenience.2) where N s and D s are polynomials.1 The Inverse Laplace Transform Integral The Inverse Laplace Transform Integral was stated in the previous chapter.. 5. L –1 F s 1= f t = ------2 j +j –j F s e ds st (5. are called the poles of F s . that is.= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------n n–1 n–2 D s an s + an – 1 s + an – 2 s + + a1 s + a0 m m–1 m–2 (5. these are called the zeros of F s . F s is an improper rational function. In a proper rational function. N s F s = ----------D s (5. The roots of D s .2 Partial Fraction Expansion Quite often the Laplace transform expressions are not in recognizable form. found by setting D s = 0 .Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation T his chapter is a continuation to the Laplace transformation topic of the previous chapter and presents several methods of finding the Inverse Laplace Transformation. but in most cases appear in a rational form of s . for most engineering problems we can refer to Tables of Properties.2) can be expressed as + bm – 2 s + + b1 s + b0 bm s + bm – 1 s N s F s = ----------. and thus (5. We assume that F s in (5.3) is a proper rational function.e. 5.1) This integral is difficult to evaluate because it requires contour integration using complex variables theory. The partial fraction expansion method is explained thoroughly and it is illustrated with several examples.3) are found by setting N s = 0 . Then. it is customary and very convenient Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-1 . Fortunately.

and find the time domain function f 1 t corresponding to F 1 s . Case I: Distinct Poles If all the poles p 1 p 2 p 3 p n of F s are distinct (different from each another). we rewrite F s as 1---. and p 1 p 2 p 3 p n are the poles of F s . or repeated. or complex conjugates.Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation to make the coefficient of s unity. the Fourier transform. we can factor the denominator of F s in the form N s F s = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------s – p2 s – p3 s – pn s – p1 (5.+ ----------------. we are mostly interested in the nature of the poles. we let s r k = lim s – p k F s = s – p k F s s pk s = pk (5.b s m + b m – 1 s m – 1 + b m – 2 s m – 2 + + b1 s + b0 an m N s F s = ----------.*we can express (5.5) as r2 r3 r1 F s = ----------------. 3s + 2 F 1 s = ------------------------2 s + 3s + 2 (5.+ s – p1 s – p2 s – p3 rn + ----------------s – pn (5. and in finding the inverses of the Laplace transform.7) Example 5.4) can be real and distinct. and the z-transform.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a1 D s a0 n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 s + ----------. This method allows us to decompose a rational polynomial into smaller rational polynomials with simpler denominators from which we can easily recognize their integrals and inverse transformations. 5-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we multiply both sides of (5. thus. p k . then.6) where r 1 r 2 r 3 r n are the residues.4) The zeros and poles of (5.5) where p k is distinct from all other poles. so we will consider each case separately.8) below. Next. This method is also being taught in intermediate algebra and introductory calculus courses.6) by s – p k .s + + ---.+ ----------------. However. It is used extensively in integration.s + ---an an an an n (5. or combinations of real and complex conjugates. that is. To evaluate the residue r k . using the partial fraction expansion method.s + ----------.8) * The partial fraction expansion method applies only to proper rational functions.1 Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 1 s of (5.

8). 4 –1 F 1 s = --------------. can be found easily using the MATLAB residue(a.= --------------. 3.11) Therefore. we use the code Ns = [3.12) and from Table 4. Ds) and MATLAB returns the values r = 4 -1 p = -2 -1 k = [] Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-3 .+ --------------s+2 s+1 – e + 4e –t – 2t u0 t = f1 t (5.= --------------. we express (5.+ --------------2 s+1 s+2 s+1 s+2 s + 3s + 2 (5.9) The residues are 3s + 2 r 1 = lim s + 1 F s = --------------s+2 s –1 = –1 s = –1 (5.+ --------------2 s+2 s+1 s + 3s + 2 (5.= -------------------------------.b) function.14) The residues and poles of a rational function of polynomials such as (5. p. For this example. 2].2 of Chapter 4 e – at u0 t 1 ---------s+a (5.13) Then. k] = residue(Ns. we get r2 r1 3s + 2 3s + 2 F 1 s = ------------------------. 2].9) as 4 –1 3s + 2 F 1 s = ------------------------.Partial Fraction Expansion Solution: Using (5. Ds = [1.10) and 3s + 2 r 2 = lim s + 2 F s = --------------s+1 s –2 = 4 s = –2 (5.6). [r.

factor(s^3 + 12*s^2 + 44*s + 48) ans = (s+2)*(s+4)*(s+6) Then. The first value of the vector r is associated with the first value of the vector p.= ------------------------------------------------.+ --------------. whereas the highest power of the numerator is s and therefore the direct term is empty. We can also use the MATLAB ilaplace(f) function to obtain the time domain function directly from F s . and find the time domain function f 2 t corresponding to F 2 s .Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation For this MATLAB code. we use the MATLAB factor(s) symbolic function to express the denominator polynomial of F 2 s in factored form. pretty(ft) When this code is executed. The vector k is referred to as the direct term and it is always empty (has no value) whenever F s is a proper rational function. 3s + 2s + 5 F 2 s = -----------------------------------------------2 3 s + 12s + 44s + 48 2 (5. syms s. syms s t. that is. 2 2 r1 r2 r3 3s + 2s + 5 3s + 2s + 5 F 2 s = -----------------------------------------------. When this code is executed. we defined Ns and Ds as two vectors that contain the numerator and denominator coefficients of F s .exp(-t) Example 5. ft=ilaplace(Fs).15) Solution: First. MATLAB displays the expression 4 exp(-2 t).16) The residues are 5-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .15) below. This is done with the code that follows. when the highest degree of the denominator is larger than that of the numerator. MATLAB displays the r and p vectors that represent the residues and poles respectively. For this example.2 Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 2 s of (5.+ --------------2 3 s+2 s+4 s+6 s+2 s+4 s+6 s + 12s + 44s + 48 (5. and so on. we observe that the highest power of the denominator is s 2 . For this example. Fs=(3*s+2)/(s^2+3*s+2).= --------------. the second value of r is associated with the second value of p.

+ --------------2 3 s+6 s+2 s+4 s + 12s + 44s + 48 2 (5. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-5 .22) Check with MATLAB: syms s t. Example 5. 9 8 . is also a root of D s . The partial fraction expansion method can also be used in this case.= --------------. Fs = (3*s^2 + 4*s + 5) / (s^3 + 12*s^2 + 44*s + 48). and since complex poles occur in complex conjugate pairs. by substitution into (5. and find the time * A review of complex numbers is presented in Appendix B of Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. ft = ilaplace(Fs) ft = -37/4*exp(-4*t)+9/8*exp(-2*t)+89/8*exp(-6*t) Case II: Complex Poles Quite often.e – ----.3 Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 3 s of (5.23) below. its complex conjugate pole.2 of Chapter 2 e – at u0 t 1---------s+a (5. if p k is a complex root of D s .21) Then.16) we get 9 8 – 37 4 89 8 3s + 2s + 5 F 2 s = -----------------------------------------------. the poles of F s are complex*.19) s = –6 Then.17) s = –4 37 = – ----4 89 = ----8 (5.18) 3s + 2s + 5 r 3 = -------------------------------s+2 s+4 (5.Partial Fraction Expansion 3s + 2s + 5 r 1 = -------------------------------s+4 s+6 3s + 2s + 5 r 2 = -------------------------------s+2 s+6 2 2 2 s = –2 9 = -8 (5. then.– 37 4 89 8F 2 s = --------------. Thus. but it may be necessary to manipulate the terms of the expansion in order to express them in a recognizable form.+ --------------. The procedure is illustrated with the following example.e + ----.20) From Table 2.+ --------------s+6 s+4 s+2 9 – 2t 37 – 4t 89 – 6t -. the number of complex poles is even.+ --------------.e u0 t = f2 t 8 8 4 (5. denoted as p k .

23) Solution: Let us first express the denominator in factored form to identify the poles of F 3 s using the MATLAB factor(s) function. s+3 F 3 s = -----------------------------------------2 3 s + 5s + 12s + 8 (5.---------------------.Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation domain function f 3 t corresponding to F 3 s .– 8 – j4 = ---------------------. syms s.+ --------------------------. 5-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .24). roots_p=roots(p) roots_p = -2.= --------------. factor(s^3 + 5*s^2 + 12*s + 8) ans = (s+1)*(s^2+4*s+8) The factor(s) function did not factor the quadratic term.0000i Then. Then.= -----------------------------------------------------------------------2 3 s + 1 s + 2 + j2 s + 2 – j2 s + 5s + 12s + 8 or r2 r1 r2 s+3 F 3 s = -----------------------------------------.+ -----------------------2 3 s+1 s + 2 + j2 s + 2 –j 2 s + 5s + 12s + 8 (5.– ----5 20 (5.2.j3 -----------------------– 8 + j4 – 8 – j4 5 20 80 r2 1 j3 = – -. We will use the roots(p) function.0000 + 2.+ ----5 20 1 j3 = – -.0000 .0000i -2.24) The residues are s+3 r 1 = ------------------------2 s + 4s + 8 s+3 r 2 = ----------------------------------------s + 1 s + 2 –j 2 2 = -5 (5. s+3 s+3 F 3 s = -----------------------------------------. p=[1 4 8].= – 16 + j12 = – 1 + -----.25) s = –1 s = – 2 – j2 1 – j2 1 – j2 = -----------------------------------.= -----------------– 8 + j4 – 1 – j2 – j4 1 – j2 .27) By substitution into (5.26) (5.

returned (-2*s-1)/ (5*s^2+20*s+40) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-7 .-------------------------------2 2 2 5 s + 2 2 + 22 s+2 +2 2 = – -5 s+2 -------------------------------2 2 s+2 +2 3+ ----10 2 -------------------------------2 2 s+2 +2 F 32 (5.29) as F 31 s . 2 5 F 31 s = --------------s+1 2 –t -.– -.s+1+3–3 2 2 2 2 -------------------------------–3 2 s+2 . and the second as F 32 s . we used MATLAB with simple(( 1/5 +3j/20)/(s+2+2j)+( 1/5 3j/20)/(s+2 2j)).= – 2 -------------------------------. The simple function.e = f 31 t 5 (5. for F 32 s 2s + 1 1 F 32 s = – -.. Then.-----------------------------2 5 s + 4s + 8 (5. after several simplification tools that were displayed on the screen.33) * Here.30) Next. we denote the first term on the right side of (5.-----------------------------s+1 5 s 2 + 4s + 8 (5.Partial Fraction Expansion 2 5 .F 3 s = --------------. we will express them in a different form.29) For convenience.28) is written as 2 5 1 2s + 1 .-. We combine them into a single term*.+ -----------.+ – 1 5 + j3 20 + – 1 5 – j3 20 s + 2 –j 2 s + 2 + j2 s+1 (5. and now (5. do not resemble any Laplace transform pair that we derived in Chapter 2.28).-.+ -------------------------------s = – --2 2 2 2 2 2 5 s+2 +2 5 s+2 +2 s+2 +2 2 s+2 6 10 -= – 2 -------------------------------.----------------------------------. Therefore.28) The last two terms on the right side of (5.31) and recalling that e e – at sin tu 0 t cos tu 0 t ------------------------------2 2 s+a + s+a ------------------------------2 2 s+a + – at (5.32) we express F 32 s as -.---------------------------------F 3 s = --------------.

+ s – p2 s – p3 rn + ----------------s – pn r 1m + ----------------s – p1 (5.35) For the simple poles p 1 p 2 p n .+ --------------------------. that is. we express it as N s F s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m s – pn – 1 s – pn s – p1 s – p2 (5. For this condition.+ ----------------. % Define several symbolic variables Fs=(s + 3)/(s^3 + 5*s^2 + 12*s + 8). we find the residues as s pk s = pk r k = lim s – p k F s = s – p k F s (5.e – -. say p 1 . the partial frac- Denoting the m residues corresponding to multiple pole p 1 as r 11 r 12 r 13 tion expansion of (5.e –2t sin 2t = f 3 t 10 5 5 3 2 + ----. are found by multiplication of m .33) yields s+2 2 5 .34) is written as r 11 r 12 r 13 F s = -------------------.e cos 2t + ----.Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation Addition of (5.2 F 3 s = F 31 s + F 32 s = --------------. we proceed as before. F s has simple poles.-------------------------------10 s + 2 2 + 2 2 Check with MATLAB: syms a s t w.30) with (5.37) 5-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . has a multiplicity m .34) r 1m . Then.36) The residues r 11 r 12 r 13 both sides of (5.+ m m–1 m–2 s – p1 s – p1 s – p1 r2 r3 + ----------------.+ s – p2 s – p3 rn + ----------------s – pn (5. but one of the poles.-------------------------------s + 1 5 s + 2 2 + 22 3 2 – t 2 – 2t -.+ --------------------------. 2 F s = r 11 + s – p 1 r 12 + s – p 1 r 13 + + s – p1 m + s – p1 m–1 r 1m r3 r2 ----------------.– -.+ ----------------. ft=ilaplace(Fs) ft = 2/5*exp(-t)-2/5*exp(-2*t)*cos(2*t) +3/10*exp(-2*t)*sin(2*t) Case III: Multiple (Repeated) Poles In this case.35) by s – p s – p1 m r 1m corresponding to the repeated poles.

------------. that is. we get s p1 lim s – p 1 p1 m F s = r 11 + lim + lim s p1 s – p 1 r 12 + s – p 1 r 13 + s – p1 m 2 + s – p1 m–1 r 1m r3 r2 ----------------.38) yields the residue of the first repeated pole.41) or 1 -d r 1k = lim ----------------.40) whose m – 1 th derivative of both sides is k – 1 !r 1k 1 d = lim ----------------.38) and thus (5.37) with respect to s and again. we let s p 1 .43) below.37). and thus in partial fraction expansion form. taking the limit as s s p 1 on both sides of (5.s – p 1 s p 1 k – 1 ! ds k – 1 k–1 m F s (5. and find the time domain function f 4 t corresponding to F 4 s . d r 12 = lim ---. The residue r 12 for the second repeated pole p 1 .39) In general.+ ----------------.s – p 1 s p 1 k – 1 ! ds k – 1 k–1 m F s (5.4 Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 4 s of (5.Partial Fraction Expansion Next.42) Example 5. s+3 F 4 s = ----------------------------------2 s+2 s+1 (5.s – p 1 s p 1 ds m F s (5.+ s – p2 s – p3 rn + ----------------s – pn or r 11 = lim s – p 1 s p1 m F s (5.------------.43) Solution: We observe that there is a pole of multiplicity 2 at s = – 1 . is found by differentiating (5. the residue r 1k can be found from s – p1 m F s = r 11 + r 12 s – p 1 + r 13 s – p 1 2 + (5. F 4 s is written as Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-9 .

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
r 21 r1 r 22 s+3 F 4 s = ----------------------------------- = --------------- + ------------------ + --------------2 2 s+2 s+1 s+2 s+1 s+1

(5.44)

The residues are
s+3 r 1 = -----------------2 s+1 ---------r 21 = s + 3 s+2 d s+3 r 22 = ---- ---------ds s + 2 = 1
s = –2

= 2
s = –1

s = –1

s+2 – s+3 = -------------------------------------2 s+2

= –1
s = –1

The value of the residue r 22 can also be found without differentiation as follows: Substitution of the already known values of r 1 and r 21 into (5.44), and letting s = 0 *, we get
s+3 ----------------------------------2 s+1 s+2 1 = --------------s+2 2 + -----------------2 s+1 s=0 r 22 + --------------s+1

s=0

s=0

s=0

or
3 1 -- = -- + 2 + r 22 2 2

from which r 22 = – 1 as before. Finally,
2 s+3 1 –1 F 4 s = ----------------------------------- = --------------- + ------------------ + --------------2 2 s+2 s+1 s+1 s+2 s+1 e
– 2t

+ 2te – e = f 4 t

–t

–t

(5.45)

Check with MATLAB:
syms s t; Fs=(s+3)/((s+2)*(s+1)^2); ft=ilaplace(Fs) ft = exp(-2*t)+2*t*exp(-t)-exp(-t)

We can use the following code to check the partial fraction expansion.
syms s Ns = [1 3]; expand((s + 1)^2); d1 = [1 2 1]; d2 = [0 1 2]; % Coefficients of the numerator N(s) of F(s) % Expands (s + 1)^2 to s^2 + 2*s + 1; % Coefficients of (s + 1)^2 = s^2 + 2*s + 1 term in D(s) % Coefficients of (s + 2) term in D(s)

* This is permissible since (5.44) is an identity.

5-10

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Partial Fraction Expansion
Ds=conv(d1,d2); [r,p,k]=residue(Ns,Ds) % Multiplies polynomials d1 and d2 to express the % denominator D(s) of F(s) as a polynomial

r = 1.0000 -1.0000 2.0000 p = -2.0000 -1.0000 -1.0000 k = [] Example 5.5 Use the partial fraction expansion method to simplify F 5 s of (5.46) below, and find the time domain function f 5 t corresponding to the given F 5 s .
s + 3s + 1 F 5 s = ------------------------------------3 2 s+1 s+2
2

(5.46)

Solution: We observe that there is a pole of multiplicity 3 at s = – 1 , and a pole of multiplicity 2 at s = – 2 . Then, in partial fraction expansion form, F 5 s is written as
r 21 r 11 r 12 r 13 r 22 F 5 s = ------------------ + ------------------ + --------------- + ------------------ + --------------3 2 2 s+1 s+2 s+1 s+1 s+2

(5.47)

The residues are
s + 3s + 1 r 11 = ------------------------2 s+2 d- s + 3 s + 1 r 12 = ---- ------------------------2 ds s+2
2 2 2

= –1
s = –1

s = –1 2

s + 2 2s + 3 – 2 s + 2 s + 3 s + 1 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 s+2

s = –1

s+4 = -----------------3 s+2

=3
s = –1

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-11

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
1 d s + 3s + 1 - r 13 = ---- ------- ------------------------2 2! ds 2 s+2 1 d- s + 4 = -- ---- -----------------2 ds s + 2 3
2 2

s = –1

1 d d s + 3s + 1 - - = -- ---- ---- ------------------------2 2 ds ds s+2
3 2

2

s = –1

s = –1

1 s + 2 – 3 s + 2 s + 4= -- --------------------------------------------------------------6 2 s+2 –s–5 = -----------------4 s+2 = –4
s = –1

s = –1

1 s + 2 – 3s – 12 = -- ---------------------------------4 2 s+2

s = –1

Next, for the pole at s = – 2 ,
s + 3s + 1 r 21 = ------------------------3 s+1
2

= 1
s = –2

and
d s + 3s + 1 r 22 = ---- ------------------------3 ds s+1
2

s = –2 2

s + 1 2s + 3 – 3 s + 1 s + 3 s + 1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 s+1 – s – 4s = -------------------4 s+1
2

3

2

2

s = –2

s + 1 2s + 3 – 3 s + 3 s + 1 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------4 s+1

=4
s = –2

s = –2

By substitution of the residues into (5.47), we get
–1 3 –4 1 4 F 5 s = ------------------ + ------------------ + --------------- + ------------------ + --------------3 2 2 s+1 s+2 s+1 s+1 s+2

(5.48)

We will check the values of these residues with the MATLAB code below.
syms s; % The function collect(s) below multiplies (s+1)^3 by (s+2)^2 % and we use it to express the denominator D(s) as a polynomial so that we can % we can use the coefficients of the resulting polynomial with the residue function Ds=collect(((s+1)^3)*((s+2)^2))

Ds = s^5+7*s^4+19*s^3+25*s^2+16*s+4
Ns=[1 3 1]; Ds=[1 7 19 25 16 4]; [r,p,k]=residue(Ns,Ds)

r = 4.0000 1.0000 -4.0000 3.0000 -1.0000

5-12

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Case for m
p = -2.0000 -2.0000 -1.0000 -1.0000 -1.0000 k = [] From Table 2.2 of Chapter 2
e
– at

n

1 ---------s+a

te

– at

1 -----------------2 s+a

t

n – 1 – at

e

n–1 ! -----------------n s+a

and with these, we derive f 5 t from (5.48) as
–t –t – 2t – 2t 1 2 –t f 5 t = – -- t e + 3te – 4e + te + 4e 2

(5.49)

We can verify (5.49) with MATLAB as follows:
syms s t; Fs= 1/((s+1)^3) + 3/((s+1)^2) ft=ilaplace(Fs) 4/(s+1) + 1/((s+2)^2) + 4/(s+2);

ft = -1/2*t^2*exp(-t)+3*t*exp(-t)-4*exp(-t) +t*exp(-2*t)+4*exp(-2*t)

5.3 Case for m n
Our discussion thus far, was based on the condition that F s is a proper rational function. However, if F s is an improper rational function, that is, if m n , we must first divide the numerator N s by the denominator D s to obtain an expression of the form
F s = k0 + k1 s + k2 s +
2

+ km – n s

m–n

N s + ----------D s

(5.50)

where N s D s is a proper rational function. Example 5.6 Derive the Inverse Laplace transform f 6 t of
s + 2s + 2 F 6 s = ------------------------s+1
2

(5.51)

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-13

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
Solution: For this example, F 6 s is an improper rational function. Therefore, we must express it in the form of (5.50) before we use the partial fraction expansion method. By long division, we get
1s + 2s + 2 F 6 s = ------------------------- = ---------- + 1 + s s+1 s+1
2

Now, we recognize that
1 ---------s+1 e t s ? t
–t

and
1

but To answer that question, we recall that
u 0' t =

and
u 0'' t = ' t

where ' t is the doublet of the delta function. Also, by the time differentiation property
u 0'' t = ' t s F s – sf 0 – f ' 0 = s F s = s
2 2 2

1 -- = s s

Therefore, we have the new transform pair
s ' t

(5.52)

and thus,
1s + 2s + 2 F 6 s = ------------------------- = ---------- + 1 + s s+1 s+1
2

e +

–t

t + ' t = f6 t

(5.53)

In general,
d ------n dt
n

t

s

n

(5.54)

We verify (5.53) with MATLAB as follows:
Ns = [1 2 2]; Ds = [1 1]; [r, p, k] = residue(Ns, Ds)

r = 1

5-14

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion
p = -1 k = 1 1
t and ' t respectively.

Here, the direct terms k= [1 1] are the coefficients of

5.4 Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion
Partial fraction expansion can also be performed with the method of clearing the fractions, that is, making the denominators of both sides the same, then equating the numerators. As before, we assume that F s is a proper rational function. If not, we first perform a long division, and then work with the quotient and the remainder as we did in Example 5.6. We also assume that the denominator D s can be expressed as a product of real linear and quadratic factors. If these assumptions prevail, we let s – a be a linear factor of D s , and we assume that s – a that divides D s . Then, we can express F s as
r2 r1 N s F s = ----------- = ---------- + ----------------- + 2 s–a D s s–a
2 m

is the highest power of s – a

rm -----------------m s–a
2 n

(5.55) is the highest power

Let s + s + be a quadratic factor of D s , and suppose that s + s + of this factor that divides D s . Now, we perform the following steps: 1. To this factor, we assign the sum of n partial fractions, that is,
r2 s + k2 r1 s + k1 -------------------------- + --------------------------------- + 2 2 2 s + s+ s + s+ rn s + kn + --------------------------------n 2 s + s+

2. We repeat step 1 for each of the distinct linear and quadratic factors of D s 3. We set the given F s equal to the sum of these partial fractions 4. We clear the resulting expression of fractions and arrange the terms in decreasing powers of s 5. We equate the coefficients of corresponding powers of s 6. We solve the resulting equations for the residues Example 5.7 Express F 7 s of (5.56) below as a sum of partial fractions using the method of clearing the fractions.
– 2s + 4 F 7 s = ------------------------------------2 2 s +1 s–1

(5.56)

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-15

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
Solution: Using Steps 1 through 3 above, we get
r1 s + A r 22 r 21 – 2s + 4 F 7 s = ------------------------------------- = ------------------ + ----------------- + --------------2 2 2 2 s–1 s +1 s–1 s–1 s +1

(5.57)

With Step 4,
– 2s + 4 = r 1 s + A s – 1
2

+ r 21 s + 1 + r 22 s – 1 s + 1

2

2

(5.58)

and with Step 5,
– 2s + 4 = r 1 + r 22 s + – 2r 1 + A – r 22 + r 21 s + r 1 – 2A + r 22 s + A – r 22 + r 21
3 2

(5.59)

Relation (5.59) will be an identity is s if each power of s is the same on both sides of this relation. Therefore, we equate like powers of s and we get
0 = r 1 + r 22 0 = – 2r 1 + A – r 22 + r 21 – 2 = r 1 – 2A + r 22 4 = A – r 22 + r 21

(5.60)

Subtracting the second equation of (5.60) from the fourth, we get
4 = 2r 1

or
r1 = 2

(5.61)

By substitution of (5.61) into the first equation of (5.60), we get
0 = 2 + r 22

or
r 22 = – 2

(5.62)

Next, substitution of (5.61) and (5.62) into the third equation of (5.60) yields
– 2 = 2 – 2A – 2

or
A = 1

(5.63)

Finally by substitution of (5.61), (5.62), and (5.63) into the fourth equation of (5.60), we get

5-16

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Alternate Method of Partial Fraction Expansion
4 = 1 + 2 + r 21

or
r 21 = 1

(5.64)

Substitution of these values into (5.57) yields
– 2s + 4 2s + 1 2 1 F 7 s = ------------------------------------- = ------------------ + ----------------- – --------------2 2 2 2 s–1 s +1 s–1 s +1 s–1

(5.65)

Example 5.8 Use partial fraction expansion to simplify F 8 s of (5.66) below, and find the time domain function
f 8 t corresponding to F 8 s . s+3 F 8 s = -----------------------------------------2 3 s + 5s + 12s + 8

(5.66)

Solution: This is the same transform as in Example 5.3, where we found that the denominator D s can be expressed in factored form of a linear term and a quadratic. Thus, we write F 8 s as
s+3 F 8 s = ----------------------------------------------2 s + 1 s + 4s + 8

(5.67)

and using the method of clearing the fractions, we rewrite (5.67) as
r2 s + r3 r1 s+3 F 8 s = ----------------------------------------------- = ---------- + ------------------------2 2 s + 1 s + 4s + 8 s + 1 s + 4s + 8

(5.68)

As in Example 5.3,
s+3 r 1 = ------------------------2 s + 4s + 8 = 2 -5

(5.69)

s = –1

Next, to compute r 2 and r 3 , we follow the procedure of this section and we get
s + 3 = r 1 s + 4s + 8 + r 2 s + r 3 s + 1
2

(5.70)

Since r 1 is already known, we only need two equations in r 2 and r 3 . Equating the coefficient of s 2 on the left side, which is zero, with the coefficients of s 2 on the right side of (5.70), we get
0 = r1 + r2

(5.71)

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-17

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
and since r 1 = 2 5 , then r 2 = – 2 5 . To obtain the third residue r 3 , we equate the constant terms of (5.70). Then, 3 = 8r 1 + r 3 or
3 = 8 2 5 + r 3 , or r 3 = – 1 5 . Then, by substitution into (5.68), we get 2 5 1 2s + 1 - F 8 s = --------------- – -- -----------------------------s + 1 5 s 2 + 4s + 8

(5.72)

as before. The remaining steps are the same as in Example 5.3, and thus f 8 t is the same as f 3 t , that is,
2 –t 2 – 2t 3 –2t f 8 t = f 3 t = -- e – -- e cos 2t + ----- e sin 2t u 0 t 5 10 5

5.5 Summary
The Inverse Laplace Transform Integral defined as
L
–1 +j –j

F s

1 = f t = ------2 j

F s e ds

st

is difficult to evaluate because it requires contour integration using complex variables theory. For most engineering problems we can refer to Tables of Properties, and Common Laplace transform pairs to lookup the Inverse Laplace transform. The partial fraction expansion method offers a convenient means of expressing Laplace transforms in a recognizable form from which we can obtain the equivalent time-domain functions. If the highest power m of the numerator N s is less than the highest power n of the denominator D s , i.e., m n , F s is said to be expressed as a proper rational function. If m n , F s is an improper rational function. The Laplace transform F s must be expressed as a proper rational function before applying the partial fraction expansion. If F s is an improper rational function, that is, if m n , we must first divide the numerator N s by the denominator D s to obtain an expression of the form
F s = k0 + k1 s + k2 s +
2

+ km – n s

m–n

N s + ----------D s

In a proper rational function, the roots of numerator N s are called the zeros of F s and the roots of the denominator D s are called the poles of F s .

5-18

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Summary
The partial fraction expansion method can be applied whether the poles of F s are distinct, complex conjugates, repeated, or a combination of these. When F s is expressed as
r2 r3 r1 F s = ----------------- + ----------------- + ----------------- + s – p1 s – p2 s – p3 r1 r2 r3 r n are called the residues and p 1 p 2 p 3 rn + ----------------s – pn

p n are the poles of F s .

The residues and poles of a rational function of polynomials can be found easily using the MATLAB residue(a,b) function. The direct term is always empty (has no value) whenever F s is a proper rational function. We can use the MATLAB factor(s) symbolic function to convert the denominator polynomial form of F 2 s into a factored form. We can use the MATLAB collect(s) and expand(s) symbolic functions to convert the denominator factored form of F 2 s into a polynomial form. In this chapter we developed the new transform pair
s ' t
n

and in general,
d ------n dt
n

t

s

The method of clearing the fractions is an alternate method of partial fraction expansion.

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-19

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation 5.6 Exercises
1. Find the Inverse Laplace transform of the following:
4 a. ----------s+3

4 b. -----------------2 s+3 4 c. -----------------4 s+3 3s + 4 d. -----------------5 s+3
2

s + 6s + 3 e. ------------------------5 s+3

2. Find the Inverse Laplace transform of the following:
3s + 4 a. ---------------------------2 s + 4s + 85 4s + 5 b. --------------------------------2
2

s + 5s + 18.5

s + 3s + 2 c. ----------------------------------------------3 2 s – 16 d. ---------------------------------------------3 2 s+1 e. ------------------------------------------3 2
2

s + 5s + 10.5s + 9

s + 8s + 24s + 32

s + 6s + 11s + 6

3. Find the Inverse Laplace transform of the following:
3s + 2 a. ---------------2 s + 25
2

5s + 3b. -------------------- (See hint on next page) 2 s +4
2

5-20

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Exercises
1------ sin t + t cos t 2 1 -------- sin t – t cos t 3 2 s ----------------------2 2 2 s + 1 ----------------------2 2 2 s +
2

Hint:

2s + 3 c. --------------------------------2
3 2

s + 4.25s + 1

s + 8s + 24s + 32 d. ---------------------------------------------2 s + 6s + 8

e. e

– 2s

3 --------------------3 2s + 3

4. Use the Initial Value Theorem to find f 0 given that the Laplace transform of f t is
2s + 3 -------------------------------2 s + 4.25s + 1

Compare your answer with that of Exercise 3(c). 5. It is known that the Laplace transform F s has two distinct poles, one at s = 0 , the other at s = – 1 . It also has a single zero at s = 1 , and we know that lim f t = 10 . Find F s and f t .
t

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-21

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation 5.7 Solutions to Exercises
1. a.
4 ---------s+3 4e
– 3t

4 b. -----------------2 s+3

4te

– 3t

4 c. -----------------4 s+3

4 – 3t 2 – 3t ---- t 3 e = -- t 3 e 3 3!

d.
1 1 s+3 –5 3 3 s+4 3+5 3–5 3 3s + 4 ------------------ = ---------------------------------------------------------- = 3 ------------------------------- = 3 ------------------ – 5 -----------------5 4 5 5 5 s+3 s+3 s+3 s+3 s+3 355----- t 3 e – 3t – ---- t 4 e – 3t = 1 t 3 e –3t – ----- t 4 e – 3t 4! 12 3! 2

e.
2 2 2 1 s+3 6 1 s + 6s + 3 = s + 6s + 9 – 6 = ------------------ – ------------------ = ------------------ – 6 --------------------------------------------------------------------------5 5 5 5 5 3 s+3 s+3 s+3 s+3 s+3 s+3

1 6 1 1 ---- t 2 e –3t – ---- t 4 e –3t = -- t 2 e – 3t – -- t 4 e – 3t 2 4! 2 2!

2. a.
s+2 1 2 9 s+2 –2 3 3s + 4 3 s+4 3+2 3–2 3 - ---------------------------- = ---------------------------------------------------------- = 3 ------------------------------- = 3 ----------------------------- – -- ----------------------------2 2 2 2 9 2 2 2 2 s+2 +9 s+2 +9 s+2 +9 s + 4s + 85 s + 2 + 81 s+2 2 9 - = 3 ----------------------------- – -- -----------------------------2 2 9 2 2 s+2 +9 s+2 +9 3e
– 2t

2 – 2t cos 9t – -- e sin 9t 9

b.
s+5 4 4s + 5 4s + 5 4s + 5 -------------------------------- = ---------------------------------------------------- = --------------------------------------- = 4 --------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 5s + 6.25 + 12.25 s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 5s + 18.5 s + 10 4 – 10 4 + 5 4 s + 2.5 1 5 3.5 = 4 -------------------------------------------------------- = 4 -------------------------------------- – ------ --------------------------------------2 2 2 2 3.5 2 2 s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 2.5 + 3.5 10 3.5 s + 2.5 = 4 --------------------------------------- – ----- --------------------------------------2 2 7 s + 2.5 2 + 3.5 2 s + 2.5 + 3.5 4e
– 2.5t

10 – 2.5t cos 3.5t – ----- e sin 3.5t 7

c. Using the MATLAB factor(s) function we get:
syms s; factor(s^2+3*s+2), factor(s^3+5*s^2+10.5*s+9)

ans = (s+2)*(s+1) ans = 1/2*(s+2)*(2*s^2+6*s+9)

5-22

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Solutions to Exercises
Then,
s + 3s + 2 s+1 s+2 s+1 s+1 ----------------------------------------------- = --------------------------------------------------- = ---------------------------------- = --------------------------------------------------------------3 2 2 2 2 s + 5s + 10.5s + 9 s + 2 s + 3s + 4.5 s + 3s + 4.5 s + 3s + 2.25 – 2.25 + 4.5 1 0.5 1.5 s + 1.5 – 1.5 + 1 s + 1.5 = ------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------------------- – ------ ------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 1.5 s + 1.5 + 1.5 s + 1.5 + 1.5 s + 1.5 + 1.5 1 1.5 s + 1.5 = ------------------------------------------- – -- --------------------------------------- 2 2 2 2 3 s + 2.5 + 3.5 s + 1.5 + 1.5 e
– 1.5t 2

1 – 1.5t cos 1.5t – -- e sin 1.5t 3

d.
s – 16 s+4 s–4 s–4 s+2–2–4 --------------------------------------------- = ----------------------------------------------- = ----------------------------- = ----------------------------3 2 2 2 2 2 2 s + 8s + 24s + 32 s + 4 s + 4s + 8 s+2 +2 s+2 +2 6 2 1 s+2 = ------------------------------ – -- -----------------------------2 2 2 2 2 s+2 +2 s+2 +2 2 s+2 = ------------------------------ – 3 ----------------------------2 2 2 2 s+2 +2 s+2 +2 e
– 2t 2

cos 2t – 3e

– 2t

sin 2t

e.
1 s+1 s+1 ------------------------------------------ = ------------------------------------------------- = -------------------------------3 2 s+2 s+3 s+1 s+2 s+3 s + 6s + 11s + 6 r2 r1 1 = -------------------------------- = ---------- + ---------s+2 s+3 s+2 s+3 1 1 1 = -------------------------------- = ---------- – ---------s+2 s+3 s+2 s+3 1r 1 = ---------s+3 e
– 2t

=1
s = –2 – 3t

1r 2 = ---------s+2

= –1
s = –3

–e

3. a.
s 2 5 1 2 5 3s + 2 3s - ---------------- = --------------- + -- --------------- = 3 --------------- + -- --------------- - 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 s + 52 5 s +5 s +5 s + 25 s +5 2 3 cos 5t + -- sin 5t 5

b.
5s + 3 5s 3 -------------------- = ----------------------- + ----------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 s +4 s +2 s +2
2 2

1 1 5 ----------- sin 2t + 2t cos 2t + 3 ----------- sin 2t – 2t cos 2t 2 8 2 2

17 23 5 3 5 3 -- + ----- sin 2t + -- – ----- 2t cos 2t = ----- sin 2t + ----- t cos 2t 8 16 4 16 4 16

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

5-23

Chapter 5 The Inverse Laplace Transformation
c.
r1 r2 2s + 3 2s + 3 -------------------------------- = --------------------------------------- = ---------- + ----------------2 s+4 s+1 4 s+4 s+1 4 s + 4.25s + 1 2s + 3r 1 = ----------------s+1 4
s = –4

4 –5 = --------------- = -3 – 15 4
4

r 2 = 2s + 3 -------------s+4

s = –1 4

5 2- -= ------------ = 2 15 4 3

4 3 2 3 ---------- + ----------------s+4 s+1 4

2 -- 2e – 4t + e – t 3

d.
s + 8s + 24s + 32 s + 4s + 8 s + 4 s + 4s + 8 --------------------------------------------- = ----------------------------------------------- = ------------------------------ and by long division 2 s+2 s+4 s+2 s + 6s + 8 4 s + 4s + 8 ------------------------- = s + 2 + ---------s+2 s+2
2 3 2 2 2

' t +2

t + 4e

– 2t

e.
e
– 2s

3 --------------------3 2s + 3

e

– 2s

F s

f t – 2 u0 t – 2 3 1 2 – -- ---- t e - 8 2!
3 2 t

3 3 8 3 3 2 3 8 F s = --------------------- = ------------------------------ = --------------------------------- = ------------------------3 3 3 3 3 s+3 2 2s + 3 2 2s + 3 2s + 3 2

3 2 – = ----- t e 16

3 2 t

e

– 2s

F s = e

– 2s

3 --------------------3 2s + 3

3 ----- t – 2 2 e – 16
t 0

3 2 t–2

u0 t – 2

4. The initial value theorem states that lim f t = lim sF s . Then,
s

2s + 3 2s + 3s f 0 = lim s -------------------------------- = lim -------------------------------2 2 s s s + 4.25s + 1 s + 4.25s + 1 2+3 s 2s s + 3s s = lim ----------------------------------------------------------- = lim ------------------------------------------- = 2 2 2 2 2 2 s s s s + 4.25s s + 1 s 1 + 4.25 s + 1 s
2 2 2

2

The value f 0 = 2 is the same as in the time domain expression that we found in Exercise 3(c).
A s–1 5. We are given that F s = ------------------- and lim f t = lim sF s = 10 . Then, s s+1 t s 0 A s – 1s – 1lim s ------------------- = A lim --------------- = – A = 10 . Therefore, s 0 s s+1 s 0 s+1

r2 r1 20 ------------------------ ----F s = – 10 s – 1 - = --- + ---------- = 10 – ---------s s+1 s s+1 s s+1 f t = 10 – 20e
–t t

10 – 20e

–t

u 0 t , that is,

u 0 t and we see that lim f t = 10

5-24

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Chapter 6
Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms

T

his chapter presents applications of the Laplace transform. Several examples are given to illustrate how the Laplace transformation is applied to circuit analysis. Complex impedance, complex admittance, and transfer functions are also defined.

6.1 Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency
In this section we will derive the voltage-current relationships for the three elementary circuit devices, i.e., resistors, inductors, and capacitors in the complex frequency domain. a. Resistor The time and complex frequency domains for purely resistive circuits are shown in Figure 6.1.
Time Domain Complex Frequency Domain

+
vR t

iR t
R

v R t = Ri R t vR t i R t = ----------R

+
VR s IR s
R

V R s = RI R s VR s I R s = ------------R

Figure 6.1. Resistive circuit in time domain and complex frequency domain

b. Inductor The time and complex frequency domains for purely inductive circuits is shown in Figure 6.2.
Time Domain Complex Frequency Domain

+
vL t

di L v L t = L -----dt

+ sL
v L dt VL s IL s

V L s = sLI L s – Li L 0 iL 0 VL s I L s = ------------- + -------------Ls s

L

iL t

1 i L t = -L

t –

+

Li L 0

Figure 6.2. Inductive circuit in time domain and complex frequency domain

c. Capacitor The time and complex frequency domains for purely capacitive circuits is shown in Figure 6.3.

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

6-1

Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms
Time Domain Complex Frequency Domain

+
vC t

C + iC t

dv C i C t = C -------dt 1 v C t = --C
t –

+
i C dt VC s

1----sC

+
IC s

I C s = sCV C s – Cv C 0 vC 0 IC s V C s = ----------- + --------------sC s

+

vC 0 --------------s

Figure 6.3. Capacitive circuit in time domain and complex frequency domain

Note: In the complex frequency domain, the terms sL and 1 sC are called complex inductive impedance, and complex capacitive impedance respectively. Likewise, the terms and sC and 1 sL are called complex capacitive admittance and complex inductive admittance respectively. Example 6.1 Use the Laplace transform method to find the voltage v C t across the capacitor for the circuit of Figure 6.4, given that v C 0
= 6 V.
R

vS

+
12u 0 t V

C 1F

+
vC t

Figure 6.4. Circuit for Example 6.1

Solution: We apply KCL at node A as shown in Figure 6.5.
R

iR
C 1F

A

vS

+
12u 0 t V

+ iC
vC t

Figure 6.5. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 6.1

Then,
iR + iC = 0

or

6-2

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency
dv C v C t – 12u 0 t ------------------------------------ + 1 -------- = 0 dt 1

or
dv C -------- + v C t = 12u 0 t dt

(6.1)

The Laplace transform of (6.1) is
sV C s – v C 0 ----+ V C s = 12 s

or
12 s + 1 V C s = ----- + 6 s

or
6s + 12 V C s = -----------------s s+1

By partial fraction expansion,
r1 r2 6s + 12 V C s = ------------------ = --- + --------------s s+1 s s+1 ----------------r 1 = 6s + 12 s+1 6s + 12 r 2 = ----------------s = 12
s=0

= –6
s = –1 –t

Therefore,
12 6 V C s = ----- – ---------s s+1 12 – 6e
–t

= 12 – 6e

u0 t = vC t

Example 6.2 Use the Laplace transform method to find the current i C t through the capacitor for the circuit of Figure 6.6, given that v C 0
= 6 V. vS

+
12u 0 t V

C 1F

+

iC t vC t

Figure 6.6. Circuit for Example 6.2

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

6-3

dv C dv C –t –t d 12 – 6e u 0 t = 6e u 0 t + 6 i C t = C -------.7.– -.2).+ --------------.= ----s s s 1 12 6 6 1 + -. we get iC t + t – i C t dt = 12u 0 t (6. v C t = 12 – 6e –t u0 t Then. We apply KVL for the loop shown in Figure 6.1.s s s s s+1 ---------.= -------.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms Solution: This is the same circuit as in Example 6.I C s = 6 -s s or 6 I C s = ---------s+1 i C t = 6e u 0 t –t Check: From Example 6.I C s = ----.2) Next.2 1 Ri C t + --C t – i C t dt = 12u 0 t and with R = 1 and C = 1 .= dt dt dt t (6. we get vC 0 IC s 12 I C s + ----------. R vS + 12u 0 t V C + vC t iC t 1F Figure 6.7. 6-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1. Application of KVL for the circuit of Example 6.= -. taking the Laplace transform of both sides of (6.3) is a result of the unit step that is applied at t = 0 .3) The presence of the delta function in (6.

our second initial condition is i L1 0 For t 0 . t = 0 t = 0 1F C is t 2A R1 2 S2 L 1 0.Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency Example 6.8. 1 1/s 2 0.4) * Henceforth.8 into its s-domain* equivalent shown in Figure 6. we must consider two initial conditions One is given as v C 0 = 3 V . switch S 2 opens. Circuit for Example 6. Transformed circuit of Example 6. switch S 1 closes at t = 0 .3 In the circuit of Figure 6.5s 1V 1 3/s Figure 6. current of 2 A in inductor L 1 . we will refer the time domain as t-domain and the complex frequency domain as sdomain Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-5 .9. This is found from the relation L 1 i L1 0 1 = -2 2 = 1V + (6.5 H + S1 vC 0 + v out t 1 = 3V R2 L2 Figure 6. The other initial condition is obtained by observing that there is an initial = 2 A.3 0. while at the same time. we transform the circuit of Figure 6. for convenience. this is provided by the 2 A current source just before switch S 2 opens.5 H i L1 t 0.9.9 the current in L 1 has been replaced by a voltage source of 1 V . Use the Laplace transform method to find v out t for t 0 .3 Solution: Since the circuit contains a capacitor and an inductor. Therefore.5s + V out s + In Figure 6.8.

43s + 0.3132j))% Find quadratic form y = s^2+3573/2500*s+3043737/5000000 3573/2500 % Find coefficient of s ans = 1. r=roots(p) % Find the roots of D(s) r = -6.7146 + 0.61 (6. The initial capacitor voltage is replaced by a voltage source equal to 3 s .5708 -0.3132i -0.3132i y=expand((s + 0.= 0 1 s+2+s 2 1 s 2 (6. r1 r2 s + r3 2s s + 3 V out s = --------------------------------------------------------------------.7) Now.61 s + 8s + 10s + 4 (6.43s + 0.7146 + 0.4292 3043737/5000000 % Find constant term ans = 0.8) 6-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= --------------------------------------------------------------------3 2 2 s + 6.= -----------------. we get V out s V out s – 1 – 3 s V out s ----------------------------------------.7146 .+ ---------------------------------------2 2 s + 6. we perform partial fraction expansion.9 so that it is consistent with the direction of the current i L1 t in the circuit of Figure 6. 2s s + 3 2s s + 3 V out s = -----------------------------------------.6) We will use MATLAB to factor the denominator D s of (6.8 just before switch S 2 opens.57 s + 1.+ ---------------.43s + 0.6087 Therefore.7146 0.3132j)*(s + 0.61 s + 6.6) into a linear and a quadratic factor.0.57 s + 1.5) and after simplification 2s s + 3 V out s = -----------------------------------------3 2 s + 8s + 10s + 4 (6. Applying KCL at node .Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms The polarity of this voltage source is as shown in Figure 6.57 s + 1.+ ---------------. p=[1 8 10 4].

12 1.and e – at sin tu 0 t 2 2 s+a + ------------------------------. equating coefficients of s 2 .64s + 0.57 2 (6.46 – 0. The remaining steps are carried out in 2 2 s+a + (6.715 + 0.10) Equating constant terms of (6.316 s + 0.+ 0. we get 0 = 0.57 s 2 + 1.51 + 0. we get 2 = r1 + r2 and using the known value of r 1 .11) By substitution into (6.12).57 s + 0.10).43s + 0.64s – 0.36 0.43s + 0.57 s + 0.43s + 0.36 s = – 6..36 V out s = -----------------.316 1.64 ------------------------------------------------------2 2 s + 6.9).57 s 2 + 1.715 + 0.61 s + 6.61r 1 + 6.57 s + 0.316 s + 0.715 0.36 0.64 (6.58 = -----------------.61 = 1.64 s + 0.– ------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 s + 6.57 (6.9) The residues r 2 and r 3 are found from the equality 2s s + 3 = r 1 s + 1.43s + 0.1 or s + 0.Circuit Transformation from Time to Complex Frequency 2s s + 3 r 1 = ---------------------------------------2 s + 1.+ ---------------------------------------. we get r 2 = 0.58 V out s = -----------------. we get 0.in a form that resembles the transform pairs 2 s + 1.64s – 0.316 = -----------------.12) Taking the Inverse Laplace of (6.43s + 0. we get r 3 = – 0.36 0.316 (6.12 Similarly.+ ------------------------------------------------------.12 * We perform these steps to express the term ---------------------------------------.715 + 0.91 1. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-7 .715 – 0.715 1.61 + r 2 s + r 3 s + 6.* s + 6.– ------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 s + 6.64 s + 0. 1.61 e – at cos tu 0 t s+a ------------------------------.316 1.36 0.715 + 0.+ -----------------------------------------------------.8).12).57r 3 and by substitution of the known value of r 1 from (6.715 + 0.84 0.+ ------------------------------------------------------.= -----------------.

316t – 1. sC VS s I s = ----------------------------------R + sL + 1 sC (6.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms v out t = 1. Z s is a complex quantity. Then.13) 6.17) We recall that s = + j .84e – 0. and it is referred to as the complex input impedance of an s -domain RLC series circuit.represents the total opposition to current flow. the sum R + sL + -----. Therefore. Z s is the ratio of the voltage excitation V s s to the current response I s under zero state (zero initial conditions).16) where 1 Z s = R + sL + ----sC (6.10. the s -domain current I s can be found from VS s I s = -----------Z s (6. Series RLC circuit in s-domain 1 For this circuit. we get Z s VS s 1-----------. In other words.14) and defining the ratio V s s I s as Z s .= R + sL + ----I s sC (6. where the initial conditions are assumed to be zero.15) and thus.57t + 0.10.715t sin 0.316t u 0 t (6. R sL + 1 ----sC V out s + VS s I s Figure 6.64e – 0. 6-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .36e – 6.2 Complex Impedance Z(s) Consider the s -domain RLC series circuit of Figure 6.715t cos 0.

12. 3 2 VS s s + 2s + s + 1 Z s = -----------.12. s Figure 6.18) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-9 .V S s 3 2 s + 2s + s + 1 3 The current I s is now found as 2 3 VS s – VA s 2s + 1 s +1 I s = -------------------------------. and we will compute Z s from (6.+ ----------------.+ ------------. VA s VA s VA s – VS s -------------------------------.= -----------------------------------2 I s 2s + 1 (6.11.= 0 1 s s+1 s 1 1 1 + -. 1 VA s I s s A 1 s + VS s s Figure 6.11.V S s 3 2 3 2 1 s + 2s + s + 1 s + 2s + s + 1 and thus.= 1 – -----------------------------------. Circuit for Example 6. Circuit for finding I s in Example 6. We assign the voltage V A s at node A as shown in Figure 6.4 Solution: First Method: We will first find I s .4 By nodal analysis. All values are in + VS s 1 s 1 s (ohms).V S s = -----------------------------------.Complex Impedance Z(s) Example 6.V A s = V S s s s+1 s s +1 V A s = -----------------------------------.15).+ ----------------.4 Find Z s for the circuit of Figure 6.

Parallel GLC circuit in s-domain For this circuit.13.13. looking to the right of terminals a and b .V s + sCV s = I s sL 1 G + ----. Z s = 2 Z 3 + Z 4 || Z 2 + Z 1 3 3 2 s s+1 s s +s s + 2s + s + 1 s +1 Z s = ------------------------.19) is the same as (6.14 where the initial conditions are zero.+ sC V s sL = I s Defining the ratio I S s V s as Y s .4 by series parallel combinations To find the equivalent impedance Z s .19) We observe that (6. as it is done with series and parallel resistances. Computation of the impedance of Example 6. Then.14. we start on the right side of the network and we proceed to the left combining impedances as we combine resistances.+ 1 = --------------------------.18).+ 1 = -----------------------------------2 2 2 s+s+1 s 2s + 1 s 2s + 1 2s + 1 (6.3 Complex Admittance Y(s) Consider the s -domain GLC parallel circuit of Figure 6. we denote the network devices as Z 1 Z 2 Z 3 and Z 4 shown in Figure 6. 1GV s + ----. we get 6-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . + V s IS s G 1 ----sL sC Figure 6. For this example.+ 1 = ---------------. 6.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms Second Method: We can also compute Z s by successive combinations of series and parallel impedances. a Z s 1 1 s s Z1 Z2 Z3 s Z4 b Figure 6.

+ sC sL (6.22) We recall that s = + j .21) where 1 Y s = G + ----.5 (ohms). Circuit for Example 6.5 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-11 . Y s is a complex quantity.15.15. Verify your 8 s 10 20 Solution: It is convenient to represent the given circuit as shown in Figure 6. All values are in answers with MATLAB. Z1 Z s Y s Z2 Z3 Figure 6.16. Y s is the ratio of the current excitation I S s to the voltage response V s under zero state (zero initial conditions). Simplified circuit for Example 6.+ sC = ---------V s Z s sL (6. and it is referred to as the complex input admittance of an s -domain GLC parallel circuit. Example 6.16. In other words.20) and thus the s -domain voltage V s can be found from IS s V s = ----------Y s (6.5 Compute Z s and Y s for the circuit of Figure 6. Therefore.= G + ----. 13s Z s Y s 5s 16 s Figure 6.Complex Admittance Y(s) Y s I s 1 1---------.

= ------------------.+ --------------------------------------------------s Z2 + Z3 ---------------------10 + 5s + 4 5s + 4 s 2 4 5s + 4 10 + 5s ---------------------2 2 s 13s + 8 13s + 8 20 5s + 14s + 8 = ------------------. z2 = 5*s + 10. z = z1 + z2 * z3 / (z2+z3) z = 13*s+8/s+(5*s+10)*(20+16/s)/(5*s+30+16/s) z10 = simplify(z) z10 = (65*s^4+490*s^3+528*s^2+400*s+128)/s/(5*s^2+30*s+16) pretty(z10) 4 3 2 65 s + 490 s + 528 s + 400 s + 128 ------------------------------------2 s (5 s + 30 s + 16) The complex input admittance Y s is found by taking the reciprocal of Z s . 1 s 5s + 30s + 16 Y s = ---------.= ------------------s s Z 2 = 10 + 5s 16 4 5s + 4 Z 3 = 20 + ----.+ ---------------------------------------------------. z1 = 13*s + 8/s.= ------------------.+ -----------------------------------------2 2 s s 5s + 10s + 4 5s + 4 5s + 30s + 16 ---------------------------------------------------s 2 65s + 490s + 528s + 400s + 128 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 s 5s + 30s + 16 4 3 2 Check with MATLAB: syms s. that is. z3 = 20 + 16/s.= ---------------------s s 2 Then.23) 6-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 3 2 Z s 65s + 490s + 528s + 400s + 128 2 (6. 4 5s + 4 10 + 5s ---------------------Z2 Z3 s 13s + 8 Z s = Z1 + ----------------.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms where 8 13s + 8 Z 1 = 13s + -.

Transfer Functions 6. where R g represents the internal resistance of the applied (source) voltage V S .4 Transfer Functions In an s -domain circuit. that is.17. is of great interest in network analysis..6 Solution: No initial conditions are given. and R L represents the resistance of the load that consists of R L . This ratio is referred to as the voltage transfer function and it is denoted as G v s . that is. the ratio of the output voltage V out s to the input voltage V in s under zero state conditions. Gi s I out s --------------I in s (6.17. + RL Rg L vg v out + C Figure 6. the ratio of the output current I out s to the input current I in s under zero state conditions. from now on. G s V out s ---------------V in s (6.24) Similarly.26) Example 6.e. Circuit for Example 6. and C . we would disregard them since the transfer function was defined as the ratio of the output voltage V out s to the input voltage V in s under Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-13 . Gv s V out s ---------------V in s (6.6 Derive an expression for the transfer function G s for the circuit of Figure 6.25) The current transfer function of (6. is called the current transfer function denoted as G i s . the transfer function will have the meaning of the voltage transfer function.25) is rarely used. and even if they were. therefore. L . i.

R2 R1 200 K 40 K R3 C2 10 nF 50K 25 nF vin C1 vout Figure 6. R L + sL + 1 sC V out s = -------------------------------------------------. replace the complex variable s with j . and the circuit constants with their numerical values and plot the magnitude G s = V out s V in s versus radian frequency .19 in terms of the circuit constants R 1 R 2 R 3 C 1 and C 2 Then.18. R L + Ls + 1 sC V out s G s = ---------------.. The s -domain circuit is shown in Figure 6. i.20. Circuit for Example 6.= -------------------------------------------------V in s R g + R L + Ls + 1 sC (6.18.V in s R g + R L + sL + 1 sC Then.18.e.6 The transfer function G s is readily found by application of the voltage division expression of the s -domain circuit of Figure 6.7 Compute the transfer function G s for the circuit of Figure 6.19.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms zero initial conditions.7 Solution: The s -domain equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 6. + RL Rg sL V in s V out s + 1 ----sC Figure 6. The s-domain circuit for Example 6. 6-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .27) Example 6.

+ ------------------------------. V out s V2 s – V1 s ------------------------------.+ ----. The s-domain circuit for Example 6.1.29) as V 1 s = – sR 3 C 2 V out s and by substitution of (6. V 1 s – V out s V 1 s – V in s V1 V1 s – V2 s ---------------------------------.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V in s 1 1 1 1 R1 ----.+ ----.= 0 1 sC 1 R1 R2 R3 At node 2.V in s R1 R2 (6. we get (6. we get: 1 ---.+ j 2.+ -------------.28).V out s = ---.28) (6.Transfer Functions 1/sC2 R3 V2 s 1/sC1 Vout (s) 2 R1 Vin (s) R2 1 V1 s Figure 6.+ sC 1 .7 Next.+ sC 1 sR 3 C 2 + ----R1 R2 R3 R2 By substitution of s with j G j or and the given values for resistors and capacitors. we express (6.+ ---.31) –1 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------–8 5 4 –8 1 1 -----------------.+ ---.= ----------------1 sC 2 R3 Since V 2 s = 0 (virtual ground). At node 1.29) (6. and collecting like terms.30) or V out s –1 G s = ----------------.20. rearranging.1R1 R2 R3 1 1 – sR 3 C 2 – ---.+ -----------------------------------.5 10 j 5 10 10 + --------------2 10 3 4 20 10 4 10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-15 . we write nodal equations at nodes 1 and 2.30) into (6.

Radian Frequency') The plot is shown in Figure 6.= -----------------------------------------------------------------------–6 2 –3 V in j 2.*w+5).abs(Gs)).*10.^( 3).Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms G j V out j –1 = --------------------. Figure 6.^( 6).*j.*w. title('Magnitude Vout/Vin vs.32) on a semilog scale with the following code: w=1:10:10000.5. hold on xlabel('Radian Frequency w').21.5 10 – j5 10 +5 (6. G j versus for the circuit of Example 6. Gs= 1.21. ylabel('|Vout/Vin|').*10.32) We use MATLAB to plot the magnitude of (6. semilogx(w.7 6-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . grid./(2. We observe that the given op amp circuit is a second order lowpass filter whose cutoff frequency ( – 3 dB ) occurs at about 700 r s .^2 5.

the ratio of the output voltage V out s to the input voltage V in s under zero state conditions is referred to as the voltage transfer function and it is denoted as G s . The expression 1 Z s = R + sL + ----sC is a complex quantity. that is.5 Summary The Laplace transformation provides a convenient method of analyzing electric circuits since integrodifferential equations in the t -domain are transformed to algebraic equations in the s domain. G s V out s ---------------V in s Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-17 . Likewise. In the s -domain the voltage V s can be found from IS s V s = ----------Y s In an s -domain circuit. In the s -domain the current I s can be found from VS s I s = -----------Z s The expression 1Y s = G + ----. and complex capacitive impedance respectively. and it is referred to as the complex input admittance of an s -domain GLC parallel circuit.+ sC sL is a complex quantity.Summary 6. In the s -domain the terms sL and 1 sC are called complex inductive impedance. and it is referred to as the complex input impedance of an s -domain RLC series circuit. the terms and sC and 1 sL are called complex capacitive admittance and complex inductive admittance respectively.

given that i L (0 = 0 and v C (0 L1 2H = 0. Use the Laplace transform method to compute v c t for t 0 .Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms 6. In the circuit of Figure 6.23. to compute i 1 t and i 2 t for the circuit of Figure 6. Circuit for Exercise 2 3. switch S has been closed for a long time. In the circuit of Figure 6. R2 3 R1 + 1 L2 i2 t + 1H v1 t = u0 t i1 t C + 1F v 2 t = 2u 0 t Figure 6. Use mesh analysis and the Laplace transform method. Circuit for Exercise 3 6-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and opens at t = 0 . switch S has been closed for a long time.24.F 9 vC t 10 K R5 Figure 6. t = 0 S L 20 1 mH R1 10 R2 + 32 V iL t Figure 6. Circuit for Exercise 1 2. and opens at t = 0 .22.6 Exercises 1.24. R1 6K t = 0 S R3 30 K 60 K C R4 20 K + 72 V R2 + 40 ----.22.23. Use the Laplace transform method to compute i L t for t 0 .

a.Exercises 4. Derive the transfer functions for the networks (a) and (b) of Figure 6. Derive the transfer functions for the networks (a) and (b) of Figure 6. and all initial conditions are zero.25. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-19 . Derive the transfer functions for the networks (a) and (b) of Figure 6. Circuit for Exercise 4 5. Networks for Exercise 5 6.28. compute the t -domain value of i 1 t when v 1 t = u 0 t . I1 s 1 R1 VC s + R3 3 1 R4 2 1 s R2 + V1 s Figure 6. R L + V in s (a) C + V out s + V in s (b) R + V 2 s = 2V C s + V out s Figure 6.26.27. C R + V in s (a) R + V out s + V in s (b) L + V out s Figure 6.25.27. compute the admittance Y s = I 1 s V 1 s b.26. For the s -domain circuit of Figure 6. Networks for Exercise 6 7.

R4 R3 R1 V in s R2 C1 C2 Figure 6.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms L + V in s C + R + V in s R L + V out s V out s (a) (b) Figure 6. Using MATLAB.6 k R3=R4 = 68. Networks for Exercise 7 8. Derive the transfer function for the network of Figure 6.29. C R1 V in s R2 R1 C R2 V out s (a) V in s (b) V out s Figure 6. Network for Exercise 9 V out s R1 = 11.1 k C1=C2 = 0.01 F versus 6-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29. on a semilog scale. plot G s frequency in Hertz.30.3 k R2 = 22. Derive the transfer function for the networks (a) and (b) of Figure 6. Networks for Exercise 8 9.30.28.

2 A 10 = 3.2 10 –3 V From the s -domain circuit above we get 3. At t = 0 inductor. At t = 0 the t -domain circuit is as shown below. IL s 20 1 mH –3 10 s iL 0 = 3.= ---------------------–3 s + 20000 20 + 10 s –3 3.2 10 3.7 Solutions to Exercises 1. iL t t=0 - 32 = ----.2 I L s = ------------------------.= 3.2 A and thus the initial condition has been established as i L 0 For all t 0 the t -domain and s -domain circuits are as shown below.2 A 20 + Li L 0 = 3. 6K 60 K 72 V 30 K iT t + + vC t 20 K i2 t 10 K Then. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-21 . the t -domain circuit is as shown below and the 20 S L 20 1 mH 10 resistor is shorted out by the + 32 V iL t Then.Solutions to Exercises 6.2e – 20000t u0 t = iL t 2.

5 10 s 22.5 K + 30 s 60 K 3 30 s + 30 K 20 K + 10 K = 22.5 10 30 30 30 22.5 10 + s 9 10 90 10 + s 3 3 Then. z 2 = 1 + 1 s . and z 3 = s + 3 z1 2s 1 + z3 3 s z2 I2 s + 1 s I1 s 1 s + 2 s 6-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 30 K 60 K 20 K 1 --------------------------------–6 40 9 10 s VC s 10 K 9 10 -----------------40s + 6 VR = VC s + VR 22.i T 0 2 = 1 mA and Therefore.5 10 s 9 10 40 + 22.= -----------------------------------.5 10 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------.V C s = V R = -----------------------------------------------------------.----.= -------------------------------------------------. The s -domain circuit is shown below where z 1 = 2s .= ---------------.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms iT 0 72 V 72 V 72 V = ----------------------------------------------------------.= ------------6 3 6 4 10 + s 9 10 40 22.5 K 3 22. 30 V C s = ------------s + 10 30e – 10t u0 t V = vC t 3.5 10 30 30 22. the initial condition is vC 0 = 20 K + 10 K i2 0 = 30 K 1 mA = 30 V For all t 0 the s -domain circuit is as shown below.= -----------------------------------------------------------6 3 6 3 9 10 40s + 22.= 2 mA 6 K + 60 K 60 K 6 K + 30 K 36 K i2 0 1 = -.5 10 .

. disp(r(2)*r(3)) root1 = -3. disp('root2+root3 ='). disp('Is2 = '). p=[2 9 6 3]... fprintf(' \n'). r=roots(p). s + 2s – 1 I 1 s = ------------------------------------------.(2) 3 2 2s + 9s + 6s + 3 2 2 We express the denominator of (1) as a product of a linear and quadratic term using MATLAB.8170 root2 = Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-23 .. disp('root3 =').(1) 3 2 2s + 9s + 6s + 3 4s + s + 1 I 2 s = – ------------------------------------------. disp(r(3)).------------------------------2 3 (6 s + 3 + 9 s + 2 s ) conj(s) Therefore. disp('root1 ='). disp(r(2)+r(3)). disp('Is1 = '). pretty(Is(2)) Is1 = 2 2 s . disp('root2 * root3 ='). z1 + z2 I1 s – z2 I2 s = 1 s – z2 I1 s + z2 + z3 I2 s = –2 s and in matrix form z1 + z2 –z2 –z2 z2 + z3 I1 s I2 s = 1 s –2 s Using MATLAB we get Z=[z1+z2 z2.. Is=Z\Vs... disp(r(2)). pretty(Is(1)). disp('root2 =')..1 + s ------------------------------2 3 (6 s + 3 + 9 s + 2 s ) conj(s) Is2 = 2 4 s + s + 1 .Solutions to Exercises Then. disp(r(1)). fprintf(' \n').. Vs=[1/s 2/s]'. z2 z2+z3].

= -------------------------.5257i root2 + root3 = -0.2f \t'.683 3.48 ----------------------s + 3.393 s + 0. fprintf('r1 = %5.2f \t'. we will use the MATLAB ilaplace(s) function to find the Inverse Laplace as shown below.+ --------------------------------------------------.817 s + 3.683r 1 + 3. fprintf(' \n')..393 Multiplying every term by the denominator and equating numerators we get s + 2s – 1 = r 1 s + 0.6830 root2 * root3 = 0. fprintf('r3 = %5.817 1.82t (5) The second term on the right side of (4) requires some manipulation.31 By substitution of these values into (3) we get r2 s + r3 r1 0.817 s + 3.5257i root3 = -0. Therefore.817 s + 0.683s + 0. 0.393r 1 + 3.393 0 3.31)/(s^2+0.683s + 0. B=[1 2 1]'.52*s 0. A=[1 1 0.817 s + 0.3930 and with these values (1) is written as 2 r2 s + r3 r1 s + 2s – 1 I 1 s = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. and constant terms we get r1 + r2 = 1 0..2f'.393 + r 2 s + r 3 s + 3.31 0.+ --------------------------------------------------. syms s t IL=ilaplace((0.393 s + 0.(4) 2 2 s + 3.r(1)).817 2 2 Equating s .817r 2 + r 3 = 2 0.683s + 0.= -------------------------.0.39)). 0.817r 3 = – 1 2 We will use MATLAB to find these residues.r(3)) r1 = 0. 6-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .48 I 1 s = -------------------------. r=A\B.3415 + 0.52 r3 = -0.393 By inspection.683s + 0.48 r2 = 0.48e – 3..(3) 2 2 s + 3.683s + 0.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms -0.3415 .82 0.68*s+0. fprintf('r2 = %5.52s – 0.+ --------------------------------------------------. the Inverse Laplace of first term on the right side of (4) is 0.817].r(2)). s .

817r 2 + r 3 = – 1 0.817 s + 3.-. We found earlier that 4s + s + 1 I 2 s = – ------------------------------------------3 2 2s + 9s + 6s + 3 2 and following the same procedure we have 2 r2 s + r3 r1 – 4s – s – 1 I 2 s = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------.93e – 0.2f \t'.817 1.---.683s + 0.683r 1 + 3.-.2f'. i 1 t = 0.817 s + 0.683s + 0.49 r2 = 0.53t + 0.817 2 2 Equating s .= -------------------------.817 s + 0. and constant terms we get r1 + r2 = –4 0. r=A\B.817r 3 = – 1 2 We will use MATLAB to find these residues.(7) 2 2 s + 3.393 s + 3.34t sin 0.393 Multiplying every term by the denominator and equating numerators we get – 4s – s – 1 = r 1 s + 0.20 I 1 s = -------------------------.20 By substitution of these values into (6) we get r1 r2 s + r3 – 4. the Inverse Laplace of first term on the right side of (7) is Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-25 . fprintf('r1 = %5.+ --------------------------------------------------.Solutions to Exercises pretty(IL) 1217 17 1/2 1/2 .393 s + 0.393 0 3.exp(.683s + 0. we will find I 2 s .. 0.683s + 0.= -------------------------.t) 14 sin(7/50 14 t) 4900 50 13 17 1/2 + -.393 + r 2 s + r 3 s + 3.393 By inspection.393r 1 + 3.34t cos 0.+ --------------------------------------------------.52e – 0. s . 0.2f \t'. fprintf('r3 = %5. fprintf(' \n').49s + 0.49 r3 = 0.683 3.(6) 2 2 s + 3.49 0..82t 50 – 0..817 s + 0.r(3)) r1 = -4.t) cos(7/50 14 t) 25 Thus.+ --------------------------------------------------.r(2)). A=[1 1 0.48e – 3.817].exp(.53t Next. B=[ 4 1 1]'. fprintf('r2 = %5.683s + 0.r(1)).

VC s + 1 1 s 1 3 + V1 s I1 s I2 s 2 a.t) cos(7/50 14 t) 100 50 Thus.20)/(s^2+0.-.47 e – 3.34t sin 0.49e – 0.t) 14 9800 50 1/2 sin(7/50 14 t) 49 17 1/2 + --.82 – 4.82t + 0.exp(.48 ----------------------s + 3.06e – 0.47 e – 3. we will use the MATLAB ilaplace(s) function to find the Inverse Laplace as shown below.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms 0.-.exp(. pretty(IL) 167 17 1/2 ---.68*s+0.39)).53t + 0. syms s t IL=ilaplace((0.82t (8) The second term on the right side of (7) requires some manipulation. i 2 t = – 4.49*s 0. Mesh 1: 2+1 s I1 s – I2 s = V1 s I 1 s – 6I 2 s = 6V 1 s or 6 2+1 s + V 2 s = 2V C s (1) (2) Mesh 2: – I 1 s + 6I 2 s = – V 2 s = – 2 s I 1 s Addition of (1) and (2) yields 12 + 6 s I1 s + 2 s – 1 11 + 8 s I 1 s = 6V 1 s or I 1 s = 6V 1 s 6-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore.53t 4.34t cos 0.

= --------------------------------------.= ---------------------.= ----------------11 + 8 s 11s + 8 V1 s b.= -----------------s+R L Ls + R V in s Both of these circuits are first-order low-pass filters.-.= -------------------11s + 8 s 11s + 8 s + 8 11 6----.V in s R + 1 Cs and V out s 1 RC 1 1 Cs 1 Cs G s = ---------------.= --------------.V in s Ls + R and V out s R LR G s = ---------------. With V 1 s = 1 s we get I1 s = Y s 6s .= -------------------.1 6 11 6 V 1 s = ----------------.e – 11 8 11 t = i1 t 5.= ----------------. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-27 .= ------------------.Solutions to Exercises and thus I1 s 6s 6 Y s = -----------.= ---------------------s + 1 RC RCs + 1 RCs + 1 Cs R + 1 Cs V in s Circuit (b): L + V in s R + V out s R V out s = --------------. Circuit (a): R + V in s 1 Cs + V out s 1 Cs V out s = ---------------------.

= ---------------------. 7. Circuit (a): + V in s L C + R V out s R V out s = ----------------------------------.= -----------------------. Circuit (a): C + V in s R + V out s R V out s = ---------------------.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms 6.= ---------------------V in s 1 Cs + R RCs + 1 s + 1 RC Circuit (b): R + V in s L + V out s Ls V out s = --------------.V in s Ls + 1 Cs + R 6-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .V in s 1 Cs + R and V out s R RCs s G s = ---------------.V in s R + Ls and V out s Ls s G s = ---------------.= --------------.= -----------------R + Ls s+R L V in s Both of these circuits are first-order high-pass filters.

V in s R + Ls + 1 Cs and 2 2 V out s Ls + 1 Cs LCs + 1 s + 1 LC G s = ---------------.= ----------------------------------.= ---------------------------------------. for this circuit R 1 Cs R 2 + 1 Cs s V V in s z z1 – R 2 1 Cs R 2 + 1 Cs – R 2 1 Cs –R1 C V out s G s = ---------------.= ------------------------------------------------2 2 V in s R + Ls + 1 Cs LCs + RCs + 1 s + R L s + 1 LC This circuit is a second-order band-elimination (band-reject) filter.= -------------------------------------. Circuit (b): + V in s R L + V out s Ls + 1 Cs V out s = ----------------------------------.= ----------------------------------. 8.= ------------------------V in s R1 R 1 R 2 + 1 Cs s + 1 R2 C This circuit is a first-order active low-pass filter. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-29 .Solutions to Exercises and V out s R RCs R L s G s = ---------------. Circuit (a): C R1 V in s R2 V out s 2 out 2 Let z 1 = R 1 and z 2 = ------------------------.= ------------------------------------------------2 2 V in s Ls + 1 Cs + R LCs + 1 + RCs s + R L s + 1 LC This circuit is a second-order band-pass filter.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------..= – ---.= -------------------------------------.and since for inverting op-amp ----------------.

= -------------------------V in s R 1 + 1 Cs s + 1 R1C This circuit is a first-order active high-pass filter.3 K R2 = 22.6 K R3=R4 = 68.+ -----------------------------------. R4 R3 R1 V2 R1 = 11.Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms Circuit (b): R2 R1 C V in s V out s out 2 Let z 1 = R 1 + 1 Cs and z 2 = R 2 and since for inverting op-amp ----------------. for this circuit V s V in s z z1 –R2 – R2 R1 s V out s G s = ---------------.= ------------------------..+ ----.= 0 R3 R4 or 1 1.V 1 s = ----.= 0 R2 1 C1 s 6-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1----.= – ---.V out s R4 R3 R4 (1) At Node V 3 : V3 s – V2 s V3 s -------------------------------.+ --------------. 9.01 F V out s V1 V3 R2 V in s C1 C2 At Node V 1 : V1 s V 1 s – V out s -----------.1 K C1=C2 = 0.

---------------------.+ -----------.V out s = ---------------------.– ----.Solutions to Exercises and since V 3 s = V 1 s we express the last relation above as V1 s – V2 s -------------------------------.V out s = -------------.V out s R3 + R4 R3 R4 R3 + R4 (4) From (2) 1 V 2 s = R 2 ----.---------------------.+ C 1 sV 1 s = 0 R2 or 1 1 ----.+ -----------------------------------.– C 2 s R3 + R4 R2 R3 + R4 R1 R2 By substitution of the given values and after simplification we get Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-31 .+ ----.= 0 R1 R2 1 C2 s or V in s V1 s 1 1 ----.+ C 2 s V 2 s = -------------.+ C 1 s V 1 s = ----.+ C 2 s ----------------------------------.+ C 2 s ----------------------------------.+ C 1 s V 1 s = 1 + R 2 C 1 s V 1 s R2 and with (4) R3 1 + R2 C1 s V 2 s = ----------------------------------.V out s + C 2 sV out s R2 R3 + R4 R3 + R4 R1 R2 R1 or R3 1 + R2 C1 s R3 1 1 1.+ ----.+ -------------------------------.+ C 2 sV out s R1 R2 R1 R2 (3) From (1) 1 R4 R3 V 1 s = --------------------------------------.– ----.V out s R3 + R4 (5) By substitution of (4) and (5) into (3) we get R3 1 + R2 C1 s R3 V in s 1 1 1 ----.+ ----.---------------------.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V in s R3 1 + R2 C1 s R3 1 1 1 R 1 ----.1----.V in s R1 R2 R3 + R4 R3 + R4 R1 R2 and thus V out s 1 G s = ---------------.+ C 2 s ----------------------------------.– C 2 s V out s = ----.+ ----.+ ----.V 2 s R2 R2 (2) At Node V 2 : V 2 s – V in s V2 s – V1 s V 2 s – V out s --------------------------------.

hold on xlabel('Radian Frequency w').Chapter 6 Circuit Analysis with Laplace Transforms 7.../(s. 6-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . s=j.*10.77 10 s + 5.*s+5. semilogx(w.*10. title('Magnitude Vout/Vin vs. Radian Frequency') 7 The plot above indicates that this circuit is a second-order low-pass filter.83.*w.^7. grid.abs(Gs))..87 10 w=1:10:10000. Gs=7.83 10 G s = --------------------------------------------------------------------2 4 7 s + 1.77.^4. ylabel('|Vout/Vin|').*10.^7).87.^2+1.

If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB . These plots reveal valuable information about the frequency response behavior. For this reason we use absolute values of power. However.1 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1 000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1 000 000 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications n 7-1 .1) Therefore. For instance. both versus frequency. 7. the common (base 10) logarithm of a number x will be denoted as log x while its natural (base e) logarithm will be denoted as ln x . and the common (base 10) logarithm is defined as log 10 x . voltage and current when these are expressed in dB terms to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss. This topic will enable us to determine which frequencies are dominant and which frequencies are virtually suppressed. if an amplifier has a gain of – 100 (dimensionless number). it means that the output is 180 out-of-phase with the input. P out dB = 10 log -------P in (7. and the other for the phase. we should remember that in MATLAB the log x function displays the natural logarithm. Note: Throughout this text. For instance. By definition.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots T his chapter discusses frequency response in terms of both amplitude and phase. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). We will also discuss the Bode method of linear system analysis using two separate plots. one for the magnitude of the transfer function. The design of electric filters is based on the study of the frequency response. the output is equal to the input. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels ( dB ). We should remember that a negative voltage or current gain A V or A I indicates that there is a 180 phase difference between the input and the output waveforms.

2 1 = 10 dB W Compute the gain in dB V for the amplifier shown in Figure 7. P in 1w P out 10 w Figure 7. 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1.2) and I out I out 2 dB i = 10 log ------.2 given that log 2 = 0. Since y = log x = 2 log x and P = V current ratios become: 2 2 R = I R .1. For instance. V in 1v V out 2v Figure 7. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 1.= 20 log --------V in V in (7. Amplifier for Example 7. 7-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 Likewise.3) Compute the gain in dB W for the amplifier shown in Figure 7.3 .2.1 Solution: P out dB W = 10 log --------.= 10 log 10 = 10 log 10 = 10 ----1 P in Example 7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots Also. 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 5 = 500 .2.25 = 2.1.1 (7. if we let R = 1 the dB values for the voltage and 2 V out V out 2 dB v = 10 log --------. Amplifier for Example 7.= 20 log ------I in I in Example 7. we can estimate other values.25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these.

Amplifier with partial output feedback Figure 7.3 = 20 -1 V in 0. for R = 1 and for v = 0. the magnitude of the output voltage V out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency as shown in Figure 7.5 shows an amplifier where the entire output is fed back to the input. At these frequencies. such as filters and amplifiers.707 and these two points are known as the 3 dB down or half-power points.3. that is. 1 0. Most amplifiers are used with a feedback path which returns (feeds) some or all its output to the input as shown in Figure 7. Consider.707 Bandwith V out 1 2 Figure 7.707 V out or i = 0.3.4. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-3 . As shown in Figure 7. They derive their name from the fact that since power p = v R = i R .3. for example.Bandwidth and Frequency Response Solution: V out dB V = 20 log --------. we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between halfpower points.707 I out the power is 1 2 . INPUT GAIN AMPLIFIER OUTPUT + FEEDBACK CIRCUIT Figure 7.= 20 log 2 = 20 log 0. Definition of the bandwidth. exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant. the bandwidth is BW = 2 – 1 where 1 and 2 are the lower and upper cutoff frequencies respectively. Alternately.3 = 6 dB V 7.4. V out = 2 2 2 2 = 0. it is “halved”.2 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Electric and electronic circuits.

5.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots INPUT GAIN AMPLIFIER OUTPUT + FEEDBACK PATH Figure 7. On the other hand. 7-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . is combined with the input signal. 7. The positive (+) sign below the summing point implies positive feedback which means that the output.4) If these frequencies are such that octave and if 2 2 = 2 1. (7. Practically. we say that these frequencies are separated by one = 10 1. all amplifiers use used with negative feedback since positive feedback causes circuit instability. is added to the input. we get 20log 10 G = 20log 10 C – 20log 10 G = – 20klog 10 k = – 20klog 10 + 20log 10 C or dB + 20log 10 C (7. is subtracted from the input. they are separated by one decade.6) where Relation (7.5) Let us now consider a transfer function G s whose magnitude is evaluated at s = j C G s = --k s = G s= j C= ----k Taking the log of both sides of (7.5) and multiplying by 20. This summing point may be also indicated with a large plus (+) symbol inside the circle. and let u 2 – u 1 = log 10 2 – log 10 1 = log 10 ----1 2 (7. or portion of it.6. or portion of it. that is. or portion of it.6) is an equation of a straight line in a semilog plot with abscissa log 10 dB slope = – 20k ----------------decade and intercept = C dB shown in Figure 7. the negative ( ) sign implies negative feedback which means that the output. Amplifier with entire output feedback The symbol (Greek capital letter sigma) inside the circle indicates the summing point where the output signal.3 Octave and Decade Let us consider two frequencies u 1 and u 2 defining the frequency interval u 2 – u 1 . .

–1 0 The ordinate ( dB axis) of the magnitude plot has a scale in dB units.) Magnitude (dB) 10 0 10 20 Bode Magnitude Plot 1 10 Frequency 100 90 45 0 45 90 Bode Phase Angle Plot 1 r/s 10 Frequency 100 r/s Figure 7.Bode Plot Scales and Asymptotic Approximations G dB G 30 C 20 10 0 1 log10 10 100 1000 axis intercept – 20 dB decade = – 6 dB octave 40 Figure 7.7. 10 and so on. and the ordinate of the phase plot has a scale in degrees as shown in Figure 7.6. 20 Phase Angle (deg. and the radian frequency 10 . 10 .4 Bode Plot Scales and Asymptotic Approximations Bode plots are magnitude and phase plots where the abscissa (frequency axis) is a logarithmic (base 10) scale.7. Straight line with slope – 20 dB decade = – 6 dB octave With these concepts in mind. we can now proceed to discuss Bode Plots and Asymptotic Approximations. Magnitude and phase plots Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-5 . 1 2 is equally spaced between powers of 10 such as 10 . 7.

7.+ 1 p1 p2 pn G j (7. For example.+ 1 z2 j . 7-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7) where A is a real constant. composed of products of terms can be computed by the sum of the dB magnitudes of the individual terms.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots It is convenient to express the magnitude in dB so that a transfer function G s .10) we can express (7.dB + -------------.+ 1 ----z1 z2 zm = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------j j j p n ----. and the zeros z i and poles p i are real numbers.dB 1+j 100 1+j and the Bode plots then can be approximated by straight lines called asymptotes.5 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Real Let us consider the transfer function A s + z1 s + z2 s + zm G s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------s + p2 s + p3 s + pn s s + p1 (7.+ 1 --------zm j .9) in dB magnitude and phase form.9) Letting m zi A z1 z2 zm i=1 K = -----------------------------------------. j 20 1 + -------100 1 j --------------------------------.7) we get (7.= A ------------n pn p1 p2 pi i=1 (7.= 20 dB + 1 + -------. Letting s = j G j in (7. we multiply and divide each numerator factor j + z i by z i and each denominator factor j + p i by p i and we get: A z1 j .+ 1 p 2 ----.8) j + z2 j + zm A j + z1 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------j j + p1 j + p2 j + p3 j + pn Next.+ 1 j p 1 ----. We will consider complex zeros and poles in the next section.

+ 1 + z1 z2 j j – 20 log j – 20 log ----.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Real G j j = 20 log K + 20 log ----.13) and taking the log of both sides and multiplying by 20 we get 20 log G j = 10n log a + 2 2 (7. Next.+ 1 + 20 log ----.12) The constant K can be positive or negative. Phase Angle (deg.10 respectively. that is.9 and 7. Its magnitude is K and its phase angle is 0 if K 0 .+ 1 – 20 log ----. the Bode plots for the magnitude and phase are as shown in Figures 7.+ 1 – p1 j ----. = a + 2 2 n 2 (7. The magnitude and phase plots for the constant K are shown in Figure 7.+ 1 + z1 j ----.11) (7.14) by letting u a (7. we consider the term G j The magnitude of this term is G j = a + 2 2 n n n = j –n at the origin. 1 j 7.11 and 7.+ 1 pn j ----. For a pole of order n .14) It is convenient to normalize (7. j at the origin.12 respectively.+ 1 zm j -+1 ----pn (7. Magnitude and phase plots for the constant K For a zero of order n .) Magnitude (dB) 20log|K| 0 Frequency r/s 0 K 0 r/s Frequency 180 K 0 Figure 7.8.+ 1 – p2 p1 G = – K+ j – j ----.+ 1 – p2 + – j + 20 log ----. the Bode plots are as shown in Figures = a+j n . that is.+ 1 zm j – 20 log ----.+ 1 + z2 j ----.8. and – 180 if K 0 .15) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-7 .

10 1.10 1. Magnitude for zeros of Order n at the origin 360 Phase Angle (deg) 270 180 90 0 0.9.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots 120 100 80 60 Magnitude in dB 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 0.00 Figure 7.00 (rad/s) 10.01 0.00 100.00 100. Phase for zeros of Order n at the origin Then.16) = 10n log 1 + u + 20n log a 7-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . (7.01 n=3 n=2 n=1 0.00 Figure 7.10.00 (r/s) n=1 n=2 n=3 10.14) becomes 20 log G ju = 10n log a 2 a + ----------------.= 10n log a 2 + 10 n log 1 + u 2 2 a 2 2 2 (7.

00 100.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Real 120 100 80 60 Magnitude in dB n=3 n=2 n=1 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 0. Magnitude for poles of Order n at the origin Phase Angle (deg) 0 -90 -180 -270 -360 0. Phase for poles of Order n at the origin For u « 1 the first term of (7. the two lines defined by the first term of (7. and n = 3 . one for u « 1 and the other for u » 1 intersect at the corner frequency u = 1 .00 (rad/s) 10.01 0.16) represents the ordinate axis intercept defined by this straight line. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-9 . this term becomes approximately 10n log u = 20n log u and this has the same form as G j ure 7. For u » 1 .10 1. 2 = j n which is shown in Fig- The frequency at which two aymptotes intersect each other forming a corner is referred to as the corner frequency.11. n = 2 .16).9 for n = 1 . Thus.10 1.00 (r/s) 10. The second term of (7.00 Figure 7.01 n=1 n=2 n=3 0.00 Figure 7.16) becomes 10n log 1 = 0 dB .00 100.12.

Order n for (a+j )n u= /a. n = 2 . Then.01 n=3 n=2 n=1 Corner Frequencies 0.16) for a = 10 .00 100. n = 1 .18) and letting n u = u = n tan u –1 2 (7. Magnitude for zeros of Order n for a + j n As shown in Figure 7.19) Figure 7.00 Asymptotes Figure 7. a+j n = a 1 + ju n n = a n 1+u 2 tan u –1 n = a 1+u n 2 n 2 jn e u (7.13. a quick sketch can be obtained by drawing the straight line asymptotes given by 10 log 1 = 0 and 10n log u for u « 1 and u » 1 respectively.19) is n u .00 Frequency u (r/s) 10.13. with (7. and n = 3 .18) Then.17) and u = tan u –1 (7.13 shows plots of the magnitude of (7.20) 7-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10 1. a=10 120 100 Magnitude in dB 80 60 40 20 0 0.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots The phase response for the term G j We let u a = a+j n is found as follows: (7. The phase angle of (7.

00 100.14.22) At the corner frequency u = a we get u = 1 and with (7.01 n=3 n=2 n=1 0.20) becomes u = – n tan u –1 (7.24) and (7.16) becomes – 20 log G ju n are similar to those of G j = a+j n = – 10 n log 1 + u – 20 n log a 2 (7.24) and (7.00 Figure 7. In this case (7.25) The plots for (7.23) Figure 7.16 respectively.14 shows the phase angle plot for (7. a=10 (u) = n*arctan(u)*180/ 360 Phase Angle (deg) 270 180 90 0 0. Order n for (a+j )n u= /a. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-11 .25) are shown in Figures 7.15 and 7.20) –1 ----1 = n tan 1 = n 4 (7.10 1.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Real we get lim u 0 u = lim n tan u = 0 u 0 –1 (7. Phase for zeros of Order n for a + j n The magnitude and phase plots for G j = 1 a+j except for a minus sign.00 u (rad/s) 10.19).21) and lim u –1 n u = lim n tan u = ----2 u (7.

we express the complex conjugate 2 roots as 7-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Phase for poles of Order n for 1 a+j n 7.00 100.00 u (rad/s) 10.6 Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex The final type of terms appearing in the transfer function G s are quadratic term of the form as + bs + c whose roots are complex conjugates. a=10 (u) = n*arctan(u)*180/ 0 Phase Angle (deg) -90 -180 -270 -360 0.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots Order n for 1/(a+j )n u= /a.00 Figure 7.00 Figure 7. Magnitude for poles of Order n for 1 a+j n Order n for 1/(a+j )n u= /a.00 Frequency u (r/s) 10. In this case.01 n=3 n=1 n=2 0.15. a=10 0 n=1 -20 Magnitude in dB -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 0.01 Asymptotes n=2 n=3 Corner Frequencies 0.00 100.10 1.10 1.16.

31) The magnitude of (7.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex s+ –j s+ +j = s+ 2 2 + 2 2 = s +2 s+ + 2 (7.26) we get s +2 s+ 2 2 + 2 = s +2 2 ns + 2 n (7.30) Then. (7.33) 4 n As in the previous section.28) by substitution into (7.31) is G j = 2 n – 2 2 +4 2 2 n 2 (7.27) and 2 + 2 = 2 n (7.33) is expressed as 20 log G ju = 10 log 2 n – 2 2 +4 2 2 n 2 or Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-13 . we let G s = s +2 2 ns + 2 n (7.26) and letting = n (7. G j = j = 2 n 2 + j2 2 n + n 2 n – + j2 (7.29) Next.32) and taking the log of both sides and multiplying by 20 we get 20 log G j = 10 log 2 n – 2 2 +4 2 2 n 2 (7.33) by dividing by of the normalized frequency variable u such that u n to yield a function (7.34) Then. it is convenient to normalize (7.

u = 1 and 1 = lim tan u 1 –1 2 u------------.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots 20 log G ju = 10 log = 10 log 4 n 4 n n– -----------------2 n 2 2 2 +4 +4 2 2 4 ----n 2 n = 10 log 4 n 4 n n– -----------------2 n 2 2 2 +4 2 2 2 2 4 ----n 2 n 2 2 (7.35) 1–u 2 2 2 2 u = 10 log + 10 log 1 – u +4 u The first term in (7. this term reduces to approximately 10 log u and this can be plotted as a straight line increasing at 40 dB decade . For the second term. The exact shape of the curve depends on the value of which is called the damping coefficient. = 0. and 7-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .707 is shown in Figure 7.= 2 1–u (7.38) At the corner frequency = n.36) are lim u 0 u = lim tan u 0 –1 2 u ------------.37) and lim u u = lim tan u –1 2 u------------.4 .= -2 2 1–u = 0.18.2 . n The phase shift associated with and thus – 2 + j2 is also simplified by the substitution u 2 u ------------2 1–u n u = tan –1 (7. if u « 1 .35) for = 0.4 . = 0.707 is shown in Figure 7. Using these two straight lines as asymptotes for the magnitude curve we see that the asymptotes intersect at the corner frequency u = 1 . and 2 n 2 4 2 = 0. A plot of (7. (7.36) The two asymptotic relations of (7.35) is a constant which represents the ordinate axis intercept defined by this straight line.39) A plot of the phase for = 0. this term reduces to approximately 10 log 1 = 0 dB and if u » 1 .2 .= 0 2 1–u (7.17.

00 Figure 7. 2 n )+j2 =1 n (u) = (arctan(2 u/(1-u2))*180/ 180 Phase Angle (deg) =0.01 0. Phase for zeros of 10 log + 10 log 1 – u 2 2 +4 2 2 u The magnitude and phase plots for G j 1 = --------------------------------------------2 2 + j2 n n– Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-15 .707 =0. Magnitude for zeros of 10 log 4 n + 10 log 1 – u 2 2 +4 2 2 u Zeros of ( u= / 2 n n.18.10 1. 2 n )+j2 =1 n 2 2 2 2 4 n +10log{(1-u ) +4 u } 40 30 Magnitude in dB 20 10 0 -10 -20 0.00 u (rad/s) 4 n 10.4 0.00 100.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex Zeros of ( u= / 10log 2 n n.00 100.2 =0.01 =0.17.2 0 0.00 Figure 7.10 1.707 =0.4 90 =0.00 Frequency u (r/s) 10.

19. = 0.19.00 Frequency u (r/s) 10. 7-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .41) A plot of (7. Magnitude for Poles of 1/(( n2u = / n. and = 0.707 0.2 .35) becomes – 10 log 4 n – 10 log 1 – u 2 2 +4 2 2 u (7. and = 0.4 =0.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots are similar to those of G j = 2 n 2 – + j2 n except for a minus sign. Magnitude for poles of 1 10 log 4 n + 10 log 1 – u 2 2 +4 2 2 u A plot of the phase for = 0.4 .707 is shown in Figure 7.40) and (7.00 Figure 7.40) for = 0. n = 1 10log 4 n 2 )+j2 n 10log{(1-u2)2+4 2u2} 20 10 Magnitude in dB 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 0.01 =0.2 =0.36) becomes u = – tan –1 2 u------------2 1–u (7.707 is shown in Figure 7.20.00 100.2 . (7. = 0.4 . In this case.10 1.

22.4 Phase Angle (deg) Figure 7.21. Com- + v out t + Solution: a.3 4 n + 10 log 1 – u 2 2 +4 2 2 u For the circuit shown in Figure 7. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-17 . We transform the given circuit to its equivalent in the s – domain shown in Figure 7.20.2 -180 0. use the Bode plot to compute the output v out t . Compute the transfer function G s . d. Circuit for Example 7. b.21 a.3.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex Phase for Poles of ( u = / n. at = 30 r s and = 4000 r s . 2 n n 2 )+j2 n =1 (u) = (arctan(2 u/(1-u2))*180/ 0 =0. If v s t = 10 cos 5000t + 60 .00 =0. Construct a straight line approximation for the magnitude of the Bode plot.00 u (rad/s) 10. C 100 F L 100 mH R 110 vs u0 t Figure 7. Phase for poles of 1 10 log Example 7.01 0. From the Bode plot obtain the values of 20 log G j pare these values with the actual values.707 -90 =0.00 100.10 1. c.

3 in s – domain and by the voltage division expression.43) be denoted as A .011 = – 39.011j = --------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j 100 1 + j 1000 (7. for 1000 r s the fourth term is approximately zero and for 1000 it also decreases with slope equal to – 20 dB decade For Bode plots we use semilog paper.= --------------------------------------.17 .42) b. Circuit for Example 7.1s + 110 Therefore.011 + 20 log j j – 20 log 1 + ----10 j – 20 log 1 + -------100 (7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots L 4 C 10 s 0.1s + 110s + 10 s + 1100s + 10 (7.44) is a constant whose value is 20 log 0.22.1s + + V in s R 110 V out s Figure 7. Letting s = j we get G j 1100j = ------------------------------------------------------j + 100 j + 1000 or in standard form G j 0. 110 V out s = --------------------------------------------. the transfer function is V out s 110s 1100s 1100s G s = ---------------. and expressing it in decibels we get A dB = 20 log G j = 20 log 0. For 100 r s the third term is approximately zero and for 100 it decreases with slope equal to – 20 dB decade Likewise. The second term is a straight line with slope equal to 20 dB decade .= ----------------------------------------------2 4 2 5 V in s s + 100 s + 1000 0. 7-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Instructions to construct semilog paper with Microsoft Excel are provided in Appendix D.V in s 4 10 s + 0.44) We observe that the first term on the right side of (7.43) Letting the magnitude of (7.= -------------------------------------------.

fprintf(' \n') mag = 0.3 1 + j0.23.2f \t'. (7.3j)*(1+0.E+05 Figure 7.20*log10(abs(g30))).E+04 1.23 shows that the magnitude of (7.E+00 1.011 -80 1.E+02 1.E+03 1.03j)).32 – 10 dB and 20 log G j30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications = 20 log 0.01 dB G j30 = 0. The plot of Figure 7. fprintf('mag = %6. fprintf(' \n').. The actual values are found as follows: At = 30 r s . Magnitude plot of (7.2f dB'.32 Therefore..23 the individual terms are shown with dotted lines and the sum of these with a solid line. fprintf(' \n').E+01 1.03 and using MATLAB we get g30=0..32 7-19 ..abs(g30)).44) = 30 r s is approximately c..Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex In the Bode plot of Figure 7.011*30j/((1+0. fprintf('magdB = %6..43) becomes 0. 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 20 log 10 j 20 log 10 1 + j – 20 log 10 1 + j 1000 100 – 20 log 10 1 + j 20 log 10 0.43) at – 9 dB and at = 4000 r s is approximately – 10 dB . magdB = -10.011 j30 G j30 = -------------------------------------------------1 + j0.

fprintf('phase = %6.48 dB = 5000 r s is approxiy d.011*4000j/((1+40j)*(1+4j)). we see that the value of A dB at mately – 12 dB .27 G j4000 and 20 log G j4000 = 20 log 0.54 deg... Then.11 j4000 G j1000 = ----------------------------------------1 + j40 1 + j4 and using MATLAB we get g4000=0..20*log10(abs(g4000))). fprintf(' \n').angle(g5000)*180/pi). From the Bode plot of Figure7.. fprintf('magdB = %6.011 j5000 G j5000 = ----------------------------------------. we have A = 10 – 12 ----20 = 0.2f \t'.abs(g5000)).27 = – 11. fprintf(' \n').011*5000j/((1+50j)*(1+5j))..23. 0.22 – 77.. and that y = log x implies x = 10 .54 7-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .22 10 = 2.abs(g4000)).43) and we get If we wish to obtain a more accurate value.2 V and in the t – domain v out t = 2. magdB = -11. fprintf(' \n')..2 cos 5000t – 77.= 0.2f \t'.22 phase = -77.43) becomes 0.25 and therefore V out max = A V S = 0. since in general a dB = 20 log b . fprintf(' \n') mag = 0. we substitute g5000=0.2f dB'.. (7..54 1 + j50 1 + j5 Then.48 dB = 0.. fprintf('mag = %6.'. fprintf(' \n').2f deg.25 10 = 2. at = 4000 r s . V out max = A 10 = 0.27 Therefore..5 V = 5000 into (7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots Likewise. fprintf('mag = %6.. fprintf(' \n') mag = 0.

2. MATLAB requires that we express the numerator and denominator of G s as polynomials of s in descending powers. With this function.3 using MATLAB. Compute the actual frequency where the phase is zero degrees. To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors. and tf creates a transfer function. 1100s G s = --------------------------------------2 5 s + 1100s + 10 and the MATLAB code to generate the magnitude and phase plots is num=[0 1100 0].24. w=logspace(0. Let us plot the transfer function of Example 7. If we want to display the magnitude only.w) function displays both magnitude and phase.. T h e f u n c t i o n bode(sys.100). den=[1 1100 10^5].. grid and upon execution.w).3 a. d. number_of_values). Example 7.den) creates a continuous-time transfer function sys with numerator num and denominator den. l a s t _ e x p o n e n t . in radians/second. b.w) function.wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radians/second) and the function bode(sys. c. From (7. we can use the bodemag(sys. For example.w) uses the user-supplied vector w of frequencies. Find v out t if v in t = 10 cos t + 60 and is the value found in part (c). to generate plots for 100 logarithmically evenly spaced points for the frequency interval 10 –1 10 r s . Using the Bode phase plot estimate the frequency where the phase is zero degrees. w=logspace(0. 2 The bode(sys.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex We can use the MATLAB function bode(sys) to draw the Bode plot of a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) System where sys = tf(num. den=[1 1100 10^5].100).{wmin. we will use the code num=[0 1100 0].5.den).5.den.42). MATLAB displays the plot shown in Figure 7.100). sys=tf(num.w) However. at which the Bode response is to be evaluated. we use the command l o g s p a c e ( f i r s t _ e x p o n e n t .. Draw a Bode phase plot. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-21 . we use the statement logspace( 1. since for this example we are interested in the magnitude only. bode(num.4 For the circuit of Example 7. bodemag(sys. the freq u e n c y r a n g e a n d n u m b e r o f p o i n t s a r e c h o s e n a u t o m a t i c a l l y.

43) of Example 7.011 j = --------------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j 100 1 + j 1000 – = – tan –1 – – –1 where = 90 100 – = – tan 1000 For For = 100 – = 1000 – = – tan 1 = – 45 –1 = – tan 1 = – 45 –1 The straight-line phase angle approximations are shown in Figure 7.3 G j 0. From (7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots Figure 7.3.45) and in magnitude-phase form G j 0. Bode plot for Example 7. 7-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Solution: a.011j = --------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j 100 1 + j 1000 (7.25.24.

4.45) G j 0.011j = --------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j 100 1 + j 1000 and in magnitude-phase form G j 0.5.100). w=logspace(0.w) b. Bode plot for Example 7.den.011 90 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------–1 –1 tan tan 1000 1 + j 100 100 1 + j 1000 The phase will be zero when tan –1 100 + tan –1 1000 = 90 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-23 . From (7. From the Bode plot of Figure 7. bode(num.26 shows the magnitude and phase plots generated with the following MATLAB code: num=[0 1100 0]. Figure 7.Construction of Bode Plots when the Zeros and Poles are Complex 180 = 135 – – 90 45 = 90 0 -45 – = – tan – –1 –1 1000 100 = – tan -90 -135 -180 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 7.25 we find that the phase is zero degrees at approximately = 310 r s c.25. den=[1 1100 10^5].

combine(x) d. Bode plots for Example 7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots Figure 7.23 G j316.2f deg.23 100 1 + j316.4 generated with MATLAB This is a trigonometric equation and we will solve it for tion as follows: ans = 316.45) at 0.. fprintf(' \n').011 j316.2278 Therefore. = 1 we get We are given that V in = 10 V and with G j316. = 316. x=solve(atan(w/100)+atan(w/1000) pi/2)..23 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j316.23 r s = 316.00 deg.23j/1000)).23 100 0 (7. abs(Gj316))..23j/((1+316.46) and with MATLAB Gj316=0. Evaluating (7. angle(Gj316)*180/pi) magGj316 = 1.'..00 phaseGj316 = -0.23 7-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . fprintf('magGj316 = %5.2f \t'.23j/100)*(1+316.23 r s we get: with the solve(equ) MATLAB func- syms w. fprintf('phaseGj316 = %5.011*316.26...

At twice the corner frequency. and 1 dB at twice the corner frequency 2 n .97 dB 1 dB (7. We can make the straight line more accurate by drawing smooth curves connecting the points at one-half the corner frequency n 2 . Therefore.27. and the minus ( ) to a first order pole. Similarly.27. shown by dotted lines. yield 0 dB at half the corner frequency and at the corner frequency.23 = 60 + 0 = 60 V out = 10 60 and thus or v out t = 10 cos 316. A dB = 2 = 20 log 1 + j 2 = n -20 log 5 = 4 0. The corrected amplitude plots for a first order zero and first order pole are shown by solid lines in Figure 7.23t + 60 7.47) where the plus (+) sign applies to a first order zero. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-25 .Corrected Amplitude Plots V out = G j316. the corrections to be made are 1 dB at half the corner frequency n 2 .23 = 0 we find that The phase angle of the input voltage is given as the phase angle of the output voltage is out in = 60 and with = in + j316.27.99 dB 7 dB (7. the straight line approximations.23 V in = 1 10 = 10 V j316. the straight line approximations yield 6 dB because n and 2 n are separated by one octave which is equivalent to 3 dB per decade. 3 dB at the corner frequency n .7 Corrected Amplitude Plots The amplitude plots we have considered thus far are approximate.48) and A dB =2 = n 20 log 1 + j2 = 20 log 5 = 6. At the corner frequency A dB n. the value of the amplitude A in dB is = n = 20 log 1 + j = 20 log 2 = 3 dB (7.49) As we can seen from Figure 7. the corner frequency n and twice the corner frequency 2 n as shown in Figure 7.

Corrections for magnitude Bode plots We observe that as the damping coefficient becomes smaller and smaller. We can obtain a fairly accurate amplitude plot by computing the amplitude at four points near the corner frequency n as shown in Figure 7.28.28. the amplitude at the corner frequency n lies below the straight line approximation. 20 Magnitude in dB 15 10 7 dB 6 dB 3 dB 1 dB 5 0 – 1 dB -5 – 3 dB – 6 dB – 7 dB -10 -15 -20 n 2 n n 2 in r/s Figure 7. We also observe that when 0. Let us refer to the plot of Figure 7.27. larger and larger peaks in the amplitude occur in the vicinity of the corner frequency n . Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-26 .Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots The corrections for straight-line amplitude plots when we have complex poles and zeros require different type of correction because they depend on the damping coefficient .707 .

51) becomes Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-27 .2 =0.50) by n we get C 1 G s = ----.Corrected Amplitude Plots The amplitude plot of Figure 7. Magnitude Bode plots with complex poles G s = s +2 2 ns + 2 n which was derived earlier for complex zeros. we let n = u .. we get K = -------------------------------------------------------------2 1– + j2 n n (7.00 10.4 Magnitude in dB 0 -10 =0. i.-------------------------------------------------------------2 2 +2 s n +1 n s n and letting C 2 n = K and s = j G j . the transfer function for complex poles is C G s = --------------------------------------2 2 s + 2 ns + n (7. Magnitude for Poles of 1/(( n2u = / n.e.00 Frequency u (r/s) Figure 7.51) As before. In analogy with (7. n = 1 10log 4 n 2 )+j2 n 10log{(1-u2)2+4 2u2} 20 10 =0.707 -20 -30 -40 0.30).00 100.01 0.10 1. Dividing each term of the denominator of (7.50) where C is a constant. Then (7.28 is for complex poles.28.

the corner frequency A dB n n corresponds to u = 1 . At point 1.= – 10 log u + 2u 2 2 1 1 = – 10 log ----.55) In (7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots K G ju = ------------------------------2 1 – u + j2 u (7. from this expression.4 + 0. 3 . 2 . and 4 of the plot of Figure 7.41 dB 2 7-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .53) in dB is A dB = 20 log G ju = 20 log K – 20 log 1 – u + j2 u 1–u 2 2 2 (7. – 10 log u + 2u 2 4 2 2 –1 +1 0 (7. as a function of frequency.52) and in polar form.54) 2 u 4 2 2 = A dB -. Then.56) and as u . we observe that as u 0. – 10 log u + 2u 2 4 2 2 –1 +1 – 40 log u (7.+ 2 -.54) the term 20 log K is constant and thus the amplitude A dB .+ 16 1 – -. is dependent only the second term on the right side.57) We are now ready to compute the values of A dB at points 1 .2 4 16 = – 10 log 2 2 –1 +1 u=1 2 2 1 – 1 + 1 = – 10 log ----.+ 1 2 (7.4 A dB n 2 point 1 = – 10 log 0. K G ju = -----------------------------------------2 1 – u + j2 u (7. Also.53) The magnitude of (7.5625 and for = 0.5625 = 1. from (7.58) + 0.54) 4 2 2 = 20 log K – 20 log +4 2 2 u = 20 log K – 10 log u + 2u 2 –1 +1 and the phase is –1 2 uu = – tan ------------2 1–u (7.29.

60) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-29 . Then.29.Corrected Amplitude Plots 6 5 4 3 Point 2 at Point 1 at = 2 max Point 3 at = n = n 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 n Point 4 at = 0 dB 2 max n 0 dB Figure 7. in (7. A dB point 2 1 = 20 log -------------------------------------------------------------2 1– + j2 n n (7. the square of the absolute magnitude is maximum when the absolute magnitude is maximum.54) we let K = 1 and we form the magnitude in dB . Also. Corrections for magnitude Bode plots with complex poles when = 0. The square of the absolute magnitude is 1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 1– +4 n n (7.59 has a maximum when the absolute magnitude of this expression is maximum.59) We now recall that the logarithmic function is a monotonically increasing function and therefore (7.4 To find the amplitude at point 2.

65) 1– and for = 0. that is.62) will be zero when the numerator is set to zero.707 .= 0 2 1– 2 2 n +4 2 n The expression of (7. Then.54). A dB max = – 10 log u + 2u 2 = – 10 log 1 – 2 = – 10 log 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 –1 +1 2 u= 1–2 2 +2 1–2 2 –1 +1 (7. that is. The dB value of the amplitude at point 2 is found by substitution of (7.4 A dB max = – 10 log 4 0.63) Of course. we take the derivative with respect to 2 3 4 2 2 and we set it equal to zero.64) into (7. 4–4 2 2 n 2 n –8 2 = 0 2 or 4 2 = 4–8 from which max = = n 1–2 2 (7. 7-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . = u = 1 into (7.62) 4 n–4 n–8 n -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. that is.54). 2 n 4–4 2 2 n –8 2 = 0 (7. we require that the value of must be a nonzero value.4 2 2 = 2.4 1 – 0. (7.61) To find the maximum.64) provided that 1 – 2 2 0 or 1 2 or 0.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots or 1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 4 2 2 4 2 2 + +4 1–2 n n n (7.69 dB = n The dB value of the amplitude at point 3 is found by substitution of Then.

if we already know the frequency at which the dB amplitude is maximum. at this point we are interested not in A dB 0 dB but in the location of 0 dB in relation to the corner frequency n .4 A dB n = – 20 log 2 Finally.57) 0 dB = – 10 log u + 2u 2 4 2 2 –1 +1 and since log 1 = 0 .5 For the circuit of Figure 7. Therefore. it follows that u + 2u 2 4 2 4 2 2 –1 +1 = 1 2 2 u + 2u 2 u u +2 2 2 2 –1 = 0 –1 = 0 or u +2 2 2 2 –1 = 0 Solving for u and making use of u = n we get = n 0 dB 2 1–2 2 From (7. at point 4 .66) = – 20 log 2 0.Corrected Amplitude Plots A dB n = – 10 log u + 2u 2 = – 10 log 1 + 2 2 = – 10 log 4 2 2 4 2 2 –1 +1 u=1 –1 +1 (7.94 dB and for = 0.67) Example 7. the dB value of the amplitude crosses the 0 dB axis.30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-31 .67). we can compute the frequency at point 4 from 0 dB = 2 max (7.4 = 1. at this point we must have from (7. max = n 1–2 2 therefore.

Find the corner frequency n from G s . at the corner frequency 0 dB and at the frequency where the dB amplitude is zero.31 where R = 1 . We transform the given circuit to its equivalent in the s – domain shown in Figure 7. at the frequency n.2 L 0.05s . a. Ls = 0.31. draw a smooth curve to connect these four points. Compute the transfer function G s b. c.2 L 10 mH C 40 mF + + v in u 0 t v out t Figure 7. and 1 Cs = 125 s .V in s 0. e. Then.01s C 25 s + + V in s V out s Figure 7.01s + 25 s Therefore. max at which the amplitude reaches its maximum value. Solution: a. Circuit for Example 7. d.5. the transfer function is 7-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .30. Compute the damping coefficient . R 0. 25 s V out s = --------------------------------------------. Circuit for Example 7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots R 0.2 + 0. Construct a straight line approximation for the magnitude of the Bode plot. Compute the amplitude in dB at one-half the corner frequency n 2 .5 in s – domain and by the voltage division expression.

68) b.04 + 0. A dB n was found in part (b) 2 = – 10 log 2 2 + 0. c. Then.61).32. max = 50 1 – 2 0.32.01s + 0.92 = 47.64) max = n 1–2 2 Then.14 dB and this value is indicated as Point 2 on the plot of Figure 7.2s + 25 s + 20s + 2500 (7.= -------------. Next.2 dB and this value is indicated as Point 1 on the plot of Figure 7.= 0.65) A dB max = – 10 log 4 2 1– 2 = – 10 log 0. the damping coefficient 20 20 = --------. that is.69) 2 n = 2500 or n = 50 rad s (7.31.50) K G s = --------------------------------------2 2 s + 2 ns + n (7.68) and (7. 2 = – 10 log 0.04 = 50 0. e.71) n.2 and thus n = 0.69) and from (7. the straight line approximation lies along the 0 dB axis. From (7. The corner frequency to be 50 rad s The dB amplitude plot is shown in Figure 7.66). The dB amplitude at the corner frequency is found from (7. From (7.5625 = – 10 log 0.2 2 50 2 n d.74) A dB = 0. from (7. For n .69) 2 n = 20 .04 .16 0.Corrected Amplitude Plots V out s 25 2500 G s = ---------------.= ------------------------------------------. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-33 . Then. whereas for n the straight line approximation has a slope of – 40 dB .5625 where from (7.6025 = 2. from (7. From (7.96 = 8.70) is (7.68) and (7.= ------------------------------------2 2 V in s 0.96 rad s Therefore.

96 dB Point 4 0 dB 2 = 25 48 n 100 0 dB 1000 68 in r/s = 50 Figure 7.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots A dB n = – 20 log 2 0. the frequency at which the amplitude plot crosses the 0 dB axis is found from (7. 0 dB = 2 max or 0 dB = 2 47.5 The amplitude plot of Figure 7.32. Finally.83 rad s This frequency is indicated as Point 4 on the plot of Figure 7.32.14 dB Point 1 2. 7-34 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .32.2 dB Point 3 7.32 reveals that the given circuit behaves as a low pass filter. Amplitude plot for Example 7.96 = 67. 20 15 10 5 0 Magnitude in dB -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 10 n max Point 2 8.2 = 7. that is.67). A dB n = – 20 log 2 and this value is indicated as Point 3 on the plot of Figure 7.96 dB Then.

5 using MATLAB Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-35 .den).33. we get the Bode magnitude plot shown in Figure 7.100).5. sys=tf(num.33.Corrected Amplitude Plots Using the transfer function of (7. bodemag(sys. den=[1 20 2500].68) with MATLAB. w=logspace(0. num=[0 0 2500]. Bode plot for Example 7.w) Figure 7.

. is a unit used to express the ratio between two amounts of power. In Bode plots. band-pass. For quadratic factor the cor+ j2 n ner frequency appears in the expression j + 2 n or j 2 n + j2 n +1 7-36 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8 Summary The decibel. denoted as dB.707 of maximum amplitude to infinite frequency. is a term generally used with electronic amplifiers and filters. Then. for voltages we use the expression dB v = 20 log 10 V out V in . When quadratic factors with complex roots occur in addition to the linear factors. denoted as BW . In Bode plots the corner frequencies zi j z i + 1 and p i j n n are easily identified by expressing the linear terms as 2 p i + 1 for the zeros and poles respectively. By definition. these quadratic factors are expressed in the form j 2 + j2 n + 2 n. It can also be used to express voltage and current ratios provided that the voltages and currents have identical impedances. generally P out P in . are referred to as the corner frequencies. For amplifiers. Frequency response is a term used to express the response of an amplifier or filter to input sinusoids of different frequencies. and for currents we use the expression dB i = 20 log 10 I out I in The bandwidth. In magnitude Bode plots with quadratic factors the difference between the asymptotic plot and the actual curves depends on the value of the damping factor .dB frequencies. the number of dB is obtained from dB w = 10 log 10 P out P in . denoted as n. the transfer function is expressed in linear factors of the form j + z i for the zero (numerator) linear factors and j + p i for the pole linear factors.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots 7. The response of an amplifier or filter to a sinusoid of frequency is completely described by the magnitude G j and phase G j of the transfer function. For low-pass filters the bandwidth is the band of frequencies from zero frequency to the cutoff frequency where the amplitude fall to 0. we say that these frequencies are separated by one octave and if 2 = 10 1. the actual curve approaches the asymptotes at both low and high frequencies. they are separated by one decade. But regardless of the value of . If two frequencies 1 and 2 are such that 2 = 2 1 . Bode plots are frequency response diagrams of magnitude and phase versus frequency In Bode plots the 3 . and band-elimination filters the bandwidth is the range of frequencies where the maximum amplitude falls to 0.707 of its maximum value. For high-pass filters the bandwidth is the band of frequencies from 0.707 of its maximum value on either side of the frequency response curve.

The function bode(sys). and the negative slope applies to pole (denominator) quadratic factors. In phase Bode plots with quadratic factors. the asymptotes corresponding to the quadratic terms of the form j 2 n + j2 n + 1 have a slope 40 dB decade where the positive slope applies to zero (numerator) quadratic factors.last_exponent. For frequencies ten times or greater than the corner frequency. At the corner frequency the phase angle is 45 . To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors. With this function. For frequencies ten times or greater than the corner frequency. the frequency range and number of points are chosen automatically. at which the Bode response is to be evaluated.{wmin. in radian/second.w) uses the user-supplied vector w of frequencies. In magnitude Bode plots. At the corner frequency the phase angle is 90 . In phase Bode plots with linear factors. and the negative angle applies to pole (denominator) quadratic factors. number_of_values). and the negative slope applies to pole (denominator) linear factors.Summary In both the magnitude and phase Bode plots the frequency (abscissa) scale is logarithmic. Bode plots can be easily constructed and verified with the MATLAB function bode(sys) function.wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radian/second) and the function bode(sys. the phase angle is approximately 180 where the positive angle applies to zero (numerator) quadratic factors. and the negative angle applies to pole (denominator) linear factors. the phase angle is zero for frequencies less than one tenth the corner frequency. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-37 . The ordinate in the magnitude plot is expressed in dB and in the phase plot is expressed in degrees. the phase angle is approximately 90 where the positive angle applies to zero (numerator) linear factors. In magnitude Bode plots. the asymptotes corresponding to the linear terms of the form j z i + 1 and j p i + 1 have a slope 20 dB decade where the positive slope applies to zero (numerator) linear factors. we use the command logspace(first_exponent. for frequencies less than one tenth the corner frequency we assume that the phase angle is zero.

3. = 100 r s . c. Compute the transfer function. Check your magnitude plot of Exercise 1 and the phase plot of this exercise with the plots generated with MATLAB.34 a. at the cutoff frequency. Circuit for Exercise 3 7-38 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .34. For the circuit of Figure 7. Draw a straight line phase angle plot of G j f. = 30 r s . b. and = 5000 r s b. e. For the transfer function of Exercise 1 a. From the plot of part (b) determine the type of filter represented by this circuit and estimate the cutoff frequency. Compute the actual value of . Compute the actual values of the phase angle at the frequencies specified in (a). For the transfer function 10 s + 5 G s = ----------------------------------------------s + 100 s + 5000 5 a.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots 7. c. Draw the Bode amplitude plot for 20 log G j c. Draw a Bode plot for the phase angle and find the approximate phase angle at = 50 r s . 2. Draw the magnitude Bode plot and find the approximate maximum value of G j b. d. L 0.9 Exercises 1. Determine the value of g. at the cutoff frequency from the plot of part (c). Find the value of where G j = 1 for 5r s in dB .25 H R 1 v out t C 4 10 –3 + + v in u 0 t F Figure 7. Compute the actual cutoff frequency of this filter. Check your plot with the plot generated with MATLAB.

40 35 30 25 20 = 5 r s. a. = 100 r s . The asymptotes 20 log 1 + j 5 20 log G j in dB Magnitude of G j 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 0 – 20 log 1 + j 100 – 20 log 1 + j 100 10 10 1 10 2 10 r s 3 10 4 10 5 From this plot we observe that 20 log G j max 26 dB for the interval 10 2 5 10 3 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-39 . and = 5000 r s .= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------j + 100 j + 5000 100 1 + j 100 5000 1 + j 5000 1+j 5 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j 100 1 + j 5000 20 log G j = 20 log 1 + j 5 – 20 log 1 + j 100 – 20 log 1 + j 5000 5 5 The corner frequencies are at are shown as solid lines.Answers to Exercises 7. G j 10 5 1 + j 5 10 j + 5 = ------------------------------------------------------.10 Answers to Exercises 1.

85 10 r s 4 and in magnitude-phase form G j 1+j 5 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j 100 1 + j 5000 – – –1 that is. 20 log G j 2. = – – where = tan –1 5. The asymptotes are shown as solid lines. = 100 r s .Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots b. 100 r s 38 . and 90 75 60 = tan –1 5 Phase angle in degrees 45 30 15 0 -15 -30 -45 -60 -75 -90 0 1 2 – = – tan –1 100 5000 3 4 5 – = – tan –1 10 10 10 10 r s 10 10 7-40 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and – = – tan 5000 The corner frequencies are at = 5 r s . From the phase plot we observe that 5000 r s – 39 30 r s 60 . – = – 45 . 50 r s 53 . From the solution of Exercise 1 G j 1+j 5 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------1 + j 100 1 + j 5000 = 0 dB at = 9. By inspection. and – = – 45 respectively. and = 5000 r s where at those frequencies = 45 . – = – tan –1 100 .

91 1 + j5000 100 1 + j5000 5000 G j50 = G j100 = G j5000 = c..49 1 + j30 100 1 + j30 5000 1 + j50 5 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------..1*10^3 5*10^5].. fprintf(' \n') theta30r = 63. theta_g50=(1+50j/5)/((1+50j/100)*(1+50j/5000))..2f deg...= 57.w) den=[1 5.2f deg. expand((s+100)*(s+5000)) ans = s^2+5100*s+500000 num=[0 10^5 5*10^5]. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-41 . \t'. angle(theta_g100)*180/pi).. Thus. \t'..... syms s.. printf(' \n')....= – 43..99 deg.. w=logspace(0...15 1 + j50 100 1 + j50 5000 1 + j100 5 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. angle(theta_g5000)*180/pi). theta50r = 57.2f deg. fprintf('theta100r = %5. fprintf(' \n')..10^4). bode(num. The Bode plot generated with MATLAB is shown below.Answers to Exercises b.. theta_g30=(1+30j/5)/((1+30j/100)*(1+30j/5000)). fprintf('theta30r = %5.5......99 1 + j100 100 1 + j100 5000 1 + j5000 5 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.. angle(theta_g30)*180/pi).... '. '. fprintf('theta50r = %5. the actual values are G j30 = 1 + j30 5 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------. fprintf('theta5000r = %5.2f deg.91 deg.. We use MATLAB for the computations.= 63.. theta_g100=(1+100j/5)/((1+100j/100)*(1+100j/5000)).. theta5000r = -43. theta_g5000=(1+5000j/5)/((1+5000j/100)*(1+5000j/5000)).den. theta100r = 40. angle(theta_g50)*180/pi).= 40.49 deg.15 deg.

(2) 2 – + 4j + 100 From (7.25s + 1 + 25 s and V out s s + 25 4 s + 25 G s = ---------------.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots 3.V in s 0.25s + s + 25 s + 4s + 100 b.= ------------------------------. a. From (1) with s = j G j 4 j + 25 = ---------------------------------------.53) 7-42 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ----------------------------------. 0.25s 1 + + V in s 25 s V out s By the voltage division expression 1 + 25 s V out s = ---------------------------------------.(1) 2 2 V in s 0. The equivalent s – domain circuit is shown below.

n = 10 . The numerator of (2) is a lin- Following the procedure of page 7-26 we let u = ear factor and thus we express it as 100 1 + j G j = 25 .2 10 . The amplitude plot is shown below. The second term has a corner frequency of 10 r s and rises with slope of – 40 dB decade .Answers to Exercises C G s = --------------------------------------.4 10 or The amplitude of G j 20 log G j in dB is = 20 log 1 + j 25 – 20 log 1 – 10 2 + j0. and 2 n = 4. Then (2) is written as 100 1 + j 25 1 + j 25 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. c Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-43 . The plot above indicates that the circuit is a low-pass filter and the 3 dB cutoff frequency occurs at approximately 13 r s . n = 0. 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 10 – 20 log 1 – –1 – 3 dB at c 13 r s 20 log 1 + j 20 log G j 25 10 2 + j0.(4) 2 1– 10 + j0.= ------------------------------------------------------2 2 100 – 100 + 4j 100 + 100 100 1– 10 + j0.4 10 G j 1 + j 25 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------.4 1 10 10 2 10 0 10 10 3 10 4 c.(3) 2 2 s + 2 ns + n and from (1) and (3) 2 n = 100 .4 10 (5) The asymptote of the first term on the right side of (5) has a corner frequency of 25 r s and rises with slope of 20 dB decade .

solve(w^4 216*w^2 10000) ans = [ [ 2*(27+1354^(1/2))^(1/2)] 2*(27-1354^(1/2))^(1/2)] [ -2*(27+1354^(1/2))^(1/2)] [ -2*(27-1354^(1/2))^(1/2)] w1=2*(27+1354^(1/2))^(1/2) w1 = 15.70 At this frequency (2) is written as G j c 100 + 4j c = ----------------------------------------2 100 – c + 4j and considering its magnitude we get 100 + 4 c 1 -----------------------------------------------------.0000 + 6.= -----2 2 2 2 100 – c + 4 c 2 100 + 4 20000 + 32 4 c 2 c 2 2 c 2 2 = 100 – 2 2 c + 4 4 c 2 c = 10000 – 200 2 c 2 c + + 16 2 c – 216 – 10000 = 0 We will use MATLAB to find the four roots of this equation.9746 w2= 2*(27+1354^(1/2))^(1/2) w2 = -15.9746 w3=2*(27 1354^(1/2))^(1/2) w3 = 0. The actual cutoff frequency occurs where G j c = G j max 2 = 1 2 = 0.2599i 7-44 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6.0000 . syms w.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots d.2599i w4= 2*(27 1354^(1/2))^(1/2) w4 = -0.

that is. the straight line phase angle plot approximations are as follows: I. e. in the interval 2.5 r s the phase angle is zero as shown on the Bode plot below. For this exercise the corner frequency of is n = 25 r s and thus for 1 2.Answers to Exercises From these four roots we accept only the first.5 250 r s the phase angle is zero at 2.5 r s and rises to 90 at 250 r s .4 10 = ----------------------------2 1– 10 For a first order zero or pole not at the origin. and 90 for frequencies ten times or greater the corner frequency. the phase angle is approximately 90 . For this exercise. 180 135 Phase angle degrees 90 45 n = 25 r s 0 n = 10 r s -45 G j -90 -135 – -180 10 –1 10 0 10 1 r s 10 2 10 3 10 4 II For frequencies ten times or greater than the corner frequency. From (4) = tan –1 c 16 r s 25 and 0. For frequencies less than one tenth the corner frequency we assume that the phase angle is zero. it is 45 at the corner frequency. The numerator phase angle is zero at one tenth the corner frequency. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-45 .

den=[1 4 100]. Errors such as this occur because of the high non-linearity between frequency intervals. The exact phase angle at the cutoff frequency c = 16 r s is found from (1) with s = j16 . num=[0 4 100]. g16=(64j+100)/((16j)^2+64j+100). angle(g16)*180/pi ans = -125.bode(num.w) 7-46 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1000). – 90 at the corner frequency and approaches – 180 as the frequency becomes large. for complex poles the phase angle is zero at zero frequency. Therefore. we should use the straight line asymptotes only to observe the shape of the phase angle. The phase angle asymptotes are shown on the plot of the previous page.den.0746 This value is about twice as that we observed from the asymptotic plot of the previous page. From the plot of the previous page we observe that the phase angle at the cutoff frequency is approximately – 63 g. f.Chapter 7 Frequency Response and Bode Plots III As shown in Figure 7. It is best to use MATLAB as shown below. w=logspace(0.2. 4 j16 + 25 G j16 = ---------------------------------------------------2 j16 + 4 j16 + 100 We need not simplify this expression since we can use MATLAB.20.

Lenz’s law. = Li (8. i. the dot convention.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .Mv = M ----.1 shows a simple loop of wire and its magnetic field which is represented by the small loops. Mv .1 Self-Inductance About 1830. found that electric current flowing in a circuit has a property analogous to mechanical momentum which is a measure of the motion of a body and it is equal to the product of its mass and velocity. About the same time.e. di d v = ---.= Ma dt dt (8. In electric circuits this property is sometimes referred to as the electrokinetic momentum and it is equal to the product of Li where i is the current analogous to velocity and the self-inductance L is analogous to the mass M . Figure 8. i. 8.e. flux linkages.Li = L ---dt dt (8.Transformers T his chapter begins with the interactions between electric circuits and changing magnetic fields. and magnetic coupling.2 The Nature of Inductance Inductance is associated with the magnetic field which is always present when there is an electric current.2) where a is the acceleration.1) Newton’s second law states that the force necessary to change the velocity of a body with mass M is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. It concludes with a detailed discussion on transformers. dv d F = ---. It defines self and mutual inductances.e.. while working at the university which is now known as Princeton. This electrokinetic momentum is denoted by the symbol that is. Joseph Henry. The analogous electrical relation says that the voltage v necessary to produce a change of current in an inductive circuit is equal to the rate of change of electrokinetic momentum.3) 8.. i. The direction of the magnetic field (not shown) can be Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-1 . the conductors (wires) connecting the devices in the circuit are surrounded by a magnetic field. Thus when current flows in an electric circuit. induced voltages. Michael Faraday visualized this property in a magnetic field in space around a current carrying conductor.

Figure 8. that is.2.Transformers determined by the left-hand rule if conventional current flow is assumed. a linear inductor one in which the flux linkage is proportional to the current through it.3) and (8.4) By definition. Magnetic field around a current carrying wire In a loosely wound coil of wire such as the one shown in Figure 8. Then.1. The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are called lines of magnetic flux.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . di v = L ---dt (8.5) 8-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7) (8. Figure 8. We now recall Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction which states that v = d----dt and from (8. = N passes (8. the total flux denoted as is called flux linkage. the current through the wound coil produces a denser magnetic field and many of the magnetic lines link the coil several times. Magnetic field around a current carrying wound coil The magnetic flux is denoted as and.2. = Li where the constant of proportionality L is called inductance in webers per ampere.5).6) (8. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb). if there are N turns and we assume that the flux through each turn. or by the right-hand rule if electron current flow is assumed.

Lenz was a German scientist who. without knowledge of the work of Faraday and Henry. di 1 d 11 d 1 v 1 = -------. 8. let us consider the transformer shown in Figure 8.3 by the arrow below the dotted line. Lenz’s law states that: Whenever there is a change in the amount of magnetic flux linking an electric circuit. Then by (8. The law which goes by his name. an induced voltage of value directly proportional to the time rate of change of flux linkages is set up tending to produce a current in such a direction as to oppose the change in flux. the current produced by the induced voltage will tend to prevent any decrease in flux.8) and by Faraday’s law of (8. is a useful rule for predicting the direction of an induced current. Suppose that this flux is decreasing.3 Lenz’s Law Heinrich F. in terms of the self-inductance L 1 . In other words. Conversely. The current i 1 produces a magnetic flux 11 .4.4.3. Then in the secondary winding there will be a voltage induced whose current will be in a direction to increase the flux. duplicated many of their discoveries nearly simultaneously. only two are shown in Figure 8. if the flux produced by the primary winding in increasing. To understand Lenz’s law.6). Basic transformer construction Here. we assume that the current in the primary winding has the direction shown and it produces the flux in the direction shown in Figure 8. E.= N 1 ----------.9) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-3 .Lenz’s Law 8. i v Figure 8. the induced voltage in the secondary will produce a current in a direction which will oppose an increase in flux.3. There are many magnetic lines of flux linking the coil L 1 with N 1 turns but for simplicity.4) and (8.4 Mutually Coupled Coils Consider the inductor (coil) shown in Figure 8.5) 1 = N 1 11 = L 1 i 1 (8.= L 1 -----dt dt dt (8.

8-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . i1 + 21 i2 = 0 v1 N1 N2 L1 L1 L2 Figure 8.10) = L1 + 21 where the linkage flux 21 L1 is the flux which links coil L 1 only and not coil L 2 . that is. Lines of flux linking two coils It is convenient to express the flux 11 as the sum of two fluxes 11 L1 and 21 . We have assumed that the linkage and mutual L1 fluxes and 21 link all turns of coil L 1 and the mutual flux 21 The arrangement above forms an elementary transformer where coil L 1 is called the primary winding and coil L 2 the secondary winding. and the mutual flux links all turns of coil L 2 . (8.4.Transformers i1 + v1 N1 L1 Figure 8. is the flux which links both coils L 1 and L 2 . suppose another coil L 2 with N 2 turns is brought near the vicinity of coil L 1 and some lines of flux are also linking coil L 2 as shown in Figure 8.5.5. Magnetic lines linking a coil Next.

9) 2 = N 2 22 = L 2 i 2 (8.= N 2 ----------.8) and (8.= N 2 ----------.15) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-5 .= M 21 -----dt dt dt (8.12) In summary. we will consider the case where there is a voltage in the secondary winding producing current i 2 which in turn produces flux 22 as shown in Figure 8. Flux in secondary winding Then in analogy with (8.11) where M 21 is the mutual inductance (in Henries) and thus the open-circuit secondary winding voltage v 2 is d 21 di 1 d 2 v 2 = -------.and v 2 = M 21 -----dt dt if i 1 0 and i 2 = 0 (8.13) Next.14) and by Faraday’s law in terms of the self-inductance L 2 d 22 di 2 d 2 v 2 = -------. 2 = N 2 21 = M 21 i 1 (8. i2 + N2 v2 L2 Figure 8.6. when there is no current in the secondary winding the voltages are di 1 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----. the flux linkage in the secondary winding is by (8.8).Mutually Coupled Coils In a linear transformer the mutual flux 21 is proportional to the primary winding current i 1 and since there is no current in the secondary winding.= L 2 -----dt dt dt (8.6.

some lines of flux are also linking coil L 1 as shown in Figure 8.7. the flux linkage in the primary winding is 1 = N 1 12 = M 12 i 2 (8.19) 8-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= N 1 ----------.16) where the linkage flux 12 L2 is the flux which links coil L 2 only and not coil L 1 .and v 1 = M 12 -----dt dt if i 1 = 0 and i 2 0 (8.17) where M 12 is the mutual inductance (in Henries) and thus the open-circuit primary winding voltage v 1 is d 12 di 2 d 1 v 1 = -------. Lines of flux linking open primary coil Following the same procedure as above we express the flux 12 22 as the sum of two fluxes L2 and that is.7. 12 i2 + i1 = 0 N1 L2 N2 v2 L2 L1 Figure 8. 22 = L2 + 12 (8. the voltages are di 2 di 2 v 2 = L 2 -----. we have assumed that the linkage and mutual fluxes link all turns of coil L 2 and the mutual flux links all turns of coil L 1 .Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .= M 12 -----dt dt dt (8. and the mutual flux is the flux which links both coils L 2 and L 1 . As before. Since there is no current in the primary winding.Transformers If another coil L 1 with N 1 turns is brought near the vicinity of coil L 2 .18) In summary. when there is no current in the primary winding.

21) and (8. (8.20) we get: di 2 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----.8 where i 1 0 and also i 2 0 .14). we express (8.19) and (8. 21 i1 + 12 L2 i2 + v1 N1 N2 L1 v2 L1 L2 Figure 8.22) and since = N .+ L 2 -----dt dt (8.21) and the total flux 2 linking coil L 2 is 2 = L2 + 12 + 21 = 11 + 22 (8.23) and (8. (8.23) and 2 = N 2 21 + N 2 12 (8.24) and using (8.25) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-7 .Mutually Coupled Coils We will see later that M 12 = M 21 = M (8. Flux linkages when both primary and secondary currents are present The total flux 1 linking coil L 1 is 1 = L1 + 21 + 12 = 11 + 12 (8.8.+ M -----dt dt di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----.20) The last possible arrangement is shown in Figure 8.24) Differentiating (8.22) as 1 = N 1 11 + N 1 12 (8.13).

i 1 = 15 cos 377t mA and i 2 = 40 sin 377t + 60 mA 8-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example 8.9. Thus. Instead. the mutual voltage term has a positive sign.Transformers In (8. To understand this convention.9(b) where the dots are placed on the upper terminals and the lower terminals respectively.11 find v 1 and v 2 if a. While this convention can be used with the self-induced voltages. i1 M i2 i1 M i2 di 1 v 2 = M -----dt v1 L1 (a) L2 v2 v1 L1 (b) L2 v2 for both circuits Figure 8. i 1 = 50 mA and i 2 = 25 mA b. Arrangements where the mutual voltage has a positive sign These designations indicate the condition that a current i entering the dotted (undotted) terminal of one coil induce a voltage across the other coil with positive polarity at the dotted (undotted) terminal of the other coil.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . it cannot be used with mutual voltages because there are four terminals involved.and L 2 -----dt dt are referred to as self-induced voltages and the terms di 2 di 1 M -----.9(a) and 8. Following the same rule we see that in the circuits of Figure 8. the polarity of the mutual voltages is denoted by the dot convention. we first consider the transformer circuit designations shown in Figures 8.10 (a) and 8.and M -----dt dt are referred to as mutual voltages.1 For the circuit of Figure 8. i 1 = 0 and i 2 = 20 sin 377t mA c.10(b) the mutual voltage has a negative sign.25) the voltage terms di 1 di 2 L 1 -----. In our previous studies we used the passive sign convention as a basis to denote the polarity (+) and ( ) of voltages and powers.

+ M -----.= 0. The dot convention in the circuit of Figure 8. i. their derivatives are zero.11.+ L 2 -----.e.. Circuit for Example 8.05 dt dt = 150. di 1 di 2 -----.= 0 dt dt and thus v1 = v2 = 0 b.= 20 dt dt = 377 cos 377t mV 10 –3 0 + 20 10 –3 20 377 cos 377t 0 + 0. Since both currents i 1 and i 2 are constants.10.8 cos 377t mV di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----.1 Solution: a.= -----.11 shows that the mutual voltage terms are positive and thus di 2 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----.Mutually Coupled Coils i1 M i2 i1 M i2 di 1 v 2 = – M -----dt for both circuits v1 L1 (a) L2 v2 v1 L1 (b) L 2 v2 Figure 8.05 20 377 cos 377t Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-9 . Arrangements where the mutual voltage has a negative sign i1 M = 20 mH i2 v1 L1 50 mH L2 v2 50 mH Figure 8.

+ 100i 1 = 480 dt Now.= 0.05 – 15 dt dt 377 sin 377t + 0.+ L 2 -----.05 mV = – 113. + 24 V Figure 8.+ M -----.12 find the open-circuit voltage v 2 for t 0 given that i 1 0 M = 20 mH R t = 0 5 v1 L1 50 mH L2 v2 50 mH i1 i2 = 0. i1 = if + in where i f is the forced response component of i 1 and it is obtained from 24 i f = ----.05 -----.8 A 5 8-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ 5i 1 = 24 dt di 1 -----.02 mV 40 377 cos 377t + 60 40 377 cos 377t + 60 = – 282.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .75 sin 377t + 301.6 cos 377t + 60 di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----.+ Ri 1 = 24 dt di 1 0.= 0.2 Solution: For t 0 di 1 L -----.1 sin 377t + 754 cos 377t + 60 Example 8.02 – 15 dt dt 377 sin 377t + 0.Transformers c. di 2 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----.2 For the circuit of Figure 8.= 4. Circuit for Example 8.12.

2.02 480e = – 9. the thumb indicates the direction of the flux. M i1 L1 L2 i2 L1 L2 Figure 8.Establishing Polarity Markings and i n is the natural response component of i 1 and it is obtained from i n = Ae – Rt L = Ae – 100t Then. Consider the transformer and its circuit symbol shown in Figure 8. we want the current in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-11 . Establishing polarity markings We recall that the direction of the flux can be found by the right-hand rule which states that if the fingers of the right hand encircle a winding in the direction of the current. di 1 – 100t – 100t v 2 = – M -----. the polarity markings (dots) were given.1 and 8.8 + Ae 0 we get A = – 4.6e dt 8. The following method is generally used to establish the polarity marking in accordance with the dot convention.= – 0. i 1 = i f + i n = 4.13. Let us place a dot at the upper end of L 1 and assume that the current i 1 enters the top end thereby producing a flux in the clockwise direction shown.8 + Ae – 100t and with the initial condition i1 0 + = i1 0 = 0 = 4.8 Therefore.5 Establishing Polarity Markings In our previous discussion and in Examples 8.8 e – 100t and in accordance with the dot convention.13. Next. i 1 = i f + i n = 4. There are cases.8 – 4. however. when these are not known.

= – 1508 cos 377t + 7540 sin 377t V dt dt 8-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 2262 cos 377t – 3770 sin 377t V dt dt di 1 di 2 v 2 = – M -----.3 with dotted markings Since i 1 enters the dot on the left side and i 2 leaves the dot on the right side. M = 2H i 1 = 2 sin 377t A + v1 L1 3H L2 4H i 2 = – 5 cos 377 t A + v2 Figure 8. the fluxes oppose each other. This will be accomplished if the current i 2 in L 2 enters the lower end as shown and thus we place a dot at that end.– M -----. Example 8.15. di 2 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----.Transformers L 2 to enter the end which will produce a flux in the same direction. The dotted circuit now is as shown in Figure 8.3 For the transformer shown in Figure 8.3 Solution: Let us first establish the dot positions as discussed above.14. Circuit for Example 8.+ L 2 -----.14.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . Figure for Example 8. clockwise.15. find v 1 and v 2 . in this case. Therefore. M = 2H i 1 = 2 sin 377t A + v1 L1 3H L2 4H i 2 = – 5 cos 377 t A + v2 Figure 8.

Circuit for Example 8.5 + V in = 120 0 = 377 r s I1 V1 L1 50 mH L2 100 mH I2 V2 R LOAD 500 Figure 8.* M = 50 mH R1 0. we arbitrarily assign currents I 1 and I 2 as shown in Figure 8.85 I 1 – j18.4 With this current assignments I 2 leaves the dotted terminal of the right mesh and therefore the mutual voltage has a negative sign. Then. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-13 .4 V1 L1 50 mH L2 100 mH V2 R LOAD 500 Solution: The dots are given to us as shown. Now. Mesh currents for the circuit of Example 8.16. M = 50 mH R1 0.17 and we write mesh equations for each mesh.5 + j18. find the voltage ratio V 2 V 1 .5 + V in = 120 0 = 377 r s Figure 8.Establishing Polarity Markings Example 8. Mesh 1: R 1 I 1 + j L 1 I 1 – j MI 2 = V in or 0.26) * Henceforth we will be using bolded capital letters to denote phasor quantities.4 For the circuit below.17.85I 2 = 120 0 (8.

V2 = 119.abs((500*I(2))/(18.753 V Ratio V2/V1 = 0. An isolation transformer is also referred to as a 1:1 transformer.= --------------. We can find the phase of V LOAD by adding the following statement to the MATLAB code above.28) V2 119.3f V \t'.6 Energy Stored in a Pair of Mutually Coupled Inductors We know that the energy stored in an inductor is 1 2 W t = -.= 0.. it isolates the load from the source and the value of V in appears across the load even though the load changes.09 V1 and thus the magnitude of V LOAD = V 2 is practically the same as the magnitude of V in .64 deg This is a very small phase difference from the phase of V in and thus we see that both the magnitude and phase of V LOAD are essentially the same as that of V in . If we increase the load resistance R LOAD to 1 K we will find that again the magnitude and phase of V LOAD are essentially the same as that of V in .Transformers Mesh 2: – j MI 1 + j L 2 I 2 + R LOAD I 2 = 0 or – j18. I=Z\V. V=[120 0]'.997 120.. abs(18. the transformer is referred to as a step-up transformer. that is.. fprintf(' \n').2f deg'. However.7j].85I 1 and Z=[0.5+18. 8.3f V \t'.3f \t'. fprintf('V2 = %7..85j*I(1))).Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . if the secondary winding voltage is considerably lower than the input voltage.75 ----.29) 8-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . angle(500*I(2))*180/pi) Phase V2= -0. we suspect that V LOAD will be out of phase with V in . fprintf('V1 = %7.85j 500+37. Conversely. If in a transformer the secondary winding voltage is considerably higher than the input voltage.85j. 18. the transformer of this example is an isolation transformer.7 I 2 = 0 (8.Li t 2 (8. the transformer is referred to as a step-down transformer. fprintf('Phase V2= %6.85j*I(1)))) V1 = 120.85j 18.. abs(500*I(2))).. fprintf('Ratio V2/V1 = %7.093 V That is. Therefore.997 (8.27) We will find the ratio V 2 V 1 using the MATLAB code below where V 1 = j L 1 I 1 = j18.85I 1 + 1000 + j37.

let us suppose that at some reference time t 0 .Energy Stored in a Pair of Mutually Coupled Inductors In the transformer circuits shown in Figure 8. the instantaneous power delivered to these terminals are: di 1 di 2 p 1 = v 1 i 1 = L 1 -----.25). let us assume that at time t 1 .32) In this case.+ M -----dt dt di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----. i1 M i2 i1 M i2 di 1 v 2 = M -----dt for both circuits v1 L1 (a) L2 v2 v1 L1 (b) L2 v2 Figure 8. while i 2 is still zero.18. the current i 1 is increased to some finite value.+ L 2 -----dt dt (8.+ L 2 -----. In other words.+ M 12 -----.33) Next. both currents i 1 and i 2 are zero. From (8.i 1 dt dt di 1 di 2 p 2 = v 2 i 2 = M 21 -----.18.30) and after replacing M with M 12 and M 21 in the appropriate terms. Transformer circuits for computation of the energy di 2 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----.31) Now.i 2 dt dt (8. i1 t0 = i2 t0 = 0 (8. and thus W t0 = 0 (8. the stored energy is the sum of the energies supplied to the primary and secondary terminals.35) and i2 t1 = 0 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-15 . that is.34) (8. we let i1 t1 = I1 (8. there is no energy stored.

L 1 I 1 + M 21 I 1 I 2 + -.36) we get W1 = t1 di 1 2 1 L 1 i 1 -----. let us reverse the order in which we increase i 1 and i 2 .L I 2 2 2 (8.L 1 I 1 dt 2 t0 t0 t1 (8.38) and i2 t2 = I2 (8.40) Therefore. from (8. we must have M 12 = M 21 = M (8. the energy stored in the transformer from t 0 to t 2 is from (8. di 1 dt = 0 and using (8.41) Now.L I 2 2 2 2 0 (8. Then. at t = t 2 . let us at some later time t 2 .Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .L 1 I 1 + M 12 I 1 I 2 + -. we get t2 2 2 1 1 W t = -.41) and (8. we let i1 t2 = I1 (8.43) 8-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .42) Since relations (8. maintain i 1 at its previous value.42) represent the same energy.39) During this time interval. then p 2 t 1 = 0 and also di 2 dt = 0 .40).Transformers Then. t2 2 2 1 1 W t = -.33) through (8. and increase i 2 to a finite value. in the time interval t 0 t t 1 .L I 2 2 2 2 0 (8.37) and (8. we keep i 2 = I 2 while we increase i 1 so that i 1 t 2 = I 1 . That is. Therefore.31) the energy accumulated is W2 = t2 t1 p 1 + p 2 dt = = t2 t1 t2 t1 di 2 di 2 M 12 I 1 -----. that is. the energy accumulated at this time is W1 = t1 t0 p 1 + p 2 dt (8. Using the same steps in equations (8.dt = L 1 i 1 di 1 = -. we increase i 2 so that i 2 t 1 = I 2 while keeping i 1 = 0 .36) and since i 2 t 1 = 0 .dt dt dt 2 1 M 12 I 1 + L 2 i 2 di 2 = M 12 I 1 I 2 + -.40).37) Finally.+ L 2 i 2 -----.31) and (8.

Transformer circuits with different dot arrangement from Figure 8.44) and (8.20.44) Relation (8.20 we will find that i1 M i2 i1 M i2 di 1 v 2 = – M -----dt for both circuits v1 L1 (a) L2 v2 v1 L1 (b) L2 v2 Figure 8.Energy Stored in a Pair of Mutually Coupled Inductors and thus we can express (8. and it is negative if one current enters the dotted (or undotted) terminal while the other enters the undotted (or dotted) terminal.45) and relations (8. Transformer circuits of Figure 8.42) as t2 2 2 1 1 W t = -.46) where the sign of M is positive if both currents enter the dotted (or undotted) terminals. i1 M i2 i1 M i2 di 1 v 2 = M -----dt for both circuits v1 L1 (a) L2 v2 v1 L1 (b) L2 v2 Figure 8. if we repeat the above procedure for dot markings of the circuit of Figure 8. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-17 .L 1 I 1 – M I 1 I 2 + -.19 for convenience.18 However.44) was derived with the dot markings of Figure 8.L I 2 2 2 2 0 (8.L I 2 2 2 2 0 (8.L 1 I 1 + MI 1 I 2 + -.19 t2 2 2 1 1 W t = -.45) can be combined to a single relation as t2 2 2 1 1 W t = -.19.L 1 I 1 M I 1 I 2 + -.L I 2 2 2 2 0 (8.41) and (8.18 which is repeated below as Figure 8.

L i 2 2 2 2 0 (8.50) holds also for this case. To derive an expression relating the mutual inductance M to the self-inductances L 1 and L 2 . we select the positive sign of (8.48) and the magnitude of the Mi 1 i 2 is greater than the sum of the other two terms on the right side of that expression.47) Obviously. from (8.Transformers The currents I 1 and I 2 are assume constants and represent the final values of the instantaneous values of the currents i 1 and i 2 respectively.L i 2 – Mi 1 i 2 2 2 2 0 (8. the energy on the left side of (8. that is.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . The ratio M L 1 L 2 is known as the coefficient of coupling and it is denoted with the letter k . and we complete the 2 L1 i1 – L2 i2 + L 1 L 2 i 1 i 2 – Mi 1 i 2 (8. If their signs are opposite.L 1 i 1 M i 1 i 2 + -. Therefore. or M . Then.51) 8-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .47) cannot be negative for any values of i 1 .50) indicates that the mutual inductance can never be larger than the geometric mean of the inductances of the two coils between which the mutual inductance exists. for the energy to be positive.47). L 1 . but it can never be negative. This expression then becomes t2 1 W t = -2 0 L 1 L 2 i 1 i 2 on the right side of (8. Note: The inequality in (8.47) we see that the energy would be negative if t2 1 2 1 2 W t = -. We may express (8.49) We now observe that the first term on the right side of (8.46) in terms of the instantaneous currents as t2 1 2 1 2 W t = -.49) could be very small and could approach zero. we add and subtract the term square.47) and we find that (8.50) Expression (8. M k = --------------L1 L2 (8.48) must be such that L 1 L 2 M or M L1 L2 (8. L 2 .49) was derived with the assumption that i 1 and i 2 have the same algebraic sign. the second and third terms on the right side of (8. i 2 . Let us assume first that i 1 and i 2 are either both positive or both negative in which case their product is positive.L 1 i 1 + -.

5 Solution: Since the currents enter the dotted terminals. 1 2 1 2 W t = -.L i 2 2 2 2 (8.01 and 0.L 1 i 1 + Mi 1 i 2 + -. it follows that Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-19 . we use (8. Example 8. that is.52) Then. For close-coupled circuits. Physically. i 1 = 15 cos 377t mA and i 2 = 40 sin 377t + 60 i1 mA M = 20 mH i2 v1 L1 50 mH L2 v2 50 mH Figure 8. that is.5 10 25 = 103 –6 J = 103 J b. typically between 0.1 .45) with the plus (+) sign for the mutual inductance term.95 .21 compute the energy stored at t = 0 if: a. 0 k 1 . Transformer for Example 8. W t = 0 = 0. k provides a measure of the proximity of the primary and secondary coils.21.5 For the transformer of Figure 8. Since i 1 = 0 and i 2 = 20 sin 377t = 0 . k has a value of about 0. Power transformers have a k between 0.Energy Stored in a Pair of Mutually Coupled Inductors Obviously k must have a value between zero and unity. a. we say that they are loose-coupled and k has a small value.90 and 0. The value of k is exactly unity only when the two coils are coalesced into a single coil.5 . i 1 = 0 and i 2 = 20 sin 377t mA c.5 50 10 –3 –3 2 –3 –3 –3 50 50 t=0 10 –3 + 20 10 10 –3 2 50 10 10 25 10 + 0. i 1 = 50 mA and i 2 = 25 mA b. If the coils are far apart.

R1 vin L1 i1 v1 L2 v2 V0 (DC) M R2 i2 vout RLOAD Figure 8.5 50 10 –3 15 50 10 10 –3 2 + 20 10 10 –3 –3 15 10 –3 40 10 10 –3 sin 60 J + 0. This transformer contains a voltage source in the primary. 8-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ L 2 -----. W t = 0 = 0.+ R 2 + R LOAD dt dt (8. but the secondary is referenced to a DC voltage source V 0 and thus it is said that the secondary of the transformer has a DC isolation. The transformer shown in figure 8.22 a linear transformer.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .– M -----dt dt di 1 di 1 0 = – M -----. Transformer with DC isolation Application of KVL around the primary and secondary circuits yields the loop equations di 2 di 1 v in = R 1 i 1 + L 1 -----. the primary is referenced to directly to ground.22. Moreover. a load resistor in the secondary. and the resistors R 1 and R 2 represent the resistances of the primary and secondary coils respectively.53) and we see that the instantaneous values of the voltages and the currents are not affected by the presence of the DC voltage source V 0 since we would have obtained the same equations had we let V0 = 0 .5 –3 40 sin 60 2 = 46 –6 J = 46 8.Transformers Wt=0 = 0 c.7 Circuits with Linear Transformers A linear transformer is a four-terminal device in which the voltages and currents in the primary coils are linearly related.

6 The loop equations for this transformer are 3s + 100 I 1 s – 2sI 2 s = 24 s – 2sI 1 s + 5s + 1200 I 2 s = 0 (8.6 Solution: The total response consists of the summation of the forced and natural responses.Circuits with Linear Transformers Example 8. i 2T = i 2f + i 2n (8.24.54) and since the applied voltage is constant (DC). The s -domain circuit for the transformer of Example 8.6 For the transformer shown in Figure 8. no steady-state (forced) voltage is produced in the secondary and thus i 2f = 0 . Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-21 . 100 2s v in s 3s 24 s I1 s 5s I2 s 1000 v out s 200 Figure 8. For t 0 the s -domain circuit is shown in Figure 8. we will use Cramer’s rule. Transformer for Example 8. Use MATLAB to sketch i 2 for 0 t 5 s. find the total response of i 2 for t 0 given that M = 100 mH and.23.55) Since we are interested only in I 2 s .24.23. R1 vin t=0 100 M = 2H R2 200 L1 3H L2 5H 1K 24 V DC I1 vout RLOAD I2 Figure 8. i 1 0 = i2 0 = 0 . that is.

01 e – 32.01.02 s + 340.01 0.71 4.71 (8.7 For the transformer of Figure 8. find the steady-state (forced) response of v out .i2n).= -----------------------.01 r 1 = --------------------s + 32.*(exp( 32.02 s + 340. plot(t.57) (8.02 (8. 8-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ --------------------s + 340.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .71t (8. We could use the same procedure as in the previous example. grid Example 8.58) By substitution into (8.Transformers 3s + 100 24 s – 2s 0 4.02 s = – 340.26.+ -----------------------s + 32.*t)).59) we get i 2n = 0. r2 r1 4. t=0: 0.02 (8.01 11s + 4100s + 120000 3s + 100 – 2s – 2s 5s + 1200 or 4.36 = – 0. i2n=0.56).001: 0.71 s + 32.01 s + 340.02t –e – 340.02*t) exp( 340.71 s = –32.59) and taking the Inverse Laplace of (8.60) Using the following MATLAB code we get the plot shown on Figure 8. we get – 0.= -------------------------------------------------------.36 r 2 = -----------------------= 0. but it is easier to work with the transfer function G s .71 s + 32.36 48 I 2 s = --------------------------------------------------.36 I 2 s = -------------------------------------------------------.71.73s + 10909.02 and by partial fraction expansion.= ---------------------------------------------------------2 2 s + 372.2.27. Solution: The s -domain equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 8.01 I 2 s = --------------------.36 I 2 s = -------------------------------------------------------s + 340.56) from which 4.71 s + 32.25.

25. Circuit for Example 8. The s-domain equivalent circuit of Example 8.7 I2 s 3s 5s V out s 100 The loop equations for the transformer of Figure 8.6 2H 10 v in 3H 170 cos 377t V 5H 100 v out 0.7 2s 10 V in s 170 0 V I1 s 1 0.27 are: Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-23 .27.1 F Figure 8.Circuits with Linear Transformers Figure 8. Plot for the secondary current of the transformer of Example 8.26.1s Figure 8.

27 we see that 0.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . that is.1s or 2s + 10 V in s 2s + 10 s V in s I 2 s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------.82s + 94.1s – 2s + 1 0. v in = 170 cos 377t V and since we are interested in the steady-state response.55s + 100 2 2 From Figure 8.63) The input is a sinusoid.52 10 + j3.91 V in s = ------------------------------------------------------------------3 2 s + 31.1s V in s – 2s + 1 0.18s + 0.1s I 2 s = V in s – 2s + 1 0.1s 0 I 2 s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3s + 10 + 1 0.Transformers 3s + 10 + 1 0. 3s + 10 + 1 0.55s + 100 s + 31.82s + 94.1s – 2s + 1 0.1s I 1 s + 5s + 100 + 1 0.82s + 94.170 0 = ------------------------------------------------------------7 6 4 6 7 – j 5.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------2 3 2 11s + 350s + 1040 + 1100 s 11s + 350s + 1040s + 1100 0.1s 5s + 100 + 1 0.18s + 0.62) and 2 V out s 18s + 91 G s = ----------------.63) we get: V out j – 2. we let s = j = j377 = 170 0 and thus V in s = V in j From (8.35 10 0 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.36 10 6 8 or 8-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .61) and by Cramer’s rule.= ------------------------------------------------------------------3 2 V in s s + 31.= ------------------------------------------------------------------3 2 3 2 s + 31.55s + 100 (8.91 V in s 18s + 91 V in s V out s = 100 I 2 s = 100 ------------------------------------------------------------------.52 10 – j5.1s I 1 s – 2s + 1 0.36 10 – 4.55s + 100 2 2 (8.56 10 + 91 – 4.82s + 94.56 10 + 100 – 4.1s I 2 s = 0 (8.

09 cos 377t – 85. We assume that the resistance of the primary and secondary coils is negligible.Reflected Impedance in Transformers V out j 43.09 – 85.09 274.66) (8. M VS L1 V1 I1 L2 V2 I2 Z LOAD V LOAD Figure 8.38 10 – 94.82 = 8. 8.18 (8.5 180 4.64) and in the t -domain. Let us consider the transformer phasor circuit of Figure 8.= 8.82 8 (8.8 Reflected Impedance in Transformers In this section.69) or j MI 1 I 2 = ------------------------------------j L 2 + Z LOAD Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-25 .65) The expression of (8.65) indicates that the transformer of this example is a step-down transformer. Circuit for the derivation of reflected impedance By KVL the loops equations in phasor notation are: j L 1 I 1 – j MI 2 = V S or j L1 I1 – VS I 2 = ----------------------------j M (8. v out t = 8.18 7 5.67) and – j MI 1 + j L 2 + Z LOAD I 2 = 0 (8. we will see how the load impedance of the secondary can be reflected into the primary.82 5.28.38 – 94.35 10 180 = ------------------------------------------------.68) (8.28.= ---------------------------------.

71) and dividing V S by I 1 we obtain the input impedance Z in as VS 2M 2 Z in = ----.– j ----------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 R LOAD + X LOAD + L 2 R LOAD + X LOAD + L 2 2M 2R LOAD 2M 2 (8. its sign remains unchanged. i..69) we get: j L1 I1 – VS j MI 1 ----------------------------. Then.I 1 j L +Z 2 LOAD (8. The reflected impedance Z R does not depend on the dot locations on the transformer.75) The imaginary part of (8.73) From (8. That is.e.73). Then.Transformers Equating the right sides of (8. the sign of the mutual term changes from M to – M . 2. we can rewrite (8. Let Z LOAD = R LOAD + jX LOAD .= ---------------------------------------------------------j L 2 + R LOAD + jX LOAD R LOAD + j X LOAD + L 2 (8.= ------------------------------------j M j L 2 + Z LOAD (8. The second term is a result of the mutual coupling and it is referred to as the reflected impedance. X LOAD + L 2 Z R = ----------------------------------------------------------. But since Z R varies as M 2 . 2M 2 Z R = -------------------------------j L 2 + Z LOAD (8.74) To express (8. 8-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .75) represents the reflected reactance and we see that it is negative.70) Solving for V S we get: j M 2 V S = j L 1 – ------------------------------------.73) as 2M 2 2M 2 Z R = -------------------------------------------------------.72) represents the reactance of the primary. we make two important observations: 1. the reflected reactance is opposite to that of the net reactance X LOAD + L 2 of the secondary. we multiply both numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of the denominator.= j L 1 + -------------------------------I1 j L 2 + Z LOAD (8.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .72) The first term on the right side of (8. For instance.74) as the sum of a real and an imaginary component. It is denoted as Z R . if either dot in the transformer of the previous page is placed on the opposite terminal.67) and (8.

the reflected reactance is zero and the transformer operates at resonant frequency. However.75) reduces to 2M 2 Z R = -------------R LOAD (8. or if it is an inductive reactance.Reflected Impedance in Transformers Therefore. Transformer for Example 8. if X LOAD is a capacitive reactance whose magnitude is less than L 2 . Find: a. In the case where the magnitude of X LOAD is capacitive and equal to L 2 .76) Example 8. V 2 100 mH 2 ZS VS L1 V1 I1 200 mH L2 V2 300 mH I2 Z LOAD V LOAD = 377 r s V S = 120 0 7540 Z LOAD = 10 – j ----------- Figure 8. Z in b. then the reflected reactance is capacitive.8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-27 . In this case. I 2 d.8 In the transformer circuit of Figure 8. the reflected reactance is inductive. I 1 c.29. V 1 e. if X LOAD is a capacitive reactance whose magnitude is greater than L 2 . Z S represents the internal impedance of the voltage source VS . the reflected impedance is purely real since (8.29.

64 83.01 Z in = j L 1 + -------------------------------.15 9.56 A 60.92 – 30.5 V e. V 2 = Z LOAD I 2 = 10 – j20 0. Therefore.+ 2 j113.83 A j L 2 + Z LOAD j113. and both the primary and secondary inductive reactances are very large in comparison with the load impedances.1 + 10 – j20 93.31 = 60.42 86.87 d.17 = 149.7 90 0.04 I 2 = -------------------------------.98 – 86.I 1 = ----------------------------------------.4 90 1. for the transformer of this example.15 – j4. 8-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .83 = 22.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .08 + j7.+ 2 = j75.89 – 144.= j L 1 + -------------------------------I1 j L 2 + Z LOAD and we must add Z s = 2 to it.= ---------------------------------------.= 1. to the number of turns of the primary N 1 .Transformers Solution: a.8 = 118.8 – 80.8 – 80.26 V 8.56 b.88 3.04 – 30. The primary and secondary coils have many turns wound around a laminated iron-core and are arranged so that the entire flux links all the turns of both coils.56 – 37.8 – 80.43 0.56 = --------------------------------.= 0. VS 120 0 I 1 = -----.1 + 10 – j20 j L +Z 2 LOAD = 3. 2M 2 142129 0.4 + ----------------------------------------. From (8. that is.72) 2M 2 VS Z in = ----. An important parameter of an ideal transformer is the turns ratio a which is defined as the ratio of the number of turns on the secondary.1. V 1 = j L 1 I 1 – j M I 2 = 75.7 74.42 86.83 = 149.36 – 63.83 = 17. By KVL – j MI 1 + j L 2 + Z LOAD I 2 = 0 or j M j37.98 – 86.62 + j60.9 1.56 Z in c. N 2 .9 The Ideal Transformer An ideal transformer is one in which the coefficient of coupling is almost unity.8 – 80.98 – 86.29 3.

14) that = N 1 11 = L 1 i 1 2 = N 2 22 = L 2 i 2 1 (8.80) or L1 = L2 = N1 2 N2 2 (8. N2 2 L2 2 . from (8.69).= ----N1 L1 (8.83) or I2 j M --. for the primary and secondary windings we have: 11 = N1 i1 N2 i2 22 = (8.84) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-29 .82) From (8. letting be a constant of proportionality which depends on the physical properties of the transformer.78) and (8. Therefore. We recall from (8. j MI 1 I 2 = ------------------------------------j L 2 + Z LOAD (8.= ------------------------------------I1 j L 2 + Z LOAD (8.= a ----.The Ideal Transformer N2 a = ----N1 (8.8) and (8.79) Then.78) The constant is the same for the primary and secondary windings because we have assumed that the same flux links both coils and thus both flux paths are identical.79) we get: N 1 11 = L 1 i 1 = N 2 22 = L 2 i 2 = N1 i1 N2 i2 2 2 (8.77) The flux produced in a winding of a transformer due to a current in that winding is proportional to the product of the current and the number of turns on the winding.81) Therefore.

N1 I1 = N2 I2 (8.89). The primary and secondary voltages are also related to the turns ratio a .88).= ----------. we define the secondary or load voltage V 2 as V 2 = Z LOAD I 2 (8. (8.85) we get: I2 L1 L2 --.87) and by substitution of (8.77) and (8.= --------------.92) From (8.= j L 1 + -------------------------------I1 j L 2 + Z LOAD (8.91) and the primary voltage V 1 across L 1 as V 1 = Z in I 1 (8.= -I1 a (8.= 1 L1 L2 (8.85) For the case of unity coupling. M k = --------------.82) and (8.86) or M = L1 L2 (8.89) Also.Transformers and since j L 2 » Z LOAD . from (8. 2 2 Vs M Z in = ----.87) into (8.93) 8-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .88) From (8.= I1 L2 L1 ----L2 (8.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . we obtain the important relation I2 1 --.= ----j L2 L2 I1 (8. the current I 2 is larger than I 1 .90) and this relation indicates that if N 2 N 1 .72).84) reduces to I2 j M M --. To find this relation.

96) and if we let j L 1 .93) becomes L1 L2 Z in = j L 1 + -------------------------------j L +Z 2 LOAD 2 (8.97) into (8. from (8.94) Next.91) by (8.97) Finally.99) or V2 ----.The Ideal Transformer and for k = 1 M = L1 L2 2 Then.= --------------------------------. both terms on the right side of (8.95) into (8.98) and by division of (8.94) yields Z in = j L 1 + -------------------------------------2 j a L 1 + Z LOAD 2 2 2 a L1 (8.= a 2 a V1 Z LOAD a I 1 (8. we combine these terms and we get: – a L 1 + j L 1 Z LOAD + a L 1 j L 1 Z LOAD Z in = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------. (8.= a -.I 1 2 a (8.= -------------------------------------2 2 j a L 1 + Z LOAD j a L 1 + Z LOAD 2 2 2 2 2 2 and as j L 1 .100) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-31 . substitution of (8.= a V1 (8.98) we get: V2 Z LOAD I 2 2 1 ----. Z LOAD Z in = ------------2 a (8.82) L2 = a L1 2 (8.96) become infinite and we get an indeter- minate result.92) yields Z LOAD V 1 = ------------. To work around this problem.95) Substitution of (8.

31 where N 2 N 1 i1 1:a i2 Power Amplifier v1 N1 N2 v2 Speaker Figure 8. V2 I2 = V1 I1 (8. An ideal transformer is represented by the network of Figure 8. Transformer used as impedance matching device 8-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .101) that is. i1 1:a i2 v1 L1 L 2 v2 Figure 8.30.88) and (8.10 Impedance Matching An ideal (iron-core) transformer can be used as an impedance level changing device. But this is not always possible. We recall from basic circuit theory that to achieve maximum power transfer. On the other hand. the volt-amperes of the secondary and the primary are equal. we must adjust the resistance of the load to make it equal to the resistance of the voltage source. has an internal resistance of several thousand ohms. a speaker which is to be connected to the output of a power amplifier has a fixed resistance of just a few ohms.99).30. In this case.Transformers also.31. we can achieve maximum power transfer by inserting an iron-core transformer between the output of the power amplifier and the input of the speaker as shown in Figure 8. Ideal transformer representation 8. A power amplifier for example. from the current and voltage relations of (8.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .

that is.104) and thus the circuit of Figure 8. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-33 .33.103) that is.31 the amplifier internal impedance is 80000 and the impedance of the speaker is only 8 .32 can be replaced with the simplified circuit shown in Figure 8.32. ZS VS L1 I1 V1 1:a L2 V2 I2 Z LOAD V LOAD Figure 8. it is very convenient to replace the transformer by an equivalent circuit before the analysis.102) or N2 a = ----.= 80000 11 -------------. We can find the appropriate turns ratio N 2 N 1 = a using (8.A Simplified Transformer Equivalent Circuit Let us suppose that in Figure 8.32 is Z LOAD Z in = Z S + ------------a2 (8.32. Circuit to be simplified From (8.11 A Simplified Transformer Equivalent Circuit In analyzing networks containing ideal transformers. 8.97).= -------100 10000 or N1 ----. the number of turns in the primary must be 100 times the number of the turns in the secondary. Z LOAD Z in = ------------a2 (8. Consider the transformer circuit of Figure 8.= 100 N2 (8.= Z in 8 -------------.= N1 Z LOAD ------------.97) Z LOAD Z in = ------------2 a The input impedance seen by the voltage source V S in the circuit of Figure 8.

Since no voltage appears across Z S .105) V TH = V OC = V xy = aV S We will find the Thevenin impedance Z TH from the relation V OC Z TH = --------I SC (8. and also I 1 = 0 because I 1 = aI 2 . Then. ZS VS L1 I1 V1 1:a x L2 V2 y I2 Z LOAD V LOAD Figure 8.34.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . V 1 = V S and V 2 oc = aV 1 = aV S .V 1 = V 2 a a2 I 1 = aI 2 Figure 8.34. Circuit for the derivation of Thevenin’s equivalent If we open the circuit at points x and y as shown in Figure 8. Since the secondary is now an open circuit. (8.106) The short circuit current I SC is found from 8-34 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .12 Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Let us consider again the circuit of Figure 8. we find the Thevenin voltage as V TH = V OC = V xy .Transformers ZS VS Z LOAD ------------. This time we want to find the Thevenin equivalent to the left of the secondary terminals and replace the primary by its Thevenin equivalent at points x and y as shown in Figure 8.33.32 The voltages and currents can now be found from the simple series circuit if Figure 8.32. 8.33. we have I 2 = 0 . Simplified circuit for the transformer of Figure 8.34.

* a a aZ S (8.35. If either dot is reversed. aV S 2 Z TH = ------------------. a2 ZS aV S x V 2 = aV 1 Z LOAD I2 = I1 a y Figure 8.01V 2 Figure 8.35. we simply replace a by – a .107) and by substitution into (8. and therefore we will replace a by – a .Thevenin Equivalent Circuit I1 VS VS ZS I SC = I 2 = ---.9 * Since V2 = 0 and V 2 V1 = a or aV1 = V2 it follows that V1 = 0 also.36.106). Example 8.34 The circuit of Figure 8.9 For the circuit of Figure 8.36. The Thevenin equivalent of the transformer circuit in Figure 8. The Thevenin equivalent is I1 VS 10 L1 L2 V 2 60 + j80 1:10 I2 8 0 V 0. Solution: We will replace the given circuit with its Thevenin equivalent.= -------. we observe that the dot in the secondary has been reversed. Circuit for Example 8.35 was derived with the assumption that the dots are placed as shown in Figure 8. find V 2 .34. First.= --------------.= a Z S V S aZ S The Thevenin equivalent circuit with the load connected to it is shown in Figure 8. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-35 .

= 0 3 60 + j80 10 V2 V2 60 – j 80 V 2 80------.108) 8-36 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .001 V 2 V2 Figure 8.+ ---------------------------.+ ------.Transformers obtained by multiplying V S and the dependent source by – 10 and the 10 –a 2 resistor by = 100 . From (8.225 = 5 2 – 135 2 Other equivalent circuits can be developed from the equations of the primary and secondary voltages and currents.– – 10 V 2 + ------------------.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . the primary and secondary voltages and currents are: di 2 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----. The Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 8.+ L 2 -----dt dt (8.9 Now. by application of KCL V 2 – – 80 0 V2 –3 -----------------------------------.+ M -----dt dt di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----.30).38.37. for example the linear transformer circuit of Figure 8. Consider.37. I2 1K 60 + j80 – 80 0 V – 0.= – ------3 3 3 10000 10 10 10 2V 2 + 6 – j8 V 2 = – 80 8 1 – j1 V 2 = 80 180 2 – 45 V 2 = 10 180 or 10 V 2 = -----. With these modifications we obtain the circuit of Figure 8.

108) as di 1 di 1 di 2 v 1 = L 1 – M -----. Linear transformer and these equations are satisfied by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8.+ -----dt dt dt di 2 di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----.109) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-37 .+ -----. Network satisfying the expressions of (8.40.108) If we rearrange the equations of (8. i1 L1 – M v1 M i2 L2 – M v2 Figure 8.+ L 2 – M -----dt dt dt (8.40.39.Thevenin Equivalent Circuit i1 i2 v1 L1 L2 v2 Figure 8. i1 L1 v1 di 2 M -----dt i2 L2 di 1 M -----dt v2 Figure 8.109) these equations are satisfied by the circuit of Figure 8. Network satisfying the expressions of (8.39.+ M -----.38.

Then.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . the voltages are 8-38 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the voltages are di 2 di 2 v 2 = L 2 -----. when there is no current in the primary winding. the total flux If there are N turns and we assume that the flux denoted as is called flux linkage. The magnetic flux is denoted as and the unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb).13 Summary Inductance is associated with the magnetic field which is always present when there is an electric current. The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are called lines of magnetic flux.and v 2 = M 21 -----dt dt if i 1 0 and i 2 = 0 In a linear transformer. when there is no current in the secondary winding the voltages are di 1 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----. = N A linear inductor one in which the flux linkage is proportional to the current through it. In a linear transformer.Transformers 8. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that v = d----dt Lenz’s law states that whenever there is a change in the amount of magnetic flux linking an electric circuit. passes through each turn. when there is a current in both the primary and secondary windings. A linear transformer is a four-terminal device in which the voltages and currents in the primary coils are linearly related. that is. = Li where the constant of proportionality L is called inductance in webers per ampere.and v 1 = M 12 -----dt dt if i 1 = 0 and i 2 0 In a linear transformer. an induced voltage of value directly proportional to the time rate of change of flux linkages is set up tending to produce a current in such a direction as to oppose the change in flux.

we place a dot at the upper end of L 1 and assume that the current i 1 enters the top end thereby producing a flux in the clockwise direction. the mutual voltage term has a negative sign. If a current i entering the undotted (dotted) terminal of one coil induces a voltage across the other coil with positive polarity at the dotted (undotted) terminal of the other coil.L 1 i 1 M i 1 i 2 + -. we want the current in L 2 to enter the end which will produce a flux in the same direction. they can be established by using the right-hand rule which states that if the fingers of the right hand encircle a winding in the direction of the current.+ L 2 -----dt dt The voltage terms di 1 di 2 L 1 -----.L i 2 2 2 2 0 where the sign of M is positive if both currents enter the dotted (or undotted) terminals. The energy stored in a pair of mutually coupled inductors is given by t2 1 2 1 2 W t = -. If a current i entering the dotted (undotted) terminal of one coil induces a voltage across the other coil with positive polarity at the dotted (undotted) terminal of the other coil.and M -----dt dt are referred to as mutual voltages.and L 2 -----dt dt are referred to as self-induced voltages. in this case. clockwise. the mutual voltage term has a positive sign. The polarity of the mutual voltages is denoted by the dot convention. and it is negative if one current enters the dotted (or undotted) terminal while the other enters the undotted (or dotted) terminal. The ratio M k = --------------L1 L2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-39 . Thus.+ M -----dt dt di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----. Next.Summary di 2 di 1 v 1 = L 1 -----. in an ideal transformer with primary and secondary windings L 1 and L 2 and currents i 1 and i 2 respectively. The voltage terms di 1 di 2 M -----. If the polarity (dot) markings are not given. the thumb indicates the direction of the flux.

In a linear transformer. k has a value of about 0. In an ideal transformer number of turns on the primary N 1 and the number of turns on the secondary N 2 are related to the primary and secondary currents I 1 and I 2 respectively as N1 I1 = N2 I2 An important parameter of an ideal transformer is the turns ratio a which is defined as the ratio of the number of turns on the secondary. typically between 0. If the coils are far apart. If the secondary of a linear transformer is referenced to a DC voltage source V 0 . For close-coupled circuits. The value of k is exactly unity only when the two coils are coalesced into a single coil.01 and 0. that is.Transformers is known as the coefficient of coupling and k provides a measure of the proximity of the primary and secondary coils.5 . N 2 . and k has a small value.95 . Power transformers have a k between 0. and both the primary and secondary inductive reactances are very large in comparison with the load impedances. it is said that the secondary has DC isolation.90 and 0. N2 a = ----N1 In an ideal transformer the turns ratio a relates the primary and secondary currents as I2 ---.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . to the number of turns of the primary N 1 .= a V1 8-40 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we say that they are loose-coupled. The primary and secondary coils have many turns wound around a laminated iron-core and are arranged so that the entire flux links all the turns of both coils.1 .= 1 a I1 In an ideal transformer the turns ratio a relates the primary and secondary voltages as V2 ----. An ideal transformer is one in which the coefficient of coupling is almost unity. the load impedance of the secondary can be reflected into the primary can be reflected into the primary using the relation 2M 2 Z R = -------------------------------j L 2 + Z LOAD where Z R is referred to as the reflected impedance.

Then. V2 I2 = V1 I1 An ideal transformer can be used as an impedance matching device by specifying the appropriate turns ratio N 2 N 1 = a .11. Z LOAD Z in = ------------a2 In analyzing networks containing ideal transformers. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-41 . it is very convenient to replace the transformer by an equivalent circuit before the analysis. One method is presented in Section 8.12.Summary In an ideal transformer the volt-amperes of the primary and the secondary are equal. An ideal transformer can be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent as discussed in Section 8. that is.

find the phasor currents I 1 and I 2 .42. find the transfer function G s = V OUT s V IN s . Circuit for Exercise 3 8-42 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .5 H 0.5 H 1H 1 V OUT s Figure 8. For the transformer of Figure 8. Circuit for Exercise 1 2.5 H 1H 1H V IN s + 1 1 0. For the transformer circuit of Figure 8.14 Exercises 1. Circuit for Exercise 2 3.Transformers 8.41.43.41. For the network of Figure 8.42.43. find v 2 for t 0 . 1 M = j1 2 j1 10 0 V I1 j8 I2 – j10 Figure 8. 0. M = 1H 2 i = 4u 0 t A L1 1H L2 2H v2 Figure 8.

For the circuit of Figure 8. Circuit for Exercise 6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-43 .44.45 by a Thevenin equivalent and then compute V 1 V 2 I 1 and I 2 I1 2 + j3 1:5 I2 V1 12 0 V2 100 – j75 Figure 8.46. 4 1:a 10 K 12 0 V Figure 8.46.Exercises 4.44. For the transformer of Figure 8. Circuit for Exercise 4 5. compute the turns ratio a so that maximum power will be delivered to the 10 K resistor. find the average power delivered to the 4 resistor.45. 2 8 1:2 4 v S = 4 cos 3t V Figure 8. Replace the transformer of Figure 8. Circuit for Exercise 5 6.

+ L 2 -----dt dt and since i 2 = 0 .4 1 – 4e dt dt = 8e – 2t V 8-44 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ---. di 1 – 2t dv 2 = 1 -----.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . Then..+ 2i 1 = 8 dt t 0 (1) The total solution of i 1 is the sum of the forced component i 1f and the natural response i 1n .15 Solutions to Exercises 1. we will assume that i 1 0 A = – 4 and by substitution into (2) i 1 = 4 1 – 4e – 2t or The voltage v 2 is found from di 1 di 2 v 2 = M -----.= 8u 0 t dt di 1 1 -----. M = 1H 2 2 i = 4u 0 t A L1 1H L2 2H v2 L1 L2 2H v2 M = 1H 1H v IN = 8u 0 t V i1 Application of KVL in the primary yields di 1 2i 1 + L 1 -----. i. i 1 = i 1f + i 1n From (1) we find that i 1f = 8 2 = 4 and i 1n is found from the characteristic equation s + 2 = 0 from which s = – 2 and thus i 1n = Ae – 2t .Transformers 8.e. – 2t i 1 = 4 + Ae (2) = 0 and from (2) 0 = 4 + Ae 0 Since we are not told otherwise.

2f A \t'. I=Z\V.angle(I(2))*180/pi).. fprintf('magI2 = %5.2f A \t'.00 A phaseI1 = -45. fprintf('phaseI2 = %5..2f deg '. V=[10 0]'..00 deg Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-45 . 20 1 – j I 1 = --------------------..00 deg phaseI2 = 90. 1 M = j1 2 j1 10 0 V I1 j8 I2 – j10 The mesh equations for primary and secondary are: 1 + j1 I 1 – j1 I 2 = 10 0 – j1 I 1 + 2 – j2 I 2 = 0 By Cramer’s rule.. fprintf(' \n') magI1 = magI2 = 5.angle(I(1))*180/pi).. fprintf('phaseI1 = %5. fprintf('magI1 = %5. abs(I(1))).66 A 2.Solutions to Exercises 2...= 4 1 – j = 4 2 – 45 A 5 ------I 2 = j10 = j2 = 2 90 A 5 Check with MATLAB: Z=[1+j j. I1 = D1 I2 = D2 – j1 2 – j2 – j1 2 – j2 where = 1 + j1 – j1 = 5 D 1 = 10 0 0 D2 = = 20 1 – j 1 + j1 10 0 – j1 0 = j10 Thus. fprintf(' \n'). abs(I(2))). j 2 2j]..2f deg '.

5*s 0.5s s + 1 V IN s We will use MATLAB to find the determinant syms s delta=[s+1 0.5*s s+1 of the 3 3 matrix.Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances .Transformers 3.5*s.5s s + 1 – 0.5s – 0.5*s. 0. 1 0.5s s I2 s V IN s I1 + 1 0.5s – 0. 0.5*s.5s 0. 0. V OUT s = 1 I 3 V IN s = s 3s + 2 V IN s and G s = V OUT s V IN s = s 3s + 2 8-46 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5*s s+1].5*s 0.5*s 0.5*s. det_delta=det(delta) 0.5s s I3 1 V OUT s We will find V OUT s from V OUT s = 1 I 3 . The three mesh equations in matrix form are: 1 = 0 0 s + 1 – 0.5*s s+1 0. 1 0 0]. det_d3=det(d3) det_d3 = 3/4*s^2+1/2*s I3=det_d3/det_delta I3 = (3/4*s^2+1/2*s)/(9/4*s^2+3*s+1) simplify(I3) ans = s/(3*s+2) Therefore.5s – 0.5s – 0. det_delta = 9/4*s^2+3*s+1 d3=[s+1 0.

V 2 V 1 = a .+ 1 8 8 2 from which V 2 = 3 .(1) 2 8 From the primary circuit.= -4 4 1 3 2 9 . it follows that I 1 = 2I 2 and V 1 = V 2 2 .w 2 4 8 and P ave 4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-47 .= 4 2 V2 I 2 + ----.= 1 (3) 8 Addition of (1) and (3) yields 3V 2 V 2 1 -------. By substitution into (2) we get V2 4I 2 + ----.-. P ave 4 At Node A .= -. 4 and thus we need to find I 4 .– I 2 = 0 8 4 3V 2 1 -------. 2I 1 + V 1 = 4 (2) Since I 2 I 1 = 1 a .Solutions to Exercises 4. and a = 2 . Then. I4 V2 3 = ----.I 4 2 2 2 a = 2 A I2 V2 4 For this exercise.– I 2 = -.4 = -.= -.+ ----.+ ------------------------. V2 V2 – 4 0 ----. 8 1:2 I1 V1 4 0 I4 1 = -.

87 2 -. a = – 5 .Chapter 8 Self and Mutual Inductances . I1 VS V1 12 0 y V2 100 – j75 I2 = I1 a y 2 + j3 1:5 x I2 aV S a2 ZS x V 2 = aV 1 Z LOAD Because the dot on the secondary is at the lower end.180 = 50 143. aV S = – 5 12 0 = – 60 0 = 60 180 a 2 Z S = 25 2 + j3 = 50 + j75 = 90.180 2Z + Z 5 150 50 + j75 + 100 – j75 a S LOAD and V 2 = Z LOAD I 2 = 125 – 36.= 60 180 .87 aV S 2 60 180 --------------------I 2 = -------------------------------.14 56.= -.31 Z LOAD = 100 – j75 = 125 – 36.= ---------------------------------------------.= 10000 = 2500 4 Z in or a = 50 8-48 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .13 V 5 6. 1:a 4 10 K 12 0 V From (8. Then. Z LOAD -------------a 2 = ------------.Transformers 5.102) Z LOAD Z in = ------------a2 Then.

communications systems. a network has two pairs of terminals. iin 3 3 6 5 10 + 20Ix 4 7 VL + 12 V iout + IL 8 Ix RL Figure 9. h . i in = i out iin + iout Figure 9. and others where electric energy or a signal enters the input terminals.and Two-port Networks T his chapter begins with the general principles of one and two-port networks. 9.2 and 9. Several examples are presented to illustrate their use. and the other as the output terminals. it is modified by the network. y . Such networks are very useful in the design of electronic systems. A port is a pair of terminals in a network at which electric energy or a signal may enter or leave the network.Chapter 9 One. and g parameters are defined.1 Introduction and Definitions Generally. Thus.3 show two examples of practical one-port networks. One-port network Figures 9. in Figure 9.1. one pair is denoted as the input terminals. transmission and distribution systems. automatic control systems. An example of an one-port network Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-1 . the current that enters one terminal must exit the network through the other terminal. It concludes with a discussion on reciprocal and symmetrical networks.2.1. A network that has only one pair a terminals is called a one-port network. The z . In an one-port network. and it exits through the output terminals.

The sign of any Z ij for i j can be positive or negative depending on the reference directions of i i and i j . Z 11 i 1 + Z 12 i 2 + Z 13 i 3 + Z 21 i 1 + Z 22 i 2 + Z 23 i 3 + Z n1 i 1 + Z n2 i 2 + Z n3 i 3 + + Z 1n i n = v 1 + Z 2n i n = v 2 + Z nn i n = v n (9.Chapter 9 One. Two-port network 9. the current i 1 is found by D1 i 1 = ----- (9.2) where 9-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 One-port Driving-point and Transfer Admittances Let us consider an n – port network and write the mesh equations for this network in terms of the impedances Z .4 where i 1 = i 3 and i 2 = i 4 i1 + i3 + i2 i4 Figure 9.3. Another example of an one-port network A two-port network has two pairs of terminals. that is.and Two-port Networks iin 2 4 8 6 + 120 V iout 10 16 20 Figure 9.1) In (9. We assume that the subscript of each current corresponds to the loop number and KVL is applied so that the sign of each Z ii is positive.4.1) each current can be found by Cramer’s rule. four terminals as shown in Figure 9. For instance.

The cofactor. The sign is plus (+) when the sum of the subscripts is even. then A qr = – 1 q+r M qr (9. We recall also that the minor is the cofactor without a sign. Mathematically. and it is minus ( ) when it is odd. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-3 .5) where M qr is the minor of the element a qr . if the cofactor of the element a qr is denoted as A qr .4) Next. Example 9. is the matrix that remains when both the row and the column containing the element are eliminated.1 Compute the determinant of A from the elements of the first row and their cofactors given that A = 1 2 –3 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 Solution: detA = 1 – 4 2 – 2 2 2 – 3 2 – 4 = 1 2 –6 –1 –6 –1 2 20 – 2 – 10 – 3 0 = 40 * A detailed discussion on cofactors is included in Appendix C. with the proper sign. we recall that the value of the determinant of a matrix A is the sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of any row or column by its cofactor*.One-port Driving-point and Transfer Admittances Z 11 Z 12 Z 13 Z 21 Z 22 Z 23 = Z Z Z 31 32 33 Z n1 Z n2 Z n3 V 1 Z 12 Z 13 V 2 Z 22 Z 23 D1 = V Z Z 3 32 33 V n Z n2 Z n3 Z 1n Z 2n Z 3n Z nn Z 1n Z 2n Z 3n Z nn (9.3) (9.

+ C n1 v n + ------------- (9. we find that the cofactors of Z 11 .9) Also.9) and (9. and so on can be written in similar forms.+ ------------.6) (9.12) and so on.= ------------.8) Therefore.Chapter 9 One.2) as D1 C 11 v 1 C 21 v 2 C 31 v 3 i 1 = ----.10) we get: 9-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ ------------. and Z 21 of (9.11) Likewise.+ ------------.= ------------. C 12 y 21 = ------C 22 y 22 = ------C 32 y 23 = ------- (9. In network theory the y ij parameters are defined as C 11 y 11 = ------C 21 y 12 = ------C 31 y 13 = ------- (9. and denoting the cofactor of the element a ij as C ij . Z 22 Z 23 C 11 = Z 32 Z 33 Z n2 Z n3 Z 21 Z 23 C 12 = – Z 31 Z 33 Z n1 Z n3 Z 12 Z 13 C 21 = – Z 32 Z 33 Z n2 Z n3 Z 2n Z 3n Z nn Z 2n Z 3n Z nn Z 1n Z 3n Z nn (9. Z 12 . C 12 v 1 C 22 v 2 C 32 v 3 D2 i 2 = ----. we can express (9. By substitution of the y parameters into (9.10) and the other currents i 3 .7) (9. i 4 .+ C n2 v n + ------------- (9.1) are respectively.and Two-port Networks Using the cofactor concept.+ ------------.

One-port Driving-point and Transfer Admittances i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 + y 13 v 3 + i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 + y 23 v 3 + + y 1n v n + y 2n v n (9.16) reduce to i 1 = y 11 v 1 i 2 = y 21 v 1 (9.18). they are referred to as driving-point admittances. If a network consists of only two loops such as in Figure 9.13) and (9. y 21 and so on. Stated in other words. Loop 1. Then.16) From Figure 9. they are referred to as transfer admittances. that is. (9. is the admittance seen by a voltage source that is present in the respective loop. Two loop network the equations of (9.17) reveals that the driving-point admittance y 11 is the ratio i 1 v 1 . Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-5 . i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 (9.5 we observe that there is only one voltage source. R1 R3 + i1 R2 i2 Figure 9. there is no voltage source in Loop 2 and thus v 2 = 0 . such as y 12 . v 1 . as defined by (9. Transfer admittance is the ratio of the current in some other loop to the driving voltage source.5.5.14) will have only two terms each.13) (9. y 22 and so on. the driving-point admittance is the ratio of the current in a given loop to the voltage source in that loop when there are no voltage sources in any other loops of the network. such as y 11 .17). the drivingpoint admittance. the transfer admittance y 21 is the ratio of the current in Loop 2 to the voltage source in Loop 1.18) Relation (9.15) and (9. As indicated in (9. If they are unlike.17) (9. in this case. That is.14) If the subscripts of the y -parameters are alike. in this case v 1 .15) (9.

find the driving-point and transfer admittances and the current through each resistor.7.19) The driving-point admittance is found from (9. that is.20) and the transfer admittance from (9.6. Circuit for Example 9.21) For this example.2 Solution: We assign currents as shown in Figure 9.12).7. C 12 y 21 = ------- (9. Loop equations for the circuit of Example 9.11).and Two-port Networks Example 9.Chapter 9 One. 9-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. R1 v1 4 R3 12 R2 6 + 24 V Figure 9.2 The loop equations are 10i 1 – 6i 2 = 24 – 6i 1 + 18i 2 = 0 (9.2 For the circuit of Figure 9.6. C 11 y 11 = ------- (9. R1 v1 4 R3 12 R2 i1 6 i2 + 24 V Figure 9.

the cofactor C 12 is found by eliminating the first row and second column and changing the sign of – 6 . 9.22).= ----144 24 (9.One-port Driving-point and Transfer Impedances = 10 – 6 = 180 – 36 = 144 – 6 18 (9. Similarly. We assume that the subscript of each current corresponds to the loop number and KVL is applied so that the sign of each Y ii is positive. that is. by substitution into (9. through the 12 Of course. we obtain C 11 18 1 y 11 = ------. However. C 12 = 6 .= -144 8 (9.21). there are other simpler methods of computing these currents. Y 11 v 1 + Y 12 v 2 + Y 13 v 3 + Y 21 v 1 + Y 22 v 2 + Y 23 v 3 + Y n1 v 1 + Y n2 v 2 + Y n3 v 3 + + Y 1n v n = i 1 + Y 2n v n = i 2 + Y nn v n = i n (9.23) and C 12 6 1 y 21 = ------.3 One-port Driving-point and Transfer Impedances Now. The sign of any Y ij for i j can be positive or negative depending on the reference polarities of v i and v j . let us consider an n – port network and write the nodal equations for this network in terms of the admittances Y . eliminating the first row and first column we are left with 18 and thus C 11 = 18 . By substitution into (9.22) The cofactor C 11 is obtained by inspection from the matrix of (9.20) and (9. These allow easy computation for complicated network problems.18) we get 1 i 1 = y 11 v 1 = -8 1 i 2 = y 21 v 1 = ----24 24 = 3 A 24 = 1 A (9. the intent here was to illustrate how the driving-point and transfer admittances are applied.26) is 1 A Finally.24) Then. Then.= -------. the we observe that the current through the 4 and through the 6 is i 1 – i 2 = 3 – 1 = 2A resistor is 3 A .27) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-7 .25) (9.17) and (9.= -------.

30) As in the previous section.34) (9.28) where Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 Y 21 Y 22 Y 23 = Y Y Y 31 32 33 Y n1 Y n2 Y n3 V 1 Y 12 Y 13 V 2 Y 22 Y 23 D1 = V Y Y 3 32 33 V n Y n2 Y n3 Y 1n Y 2n Y 3n Y nn Y 1n Y 2n Y 3n Y nn (9.33) and so on.27).Chapter 9 One. where C 11 z 11 = ------C 12 z 21 = ------C 13 z 31 = ------C 21 z 12 = ------C 22 z 22 = ------C 23 z 32 = ------C 31 z 13 = ------C 32 z 23 = ------C 33 z 33 = ------- (9. each voltage can be found by Cramer’s rule.27) can be expressed as v 1 = z 11 i 1 + z 12 i 2 + z 13 i 3 + v 2 = z 21 i 1 + z 22 i 2 + z 23 i 3 + v 3 = z 31 i 1 + z 32 i 2 + z 33 i 3 + + z 1n i n + z 2n i n + z 3n i n (9. The matrices C ij represent the cofactors as in the previous section. 9-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .32) (9.35) (9.31) (9. the voltage v 1 is found by D1 v 1 = ----- (9. we find that the nodal equations of (9. For instance.36) and so on.29) (9.and Two-port Networks In (9.

(9. v1 z 11 = ---i1 v1 1 vS v0 G1 i1 v2 2 G2 0 G3 (9. In other words. are driving-point impedances. z 22 and so on.37) Figure 9. Circuit to illustrate the definitions of driving-point and transfer impedances.8 where 0 is the reference node and nodes 1 and 2 are independent nodes. are called transfer impedances.9. we examine the network of Figure 9. v2 z 21 = ---i1 (9. i1 2 –1 –1 + 10 –1 –1 1 1 –1 1 1 –1 Figure 9. Thus.33) with like subscripts are referred to as driving-point impedances. Network for Example 9. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-9 . compute the driving-point and transfer impedances and the voltages across each conductance in terms of the current source. To understand the meaning of the driving-point and transfer impedances. That is. The remaining coefficients with unlike subscripts. z 21 and so on. and (9. such as z 12 . The transfer impedance between nodes 2 and 1 is the ratio of the voltage v 2 to the current at node 1 when there are no other current (or voltage) sources in the network.38) Example 9.3.31). z 11 .8.9.32). The driving point impedance is the ratio of the voltage across the nodes 1 and 0 to the current that flows through the branch between these nodes.One-port Driving-point and Transfer Impedances The coefficients of (9.3 For the network of Figure 9.

3 1 1 + 10 v2 2 The nodal equations are 10v 1 + 2 v 1 – v 2 + 1 v 1 – v 3 = i 1 2 v 2 – v 1 + 1 v 2 – v 3 + 1v 2 = 0 1 v 3 – v 1 + 1 v 3 – v 2 + 1v 3 = 0 (9. Node assignment for network of Example 9. that is. C 11 z 11 = ------- (9. that is.41) and the transfer impedances z 21 and z 31 from (9.36).35) and (9.and Two-port Networks Solution: We assign nodes 0 .39) Simplifying and rearranging we get: 13v 1 – 2v 2 – v 3 = i 1 – 2v 1 + 4v 2 – v 3 = 0 – v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 0 (9. C 12 z 21 = ------C 13 z 31 = ------- (9.10. 9-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .42) (9.10. 2 . v1 1 i1 2 1 3 v3 1 v0 0 Figure 9.Chapter 9 One.40) The driving-point impedance z 11 is found from (9.34).43) For this example. and 3 as shown in Figure 9. 1 .

and (9.42).49) (9. there are other simpler methods of computing these voltages. (9. and (9.i 1 123 7 v 2 = z 21 i 1 + z 22 i 2 + z 23 i 3 = -------. (9. we obtain C 11 11 z 11 = ------.41).= -------123 C 12 7 z 21 = ------.i 1 123 (9. the cofactors C 12 and C 13 are C 12 = – – 2 – 1 = – – 6 – 1 = 7 –1 3 (9. by substitution into (9.52) (9. These allow easy computation for complicated network problems.47) By substitution into (9.31). the intent here was to illustrate how the driving-point and transfer impedances are applied. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-11 .53) Of course.44) The cofactor C 11 is C 11 = 4 – 1 = 12 – 1 = 11 –1 3 (9.= -------123 C 13 6 z 31 = ------.43).45) Similarly.32).46) and C 13 = – 2 4 = 2 + 4 = 6 –1 –1 (9.= -------123 (9.50) Then.i 1 123 6 v 3 = z 31 i 1 + z 32 i 2 + z 33 i 3 = -------.One-port Driving-point and Transfer Impedances 13 – 2 – 1 = – 2 4 – 1 = 156 – 2 – 2 – 4 – 13 – 12 = 123 –1 –1 3 (9.48) (9.33) we get: 11v 1 = z 11 i 1 + z 12 i 2 + z 13 i 3 = -------.51) (9. However.

e..54) reduces to i 1 = y 11 v 1 (9. that is. Then.54) (9.11.57) and y 11 is referred to as the short circuit input admittance at the left port when the right port of Figure 9. z .54). v 2 = 0 . we assume that i 1 = i 3 and i 2 = i 4 . the y coefficients are referred to as the y parameters.4 Two-Port Networks Figure 9.58) reduces to i 1 = y 12 v 2 (9.56) or i1 y 11 = ---v1 (9.11 is short-circuited. 9. i.1 The y Parameters The two-port network of Figure 9. that is. Let us again consider (9. (9.Chapter 9 One. h . Two-port network Here. we will define the y .and Two-port Networks 9. Now. We also assume that i 1 and i 2 are obtained by the superposition of the currents produced by both v 1 and v 2 . i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 (9. i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 (9.4. v 1 = 0 .59) 9-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11 shows a two-port network with external voltages and currents specified. and g parameters. (9.11 can be described by the following set of equations. Let us assume that v 2 is shorted.55) In two-port network theory. + v1 i1 Linear network (Consists of linear passive devices and i3 possibly dependent sources but no independent sources i2 + v2 i4 Figure 9.58) This time we assume that v 1 is shorted. Then.

The y parameters and the conditions under which they are computed are shown in Figures 9. Similar expressions are obtained when we consider the equation for i 2 . the parameter y 21 is also referred to as the short circuit transfer admittance and represents transmission from the left (input) port to the right (output) port. the parameter y 12 represents the internal feedback inside the network. For instance. The y parameters for v 1 i1 i3 i1 y 11 = ---v1 0 and v 2 i2 i4 0 + v1 v2=0 v2 = 0 Figure 9. Network for the definition of the y 11 parameter Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-13 .Two-Port Networks or i1 y 12 = ---v2 (9. + v1 i1 i3 i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 i2 i4 + + v2 Figure 9. in amplifiers where the left port is considered to be the input port and the right to be the output.12. It represents the transmission from the right to the left port.61) In an amplifier.12 through 9. The parameter y 22 is called the short circuit output admittance.13. i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 (9.11 is shortcircuited.16. It is a measure of the socalled forward gain.60) and y 12 is referred to as the short circuit transfer admittance when the left port of Figure 9. that is.

Network for Example 9.17. Network for the definition of the y 12 parameter i1 i3 i2 y 21 = ---v1 v2 = 0 v1 + i2 i4 v2=0 Figure 9.16.4 For the network of Figure 9.4 9-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .and Two-port Networks v1=0 i1 i3 i1 y 12 = ---v2 v1 = 0 i2 + i4 v2 Figure 9.14.15. have been replaced with conductances in mhos. Network for the definition of the y 21 parameter i1 i3 i2 y 22 = ---v2 v1 = 0 v1=0 i2 + i4 v2 Figure 9. Network for the definition of the y 22 parameter Example 9.18 where we have assumed that v 1 = 1 V and the resistances. 10 5 20 Figure 9. find the y parameters.17. for convenience.Chapter 9 One. Solution: a. The short circuit input admittance y 11 is found from the network of Figure 9.

i1 v1 = 0 0.1 1 = – 0.2v 1 + 0. Network for computing y 12 We observe that the 0.1 1 = 0.1 1 = – 0.05 –1 v2 = 1 V Figure 9.3 A i 1 = 0. is found from the network of Figure 9.18.05 the 0. Then.3 1 = 0.1v 1 = 0.19. with a minus ( ) sign.1 (9. now flows through conductance.2 –1 conductance is shorted out and thus the current i 1 is the sum of –1 and 0.05 –1 Figure 9. Then.2 and thus the short circuit input admittance is y 11 = i 1 v 1 = 0.3 –1 (9. The current i 1 . Network for computing y 11 We observe that the 0.1 –1 conductances.2 parallel with the 0.2 –1 + v1 = 1 V v2 = 0 0.1 –1 + 0.19. i 1 = – 0.63) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-15 .1 0. 1 + 0.1 –1 conductance is in conductance.1v 2 = – 0.62) b.05 the currents through the 0.2 –1 0.1 and –1 –1 –1 conductance is shorted out and thus the 0.Two-Port Networks i1 –1 0. The short circuit transfer admittance y 12 when the left port is short-circuited.1 A –1 y 12 = i 1 v 2 = – 0.

is found from the network of 9.05 and 0.05v 2 + 0. 1 + 0.1 and –1 –1 –1 conductance is shorted out and thus the 0.1 –1 conductances.and Two-port Networks c.05 –1 v2 = 1 V Figure 9. Network for computing y 21 We observe that the 0.2 –1 conductance is shorted out and thus the current i 2 is the is the sum –1 of the currents through the 0. The short circuit transfer admittance y 21 when the right port is short-circuited.2 –1 –1 0.05 parallel with the 0.1 –1 conductance is in conductance.1 v1 = 0 0.1 A –1 conductance.2 the 0.1v 2 = 0.1 (9.1 1 = – 0.1 1 = – 0.20.64) d. Then. –1 0.1v 1 = – 0. is found from the network of Figure 9. The current i 2 .21.2 –1 i2 + 0.20.1 i2 v2 = 0 + v1 = 1 V 0. now flows through i 2 = – 0. with a minus ( ) sign. Then.21. The short circuit output admittance y 22 at the right port when the left port is short-circuited.05 9-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 9 One.1 1 = 0. y 21 = i 2 v 1 = – 0.05 Figure 9. Network for computing y 22 We observe that the 0.15 A i 2 = 0. –1 0.

the same current at the second node will produce the same voltage at the first.Two-Port Networks and y 22 = i 2 v 2 = 0.67) This is not just a coincidence.1 v 1 + 0.1 (9. if we know that the two-port network is reciprocal.5 For the network of Figure 9.65) Therefore. If in a reciprocal two-port network its ports can be interchanged without affecting the terminal voltages and currents. only three computations are required to find the y parameters. the two-port network of Figure 9. y 22 = y 11 y 21 = y 12 (9.10 can be described by the following set of equations. that is. i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 = 0. this is true whenever a two-port network is reciprocal (or bilateral). Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-17 . This theorem states that: If a voltage applied in one branch of a linear. compute v 1 . The reverse is also true.68) The network of Figure 9. if current applied at one node produces a certain voltage at another.17 is not symmetric since y 22 y 11 We will present examples of reciprocal and symmetric two-port networks at the last section of this chapter. that is. The following example illustrates the applicability of two-port network analysis in more complicated networks. v 2 . i 1 .3v 2 (9. and i 2 . Example 9. Obviously.66) Note: In Example 9.1v 2 i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 = – 0.22. we found that the short circuit transfer admittances are equal.15 1 = 0.15 –1 (9. two-port passive network produces a certain current in any other branch of this network. y 21 = y 12 = – 0.3v 1 – 0. An example is given at the end of this chapter.4. the same voltage applied in the second branch will produce the same current in the first branch. the network is said to be also symmetric. A network is reciprocal if the reciprocity theorem is satisfied. In a symmetric two-port network.

as that of the previous example.66).3v 2 = – v 2 4 (9. shown in Figure 9.3v 1 – 0.1v 2 = 15 – 0.69) and at Node 2.69) and (9. 1 10 v1 15 A 5 20 + i1 10 i2 2 + v2 4 Figure 9.70) into (9.Chapter 9 One.1 v 1 + 0. Portion of the network for which the y parameters are known. at Node 1.4v 2 = 0 (9.72) to become more familiar with it. we get: i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 = 0. i 1 = 15 – v 1 10 (9.4v 1 – 0.23. Network for Example 9. For the network of Figure 9.1 v 1 + 0.22.1v 2 = 15 – v 1 10 i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 = – 0.71) or 0.72) We will use MATLAB to solve the equations of (9.and Two-port Networks + 10 v1 5 15 A 20 i1 10 i2 + v2 4 Figure 9.23. 9-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .70) By substitution of (9.23. i2 = –v2 4 (9.5 Solution: We recognize the portion of the network enclosed in the dotted square.

that is.1*v1+0.24 can also be described by the following set of equations.Two-Port Networks syms v1 v2. i 2 = 0 as shown in Figure 9.4*v2) v1 = 40 v2 = 10 and thus v 1 = 40 V v 2 = 10 V (9.69) and (9. + v1 v 1 = z 11 i 1 + z 12 i 2 v 2 = z 21 i 1 + z 22 i 2 i1 + v2 i2 Figure 9.25.4. the z ij coefficients are referred to as the z parameters or as open circuit Let us assume that v 2 is open.25. [v1 v2]=solve(0.2 The z parameters A two-port network such as that of Figure 9.1*v2 15. Network for the definition of the z 11 parameter Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-19 .76) In two-port network theory. + v1 v1 z 11 = ---i1 i1 + v2 i2=0 i2 = 0 Figure 9.24. i 1 = 15 – 40 10 = 11 A i 2 = – 10 4 = – 2. 0.75) (9. The z parameters for i 1 v 1 = z 11 i 1 + z 12 i 2 v 2 = z 21 i 1 + z 22 i 2 impedance parameters. 0 and i 2 0 (9.5 A (9.74) 9.73) The currents i 1 and i 2 are found from (9.70).4*v1 0.

82) reduces to v 2 = z 21 i 1 (9.26. i1=0 + v1 z 12 v1 = ---i2 + v2 i2 i1 = 0 Figure 9..and Two-port Networks Then. v 1 = z 11 i 1 + z 12 i 2 (9.Chapter 9 One. i 2 = 0 as shown in Figure 9. Similar expressions are obtained when we consider the equation for v 2 . i.83) 9-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is.77) or v1 z 11 = ---i1 (9.75) reduces to v 1 = z 12 i 2 (9.79) This time we assume that the terminal at v 1 is open. v 2 = z 21 i 1 + z 22 i 2 (9.26.81) and this is the open circuit transfer impedance when the left port is open as shown in Figure 9. that is. (9. Then.82) Let us assume that v 2 is open. (9.80) or v1 z 12 = ---i2 (9.e.27.75). (9. i 1 = 0 as shown in Figure 9.25 is open. Network for the definition of the z 12 parameter Then.75) reduces to v 1 = z 11 i 1 (9. that is.26. Let us again consider (9.78) and this is the open circuit input impedance when the right port of Figure 9.

27.Two-Port Networks + v1 v2 z 21 = ---i1 i1 + v2 i2=0 i2 = 0 Figure 9.28. Finally.6 For the network of Figure 9.. Example 9. i1=0 + v1 z 22 v2 = ---i2 + v2 i2 i1 = 0 Figure 9. Network for the definition of the z 22 parameter Then.e. let us assume that the terminal at v 1 is open.86) The parameter z 22 is called the open circuit output impedance.29. (9.27.28. i. We observe that the z parameters definitions are similar to those of the y parameters if we substitute voltages for currents and currents for voltages. Network for the definition of the z 21 parameter or v2 z 21 = ---i1 (9.82) reduces to v 2 = z 22 i 2 (9. i 1 = 0 as shown in Figure 9.85) or v2 z 22 = ---i2 (9.84) The parameter z 21 is referred to as open circuit transfer impedance when the right port is open as shown in Figure 9. find the z parameters. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-21 .

i 2 = ----15 + 5 + 20 40 1=3 8A and 9-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6 Solution: a. Network for computing z 11 for the network of Figure 9. Then. The open circuit transfer impedance z 12 is found from the network of Figure 9. Then. the open circuit input impedance z 11 is z 11 = v 1 i 1 = 10 1 = 10 (9.30 where we have assumed that i 1 = 1 A .5 A and the voltage across that resistor is v 1 = 20 0. by the current division expression.29. + v1 i1 = 1 A 20 5 15 + v2 i2 = 0 Figure 9. We observe that the 15 resistance is in parallel with the series combination of the 5 20 resistances.31. the current through the 20 resistance is i 20 15 15 = --------------------------.29 We observe that the 20 resistor is in parallel with the series combination of the 5 and 15 resistors.30.Chapter 9 One. the current through the 20 resistor is 0.and Two-port Networks 5 20 15 Figure 9.87) b. The open circuit input impedance z 11 is found from the network of Figure 9.5 = 10 V Therefore. Network for Example 9.

the open circuit transfer impedance z 12 is v1 15 2 z 12 = ---. Network for computing z 12 for the network of Figure 9.31.= -----------.29 and the voltage across this resistor is 3 -8 ----20 = 60 = 15 2 V 8 Therefore. In Figure 9.= 7.i 1 = ----20 + 5 + 15 40 resistor is 1=1 2A + v1 i1 = 1 A 20 5 15 + v2 i2 = 0 Figure 9. the open circuit transfer impedance z 21 is v2 15 2 z 21 = ---.32.89) 9-23 .= 7. Network for computing z 21 for the network of Figure 9. The open circuit transfer impedance z 21 is found from the network of Figure 9.5 i2 1 (9.32 the current that flows through the 15 i 15 20 20 = --------------------------.32.= -----------.Two-Port Networks + i1 = 0 v1 20 5 15 + v2 i2 = 1 A Figure 9.29 and the voltage across this resistor is 1 v 2 = -2 15 = 15 2 V Therefore.5 i1 1 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (9.88) c.

a current gain.i 2 = ----20 + 5 + 15 40 5 -8 1=5 8A and and the voltage across that resistor is 15 = 75 8 V Therefore.93) as shown in Figure 9.91) 9. 9-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----------. Let us assume that v 2 = 0 as shown in Figure 9. the current through the 15 resistance is 20 i 15 20 + 5 25 = --------------------------. Then.34. and an admittance.= 75 8 i2 1 (9.and Two-port Networks We observe that z 21 = z 12 (9. Network for computing z 22 for the network of Figure 9.35. The open circuit output impedance z 22 is found from the network of Figure 9.4. a voltage gain.90) d. The h parameters represent an impedance. + i1 = 0 v1 20 5 15 + v2 i2 = 1 A Figure 9.3 The h Parameters A two-port network can also be described by the set of equations v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 (9. the open circuit output impedance z 22 is v1 75 8 z 22 = ---.Chapter 9 One. For this reason they are called hybrid (different) parameters.33.33.29 We observe that the 15 resistance is in parallel with the series combination of the 5 resistances.92) (9.

94) or v1 h 11 = ---i1 (9.92) reduces to v 1 = h 11 i 1 (9.36. i1=0 + v1 h 12 v1 = ---v2 i2 + v2 i1 = 0 Figure 9.36.92) reduces to v 1 = h 12 v 2 (9. Let us assume that i 1 = 0 as shown in Figure 9.34 Then.34. the parameter h 11 represents the input impedance of a two-port network. The h parameters for i 1 + v1 v1 h 11 = ---i1 0 and v 2 i2 0 i1 v2=0 v2 = 0 Figure 9. Network for the definition of the h 11 parameter Then.Two-Port Networks + v1 v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 i2 i1 + v2 Figure 9.95) Therefore. (9.35. Network for computing h 12 for the network of Figure 9. (9.96) or v1 h 12 = ---v2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (9.97) 9-25 .

+ v1 i2 h 21 = --i1 i2 i1 v2=0 v2 = 0 Figure 9.34 Then. Let us assume that v 2 = 0 as shown in Figure 9.34 Then.38.37.7 For the network of Figure 9. i1=0 + v1 i2 h 22 = ---v2 i2 + v2 i1 = 0 Figure 9. Network for computing h 22 for the network of Figure 9. in a two-port network the parameter h 12 represents a voltage gain (or loss).38. 9-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . (9. Example 9.Chapter 9 One. i 1 = 0 as shown in Figure 9.e.. Network for computing h 21 for the network of Figure 9.39. i.and Two-port Networks Therefore.37.93) reduces to i 2 = h 21 i 1 or i2 h 21 = --i1 Therefore. (9. find the h parameters. let us assume that the terminal at v 1 is open. in a two-port network the parameter h 21 represents a current gain (or loss).93) reduces to i 2 = h 22 v 2 or i2 h 22 = ---v2 Therefore. Finally. in a two-port network the parameter h 22 represents an output admittance.

40 where we have assumed that i 1 = 1 A .39. The voltage gain h 12 is found from the network of Figure 9.7 Solution: a.Two-Port Networks 1 4 6 Figure 9. Network for Example 9. Network for computing h 11 for the network of Figure 9.41.4 V resis- Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-27 .= -----. the voltage across the 1 + 2. 4 4v 1 = ----------.39 1 4 6 i2 v2 = 0 From the network of Figure 9.v 2 = ----6+4 10 1 = 0. Since no current flows through the 1 resistor. the voltage v 1 is the voltage across the 4 tor. The short circuit input impedance h 11 is found from the network of Figure 9.98) b.40 we observe that the 4 ing an equivalent resistance of 2. Then. Then.4 in series with the 1 current source is v1 = 1 and 6 resistors are in parallel yieldresistor.4 h 11 = ---.4 V Therefore.4 i1 1 (9.40. the short circuit input impedance h 11 is v1 3. + v1 i1 = 1 A Figure 9.4 = 3. by the voltage division expression.= 3.

4 1 i1 We observe that 9-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the current gain h 21 is the dimensionless number i2 --------h 21 = --.4 1 = 2.4 parallel combination is + v1 i1 = 1 A Figure 9.Chapter 9 One.4 . Network for computing h 12 for the network of Figure 9.99) c.42. the voltage gain h 12 is the dimensionless number v1 0.= – 0.4 h 12 = ---.= – 0.and Two-port Networks 1 4 6 + i1 = 0 v1 + v2 = 1 V Figure 9.42. Network for computing h 21 for the network of Figure 9.39.= -----. Then.= 0. The current gain h 21 is found from the network of Figure 9.4 A 6 Therefore.41. v 2. We observe that the 4 and 6 resistors are in parallel yielding an equivalent resistance of 2. the voltage across the 2. Therefore. 2. Thus.4 v2 1 (9.4 = 2.39.4 V 1 4 6 i2 v2 = 0 The current i 2 is the current through the 6 resistor.4 i 2 = – -----.4 = – 0.

4.43.1 1 v2 –1 (9.Two-Port Networks h 21 = – h 12 (9. The h parameters are best suited with series-parallel feedback networks. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-29 . are used extensively in networks consisting of transistors*. * Transistors are three-terminal devices.= 0.100) and this is a consequence of the fact that the given network is reciprocal.4 The g Parameters A two-port network can also be described by the set of equations i 1 = g 11 v 1 + g 12 i 2 v 2 = g 21 v 1 + g 22 i 2 (9. 9. Since no current flows through the 1 resistor. d.= 0.43. and feedback networks.= ----. they can be represented as large-signal equivalent two-port networks circuits and also as small-signal equivalent two-port networks where linearity can be applied. The open circuit admittance h 22 is found from the network of Figure 9.102) (9.103) as shown in Figure 9.1 A 6+4 10 Therefore. Network for computing h 22 for the network of Figure 9. whereas the g parameters are preferred in parallel-series amplifiers. 1 4 6 i2 + i1 = 0 v1 + v2 = 1 V Figure 9.1 = 0.101) Note: The h parameters and the g parameters (to be discussed next). the current i 2 is found by Ohm’s law as v2 1 i 2 = ----------. the open circuit admittance h 22 is i2 -----h 22 = ---.39. However.44.

102) reduces to i 1 = g 12 i 2 (9. v1 = 0 i1 i1 g 12 = --i2 + v2 i2 v1 = 0 Figure 9.106) 9-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .45. (9.and Two-port Networks + i1 i 1 = g 11 v 1 + g 12 i 2 v 2 = g 21 v 1 + g 22 i 2 v1 + v2 i2 Figure 9.105) Therefore. Network for computing g 11 for the network of Figure 9.46. represent an admittance. + i1 i1 g 11 = ---v1 v1 + v2 i2 = 0 i2 = 0 Figure 9.102) reduces to i 1 = g 11 v 1 (9. (9.44 Then. a voltage gain and an impedance. the parameter g 11 represents the input admittance of a two-port network.44.104) or i1 g 11 = ---v1 (9. a current gain. Let us assume that i 2 = 0 as shown in Figure 9. Network for computing g 12 for the network of Figure 9.45.44 Then. The g parameters for v 1 0 and i 2 0 The g parameters.Chapter 9 One.46. Let us assume that v 1 = 0 as shown in Figure 9. also known as inverse hybrid parameters.

48.107) Therefore. in a two-port network the parameter g 21 represents a voltage gain (or loss). in a two-port network the parameter g 12 represents a current gain (or loss).109) Therefore.. v1 = 0 i1 v2 g 22 = ---i2 + v2 i2 v1 = 0 Figure 9.103) reduces to v 2 = g 21 v 1 (9.103) reduces to v 2 = g 22 i 2 (9. Finally. + i1 v2 g 21 = ---v1 v1 + v2 i2 = 0 i2 = 0 Figure 9.44 Then.Two-Port Networks or i1 g 12 = --i2 (9. let us assume that v 1 is shorted.47.111) 9-31 . (9. Let us assume that i 2 = 0 as shown in Figure 9. Network for computing g 21 for the network of Figure 9. (9. v 1 = 0 as shown in Figure 9. i.44 Then. Network for computing g 22 for the network of Figure 9.47.110) or v2 g 22 = ---i2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (9.48.108) or v2 g 21 = ---i1 (9.e.

8 For the network of Figure 9.= -----------.Chapter 9 One. in a two-port network the parameter g 22 represents the output impedance of that network.51.49.49. Network for Example 9. the open circuit input admittance g 11 is i1 11 13 g 11 = ---. i1 1 12 4 + v2 i2 = 0 + v1 = 1 V Figure 9.and Two-port Networks Thus.8 Solution: a. By the current division expression.= ----. find the g parameters. The current gain g 12 is found from the network of Figure 9.50. Network for computing g 11 for the network of Figure 9.49.A 13 1 + 12 Therefore.50 where we have assumed that v 1 = 1 V .= ----13 v1 1 –1 (9. v1 1 i 1 = -------------.112) b. The open circuit input admittance g 11 is found from the network of Figure 9. 1 12 4 Figure 9. the current through the 1 12 12 i 1 = – -------------.i 2 = – ----12 + 1 13 resistor is 1 = – 12 13 A 9-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example 9. There is no current through the 4 resistor and thus by Ohm’s law.

52.52. Therefore. The short circuit output impedance g 22 is found from the network of Figure 9. the voltage v 2 is the voltage across the 12 resistor. Network for computing g 21 for the network of Figure 9.113) c. d. The voltage gain g 21 is found from the network of Figure 9. i1 1 12 4 + v2 i2 = 0 + v1 = 1 V Figure 9.= ----v1 1 13 We observe that g 21 = – g 12 (9. 12 v 2 = -------------1 + 12 1 = 12 13 V Therefore. Then. Since there is no current through the 4 resistor. Network for computing g 12 for the network of Figure 9.51. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-33 .114) and this is a consequence of the fact that the given network is reciprocal.53.49.= -----------------.= --------------. the current gain g 12 is the dimensionless number i1 – 12 13 g 12 = --.Two-Port Networks i1 v1 = 0 1 12 i2 = 1 A 4 Figure 9.= – 12 13 i2 1 (9. by the voltage division expression. the voltage gain g 21 is the dimensionless number v2 12 13 12 g 21 = ---.49.

and Two-port Networks i1 v1 = 0 1 12 4 + v2 i2 = 1 A Figure 9.117) the network is said to be reciprocal.+ 4 = 64 13 V 13 Therefore. the short circuit output impedance g 22 is v2 --------------g 22 = ---.116) 9.49. The voltage v 2 is the sum of the voltages across the 4 1 1 = -------------.Chapter 9 One.117). in addition to (9.5 Reciprocal Two-Port Networks If any of the following relationships exist in a a two-port network. Network for computing g 22 for the network of Figure 9.= 64 13 = 64 13 1 i2 (9. z 21 = z 12 y 21 = y 12 h 21 = – h 12 g 21 = – g 12 (9. the current through the 12 i 12 1 = 1 13 A Then.53.i 2 = ----1 + 12 13 1= ----13 resistor and the voltage across the 12 resistor is (9. any of the following relationship exists 9-34 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v 12 12 = 12 13 V and 12 v 2 = ----.115) resistor. By the current division expression. If.

the same current at the second node will produce the same voltage at the first. we only need to make only two computations as shown in (9. and g parameters as shown in (9.118) the network is said to be symmetric. if current applied at one node produces a certain voltage at another. if we know that the two-port network is symmetric. Z1 Z2 Z3 Z1 Tee Z2 Z3 Z4 Z1 Z2 Bridged Tee Z1 Z3 Bridged Figure 9.55. and bridged tee . Examples of reciprocal two-port networks are the tee .Reciprocal Two-Port Networks z 22 = z 11 y 22 = y 11 h 11 h 22 – h 12 h 21 = 1 g 11 g 22 – g 12 g 21 = 1 (9. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Z3 Z2 Z 4 9-35 .54. Let us review the reciprocity theorem and its consequences before we present an example. h . two-port passive network produces a certain current in any other branch of this network. only three computations are required to find the y . Furthermore. bridged ( lattice ).117). that is. the same voltage applied in the second branch will produce the same current in the first branch. z . . These are shown in Figure 9. Examples of reciprocal two-port networks The reverse is also true. Examples of symmetric two-port networks are shown in Figure 9.54. This theorem states that: If a voltage applied in one branch of a linear. It was also stated earlier that if we know that the two-port network is reciprocal.118).

Interchange the positions of the voltage source and recompute the ammeter reading. the voltage source v S connected at the left end of the network is set for 15 V . a. 9-36 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Z 2 . Solution: a. that is.Chapter 9 One. Example 9. Assume that the ammeter is ideal. Examples of symmetric two-port networks.and Two-port Networks Z1 Z2 Tee Z1 Z1 Z2 Z1 Z3 Z1 Z2 .9 In the two-port network of Figure 9. Compute the ammeter reading. Network for Example 9. b. On the right side of the network is connected a DC ammeter denoted as A . Z4 Z1 vS v S = 15 V Z3 Z2 A Z 1 = 30 Z 2 = 60 Z 3 = 20 Z 4 = 10 Figure 9.9. Perhaps the easiest method of solution is by nodal analysis since we only need to solve one equation. has no internal resistance. Bridged Tee Z1 Z2 Z1 Bridged Z1 Figure 9.56. and all impedances are resistive with the values indicated.55.56.

+ ------. Z4 I Z4 Z1 I Z1 a v S = 15 V Z 1 = 30 Z3 vS Z 2 = 60 Z 3 = 20 Z 4 = 10 A Z2 b Figure 9.= ----.58.Reciprocal Two-Port Networks The given network is redrawn as shown in Figure 9.9 by nodal analysis By KCL at node a . With the voltage source and ammeter positions interchanged.58.75 A 20 10 Z3 Z4 (9.+ ------.+ ---. the network is as shown in Figure 9. denoting the current through the ammeter as I A we get: V ab V 5.57 with the voltage source and ammeter interchanged.25 + 1.V ab = 15 ----60 30 or V ab = 5 V The current through the ammeter is the sum of the currents I Z3 and I Z4 .+ 15 = 0. Network of Figure 9.57.50 = 1. Network for solution of Example 9.57. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-37 .----I A = I Z3 + I Z4 = ------.119) b. V ab – 15 V ab V ab ------------------. Z4 Z1 vS a v S = 15 V Z 1 = 30 Z 2 = 60 Z 3 = 20 Z 4 = 10 Z3 I Z3 I Z4 Z2 A b Figure 9.= 0 30 60 20 or 6----. Thus.

A network that has only one pair a terminals is called a one-port network. such as y 12 .+ ----. 9. For a 2 – port network the y parameters are defined as 9-38 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus.50 = 1.25 + 1. they are referred to as driving-point admittances. that is. If they are unlike.= -----.+ ---. A two-port network has two pairs of terminals.+ ------. such as y 11 . they are referred to as transfer admittances. y 21 and so on. y 22 and so on.119) and (9. In an one-port network.75 A Z1 Z4 30 10 (9.= 0 20 30 60 or 6 ----.5 V The current through the ammeter this time is the sum of the currents I Z1 and I Z4 . we get: V ab V ab V ab – 15 ------.= 0.and Two-port Networks Applying KCL for the network of Figure 9.Chapter 9 One. For an n – port network the y parameters are defined as i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 + y 13 v 3 + i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 + y 23 v 3 + i 3 = y 31 v 1 + y 32 v 2 + y 33 v 3 + + y 1n v n + y 2n v n + y 2n v n and so on.120) We observe that (9.5 15 I A = I Z1 + I Z4 = ------.6 Summary A port is a pair of terminals in a network at which electric energy or a signal may enter or leave the network.58.V ab = 15 ----60 20 or V ab = 7. If the subscripts of the y -parameters are alike.+ ------------------. denoting the current through the ammeter as I A we get: V ab V 7. the current that enters one terminal must exit the network through the other terminal.120 give the same value and thus we can say that the given network is reciprocal. four terminals.

when v 2 = 0 . i2 y 22 = ---v1 v1 = 0 For a n – port network the z parameters are defined as v 1 = z 11 i 1 + z 12 i 2 + z 13 i 3 + v 2 = z 21 i 1 + z 22 i 2 + z 23 i 3 + v 3 = z 31 i 1 + z 32 i 2 + z 33 i 3 + + z 1n i n + z 2n i n + z 3n i n and so on. If they are unlike. the y 22 parameter is referred to as the short circuit output admittance. such as z 11 . when v 1 = 0 . the y 21 parameter is referred to as the short circuit transfer admittance. i1 y 12 = ---v2 v1 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the right port is short-circuited. In other words. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-39 . when v 2 = 0 . i2 y 21 = ---v1 v2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is short-circuited.Summary i 1 = y 11 v 1 + y 12 v 2 i 2 = y 21 v 1 + y 22 v 2 In a 2 – port network where the right port is short-circuited. that is. In other words. z 22 and so on. the y 12 parameter is referred to as the short circuit transfer admittance. they are referred to as driving-point impedances. In other words. z 21 and so on. when v 1 = 0 . the y 11 parameter is referred to as the short circuit input admittance. If the subscripts of the z -parameters are alike. i1 y 11 = ---v1 v2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is short-circuited. they are referred to as transfer impedances. that is. In other words. that is. such as z 12 . that is.

that is. a voltage gain. In other words. In other words. that is. the z 11 parameter is referred to as the open circuit input impedance.Chapter 9 One. that is. 9-40 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . when v 2 = 0 . In other words. the z 12 parameter is referred to as the open circuit transfer impedance. In other words. when i 1 = 0 . when i 2 = 0 . and an admittance. v2 z 22 = ---i2 i1 = 0 A two-port network can also be described in terms of the h parameters with the equations v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 The h parameters represent an impedance. a current gain. For this reason they are called hybrid (different) parameters. In other words. when i 2 = 0 . the z 22 parameter is referred to as the open circuit output impedance. that is. the h 11 parameter represents the input impedance of the two-port network. v1 z 11 = ---i1 i2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is open. the z 21 parameter is referred to as the open circuit transfer impedance.and Two-port Networks For a 2 – port network the z parameters are defined as v 1 = z 11 i 1 + z 12 i 2 v 2 = z 21 i 1 + z 22 i 2 In a 2 – port network where the right port is open. when i 1 = 0 . that is. v1 z 12 = ---i2 i1 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the right port is open. In a 2 – port network where the right port is shorted. v2 z 21 = ---i1 i2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is open.

the h 21 parameter represents a current gain (or loss). In other words. when i 2 = 0 . that is. that is. i2 h 21 = --i1 v2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is open. v1 h 12 = ---v2 i1 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the right port is shorted. the h 12 parameter represents a voltage gain (or loss) in the two-port network. when i 1 = 0 . In other words. In other words. a current gain. the g 12 parameter represents a current gain (or loss) in the two-port network. i1 g 12 = --i2 v1 = 0 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-41 . i1 g 11 = ---v1 i2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is shorted. that is. the h 22 parameter represents an output admittance. that is. when v 2 = 0 . that is. when i 1 = 0 . the g 11 parameter represents the input admittance of the two-port network. In a 2 – port network where the right port is open. also known as inverse hybrid parameters. i2 h 22 = ---v2 i1 = 0 A two-port network can also be described in terms of the g parameters with the equations i 1 = g 11 v 1 + g 12 i 2 v 2 = g 21 v 1 + g 22 i 2 The g parameters. In other words.Summary v1 h 11 = ---i1 v2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is open. a voltage gain and an impedance. when v 1 = 0 . represent an admittance. In other words.

the same voltage applied in the second branch will produce the same current in the first branch. The reverse is also true. z 21 = z 12 y 21 = y 12 h 21 = – h 12 g 21 = – g 12 A two-port network is said to be symmetrical if any of the following relationships exist. that is.Chapter 9 One. the same current at the second node will produce the same voltage at the first. the g 22 parameter represents an output impedance. A two-port network is said to be reciprocal if any of the following relationships exists. In other words. if current applied at one node produces a certain voltage at another. that is. In other words. v2 g 21 = ---v1 i2 = 0 In a 2 – port network where the left port is shorted. v2 g 22 = ---i2 v1 = 0 The reciprocity theorem states that if a voltage applied in one branch of a linear. when i 2 = 0 . when v 1 = 0 . the g 21 parameter represents a voltage gain (or loss). that is. two-port passive network produces a certain current in any other branch of this network. z 21 = z 12 and z 22 = z 11 y 21 = y 12 and y 22 = y 11 h 21 = – h 12 and h 11 h 22 – h 12 h 21 = 1 g 21 = – g 12 and g 11 g 22 – g 12 g 21 = 1 9-42 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .and Two-port Networks In a 2 – port network where the right port is open.

60. 4 1 6 Figure 9. find the z parameters.62.59. Network for Exercise 3. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-43 . 5 20 15 Figure 9. 3. 4 1 6 Figure 9.7 Exercises 1.59. find the y parameters. find the h parameters.For the network of Figure 9. 4. 2. Network for Exercise 1.62. 10 5 20 Figure 9. Network for Exercise 2. find the g parameters. For the network of Figure 9.61.60.61.Exercises 9. For the network of Figure 9. For the network of Figure 9. Network for Exercise 4.

63. 9-44 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The equations describing the h parameters can be used to represent the network of Figure 9. Compute the voltage gain and current gain for this network if a voltage source of v 1 = cos t mV in series with 800 is connected at the input (left side).63. This network is a transistor equivalent circuit for the common-emitter configuration and the h parameters given are typical values for such a circuit. h11 ( + v1 i1 h12 v2 + i2 + h21 i1 h 22 h 11 = 1.and Two-port Networks 5.2 K h 12 = 2 h 21 = 50 h 22 = 50 10 –6 –1 –1 v2 10 –4 Figure 9. and a 5 K load is connected at the output (right side).Chapter 9 One. Network for Exercise 5.

Solutions to Exercises 9.i 2 = ----20 + 5 + 10 35 v1 = 5 1=4 7A 4 -.8 Solutions to Exercises 1.i 1 = ----5 + 10 + 20 35 v 1 = 5i 5 = 5 1 = 6 7A 6 7 = 30 7 V v1 30 7 z 11 = ---.= -----------.= 20 7 i2 1 v2 z 21 = ---i1 + i2 = 0 10 5 20 + v2 i2 = 0 v1 i1 = 1 A Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-45 .= -----------. v1 z 11 = ---i1 i2 = 0 + v1 i1 = 1 A i5 5 10 20 + v2 i2 = 0 i5 10 + 20 30 = ------------------------------.= 20 7 V 7 v1 20 7 z 12 = ---.= 30 7 i1 1 v1 z 12 = ---i2 i1 = 0 + i1 = 0 v1 i5 5 10 20 + v2 i2 = 1 A i5 20 20 = ------------------------------.

i 1 = ----5 + 10 + 20 35 v 2 = 20 1=1 7A 1 -.= 60 7 V 7 v1 -----------z 22 = ---.= 20 7 V 7 v2 20 7 z 21 = ---.= 60 7 = 60 7 1 i2 2.Chapter 9 One.= 1 4 1 –1 9-46 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 20 7 i1 1 We observe that z 21 = z 12 v2 z 22 = ---i2 i1 = 0 + i1 = 0 v1 5 10 20 + v2 i2 = 1 A i 20 10 + 5 15 = ------------------------------.and Two-port Networks i 20 5 5 = ------------------------------.i 2 = ----20 + 10 + 5 35 v 2 = 20 1=3 7A 3 -. i1 y 11 = ---v1 i1 v2 = 0 5 20 15 short v2 = 0 + v1 = 1 V R eq = 5 20 = 4 i 1 = v 1 R eq = 1 4 A 1 4 y 11 = i 1 v 1 = --------.= -----------.

Answers to Exercises i1 y 12 = ---v2 i1 v1 = 0 5 20 v1 = 0 short v5 i1 = –v5 + 15 v2 = 1 V = v2 = 1 V 5 = –1 5 A –1 y 12 = i 1 v 2 = – 1 5 1 = – 1 5 i2 y 21 = ---v1 v2 = 0 5 i2 v2 = 0 15 short + v1 = 1 V 20 v5 i2 = –v5 = v1 = 1 V 5 = –1 5 A –1 y 21 = i 2 v 1 = – 1 5 1 = – 1 5 We observe that y 21 = y 12 i2 y 22 = ---v2 i1 v1 = 0 5 20 i2 v1 = 0 short i 2 = v 2 R eq = 1 + 15 v2 = 1 V 5 15 = 1 75 20 = 4 15 A –1 y 22 = i 2 v 2 = 4 15 1 = 4 15 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-47 .

= --------.= --------------.= --------.= 1 5 V 30 v1 1 5 h 12 = ---.= -----------------------.and Two-port Networks 3.= 11 30 A R eq 6 4+1 30 11 v1 = 1 i1 = 1 6 ------------------------6+4+1 i2 = 1 6 ----11 11 ----.= 4 5 i1 1 v1 h 12 = ---v2 i1 = 0 i1 = 0 + v1 i1 1 4 6 i2 + v2 + v2 = 1 V v2 1 1 i 2 = ------.Chapter 9 One. v1 h 11 = ---i1 i1 v2 = 0 + v1 4 i1 1 6 short v2 = 0 i1 = 1 A 4 4 = ---------------.= 1 5 dimensionless v2 1 i2 h 21 = --i1 i1 v2 = 0 4 1 6 i2 v2 = 0 short i1 = 1 A 1 i 2 = ---------------1+4 1 – i 1 = -5 –1 = –1 5 A 9-48 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .i 1 = -1+4 5 v1 = 1 i1 i1 1 = 4 5A = 4 5V v1 4 5 h 11 = ---.

= --------------.= --------------.= 11 10 A R eq 1 4+6 10 11 i1 11 10 g 11 = ---.= 11 30 A R eq 6 4+1 30 11 i2 11 30 h 22 = ---.= -----------.= --------------.= – 1 5 i1 1 We observe that h 21 = – h 12 i2 h 22 = ---v2 i1 = 0 i1 = 0 + v1 1 4 6 i2 + v2 + v2 = 1 V v2 1 1 i 2 = ------.= --------------. i1 g 11 = ---v1 i1 i2 = 0 + 4 1 6 i2 = 0 + v1 = 1 V v1 v1 1 1 i 1 = ------.= 11 30 v2 1 –1 4.= --------------------------.= 11 10 v1 1 i1 g 12 = --i2 i1 v1 = 0 –1 4 1 6 i2 + v2 i2 = 1 A v1 = 0 short Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-49 .Answers to Exercises i2 –1 5 h 21 = --.= -----------------------.

= 11 10 A 10 11 1 4+6 R eq v2 = 6 i6 = 6 1 .= -----------------------.= 12 5 i2 1 9-50 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .-----------------------.= --------.= 3 5 v1 1 We observe that g 21 = – g 12 v2 g 22 = ---i2 i1 v1 = 0 4 i6 1 6 i2 + v2 i2 = 1 A v1 = 0 short v2 = 6 i6 = 6 4 ----------6+4 24 i 2 = ----10 1 = 12 5 V v2 12 5 g 22 = ---.= --------------.= – 3 5 A 6+4 10 i1 -----------g 12 = --.= – 3 5 = – 3 5 dimensionless 1 i2 v2 g 21 = ---v1 i1 i2 = 0 4 + + v1 = 1 V v1 1 i6 6 + v2 i2 = 0 v1 1 1 i 1 = ------.Chapter 9 One.and Two-port Networks 6 6i 1 = ----------.– i 2 = – ----.= -----------.11 1 + 4 + 6 10 = 3 5V v2 3 5 g 21 = ---.

.2e V'. X=A\B.51 A (3) v 2 = – 102 mV (4) Next.Answers to Exercises 5.X(2)) i1 = 5. fprintf('i1 = %5.02e-001 V i 1 = 0. v2 = -1. we use (1) and (2) to find the new values of v 1 and i 2 v 1 = 1. fprintf(' \n'). 800 1200 i1 i2 + 10 v 2 –4 + + 1 0 mV 2 50i 1 50 10 –6 –1 v2 5000 The network above is described by the equations 800 + 1200 i 1 + 2 50i 1 + 50 10 v 2 = 10 –4 –3 –v2 –6 10 v 2 = i 2 = ----------5000 10 v 2 = 10 10 v 2 = 0 –6 –4 –3 or 2 10 i 1 + 2 50i 1 + 250 3 We write the two equations above in matrix form and use MATLAB for the solution.X(1)). A=[2*10^3 2*10^( 4). We recall that v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 (1) i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 (2) With the voltage source v 1 = cos t mV in series with 800 connected at the input and a 5 K load connected at the output the network is as shown below.592 mV Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-51 .. 50 250*10^(-6)]. fprintf('v2 = %5.2 10 3 0. B=[10^( 3) 0]'.2e A \t'.51 10 –6 +2 10 –4 – 102 10 –3 = 0.10e-007 A Therefore..

Chapter 9 One.4 A G I = --.= – 172.= ------------------.= 40 i1 0.and Two-port Networks i 2 = 50 0.592 mV and the minus ( ) sign indicates that the output voltage in 180 out-of-phase with the input.51 10 –6 50 10 –6 – 102 10 –3 = 20.4 A The voltage gain is v2 – 102 mV G V = ---.3 v1 0. The current gain is i2 20.51 A and the output current is in phase with the input.= ----------------------. 9-52 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

+ + + + Za Ia Vb + Zb Ib Vc + Zc Ic Va Figure 10. 10. 10. for simplicity. We recall that AC is preferable to DC because voltage levels can be changed by transformers. The advantages of three-phase system operation are listed and computations of three phase systems are illustrated by several examples. They are also more economical. and I c have the same magnitude but are 120 out-of-phase with each other as shown in Figure 10. This allows more economical transmission and distribution. Three-phase motors and generators start and run more smoothly since they have constant torque. the load impedances are the same.2.1.1 Advantages of Three-Phase Systems The circuits and networks we have discussed thus far are known as single-phase systems and can be either DC or AC. and thus the currents I a I b . The flow of power in a three-phase system is constant rather than pulsating. Three circuits with 120 out-of-phase voltage sources Ia Ib Ic Figure 10. Waveforms for three 120 out-phase currents Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-1 .2.2 Three-Phase Connections Figure 10.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems T his chapter is an introduction to three-phase power systems.1 shows three single AC series circuits where. We also have assumed that the voltage sources are 120 out-of-phase. we have assumed that the internal impedance of the voltage sources have been combined with the load impedance.

Ia + + Za Va + Ib + Zb Vb + Ic Ia + Ib + Ic + Zc Vc Figure 10. and the loads are equal. Four-wire. These currents are shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 10.4.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems Let us use a single wire for the return current of all three circuits as shown below. Ic Ia Ib Figure 10.3 uses only 4 wires instead of the 6 wires shown in Figure 10. This arrangement is known as four-wire. three-phase system This arrangement shown in Figure 10. Therefore. But now we must find the relative size of the common return wire that it would be sufficient to carry all three currents I a + I b + I c We have assumed that the voltage sources are equal in magnitude and 120 apart. Phasor diagram for three-phase balanced system 10-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the currents will be balanced (equal in magnitude and 120 out-of phase). three-phase system.4.3.1.

under ideal (perfect balance) conditions.6. But still it is quite small and in a four-wire three-phase system the return wire is much smaller than the other three. Ia V a cos t V Ib V b cos V c cos t – 120 V ZLOAD ZLOAD ZLOAD t – 240 V Ic In Figure 10. three-phase Y – system where V a = V b = V c . and I n is the current in the neutral (fourth) wire. Therefore. the common return wire carries no current at all. and if the three loads are perfectly balanced also.5 shows a four-wire.6 where V a = V b = V c . however. the three loads are identical. three-phase Y – system A three-wire three-phase Y – system is shown in Figure10. is a physical impossibility and therefore it is not used.6 could be used only if all the three voltage sources are perfectly balanced.4 we observe that the sum of these currents. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-3 . of course. three-phase Y – system This arrangement shown in Figure 10. and the three loads are identical. Figure 10. is zero. Ia V a cos t V Ib V b cos V c cos t – 120 V ZLOAD ZLOAD ZLOAD t – 240 V Ic Figure 10. is not balanced exactly and the sum is not zero. Four-wire.5. added vectorially. In a practical situation. Three-wire. This.Three-Phase Connections From figure 10.

3 Transformer Connections in Three-Phase Systems Three-phase power systems use transformers to raise or to lower voltage levels.5. the loads are connected as a – system and hence the name – load Ia V a cos t V Ib V b cos V c cos t – 120 V ZLOAD ZLOAD ZLOAD t – 240 V Ic – load system Figure 10. This arrangement is used in residential areas. Three-wire.8 shows a bank of three single phase transformers where the primary is -connected.2 KV . and the three loads are identical. However. Figure 10. three-phase This arrangement offers the advantage that the -connected loads need not be accurately balanced.7. All voltage levels are in RMS values. typically 13.4 KV to 12 KV Finally. for major distribution may be stepped down at a voltage level anywhere between 15 KV to 50 KV . A typical generator voltage. voltage between the outer wires is 240 V while voltage from either of the two wires to the centered (neutral) wire is 120 V . As indicated. We observe that while the voltage sources are connected as a Y – system . and for local distribution anywhere between 2. is stepped up to hundreds of kilovolts for transmission over long distances.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems A three-wire three-phase – load system is shown in Figure 10. that is. This voltage is then stepped down.7 where V a = V b = V c . 10. This – Y connection is typical of transformer installations at generating stations. the electric utility companies furnish power to industrial and commercial facilities at 480 V volts and 120 V and 240 V at residential areas. Figure 10. while the secondary is Y -connected. it is a safety requirement to have a connection from the common point to the ground as shown in Figure 10. 10-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9 shows a single-phase three-wire system where the middle of the three wires is centertapped at the transformer secondary winding. a -connection with only three voltages is not used for safety reasons.

8. that is. Three single-phase transformers use in three-phase systems 120 V Neutral wire 240 V 120 V Figure 10. in a Y -connected load.Line-to-Line and Line-to-Neutral Voltages and Currents Y Figure 10. A Y – connection is shown in Figure 10. Three-phase motors run smoother and have higher efficiency than single-phase motors. I bn . therefore there is no current flowing from point n to the ground.10 where the secondary provides 240 V three-phase power to the motor. and one of the transformers of the secondary is center-tapped to provide 120 V to the lighting load. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-5 . 10. and I cn as the phase currents. I b and I c are referred to as the line currents and the currents I an .11 is perfectly balanced. Obviously.4 Line-to-Line and Line-to-Neutral Voltages and Currents We assume that the perfectly balanced Y -connected load of Figure 10. the three loads are identical. the line and phase currents are the same.9. The currents I a . 240/120 volt single phase three-wire system Industrial facilities need three-phase power for three-phase motors. We also assume that the applied voltages are 120 out-of-phase but they have the same magnitude.

Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems L L L L L L M Figure 10. Phasor diagram for Y-connected perfectly balanced load 10-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Perfectly balanced Y-connected load Now.12. we consider the phasor diagram of Figure 10.11. Ic Ia Ib Figure 10.12. Typical 3-phase distribution system Ia Vab Ib ZLOAD ZLOAD n b Vac Vbc Ic ZLOAD c Figure 10.10.

We will now derive the relationships between line and phase voltages in a Y -connected load. we have Ia = Ia 0 I b = I a – 120 I c = I a +120 (10.6) These equations define a positive phase sequence a – b – c .13.1) (10.13. We observe that in a Y -connected load. we choose V an as our reference phase voltage.14 for convenience. V an = V an 0 V bn = V an – 120 V cn = V an +120 (10. V ac . These relationships are shown in Figure 10.5) (10. From Figure 10. V bn . we consider the voltages. and V cn as phase voltages. Vcn Van Vbn Figure 10. Next.3) These equations define the balance set of currents of positive phase sequence a – b – c .14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-7 . the line and phase voltages are not the same. Then. Voltages V ab .Line-to-Line and Line-to-Neutral Voltages and Currents If we choose I a as our reference.2) (10. Arbitrarily. Phase voltages in a Y -connected perfectly balanced load The Y -connected load is repeated in Figure 10. and V bc are referred to as line-to-line voltages and voltages V an .4) (10.

Y-connected load V ab = V an + V nb = V an – V bn V ca = V cn + V na = V cn – V an V bc = V bn + V nc = V bn – V cn (10.8) (10.15.7) (10.9) These can also be derived from the phasor diagram of Figure 10.14. Vca Vcn Vbn Vab Van 30 Van Vbn Vcn Vbc Figure 10.15. the line and phase voltages are related as 10-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Phasor diagram for line-to-line and line-to-neutral voltages in Y load From geometry and the law of sines we find that in a balanced three-phase.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems Ia Vab Ib ZLOAD ZLOAD n b Vac Vbc Ic ZLOAD c Figure 10. positive phase sequence Y -connected load.

the line and phase currents are related as Ia = 3I ab – 30 – connected load (10. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-9 .11) - The line currents I b and I c are derived similarly. let us consider a -connected load shown in Figure 10. and the phase-to-line current relationship in a connected load is shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 10.17.12) The other two line currents can be easily obtained from the phasor diagram of Figure 10. Ia a Iab ZLOAD Vab Ib b Vca Vbc Ic ZLOAD ZLOAD Ibc Ica c -connected load Figure 10. From geometry and the law of sines we find that a balanced three-phase.Line-to-Line and Line-to-Neutral Voltages and Currents V ab = 3V an 30 Y – connected load (10.16. we apply KCL at point a and we get: I ab = I a + I ca or I a = I ab – I ca (10.17. To find the relationship between the line and phase currents. but the line and phase currents are not the same.16. Now. Line and phase currents in We observe that the line and phase voltages are the same.10) The other two line-to-line voltages can be easily obtained from the phasor diagram of the previous page. positive phase sequence connected load.

18.17.18. that is.5 Equivalent Y and Loads combinations shown in Figure A In this section. the impedance between terminals B and C is Z BC Y = Zb + Zc (10. Z BC Z2 Z1 + Z3 = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 (10.13) and in the -connection.14) 10-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Equivalence for and Y-connected loads In the Y -connection. the impedance between terminals B and C is Z 2 in parallel with the sum Z 1 + Z 3 . A Za C C Z1 Z2 Z3 B Zc Zb B Figure 10. Phasor diagram for line and phase currents in -connected load 10. we will establish the equivalence between the Y and 10.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems Ic Ica Ibc Iab 30 o Iab Ib Ibc Ica Ia Figure 10.

19) (10.17). and dividing by two.17) can be solved for Z a by adding (10. Z3 Z1 + Z2 Z a + Z b = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 (10.16) with (10.13) and (10.15) from this sum.22).15) in a cyclical manner.15) Similar equations for terminals AB and CA are derived by rotating the subscripts of (10.18) (10. the three equations that allow us to change any -connection of impedances into a Y -connection are given by (10.15) and (10.= -------------------------------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z1 + Z2 + Z3 2Z 1 Z 3 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z 1 Z 2 – Z 1 Z 2 – Z 2 Z 3 2Z a + Z b + Z c – Z b – Z c = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 2Z 1 Z 3 2Z a = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z1 Z3 Z a = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 (10.21) in a cyclical manner.16) and Z1 Z2 + Z3 Z c + Z a = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 (10.20) (10.22) 10-11 .21) Similar equations for Z b and Z c are derived by rotating the subscripts of (10. Thus. That is. 2Z 1 Z 3 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z 1 Z 2 Z1 Z3 + Z2 Z3 + Z1 Z2 + Z1 Z3 2Z a + Z b + Z c = ----------------------------------------------------------------. subtracting (10.14) we get Z2 Z1 + Z3 Z b + Z c = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Loads (10.17) Equations (10.Equivalent Y and Equating (10. Then. Z1 Z3 Z a = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z2 Z3 Z b = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z1 Z2 Z c = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Y Conversion Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (10.

we use the equation IA + IB + IC = 0 (10. (10. in addition to (10. we will find that the determinant of these sets of equations is singular. Y and loads From Figure (a).23).27) –Za 0 This result suggests that the equations of (10.24) and (10. that is. from Y to .This conversion is performed as follows: Consider the Y and combinations of Figure 10.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems Often. no solution exists.25) simultaneously. a solution can be found if.23) through (10.26) (10.28) 10-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . However.26) are not independent and therefore. V AB = Z a I A – Z b I B V BC = Z b I B – Z c I C V CA = Z c I C – Z a I A (10. This can be verified with Cramer’s rule as follows: Z a I A – Z b I B + 0 = V AB 0 + Z b I B – Z c I C = V BC – Z a I A + 0 + Z c I C = V CA Za –Zb 0 = 0 Zb –Zc = Za Zb Zc – Za Zb Zc + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0 Zc (10. = 0 . A IA IA Za C A Z1 Z2 Z3 B C Zc IC (a) Zb IB B IC (b) IB Figure 10.23) (10. we wish to make the conversion in the opposite direction.25) If we attempt to solve equations (10.24) (10. that is.25).19.8 repeated for convenience.

= -------------------------------------------. D2 Z a V BC – Z c V AB I B = ----.30) From (10. Z a I A – Z b I B = V AB – Z a + Z c I A – Z c I B = V CA (10.Equivalent Y and Solving (10.20 for convenience.35) Similarly.23) and (10.29) and by substitution into (10.28) for I C we get: IC = –IA – IB Loads (10.37) Therefore.33) and D1 = V AB – Z b V CA – Z c = – Z c V AB + Z b V CA (10.28). – Z c V AB + Z b V CA Z c V AB – Z b V CA D1 I A = ----.25). we have: Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-13 .31) and by Cramer’s rule. V CA = – Z c I A – Z c I B – Z a I A = – Z a + Z c I A – Z c I B (10.34) Then.32) where = Za –Zb = – Zc Za – Za Zb – Zb Zc – Za + Zc –Zc (10.= ----------------------------------------------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za –Za Zb –Zb Zc –Zc Za (10.36) and by substitution of I A and I B into (10.= ----------------------------------------------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za (10. Z b V CA – Z a V BC I C = ----------------------------------------------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za (10. for the Y -connection which is repeated in Figure 10. D1 I A = ----D2 I B = ----- (10.30).

– --------Z3 Z1 V BC V AB I B = --------. Currents in V AB V CA I A = -------.– -------Z2 Z3 V CA V BC I C = --------.39) Now.20.21 for convenience.39) are equal if 10-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .38) and (10.38) For the -connection.– --------Z1 Z2 (10.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems A IA Za C Zc IC Zb IB B Figure 10. Currents in Y-connection Z c V AB – Z b V CA I A = ----------------------------------------------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z a V BC – Z c V AB I B = ----------------------------------------------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z b V CA – Z a V BC I C = ----------------------------------------------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za (10. the line currents are: IA A Z1 C Z3 Z2 IB -connection B IC Figure 10. the sets of equations of (10. which is also repeated in Figure 10.21.

Equivalent Y and V AB V CA Z c V AB – Z b V CA ----------------------------------------------.23. and denote the 90 R a . we replace the Y connection formed by a . c .45) Example 10.40) Zb Zc 11----------------------------------------------. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-15 .43) and from (10.= --------. and d .= ---Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z2 (10.and ----------------------------------------------.– --------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z1 Z2 Loads (10.= -------.41) Za 1 ----------------------------------------------.1 For the circuit of Figure 10. . b . we get: Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z 1 = ----------------------------------------------Zb Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z 2 = ----------------------------------------------Za Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z 3 = ----------------------------------------------Zc Y Conversion (10. use the Y branches as indicated. b .41) (10.24. and R c respectively as shown in Figure 10.– --------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z3 Z1 V BC V AB Z a V BC – Z c V AB ----------------------------------------------. Solution: Let us indicate the nodes as a . and d with the equivalent shown in Figure 10. R b .40) (10.42) From (10. c .– -------Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z2 Z3 V CA V BC Z b V CA – Z a V BC ----------------------------------------------.22.= ---Z3 Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z1 (10. 90 and 90 resistances as connection conversion to find the currents in the various Next.= --------.44) Rearranging.= ---.

Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems I1 50 I4 60 I7 + 120 V 80 90 I6 70 I8 I5 Figure 10.1 10-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit (b) for Example 10. Circuit (c) for Example 10.1 a I1 I7 + 120 V Rc 50 I4 60 c I6 Ra 90 80 d 70 I8 b Rb I5 Figure 10.23.22.1 a I1 196 I4 60 R1 + 120 V R2 174 R3 d 70 314 b I5 Figure 10.24. Circuit (a) for Example 10.

24.26.= -----------------------------------------------------------------.24 reduces to the circuit of Figure 10. and the relations of (10.= -------------90 Ra 174 196 Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra 15700 R 3 = ------------------------------------------------.= 1. From the circuit of Figure 10.23 and 10.46) (10.24 yields 196 60 R bd = -------------------196 + 60 46 and 314 70 R ad = -------------------314 + 70 57 The circuit of Figure 10.69 A 174 120 I 3 = -------.= 314 Rc 50 Combination of parallel resistances in the circuit of Figure 10.25 can be further simplified as shown in Figure 10. we get: R a R b + R b R c + R c R a 90 80 + 80 50 + 50 90 15700 R 1 = ------------------------------------------------.47) a I1 46 + 120 V 174 d I3 57 I2 b Figure 10.Equivalent Y and Loads Now.= -------------80 Rb 80 Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra 15700 R 2 = ------------------------------------------------.25. The circuit of Figure 10. with reference to the circuits of Figures 10.1 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-17 .= -------------.45).17 A 103 (10. Circuit (d) for Example 10.26.25.= 0. 120 I 2 = -------.

25 which. Circuit (e) for Example 10.27 and it is denoted as Circuit (f).4 V (10.47) I 1 = I 2 + I 3 = 0.86 (10.1 10-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .27.17 = 1. Circuit (f) for Example 10. by the voltage division expression 46 V ad = ----------------46 + 57 57 V db = ----------------46 + 57 120 = 53. for convenience.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems I1 + 120 V 174 103 I2 I3 b Figure 10.6 V 120 = 66.48) To compute the other currents. is repeated as Figure 10.26.1 By addition of (10. we return to the circuit of Figure 10.46) and (10.49) (10.50) a I1 46 + 120 V 174 d I3 57 I2 Figure 10.27. For the circuit of Figure 10.69 + 1.

24 which.95 A 70 60 (10. a I4 I1 196 60 R1 + 120 V R2 174 R3 70 314 d b From the circuit of figure 10. is repeated as Figure 10. Circuit (h) for Example 10. Circuit (g) for Example 10.28. V ad 66.= --------.23 which.89 A 60 70 I5 Figure 10.= 0. we return to the circuit of Figure 10.= --------.28.28 and denoted as Circuit (g). a I1 I7 + 120 V Rc 50 I4 60 c I6 Ra 90 80 d 70 I1 I8 b Rb I5 Figure 10. is repeated as Figure 10.1 (10.1 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-19 .52) Finally. for convenience.4 I 4 = ------.29 and denoted as Circuit (h).6 I 5 = ------.29. we return to the circuit of Figure 10.Equivalent Y and Loads Next. for convenience.= 0.51) and V bd 53.

currents. the Y and arrangements appear as shown in Figure 10.57) reduces to: Z1 Z3 Z1 Z1 Z a = ----------------------------.95 = 0. current.30 and they are referred to as the tee (T) and pi ( ) circuits. The other phases will have corresponding quantities (voltage.53) (10.54) and I 6 = I 5 – I 4 = 0.56) 10-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A Za Zc C Figure 10. the loads Z 1 = Z 2 = Z 3 and Z a = Z b = Z c . by KCL.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems For the circuit of Figure 10.89 = 0. Y conversion shown in Figure 10.29.86 – 0. we use the equations (10.e. Likewise. 10. we could have found the branch currents with nodal or mesh analysis. Consequently. Therefore. Thus. the formulas we developed for the Y and arrangements can be used with the tee and arrangements.57) on the next page.30.phase but it will have the same magnitude as phase a . If the load happens to be -connected. the first equation in (10. and power in a balanced three-phase system.06 A (10.. phase c will be 240 out-of-phase with phase a . i. T and circuits Zb B A Z1 C Z3 Z2 B In communications theory. Quite often.86 – 0. if current is found for phase a .91 A (10.89 = 0. I 7 = I 1 – I 4 = 1. the current in phase b will be 120 out-of.31 and the Since the system is assumed to be balanced. and power) exactly the same except for a time difference of 1 3 cycle. Z a = Z b and Z 1 = Z 2 .95 – 0.97 A I 8 = I 1 – I 5 = 1.6 Computation by Reduction to Single Phase When we want to compute the voltages. it is very convenient to use the Y -connection and work with one phase only. the T and circuits are symmetrical.= -------.= ---Z1 + Z2 + Z3 3Z 1 3 2 (10.55) Of course.

31. and relation (10. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-21 . as in Figure 10.59) is given in terms of the line-to-neutral voltage and line current.57) and the same is true for the other phases. cos and is the angle between V AN and I A . I A is the line current. If the load is -connected as in Figure 10.Three-Phase Power IA A A IA Z3 Za B Z1 C N C Z2 (a) IC IB Zc IC (b) Zb IB B Figure 10.31 (b). Y conversion Z1 Z3 Z a = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z2 Z3 Z b = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z1 Z2 Z c = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Y Conversion (10.58) in terms of the line-to-line voltage and phase current. the total three-phase power is given by P TOTAL = 3 V AB I AB cos – connected load (10.7 Three-Phase Power We can compute the power in a single phase and then multiply by three to find the total power in a three-phase system. if a load is Y -connected. where V AN is the line-to-neutral voltage. 10.59) We observe that relation (10.31 (a). the total three-phase power is given by P TOTAL = 3 V AN I A cos Y – connected load (10.58) is the power factor of the load. Therefore.

60) refers to the load.= ----------.33 kW G Generator (Y-connected) L Load (Y-connected) Figure 10. that is. the magnitude of the line-to-neutral at the load end is V ab load 2400 V an load = -------------------.62) and the KVA per phase at the load is kW phase 33.9 (10. The line-to-line voltage at the load is 2400 V .e. Circuit for Example 10.63) 10-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .33 -------------------------. the Example 10. the line-to-line voltage and line current of a three-phase systems are given.32 supplies 100 kW at 0. V ab = 3V an 30 Y – connected load (10. in (10.61) Then.60) It is important to remember that the power factor cos angle is not the angle between V AB and I A .59) and we get P TOTAL = Y or 3 V AB I A cos LOAD – connected load LOAD (10. In this case.2 From (10. What line-to-line voltage must the generator supply to the line? Solution: The load per phase at 0.= 37.. i.10).Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems Quite often.0 KVA pf 0. we substitute (10.9 lagging power factor to the threephase load. The resistance of the line is 4 per conductor and the inductance and capacitance are negligible.9 pf is 1 -3 100 = 33.12).32.2 The three-phase generator of Figure 10.= -----------.= 1386 V 3 3 (10. I A = 3 I AB into (10.

the phasor of the lineto-neutral voltage at the load end is V an load = V an 25.65) Next.9 = 25. This is proved as follows: We assume that the load is purely resistive.68) and its magnitude is V an gen = 1354 + 604 = 1483 V 2 2 (10. and V and I the magnitude of their RMS values. let us assume that the line current in phase a lies on the real axis.= 37000 = 26. let V p and I p be the peak (maximum) voltage and current respectively. Now.69) Finally.7 4 = 106. Then.8 V (10.64) and the angle by which the line (or phase) current lags the phase voltage is = cos 0.67) Now. Therefore.84 –1 (10. the instantaneous voltage and current in phase a are given by v a = V p cos t = i a = I p cos t = 2 V cos t 2 I cos t (10. the phasor line-to-neutral voltage at the generator end is V an gen = V an load + V COND = 1247 + j604 + 106.71) (10. V COND = I LINE R = 26. the line-to-line voltage at the generator end is V line – line gen = 3 V an gen = 3 1483 = 2569 V (10. Therefore.66) The voltage drop across a conductor is in phase with the line current since it resistive in nature.84 = 1386 cos 25.7 A 1386 V an load (10.84 = 1247 + j604 V (10.8 Instantaneous Power in Three-Phase Systems A significant advantage of a three-power system is that the total power in a balanced three-phase system is constant.70) 10.8 = 1354 + j604 (10.72) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-23 . the voltage and current are always in-phase with each other.Instantaneous Power in Three-Phase Systems The line current in each of the three conductors is VA -------------I LINE = --------------------.84 + j sin 25. Then.

73) we get p a = v a i a = 2 V I cos 2 t = V I cos 2 t + 1 (10. vb = ib = p b = v b i b = 2 V I cos 2 2 V cos 2 V cos t – 120 t – 120 t – 120 = V I cos 2 t – 240 +1 (10.80) we find that the sum of the three cosine terms in (10.81) can be also expressed as p total = 3 V I cos (10. the other load is -connected and has the 10-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .81) Therefore.75) (10.79) is zero. Then.79) Recalling that cos x – y = cos x cos y + sin x sin y (10.74) The voltage and current in phase b are equal in magnitude to those in phase a but they are 120 outof-phase.77) Similarly.71) and (10. p total = 3 V I Three – phase Balanced System (10. thus. and using the trigonometric identity cos 2 t = cos 2 t + 1 2 (10.82) Example 10. Then.3 Figure 10. one consists of a bank of lamps connected line-to neutral and the rating is given in the diagram.33 shows a three-phase feeder with two loads.78) and the total instantaneous power is p total = p a + p b + p c = V I cos 2 t + cos 2 t – 240 + cos 2 t – 480 +3 (10.72) yields the instantaneous power.76) (10. the power in phase c is p c = v c i c = 2 V I cos 2 t – 240 = V I cos 2 t – 480 +1 (10. The proof can be extended to include any power factor. the instantaneous total power is constant and it is equal three times the average power. (10.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems Multiplication of (10.

34. at zero degrees. we will reduce the given circuit to one phase (phase a ) taken as reference.= 28.Resistive Load Rated 500 Watts.= ---------. Using (10. i. IA IB IC L L L Lamps . Single-phase representation of Figure 10. we compute the lamp impedance Z L · V rated 120 Z L = R lamp = ----------------.34 IA IZ ZY L IL ZL + VL-N V L – L = 220 0 V (Line-to-neutral) Figure 10.Instantaneous Power in Three-Phase Systems impedance shown. the line-to-neutral voltage V L – N is Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-25 .56).32 Z Y = ----.= ------------------. as shown in Figure 10. Diagram for Example 10.= 27.33.32 3 3 3 Next. Z 18 + j80 82 77. 120 Volts each 220 Volts (Line-to-Line) Z Z Z Z = 18 + j80 Figure 10.10). Find the current in the feeder lines and the total power absorbed by the two loads.3 Solution: To facilitate the computations.. by (10.e.= ----------------------. therefore.8 · P rated 500 2 2 The line-to-line voltage is given as V L – L = 220 V .31 We first compute the impedance Z Y .33 77.

9 = 690 watts Finally. VL – N 127 0 I Z = -----------.9 and the power delivered by phase a is P A = V L – N I A = 127 7.65 – 77.= -------------------. we indicate these values in Figure 10.= 127 0 V 3 3 For convenience.41 = 5.= 4.32 ZY and VL – N 127 0 I L = -----------.34 which now is as shown in Figure 10.54 + 4.8 0 Figure 10. each lamp absorbs V oper ------------V rated 2 P oper = ------------P rated P oper = 127 -------120 2 500 = 560 w and the power absorbed by the three lamps is P lamps = 3 560 = 1680 w 10-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Diagram with computed values.35.43 – j4. that is.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems VL – L 220 0 V L – N = -----------.02 – j4.35.33 77.02 – j4. the total power delivered to the entire load is three times of P A .41 28.32 Z L = 28.08 cos – 39.54 27.08 – 39.= 4. Example 10.07 Kw Check: Each lamp is rated 120 V and 500 w but operates at 127 V .33 77.8 0 ZL Then. IA IZ ZY L IL ZL + V L – N = 127 0 V Z Y = 27.= -----------------.35.32 = 1. P total = 3 690 = 2070 watts = 2.3 From Figure 10. Thus. I Z + I L = 1.54 = 7.41 0 = 4.= ------------------------------.

The lower end of the voltage coils can be connected to any reference point. This is true in a four-wire system where the current in the neutral (fourth wire) is not zero. VL – L 220 I Z = ------------------.= ----------------------. the sum of the three wattmeters gives the correct total power even though the reference point was chosen as any reference point. and its potential Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-27 . We will now show that with this arrangement. has only three terminals. This arrangement occurs in systems where the load.Measuring Three-Phase Power The voltage across each impedance Z in the the current in each impedance Z is connected load is (see Figure 10. 2 . three phase system can be measured with just two wattmeters. three-phase system without a neutral.68 cos – 77.36 shows three wattmeters connected to a Y load* where each wattmeter has its current coil connected in one line. we will show that the total power in a balanced three-wire. a current coil and a voltage coil where the interacting magnetic fields of these coils produce a torque which is proportional to the V I product.68 – 77. Then. b .33) 220 V . However. and 3 measure power in phase a .068 kw This value is in close agreement with the value on the previous page. Figure 10. Wattmeters 1 .4 = 388 watts and the total power delivered to the two loads is P TOTAL = P lamps + P = 2068 watts = 2. 10. and c respectively.32 = 129.4 watts The total power absorbed by the load is P = 3 129.9 Measuring Three-Phase Power A wattmeter is an instrument which measures power in watts or kilowatts. * If the load were -connected. if the neutral carries no current. and its potential coil from that line to neutral.= 2. it can be eliminated thereby reducing the system to a three-wire three-phase system.37 shows a three-wire. With this arrangement. It is constructed with two sets of coils.32 and the power absorbed by each impedance Z is P = V L – L I Z cos = 220 2.32 A 18 + j80 82 77. It would appear then that one would need three wattmeters to measure the total power in a three-phase system. In this section. each wattmeter would have its current coil in one side of the coil from line to line. such as an induction motor. say p . Figure 10.

37.36.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems a 1 b 2 n Load c 3 n Wattmeter connections Figure 10. three-phase system We recall that the average power P ave is found from 10-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Wattmeter connections in four-wire. Wattmeter connections in three-wire. three-phase system a 1 b 2 n Load c 3 p Wattmeter connections Figure 10.

No matter where this point is located. the total power absorbed by the load of Figure 10. we get: 1 P wattmeters = -T T 0 v an i a + v bn i b + v cn i c + v np i a + i b + i c dt (10.89) This relation is the same as (10. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-29 .85). not power indicated by the wattmeters. If we do this.36 is 1 P total = -T T 0 v an i a + v bn i b + v cn i c dt (10.84) This is the true power absorbed by the load.84). Accordingly. Now.89). Each wattmeter measures the average of the line current times the voltage to point p .86) and by substitution of these into (10. Some thought about the location of the arbitrarily selected point p would reveal a very interesting result. the power indicated by the wattmeters and the true power absorbed by the load are the same.87) reduces to (10. therefore.38. we can remove this wattmeter and still obtain the true power with just Wattmeters 1 and 2 as shown in Figure 10.83) Then.87) and since ia + ib + ic = 0 (10.87) reduces to 1 P wattmeters = -T T 0 v an i a + v bn i b + v cn i c dt (10. Suppose that we locate point p on line c . the power relation (10. Then. the voltage coil of Wattmeter 3 is zero and thus the reading of this wattmeter is zero. 1 P wattmeters = -T T 0 v ap i a + v bp i b + v cp i c dt (10. we will compute the total power indicated by the wattmeters.88) then (10.85) But v ap = v an + v np v bp = v bn + v np v cp = v cn + v np (10.Measuring Three-Phase Power 1 P ave = -T T 1 p dt = -T 0 T vi dt 0 (10.

If the voltage sources are equal in magnitude and 120 apart.38. Industrial facilities need three-phase power for three-phase motors. the currents will be balanced (equal in magnitude and 120 out-of phase). V bn = V an – 120 . The equations V an = V an 0 . the line and phase currents are the same. Three-phase motors and generators start and run more smoothly since they have constant torque.10 Summary AC is preferable to DC because voltage levels can be changed by transformers. I b = I a – 120 . The flow of power in a three-phase system is constant rather than pulsating. Two wattmeter method of reading three-phase power 10. I c = I a +120 define a balanced set of currents of positive phase sequence a – b – c . and the loads are also equal. and V cn = V an +120 also define a balanced set of voltages of positive phase sequence a – b – c .Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems a 1 b 2 n Load c Wattmeter connections Figure 10. This allows more economical transmission and distribution. In a -connected system Ia = 3I ab – 30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-30 . They are also more economical. In a Y -connected system V ab = 3V an 30 In a Y -connected load. Three-phase motors run smoother and have higher efficiency than single-phase motors. The equations I a = I a 0 .

Summary In a For -connected load. Y Conversion we use the relations Z1 Z3 Z a = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z2 Z3 Z b = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 Z1 Z2 Z c = ----------------------------Z1 + Z2 + Z3 For Y Conversion we use the relations Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z 1 = ----------------------------------------------Zb Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z 2 = ----------------------------------------------Za Za Zb + Zb Zc + Zc Za Z 3 = ----------------------------------------------Zc When we want to compute the voltages. the total three-phase power is given by P TOTAL = 3 V AN I A cos Y – connected load If the load is -connected the total three-phase power is given by P TOTAL = 3 V AB I AB cos – connected load (10. If a load is Y -connected. it is very convenient to use the Y -connection and work with one phase only. that is. and power in a balanced three-phase system. currents. the line and phase voltages are the same. refers to the load. the Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-31 .90) For any load ( Y or – connected ) the total three-phase power can be computed from P TOTAL = Y or 3 V AB I A cos LOAD – connected load LOAD and it is important to remember that the power factor cos angle is not the angle between V AB and I A .

the wattmeter reading. Circuit for Exercise 2 10-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems 10.39.0 Kw at a power factor of 0.403 and 0. Circuit for Exercise 1 2. The resistance and inductive reactance of the distribution line is 0.143 respectively per 1000 ft of the wire line. and each Z = 10 30 . The secondary of the transformer provides balanced 208 V line-to-line.8 lagging. the total power absorbed by the three-phase load. the line-to-line voltage is 100 V . The three-phase motor draws 5. Compute: a. Assume constant resistance. In the circuit of Figure 10. each lamp will draw rated current.11 Exercises 1.39.40. that is. Each lamp is rated 500 w at 120 V . b. L L M L L L L Figure 10. a Z b Z Z Load Wattmeter c Figure 10. the phase sequence is a – b – c . The load is located 1500 feet from the three-phase transformer. Compute line-to-line and line-to-neutral voltages at the load. In the circuit of Figure 10.40 the lighting load is balanced.

32 10 3 cos – 60 – 240 cos – 300 = 866 w and. abs(x)).32 A Thus.= 10 – 270 = 10 90 = j10 Z 10 30 I a = I ab – I ca = 5 3 – j5 – j10 = 5 3 – j15 and with MATLAB x=5*sqrt(3) 15j. I a = 17. From (10.= 5 3 – j5 2 V ca 100 – 240 I ca = ------. fprintf('phase = %5.2f A \t'.= ---------------------------.Solutions to Exercises 10.32 A phase = -60.59) P total = = 3 V ab I a load pf 3 100 17.– j10 2 1 -. the wattmeter reading is P wattmeter = V ab = 100 I c = 100 0 17. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-33 .12 Solutions to Exercises 1. this value is on-third of the total power.= -----------------...32 cos 30 = 2 598 w b. fprintf('mag = %5. The wattmeter reads the product V ab I c where I c is 240 behind I a as shown on the phasor diagram. fprintf(' \n'). as expected.00 deg The phase sequence a – b – c implies the phase diagram below.= 10 – 30 = 10 Z 10 30 3 -----.2f deg'.. Then. a a Ia I ab I ca Z b V ab Wattmeter c Load Ic Z Z I bc From the circuit above V ab 100 0 I ab = ------. angle(x)*180/pi) mag = 17.

= -------.143 1000 ft 1000 ft 1500 ft = 0.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems V ca = 100 –240 Ic I ca – I bc V ab = 100 0 30 I bc – I ca Ia I ab V ab = 100 – 120 2.8 pf We recall that for a single phase system the real power is given by 10-34 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .605 1500 ft = 0.17 A 4.215 Also.17 A I lamp2 M IM V M = V load I total 5 3 Kw 0.17 A V rated 120 1500 ft R 0.403 X L = 0. The single-phase equivalent circuit is shown below where R = 0.605 + j0. P rated 500 I lamp1 = I lamp2 = ------------.215 and thus Z LINE = 0.605 V an = 208 3 = 120 0 V 0 V jX L j0.215 Z line I lamp1 4.= 4.

05V M + 1277 + j 1.79j 1277 398.1666 – j1251 = -----.7 + VM 2 or V M – 114. roots(p) ans = 1. the motor current I M is expressed as 1 2083 I M = ----------.8.9 = -----.8 V M and since cos 0.0238i 0.79V M – 398.95 1.215 1= -----.79V M – 398.79V M – 398.79V M + 1008 + j358.17 + -----.0.2 – j756.Answers to Exercises P real = V RMS I RMS cos where cos = pf Then.1666 – j1251 VM VM The total current is I total = I lamp1 + I lamp2 + I M = 2 114.05V M + j1.8.0 VM 1 = -----.05V M + 1277 + j 1.7j].95 – j1.7 = 0 2 We solve this quadratic equation with the following MATLAB code: p=[1 114.5.9 + 269.0417i Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-35 .7 VM Next.5.1235 .8 = – 36.05V M + 1277 + j 1.0260 + 0.605 + j0.5.9 –1 lagging pf .0e+002 * 1. we find the motor current I M in terms of the motor voltage V M as 2083 I M = 5000 3 = ---------------------------VM 0.34V M + 1666 – j1251 VM VM and the voltage drop across the 1500 ft line is 1 V line = I total Z line = -----.79 V M + 1277 – j398.7 VM + VM or 120V M = 5. 1 V an = 120 0 = V line + V M = -----.– 36.34V M + 1666 – j1251 VM 0.

Of these. that is. we denote this line-to neutral of line-to-ground voltage with a negative angle.76 V 10-36 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .63 1. The positive phase angle in V M1 is a result of the fact that a motor is an inductive load.17 = 13.63 – 1.39 = 102.4 – 18.33 V The magnitude of the line-to-line voltage is Vl – l = 3 VM = 3 102.Chapter 10 Three-Phase Systems Then.33 and V M2 = 12.6 + j2. But since an inductive load has a lagging power factor.66 . V M = V load = 102. the value of V M2 is unrealistic and thus it is rejected.35 – j 4. V M1 = 102.63 = 177.

These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive. and making plots.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions. From the File menu on the toolbar. This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below. To use the Editor/Debugger: 1. telecommunications. we choose New and click on M-File. and MATLAB functions. Inc . This takes us to the Edi* EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-1 . A. access to MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. and communications. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts. signal processing. we see the toolbar on top of the command screen and the prompt EDU>>. finding the roots of a polynomial. A.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB ® and Simulink ® are products of The MathWorks. comment lines. save it. MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems fast and efficiently.2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. and environmental applications. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. important terms. aerospace. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. electronics. In this appendix we will discuss MATLAB only. Simulink is a block diagram tool used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems such as controls.

we use the clc command. variables and equations that we have already used.m. We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter.m or any other similar name. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program. if the code performs some matrix operations. The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information. MATLAB then returns to the command window. It is a good practice to save the code in a file name that is descriptive of our code content.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® tor Window where we can type our code (list of statements) for a new file. 3. Henceforth. Thus. For example. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu. 2. To execute a program. conv(p. This command erases everything. it distinguishes between upper. A-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . then. Whenever we want to return to the command window. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. we should use the command clear. A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them. we type quit or exit. % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct. myfile01. or open a previously saved file. For instance. if we want to clear all previously entered commands. to get information on graphics. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics.m extension at the >> prompt. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01. In other words. Important! MATLAB is case sensitive. for example. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. and equations without exiting. To get help with other MATLAB topics.and lower-case letters. The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values. All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB. we click on the Close button. it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. we type the file name without the . it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. Once the code is written and saved as an m-file. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it.q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q. We should also use a floppy disk to backup our files. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . But if we want to clear all previous values. For instance. that is.m. variables. The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic. we type help matlab\graphics. If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path.

We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function.0000 2.0000 3.3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB.Roots of Polynomials One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers.0000-4. or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number.0000i In the above example.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 x = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1. and the roots as roots_ p1. that is. such as 3-4i or 3-4j. or variable such as cos x . A. However. We must include terms whose coefficients are zero. a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. Example A. For example. if the imaginary part is a function. These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order. p1=[1 p1 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) roots_p1 = 4.0000 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications % Find the roots of p1(x) 10 35 50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) A-3 . we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order. the statement z=3 4j displays z = 3. a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form a n a n – 1 a 2 a 1 a 0 . we must use the multiplication sign. We can use either i .

with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots.0000 We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector. and the roots as a column vector.5014 2.1. Of course. p2=[1 p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_ p2 = 6. complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs.2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 x = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term. Compute the coefficients of this polynomial. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A = a – jb A-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example A. therefore. where we have defined the polynomial as p2. and two complex roots.3366+ 1. Example A.3202i 7 0 16 25 52] A. from a given set of roots. The roots are found with the statements below.3202i -0.3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1 2 3 and 4 .7428 -1. * By definition.5711 -0.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial. we must enter zero as its coefficient. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 1.3366. The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots.

Solution: We form a row vector.4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1 – 2 – 3 4 + j5 and 4 – j5 Find the coefficients of this polynomial.0000 -4. with the given roots as elements of this vector. then. with the given roots. say r4 .0000i 2 3 4+5j 4 5j ] Therefore. r4=[ 1 r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1.0000 -3.0000.0000+ 5.0000 Column 5 -4.Polynomial Construction from Known Roots Solution: We first define a row vector. we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. say r3 .0000i poly_r4=poly(r4) poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 -2.1. the polynomial is p 4 x = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-5 . r3=[1 2 3 4] r3 = 1 2 3 4 poly_r3=poly(r3) poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 % Find the polynomial coefficients % Specify the roots of the polynomial We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 x of Example A.5. Example A.

x) function evaluates a polynomial p x at some specified value of the independent variable x. Example A. polyder(p) produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p.r]=deconv(c. % val_minus3=polyval(p5. A-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .) after the right bracket suppresses the display of the row vector % that contains the coefficients of p5.d) divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and remainder r.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A.6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 p 2 using the conv(a. Example A. Solution: p5=[1 3 0 5 4 3 2].5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 x = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A. 3) % Evaluate p5 at x= 3.b) function. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a.b) multiplies two polynomials a and b [q.1) at x = – 3 . % These are the coefficients % The semicolon (.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p.

r]=deconv(c.5000 r = 0 4 -3 0 3 2 3 3 0 5 7 9].p4) Therefore. q = 0.r]=deconv(p3.Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values Solution: p1=[1 3 0 5 7 9]. 8 0 4 10 12].5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-7 . Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 q = 0. p 1 p 2 = 2x 11 – 6x 5 10 – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 9 8 7 6 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A. [q.p2) p1p2 = 2 -6 -8 34 18 -24 -74 -88 78 166 174 108 Therefore. p4=[2 8 0 0 4 10 12]. % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p2=[2 0 p1p2=conv(p1.d) function.7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 p 4 using the [q.

9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R x = ----------. as bn x + bn – 1 x + bn – 2 x + + b1 x + b0 ------------------R x = Num x = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 Den x am x + am – 1 x + am – 2 x + + a1 x + a0 n n–1 n–2 (A. if we separate them by commas or semicolons. d dx 6 4 2 Solution: p5=[2 0 8 0 4 10 12].p 5 using the polyder(p) function.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Example A. A-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5=polyder(p5) der_p5 = 12 0 -32 0 8 10 Therefore.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx A. Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display. Example A.= ------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form. As noted in the comment line of Example A. d ----. using the roots(p) function.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form. we can write MATLAB statements in one line.7.2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero. We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before. that is.8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 Compute the derivative ----.

6760 – j0.6760 0.9870 x + 0.0.9971 ( 0.3370+ 0. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: (2.1633 x + 0. x 1 x 2 = c .9961i) ans = 1. we have p den = x – 1.0712 x – 2.3370. Accordingly.2108+0. roots_den=roots(den) % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2.0712 x + 1.9304 -1.0712i -0.9304 x + 0. % Do not display num and den coefficients roots_num=roots(num).3370 + j0.9961i -1. the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs. For the numerator.3370+ 0.2108 + j0. We recall that.6760 + j0. while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c .4186 + 1. that is.1.4186+ 1. in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 . den=[1 0 4 0 2 5 6].2108-0.4922i) ans = 3.3370 – j0.4186.0000 We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors.0712i -0.4186 1.4186 + j1.1058 (1.6760+0.6760+ 0.1633 As expected.4922i)*(1.0712i) ans = 6. – x 1 + x 2 = b . we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots and this is done by inspection.2108 – j 0. we have the factored form p num = x – 2.0000 2.9961i)*( 0.0712i)*(2. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term.3370 0.9870 x + 1.9961i roots_den = 1.9870i 1.9961 x + 0.4922i -0.6760-0.0512 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-9 .4186 – j1.4922 x + 1. that is.9961 and for the denominator.4922i -0.4922 x – 1.9870i -1.Rational Polynomials Solution: num=[1 3 0 5 7 9].

1.9971 x + 0.8372x + 6. we use the following code: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2 4. where the radian frequency (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second.4216x + 1. while the amplitude was held constant.2108 0. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs.0186 Thus.9870i)*( 0. y.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® ( 0. we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x. our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form.6740x + 1. This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x. Here.6740*x+1.0000 x + 1. 2 2 p num x – 4.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this. A.0512 x + 0.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. For the present. For our example. We must remember that the conv(p. and so on. A-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V A and the data were tabulated on Table A.0186 x + 1. polynomial coefficients.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often. Example A. Before using a symbolic expression. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual.1058 x + 1.3520x + 3. t.1633 R x = ----------. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator. x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate). we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form.q) function is used with numeric expressions only.9870i) ans = 1.1058)*(x+1. The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency.1.2108+ 0.9971)*(x^2+0.8372*x+6.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 p den x – 3. that is.y) command that plots y versus x.9304 We can check this result with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions.

then pressing <enter> to start a new line.353 103.481 58. |Z| versus radian frequency Solution: We cannot type instead.751 120. we use the semicolon (.717 46. that is. as mentioned before.240 54.603 81.1. .Using MATLAB to Make Plots A R V L C Figure A. it can be continued to the next line by typing three or more periods.665 140.111 (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90.032 187.588 67.589 71.611 51.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen. Electric circuit for Example A.184 97. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line.432 38. so we will use the English letter w If a statement.056 1014. (omega) in the MATLAB command window. This is illustrated below for the data of w and z.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance.10 (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39.182 40. and continue to enter data.052 145.10 TABLE A.122 42. The data are entered as follows: Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-11 .428 48.286 44.1 Table for Example A.83 266.088 73.339 52.513 62.437 222.182 436.938 469. Also.

and we select Figure.588 67.111...353 103..056. When this command is executed.481 58..2. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000].2. To return to the command window.032 187..751 120.182 40.. 48.437 222. Of course. we simply type w or z.104 97. if we want to see the values of w or z or both.432 38.. % z=[39. and we press <enter>.. MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen.052 145.603 81. we press any key.. we click on the Window pull-down menu.286 44.789 71.717 46. For this example.z).845]... A-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10 This plot is referred to as the amplitude frequency response of the circuit. 1014.830 266. we select MATLAB Command Window. To see the graph again. 90. This plot is shown in Figure A.088 73.665 140.938 469. Plot of impedance z versus frequency for Example A.339 52. we use the plot(x. we use plot(w.240 54. or from the Window pull-down menu..468.y) command.611 51. To plot z (y-axis) versus w (x-axis). 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Figure A.122 42.182 436.513 62.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900.

The command box toggles them.y) command that is similar to the plot(x. ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands. The command grid toggles them. however. and box on restores the box. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x.z).y) command. xlabel('w in rads/sec'). Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-13 . changes from off to on or vice versa. whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x). the x-axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale. and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm.3. Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm. our plot is as shown in Figure A.Using MATLAB to Make Plots We can make the above. and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w. The amplitude frequency response is usually represented with the x-axis in a logarithmic scale. and the y-axis in dB (decibels). We must remember.y) command. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot). the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm. grid. The grid off command removes the grid. The default is on. If the y-axis represents power. The loglog(x. * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. and the x-axis as a linear scale. Likewise. except that the y-axis is represented as a log scale. that is. except that the x-axis is represented as a log scale.y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes.z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs. % Replaces the plot(w. voltage or current. The decibel unit is defined in Chapter 4. and the y-axis as a linear scale. We can use the semilogx(x. The default* is off.and y-axis respectively. title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot. the semilogy(x. Radian Frequency').y) command is similar to the plot(x. or any plot.

For instance. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y-axis.y.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure A. and we press <enter>. A-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and this will place a cross-hair in the Figure window. The command text(x. we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’). we can move the cross-hair to the position where we want our label to begin.2. and string is the label which we want to place at that location. We will illustrate its use with the following example that plots a 3-phase sinusoidal waveform. The first line of the code below has the form * With MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 we can add text. we add the relation dB=20*log10(v).3. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A. and we replace the semilogx(w. lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window.dB).z) command with semilogx(w. and displays a cross-hair that can be moved around with the mouse. The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window. It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. Then. using the mouse.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’).

2*pi. text(4.65. 0.4 -0. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)').2 -0. The code for the 3-phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0.65. y=sin(x). 'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A. % The x-axis must be specified for each function % turn grid and axes box on text(0.4 0. last_value.x. plot(x.2 0 -0.y.4.8 -1 sin(x) sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A. u=sin(x+2*pi/3). % we could have used x=0:0.85.65.Using MATLAB to Make Plots linspace(first_value. v=sin(x+4*pi/3).6 0. Three-phase waveforms Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-15 . 0.x. 1 0. 'sin(x)').u.95.v).4.02: 2)*pi instead.8 0. number_of_values) This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points. 0. 60). % pi is a built-in function in MATLAB.75. text(2. An alternate function is x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points.6 -0. grid on. box on.02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0.

y.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® In our previous examples.s3.z3.s1.) where xn. there is no default marker. Also. The plot3(x. y and z are three vectors of the same length.. MATLAB has also a three-dimensional (three-axes) capability and this is discussed next. However. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white o x + * s d Symbol Marker point circle x-mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right p h pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash-dot line dashed line For example. These. markers.z) command plots a line in 3-space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x. where x.y. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen. that is. and colors for our plots. we must type plot(x. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A.2 Styles.x2. MATLAB has no default color.s2. no markers are drawn unless they are selected. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types.2. colors.'rs') plots a red square at each data point. they are drawn on two axes.y2. The general format is plot3(x1. plot symbols.y.. These strings are the same as those of the two-dimensional plots.y. or line style. and colors. but does not draw any line because no line was selected. plot(x. marker symbol.y3.. y and z. TABLE A.z1.y1.x3. we did not specify line styles. and plot(x. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.z2. yn and zn are vectors or matrices.'rs ').y. can be added with the plot(x. and sn are strings specifying color. A-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .s) command. The plots we have discussed thus far are two-dimensional. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A. The default line is the solid line. or a combination of these.2 for each additional line in the plot.

*y.5: 10.and y-axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-17 . dot division.^2 1.y.5. These operations will be explained in Section A.*x. Likewise. Three dimensional plot for Example A.3) Solution: We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the code below. grid % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three-dimensional plot is shown in Figure A. x= -10: 0. z= 2.11 In a two-dimensional plot.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A.^3+x+3. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication. in a three-dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication.11 Plot the function z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A. plot3(x.8.5. y= x. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot. 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A.z). division. we can set the limits of the x.

we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y. ylabel('y-axis. zlabel('z-axis. and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y.4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 r 4 and 0 h 6 meters.12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 V = -. grid on and box off are the default states./ 3. We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z.y. H. For three-dimensional plots. These must be defined as length x = n and length y = m where m n = size Z . The three-dimensional text(x.z) commands.H]=meshgrid(0: 4. 0: 6).y) or plot3(x. and y corresponds to the rows.r h 3 (A.’string’) command will place string beginning at the co-ordinate (x. This will be explained in Section A. shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased. box on The three-dimensional plot of Figure A. This must be done for each plot.y.8.^ 2 . [R. and dot exponentiation.* R . V = f r h The three-dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB code where.z) command with two vector arguments. Example A.y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x. A-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .* H) .z) on the plot. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication. title('Volume of Right Circular Cone'). % Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h V=(pi . radius r (meters)'). Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h. that is.Y]=meshgrid(x.y. or on the same line without first executing the plot command. mesh(R. say z = f x y . as in the previous example. dot division. altitude h (meters)'). We can also use the mesh(x.z. volume (cubic meters)'). It must be placed after the plot(x.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command.6. V) xlabel('x-axis.y. We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X. In this case. To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables. the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples x j y i Z i j .

Subplots V olume of Right Circular Cone 120 z-axis.p).8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m. radius r (meters) 4 3 y-axis. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated threedimensional plots.7.7. division and exponentiation that follows. The possible combinations are shown in Figure A.n.n. This command divides the window into an m n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active. are rudimentary. No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m. This. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-19 . We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m. altitude h (meters) Figure A. 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 Default 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A. Volume of a right circular cone.p) command following the discussion on multiplication.6. and the plot of Figure A. A. n and p. volume (cubic meters) 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 4 2 2 1 0 0 x-axis. The MATLAB User’s manual contains more examples.5.

If an array has one column and multiple rows. Here. division. consisted of one row and multiple columns. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons. 6. They are explained in the following paragraphs. a column vector can be written either as b=[ 1.9 Multiplication. it is called a column vector. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials. the arrays a b c . 11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[ 1 3 6 11]' b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element-by-Element multiplication. 1.2. 3. In Section A. We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces. and thus are called row vectors. division. Division and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. multiplication of the row vector A by the column A-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . MATLAB uses the single quotation character ( ) to transpose a vector. 3. and the element-by-element multiplication. We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. and exponentiation. b=[ 1. 6. Thus. 11] or as b=[ 1 3 6 11]'. is to write it first as a row vector. These are the matrix multiplication. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = a1 a2 a3 an bn ' and B = b1 b2 b3 be two vectors. and then transpose it into a column vector. and exponentiation. as indicated by the transpose operator ( ). An easier way to construct a column vector.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A. To distinguish between row and column vectors. and exponentiation. division. MATLAB produces the same display with either format as shown below.

B=[ 2 6 A*B 3 8 7]. A=[1 2 3 4 5]. A*B = a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + + a n b n = sin gle value (A. 2. There is no space between the dot and the multiplication sym- Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-21 . and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*).5) For example. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. B=[ 2 6 3 8 7]'. MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector.Element-by-Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = c1 c2 c3 cn dn and D = d1 d2 d3 be two row vectors. Here. A B = 1 –2 + 2 6+3 –3 + 4 8+5 7 = 68 and this is verified with MATLAB as A=[1 2 A*B ans = 68 3 4 5]. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. and we attempt to perform a row-by-row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. Here. multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (. When these statements are executed.Multiplication. not a row vector. Division and Exponentiation vector B. that is. if A = 1 2 3 4 5 and B = –2 6 –3 8 7 ' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree. Then. This operator is defined below.*). Accordingly. It recognizes that B is a row vector. Now. is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*).

We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (.* t) . are used for matrix division and exponentiation. Solution: The MATLAB code for this example is as follows: t=0: 0.* cos(5 ./) and dot exponentiation (.*D ans = -2 12 -9 % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication 32 35 Similarly. and exponentiation operators.) is never required with the plus (+) and minus ( ) operators.13 Write the MATLAB code that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f t = 3e –4 t cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 2 (A. Thus. as the elements of C and D. A-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example A.01: 5 % Define t-axis in 0.^) are used for element-by-element division and exponentiation.* sin(2 .* t) . C./ (t+1).01 increments y=3 . C. whereas dot division (. Note: A dot (. D=[ 2 6 3 8 7]. D = c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 cn dn (A.* t) 2 . D = 1 –2 2 6 3 –3 4 8 5 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5].* exp( 4 .* t) + t .6) This product is another row vector with the same number of elements.7) in the 0 t 5 seconds interval. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators. As an example.* exp( 3 .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® bol. division.) and the multiplication. let C = 1 2 3 4 5 and D = –2 6 –3 8 7 Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result. C.^2 .

grid. say as – 3 t 3 MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero.5 5 Figure A. There are no commas between these four arguments.2 10 – 16 . in this example. Plot for E xample A. It will be used with the next example.Multiplication. and exponentiation. which is a number approximately equal to 2.5 1 1. xlabel('t'). The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin.8. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression.13 Had we. division. Example A.13') Figure A. ylabel('y=f(t)'). and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots. the eps number.y). Division and Exponentiation plot(t. Plot for Example A. ymin and ymax. title('Plot for Example A.13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0. is divided by zero when t = – 1 . This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot.5 t 3 3.8 shows the plot for this example.5 4 4. To avoid division by zero. we use the special MATLAB function eps.5 2 2. xmax. defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 .14 Plot the functions y = sin 2x z = cos 2x w = sin 2x cos 2x v = sin 2x cos 2x Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-23 . the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.

14 A-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . z=(cos(x). These subplots are shown in Figure A.y). title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2'). w=y.6 0. subplot(224).9. subplot(223).^ 2).% upper left of four subplots plot(x.4 0. title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2'). % add eps to avoid division by zero subplot(221).4 0. % Interval with 100 data points y=(sin(x). axis([0 2*pi 0 0. Solution: The MATLAB code to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).v).25 v=(sinx)2/(cosx)2 0./ (z+eps). axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).8 0. title('y=(sinx)^2').3]).1 0.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® in the interval 0 x 2 using 100 data points.9. axis([0 2*pi 0 400]). 1 0. v=y. % lower left of four subplots plot(x. title('z=(cosx)^2').8 0.z). Subplots for the functions of Example A.15 0. subplot(222). % lower right of four subplots plot(x.6 0.100).* z.2*pi.w).2 z=(cosx)2 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 400 300 200 2 4 6 w=(sinx)2 *(cosx)2 0. % upper right of four subplots plot(x.2 y=(sinx)2 1 0.05 0 0 2 4 6 100 0 0 2 4 6 Figure A. Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph.^ 2).2 0.

r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates.* (0. for simplicity.15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A.* 10 . c. Example A. (A. % in polar coordinates.Multiplication. where r is the magnitude.^5.8) b.real_part). Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-25 . the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency can be computed from the following expression: 4 6 a. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer.^ 6 . the abs(z). Electric circuit for Example A. Division and Exponentiation The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers.10. and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b). It also produces a polar plot (part c). a 10 Z ab b Figure A. grid. xlabel('radian frequency w'). w=0: 1: 2000. and capacitance. ylabel('Real part of Z'). Plot Im Z (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency .^ 4 j . Plot Re Z 10 – j 10 Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j 0./ (w+eps)) .1 H 10 F With the given values of resistance. and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r We will also use the polar(theta.* w 10.1 – 10 (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency . % Define interval with one radian interval z=(10+(10 . theta is the angle in radians. Plot the impedance Z versus frequency Solution: The MATLAB code below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab that is.10. denoted as z. plot(w.1 ./ (10 + j . inductance. We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy./ (w+eps)))).15 10 0. % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z).

A. % The last six statements (next six lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z). Both types are referred to as m-files since both require the .rndz). 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z polar(theta. % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier theta=angle(z). A script file consists of two or more built-in functions such as those we have discussed thus far. fast.13 respectively.12. and polar plots are shown in Figures A.11. plot(w.15 clearly illustrates how powerful. imaginary. grid.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z). % Computes |Z| rndz=round(abs(z)). the code for each of the examples we discussed earlier. and flexible MATLAB is.10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files. ylabel('Polar Plot of Z').m extension. ylabel('Imaginary part of Z'). xlabel('radian frequency w'). make up a script file. a script file is one which was generated and saved as an m-file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/ Debugger. and A.15 A-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A. Thus. accurate. The real. Example A.imag_part). Generally. % Angle is the first argument grid. Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A.11.

and the input argument enclosed in parentheses. Polar plot of the impedance in Example A. We use function files for repetitive tasks. For example. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A. followed by the output argument.15 90 120 1015 812 609 60 150 406 203 30 Polar Plot of Z 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A.15 A function file is a user-defined function using MATLAB. the function file consisting of the two lines below Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-27 .m. The first line of a function file must contain the word function.Script and Function Files 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. the equal sign ( = ).12.13. The function name and file name must be the same. but the file name must have the extension .

y). Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y-axis limits. fzero(f. or returns NaN if the search fails. that we mentioned earlier.x1. fmin(f. MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign./ ((x 1. but since a maximum of f x is equal to a minimum of – f x . we will use the following MATLAB functions.^ 2 + 0./ ((x 0. A-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . maxima and minima of the function 1 1 f x = --------------------------------------.5.2 + 0.1). y=1.x2) minimizes a function of one variable.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® function y = myfunction(x) y=x.14.2). x= 1.5: 0.1 + 0.01 Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros.+ --------------------------------------.x1. or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph. that is.lims) plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x-axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax].^ 2 + 0.01: 1. Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only. and returns that value.01) 1. The string fcn must be the name of an m-file function or a string with variable x .^ 3 + cos(3. and minima using the following code.x1.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction.1 and A.16 Find the zeros.x2) to find both minimum and maximum values of a function.04) 10. plot(x. Note: MATLAB does not have a function to maximize a function of one variable.2. such as those in Examples A. grid The plot is shown in Figure A. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 0 . there is no fmax(f.04 x – 0.– 10 2 2 x – 1. fplot(fcn. Note: NaN (Not-a-Number) is not a function. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number. we can use fmin(f.x2) function in MATLAB. maxima. where f is a string containing the name of a real-valued function of a single real variable. Example A. It attempts to return a value of x where f x is minimum in the interval x 1 x x2 .x) tries to find a zero of a function of one variable. The string f contains the name of the function to be minimized.m For the next example.

Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-29 .5]).5 1. As expected.y) command.Script and Function Files 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1. approximately. y max = 90 .5 0 0.16 using the plot command The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0.04)-10.5 1 1. approximately.1 where. and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1. Plot for Example A. [ 1.5 Figure A.01) 1/((x 1.14.3 . we define and save f(x) as the funczero01. grid This plot is shown in Figure A. Now.14 that was obtained with the plot(x. The maximum occurs at approximately x = 0.2)^2+0. fplot('funczero01'. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A.lims) command to plot f x as follows. we can use the fplot(fcn.1)^2+0.2 and x = 0. Next.2 where.m function m-file with the following code: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x 0.5 -1 -0.15. y min = – 34 .

1919 and r2= 0.5 -1 -0.2012 * Local maxima or local minima.15. are the maximum or minimum values of a function within a restricted range of values in the independent variable.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1. the maxima and minima are considered be to the maximum and minimum values in the entire range in which the function is defined. x1).x1.x2) function.y) or the fplot(fcn. 0. fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3.4f'.x2) function as follows.x1. advisable to plot the function with either the plot(x.5 The minimum of f(x) is found with the fmin(f. if any. -0. Plot for Example A.2).3788 Whenever we use the fmin(f.5 x 1. we must remember that this function searches for a minimum and it may display the values of local minima* . before displaying the function minimum.3). fprintf(' and r2= %3.x) function to compute the roots of f x in (A. x2) MATLAB displays the following: The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0.5) min_val = 1. A-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and then invoked with that file name. x1= fzero('funczero01'. For this example. The code below must be saved with a file name. 1.5 Figure A.5 1 1. min_val=fmin('funczero01'. we specify the range 0 x 1.lims) command to find the smallest possible interval within which the function minimum lies.5 rather than the interval – 1. therefore. It is.4f \n'.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f.20) more precisely.5 0 0. 0. When the entire range is considered. x2= fzero('funczero01'.

2000 A. we must first define a new function m-file that will produce – f x define it as follows: function y=minusfunczero01(x) % It is used to find maximum value from -f(x) y= (1/((x 0. Now.1812 To find the maximum value. y=1 / ((x 0.01) 1/((x 1.2) ^ 2 + 0. MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places.1) ^ 2 + 0. Of course.2) ^ 2 + 0.1) ^ 2 + 0. we substitute it into f x .01) 1 / ((x 1. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-31 . The output format can changed with the format command.2012.04) 10 y = -34.04) 10).0999. max_val=fmin('minusfunczero01'.01) 1 / ((x 1.Display Formats This is the value of x at which y = f x is minimum. To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x. we execute the following code to get the value of x where the maximum y = f x occurs.0999 x=0. x=1.% Using this value find the corresponding value of y y=1 / ((x 0. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT Default. this is equivalent to the negative of the funczero01 function. so that the maximum value will be displayed.04) 10 y = 89. We We have placed the minus ( ) sign in front of the right side of the last expression above. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision. 0.2)^2+0.11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number. that is.1)^2+0.1) max_val = 0. The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations. or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number. Same as SHORT. The available formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format.

FORMAT SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits. Imaginary parts are ignored. A-32 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The fprintf(format. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed. if %f is used. Some examples with different format displays age given below.and blank are printed for positive. If X is a string. the text is displayed.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® FORMAT SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits. format short 33. Thus. FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in. negative and zero elements.3335 Four decimal digits (default) format long 33. With these commands only the real part of each parameter is processed.array) command displays and prints both text and arrays. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format.333 Better of format short or format format short e format bank 33.33333333333334 16 digits format short e 3. . FORMAT RAT Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. FORMAT LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits. or zero are printed format rat 100/3 rational approximation The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent format short g 33. FORMAT LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. FORMAT SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits. FORMAT + The symbols +. and if %e is used. FORMAT LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits. FORMAT HEX Hexadecimal format.33 two decimal digits format + only + or Approximation by ratio of small integers. FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents.

Example B.= I dt By separation of the variables.3) we get v C t = It + k (B. Then.1) we get dv C ------.3) and by integrating both sides of (B. by substitution of (B. These are denoted with an asterisk and may be skipped.1 A 1 F capacitor is being charged by a constant current I . Some definitions. is constant. that is. and for reference to more advance topics in electrical engineering such as state variables. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-1 . as a function of time. topics.1 Simple Differential Equations In this section we present two simple examples to show the importance of differential equations in engineering applications.1) We know that the current and voltage in a capacitor are related by dv C i C t = C ------dt (B. B. and examples are not applicable to introductory circuit analysis but are included for continuity of the subject.2) into (B. Solution: It is given that the current. Find the voltage v C across this capacitor as a function of time given that the voltage at some reference time t = 0 is V 0 .Appendix B Differential Equations T his appendix is a review of ordinary differential equations. i C t = I = cons tan t (B.4) where k represents the constants of integration of both sides.2) and for our example. dv C = Idt (B. C = 1 .

For this example.8) and integrating both sides we get i L t = sin t + k (B.+ k 2 = 1 (B..9).7) By separating the variables we get di L = cos tdt (B.2 Find the current i L t through an inductor whose slope at the coordinate t i L is cos t and the current i L passes through the point 2 . at t = 0 . a linear voltage is produced across the terminals of the capacitor. 2 .5) or k = V 0 . Solution: We are given that di L -----. Example B. i. i L t = sin t (B. v C = V 0 and (B.6) This example shows that when a capacitor is charged with a constant current. i L = 1 .9) where k represents the constants of integration of both sides. and by substitution into (B. and by substitution into (B.e.9) becomes and thus at t = t = 1 = sin -.10) or k = 0 . v C t = It + V 0 (B.11) B-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . With these values (B.4).1 .= cos t dt (B.4) then becomes V0 = 0 + k (B.Differential Equations We can find the value of the constant k by making use of the initial condition. We find the value of the constant k by making use of the initial condition.

the differential equation which relates y and x is said to be an ordinary differential equation and it is abbreviated as ODE. that is. Degree The exponent of the highest power of the highest order derivative after the differential equation has been cleared of any fractions or radicals in the dependent variable and its derivatives For example.+ x ----.+ 3 ----. An example of a partial differential equation is the well-known one-dimensional wave equation shown below. x . Type 2. The differential equation dy d y 2 2 x 2 ------. If the dependent variable y is a function of only a single variable x .+ x – n = 0 2 dt dt 2 is an ODE with variable coefficients.2 Classification Differential equations are classified by: 1. where x and t are independent variables. however. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-3 . and t is said to be a partial differential equation and it is abbreviated as PDE. the differential equation d y ------4 dx 4 2 d y + 5 ------3 dx 3 4 d y + 6 ------2 dx 2 6 dy + 3 ----dx 8 – 2x y + ------------. If the dependent variable y is a function of two or more variables such as y = f x t . if y = f x . The differential equation 2 dy d y ------. the differential equation that relates y .= ye 3 x +1 2 is an ordinary differential equation of order 4 and degree 2 .Classification B. Order Ordinary or Partial The highest order derivative which is included in the differential equation 3. 2 y 2 y ------.= a ------2 2 x t 2 Most of the electrical engineering problems are solved with ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.+ 2 = 5 cos 4t 2 dt dt is an ODE with constant coefficients. partial differential equations provide often quick solutions to some practical applications as illustrated with the following three examples.

Solution: The initial value of the equivalent resistance is R T = 5 20 4 = 2 Now.3 The equivalent resistance R T of three resistors R 1 . R 2 = 20 . decreased by 0.= ----R2 R2 2 RT RT and -------.125 and X C = 3 .dR 2 + -------.= ---. we treat R 2 and R 3 as constants and differentiating R T with respect to R 1 we get RT RT 1 1 RT – ----. RT RT -------. Find the change in the imped( 6.25 – 4.+ ----.4 In a series RC circuit that is excited by a sinusoidal voltage. R = 4 ance Z if the resistance R is increased by 0.25 % ) and the capacitive reactance X C is B-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .-------. Initially.Differential Equations Example B.= ----R3 R3 2 and the total differential dR T is RT RT RT dR T = -------. R 2 .2 = 0.1 1 1----.dR 1 + -------.03 Therefore.167% ).= ----. and R 3 in parallel is given by 1.02 – 0.2 R R1 R1 R1 RT 1 2 Similarly. the eequivalent resistance decreases by 3 % .= – ----2 or -------. and R 3 = 4 compute the change in R T if R 2 is increased by 10 % and R 3 is decreased by 5 % while R 1 does not change.05 = – 0.dR 3 = R1 R2 R3 RT ----R1 2 RT dR 1 + ----R2 2 RT dR 2 + ----R3 2 dR 3 By substitution of the given numerical values we get dR T = 2 -5 2 20 + ----20 2 2 2 + -4 2 – 0. Example B.+ ----R1 R2 R3 RT Given that initially R 1 = 5 . the magnitude of the impedance Z is computed from Z = R 2 + X C 2 .

the bulb resistance is V 120 R = ---.and -------. by how much will the power change? Solution: At V = 120 volts and P = 75 watts.8 = – 9.and -----.dR = -----.375.dX C = -----------------------------------XC R 2 2 R + XC and by substitution of the given values ------------------------dZ = 4 0.Classification Solution: Z Z We will first find the partial derivatives -----..167% .= ----------.25 + 3 – 0. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-5 .and --------. Thus.= 192 P 75 2 2 and since P 2V P V V P = ----. the power will decrease by 9. XC R Z Z-----.dR + -------.125 ---------------------------------------------------2 2 5 4 +3 Therefore.dV + -----.375 watts.dV – V 2 dR ----V R R R 2 2 120 120 = ---------------. then we compute the change in impedance R XC from the total differential dZ .= 1 – 0.= -----.= – ----2 R V R R R 2 2 and the total differential is 2 P P 2V dP = -----. if R increases by 6.5 A light bulb is rated at 120 volts and 75 watts.then -----.– 5 – ---------.125 . Example B.= ------------------------. If the voltage decreases by 5 volts and the resistance of the bulb is increased by 8 .= 0.167% .25 % and X C decreases by 4.375 2 192 192 That is. the impedance Z increases by 4.= ------------------------2 2 2 2 XC R R + XC R + XC and R dR + X C dX C ZZ dZ = -----.

13) above is called a homogeneous ODE and has n different linearly independent solutions denoted as y 1 t y 2 t y 3 t yn t .+ a 0 y dt m–1 = d x d x b m -------.12) Excitation Forcing Function x t NON – HOMOGENEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION If the excitation in (B12) is not zero. We will now prove that the most general solution of (B. B-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the ODE is called a non-homogeneous ODE.3 Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) A function y = f x is a solution of a differential equation if the latter is satisfied when y and its derivatives are replaced throughout by f x and its corresponding derivatives.+ b m – 1 -------------. Also.13) is: yH t = k1 y1 t + k2 y2 t + k3 y3 t + + kn yn t (B. it reduces to: d y d y a n -------. For example a solution of the differential equation d y ------. that is.+ m n–1 dt dt dx + b 1 ----. time-invariant electric circuit can be described by an ODE which has the form d y d y a n -------.Differential Equations B. if x t x t = 0 .+ a n – 1 ------------.+ b 0 x dt (B.+ a n – 1 ------------.14) where the subscript H on the left side is used to emphasize that this is the form of the solution of the homogeneous ODE and k 1 k 2 k 3 k n are arbitrary constants.+ a 0 y = 0 dt (B. If dy + a 1 ----.+ n n–1 dt dt m n n–1 dy + a 1 ----. the initial conditions must be satisfied.13) HOMOGENEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION The differential equation of (B.+ y = 0 2 dx 2 is y = k 1 sin x + k 2 cos x since y and its second derivative satisfy the given differential equation.+ n n–1 dt dt n n–1 0 . Any linear.

+ a 0 y 1 = 0 dt (B. will be referred to as the natural response.y 1 + y 2 + a 0 y 1 + y 2 a n -----.k 1 y 1 + n n–1 dt dt d y1 d y = k 1 a n ---------.e. then by substitution.13).+ a n – 1 ---------------2 + n n–1 dt dt n n–1 Therefore.y 2 + a 0 y 2 = 0 n n–1 dt dt dt n n–1 (B. In our subsequent discussion.+ a 0 y 2 = 0 dt and d y2 d y a n ---------.y 2 + a n – 1 -----------.+ a n – 1 ---------------1 + n n–1 dt dt n n–1 n n–1 d + a 1 ---. i. and will be Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-7 .15) A solution of the form k 1 y 1 t will also satisfy (B.Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Proof: Let us assume that y 1 t is a solution of (B.k 1 y 1 + a 0 k 1 y 1 dt (B.y 1 + a 0 y 1 n n–1 dt dt dt n n–1 d d d + a n -----. d y1 d y a n ---------.y 1 + y 2 + n n–1 dt dt dt n n–1 dd d= a n -----. and will be denoted as y N t or simply y N .+ a n – 1 ---------------1 + n n–1 dt dt n n–1 dy 1 + a 1 ------. if y = k1 y1 t k2 y1 t k3 y3 t kn yn t are the n solutions of the homogeneous ODE of (B.+ a n – 1 ---------------1 + n n–1 dt dt n n–1 dy 1 + a 1 ------. the solution of the homogeneous ODE. the complementary solution.13).k 1 y 1 + a n – 1 -----------.y 2 + + a 1 ---.y 1 + + a 1 ---.17) In general.+ a 0 y 1 = 0 dt If y = y 1 t and y = y 2 t are any two solutions.y 1 + a n – 1 -----------.+ a 0 y 1 = 0 dt d y2 + a 1 -------. the linear combination y = k1 y1 t + k2 y1 t + k3 y3 t + + kn yn t is also a solution.. The particular solution of a non-homogeneous ODE will be referred to as the forced response.13) since d d a n -----.16) dy 1 + a 1 ------. then y = y 1 t + y 2 t will also be a solution since d y1 d y a n ---------. d d d + a 1 ---.y 1 + y 2 + a n – 1 -----------.

however. Accordingly.12) as: y t = y Natural + y Response Forced Response = yN + yF (B. by substitution of (B. and thus the solutions of the homogeneous ODE are: y1 = k1 e s1 t y2 = k2 e s2 t y3 = k3 e s3 t yn = kn e sn t (B.19) be of the form y = ke st (B.24) B-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .20) into (B.20) Then. accept the expression inside the parentheses as the only meaningful solution and this is referred to as the characteristic (auxiliary) equation.21) can be satisfied when an s + an – 1 s n n–1 + + a1 s + a0 = 0 or k = 0 or s = – (B. B. we express the total solution of the non-homogeneous ODE of (B. therefore. its solutions are s1 s2 s3 s n .+ a 0 y = 0 dt (B.+ n n–1 dt dt n n–1 dy + a 1 ----.19) we get a n ks e + a n – 1 ks n st n – 1 st e + + a 1 kse + a 0 ke st st st = 0 or an s + an – 1 s n n–1 + + a 1 s + a 0 ke = 0 (B.18) The natural response y N contains arbitrary constants and these can be evaluated from the given initial conditions. contains no arbitrary constants. that is. We. The forced response y F .+ a n – 1 ------------.Differential Equations denoted as y F t or simply y F . It is imperative to remember that the arbitrary constants of the natural response must be evaluated from the total response. an s + an – 1 s n n–1 + + a1 s + a0 = 0 (B.21) We observe that (B.23) Characteristic Equation Since the characteristic equation is an algebraic equation of an nth-power polynomial.4 Solution of the Homogeneous ODE Let the solutions of the homogeneous ODE d y d y a n -------.22) but the only meaningful solution is the quantity enclosed in parentheses since the latter two yield trivial (meaningless) solutions.

say as k 2 te 1 . These two represent two independent solutions and therefore the most general solution has the form: k2 e yN = k1 + k2 t e s1 t + k3 e s3 t + + kn e sn t (B. the n solutions of (B. In this case. Thus.25) FOR DISTINCT ROOTS Case II Repeated Roots If two or more roots of the characteristic equation are repeated (same roots). k1 e s1 t s t s1 t + k2 e s2 t = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s1 t = k1 + k2 e s1 t = k3 e s1 t and we see that one term of (B. we express one of the terms of (B.28) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-9 .Solution of the Homogeneous ODE Case I Distinct Roots If the roots of the characteristic equation are distinct (different from each another).23) are independent and the most general solution is: yN = k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t + + kn e sn t (B.26) If there are m equal roots the most general solution has the form: yN = k1 + k2 t + + km t m–1 e s1 t + kn – i e s2 t + + kn e sn t (B. then some of the terms of (B.25) is lost. these occur as complex conjugate pairs. then another root is s 1 = – – j Then. s 1 = s 2 .25).24) are not independent and therefore (B.25) does not represent the most general solution. for example. If. if one root is s 1 = – + j where and are real numbers. k1 e s1 t + k2 e s2 t = k1 e = e = e = e – t+j t + k2 e – t –j t = e – t k1 e j t + k2 e –j t – t – t – t k 1 cos t + jk 1 sin t + k 2 cos t – jk 2 sin t k 1 + k 2 cos t + j k 1 – k 2 sin t k 3 cos t + k 4 sin t = e – t k 5 cos t+ FOR TWO COMPLEX CONJUGATE ROOTS (B. then.27) FOR M EQUAL ROOTS Case III Complex Roots If the characteristic equation contains complex roots.

28) is to be a real function of time.y + cy = f x dt dt 2 (B. Consider the non-homogeneous ODE dy da 2 + b ---. The forced response is.29) are indeed the linear combination of y 1 and y 2 . where k 1 and k 2 are arbitrary constants. we examine the Wronskian Determinant defined below. if we know the two solutions. obtained by observation of the right side of the given ODE as it is illustrated by the examples that follow. k 5 . b . The Method of Undetermined Coefficients or b. if y 1 and y 2 are any two solutions of (B. we can obtain the most general solution by forming the linear combination of y 1 and y 2 . the linear combination y 3 = k 1 y 1 + k 2 y 2 . The Method of Variation of Parameters We will study the Method of Undetermined Coefficients first. B-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Differential Equations If (B. B. We have learned that the total (complete) solution consists of the summation of the natural and forced responses. Higher order ODEs are discussed in differential equations textbooks.5 Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response For simplicity. is also a solution.30) is true. The forced response can be found by a.y 2 – y 2 ----. we will only consider ODEs of order 2 .29) where a .y1 ----. The other constants k 3 . For the natural response. in most circuit analysis problems. the constants k 1 and k 2 must be complex conjugates. k 4 .30) If (B. To be certain that there exist no other solutions.y 2 dx dx WRONSKIAN DETERMINANT y1 y2 W y1 y2 0 (B.29).y1 d d dx dx ----. and the phase angle are real constants. and c are real constants. we can be assured that all solutions of (B. that is. d d = y1 ----.

5 .33) and (B.Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response Example B.34) yields k 1 = 6.32) The constants k 1 and k 2 are evaluated from the given initial conditions.31) subject to the initial conditions y 0 = 3 and y' 0 = 4 where y' = dy dt Solution: This is a homogeneous ODE and its total solution is just the natural response found from the characteristic equation s 2 + 4s + 3 = 0 whose roots are s 1 = – 1 and s 2 = – 3 .35) Check with MATLAB: y=dsolve('D2y+4*Dy+3*y=0'. y 0 = 3 = k1 e + k2 e 0 0 or k1 + k2 = 3 (B.6 Find the total solution of the ODE d y + 4 dy + 3y = 0 ----2 dt dt 2 (B. ----y' 0 = 4 = dy dt = – k 1 e – 3k 2 e t=0 or – k 1 – 3k 2 = 4 (B. By substitution into (B.5e –t – 3t (B.5 and k 2 = – 3. we get y t = y N t = 6. For this example.32).33) –t – 3t t=0 Also.5e – 3. 'Dy(0)=4') y = (-7/2*exp(-3*t)*exp(t)+13/2)/exp(t) pretty(y) . 'y(0)=3'. The total response is: y t = yN t = k1 e + k2 e –t – 3t (B.7/2 exp(-3 t) exp(t) + 13/2 ----------------------------exp(t) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-11 .34) Simultaneous solution of (B.

Example B. Figure B.6.36) subject to the initial conditions y 0 = 1 and y' 0 = – 1 Solution: The left side of (B. Then.36). To find the forced response.38) into the given ODE of (B.38) We can find out whether our assumption is correct by substituting (B.1 plotted with the MATLAB command ezplot(y. Plot for the function y = f t of Example B.+ 3y = 3e 2 dt dt 2 (B.Differential Equations The function y = f t is shown in Figure B.6.37) (We must remember that the constants k 1 and k 2 must be evaluated from the total response).36) is the same as that of Example B.7 Find the total solution of the ODE dy – 2t dy + 4 ----. yN t = k1 e + k2 e –t – 3t (B.39) B-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 4Ae – 2t – 8Ae – 2t + 3Ae – 2t = 3e – 2t (B. we assume a solution of the form y F = Ae – 2t (B.[0 10]).Therefore.1.

41) and (B.42) yields k 1 = 2.5e + 1. For this example. 'y(0)=1'.5 and k 2 = 1.40) The constants k 1 and k 2 are evaluated from the given initial conditions.5 . ----y' 0 = – 1 = dy dt = – k 1 e – 3k 2 e t=0 + 6e or – k 1 – 3k 2 = – 7 Simultaneous solution of (B.5e – 3 e –t – 3t – 2t (B.41) –t – 3t – 2t t=0 Also.42) y=dsolve('D2y+4*Dy+3*y=3*exp( 2*t)'.8 Find the total solution of the ODE d y + 6 dy + 9y = 0 ----2 dt dt 2 (B. 'Dy(0)= 1') y = (-3*exp(-2*t)*exp(t)+3/2*exp(-3*t)*exp(t)+5/2)/exp(t) pretty(y) -3 exp(-2 t) exp(t) + 3/2 exp(-3 t) exp(t) + 5/2 -----------------------------------------------exp(t) ezplot(y.2 Example B. we get y t = y N + y F = 2.Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response from which A = – 3 and the total solution is y t = yN + yF = k1 e + k2 e –3 e –t – 3t – 2t (B.[0 8]) Check with MATLAB: The plot is shown in Figure B.40).43) subject to the initial conditions y 0 = – 1 and y' 0 = 1 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-13 . y 0 = 1 = k 1 e + k 2 e – 3e 0 0 0 or k1 + k2 = 4 (B. By substitution into (B.

By substitution into (B. Plot for the function y = f t of Example B.45) and (B.47) B-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For this example.44) Next.46) we get yields k 1 = – 1 and k 2 = – 2 . the total response is y t = yN = k1 e – 3t + k 2 te – 3t (B.7. y t = –e – 3t – 2te – 3t (B. we evaluate the constants k 1 and k 2 from the given initial conditions.Differential Equations Figure B. Solution: This is a homogeneous ODE and therefore its total solution is just the natural response found from the characteristic equation s 2 + 6s + 9 = 0 whose roots are s 1 = s 2 = – 3 (repeated roots).44). y 0 = –1 = k1 e + k2 0 e 0 0 or k1 = –1 (B. Thus.46) From (B. ----y' 0 = 1 = dy dt = – 3k 1 e t=0 + k2 e – 3k 2 te or – 3k 1 + k 2 = 1 (B.2.45) – 3t – 3t – 3t t=0 Also.

the roots of the characteristic equation of (B.48) are s 1 = – 2 and s 2 = – 3 and thus the natural response has the form yN = k1 e – 2t + k2 e – 3t (B.+ 6y = 3e 2 dt dt (B.49) Next.3. 'y(0)= 1'.Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response Check with MATLAB: y=dsolve('D2y+6*Dy+9*y=0'. Plot for the function y = f t of Example B.48) Solution: No initial conditions are given. therefore.3. 'Dy(0)=1') y = -exp(-3*t)-2*exp(-3*t)*t ezplot(y.8. we find the forced response by assuming a solution of the form y F = Ae – 2t (B. Example B.50) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-15 . Figure B. we will express the solution in terms of the constants k 1 and k 2 . By inspection.9 Find the total solution of the ODE 2 dy – 2t dy + 5 ----.[0 4]) The plot is shown in Figure B.

48). Then. We observe that the left side of (B. we will express solution in terms of the constants k 1 and k 2 . by substitution of (B. we find that A = 3 .52) is zero whereas the right side can never be and this produces a meaningless result. zero unless we let t The problem here is that the right side of the given ODE of (B. Then. therefore.52) that is. to find the forced response and we assume a solution of the form y F = A cos 5t (B.Differential Equations We can find out whether our assumption is correct by substitution of (B.10 Find the total solution of the ODE d 2y + 5 dy + 6y = 4 cos 5t ----2 dt dt (B. To work around this problem.54) is the same of that of Example B. Therefore. we multiply (B.52) into (B.49). that is.54) Solution: No initial conditions are given. Therefore. the total response is y t = yN + yF = k1 e – 2t + k2 e – 3t + 3te – 2t (B.9.48) has the same form as one of the terms of the natural response of (B.48) and equating like terms. it has the form yN = k1 e – 2t + k2 e – 3t (B.55) Next. namely the term k 1 e –2t .51) but the sum of the three terms on the left side of (B.53) Check with MATLAB: y=dsolve('D2y+5*Dy+6*y=3*exp(-2*t)') y = -3*exp(-2*t)+3*t*exp(-2*t)+C1*exp(-3*t)+C2*exp(-2*t) Example B. the natural response is the same. we assume that the forced response has the form y F = Ate – 2t (B. 4Ae – 2t – 10Ae – 2t + 6Ae – 2t = 3e – 2t (B.50) into the given ODE of (B.50) by t in order to eliminate the duplication of terms in the total response.56) B-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

we find that A = – 4 19 and also A = 0 .57) and by substitution into (B. – 25A cos 5t – 25A sin 5 t + 6A cos 5t = – 19A cos 5t – 25A sin 5 t = 4 cos 5t but this relation is invalid since by equating cosine and sine terms.1 summarizes the forms of the forced response for a second order ODE with constant coefficients. y=simple(y) y = -38/493*cos(5*t)+50/493*sin(5*t)+C1*exp(-3*t)+C2*exp(-2*t) In most engineering problems the right side of the non-homogeneous ODE consists of elementary functions such as k (constant).56) into the given ODE of (B. e kx . we obtain the following set of equations 19k 3 + 25k 4 = 0 25k 3 – 19 k 4 = 4 (B.58) format rat.Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response We can find out whether our assumption is correct by substitution of the assumed solution of (B.55). Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-17 .cos 5t 493 493 (B. This inconsistency is a result of our failure to recognize that the derivatives of A cos 5t produce new terms of the form B sin 5t and these terms must be included in the forced response. 25*x-19*y-4) k3 = 50/493 k4 = -38/493 Therefore.59) Check with MATLAB. y=dsolve('D2y+5*Dy+6*y=4*cos(5*t)'). cos kx . Table B. [k3 k4]=solve(19*x+25*y. we let y F = k 3 sin 5 t + k 4 cos 5t (B.54) we get – 25 k 3 sin 5t – 25k 4 cos 5 t + 25k 3 cos 5 t – 25k 4 sin 5 t + 6k 3 sin 5t + 6k 4 cos 5 t = 4 cos 5 t Collecting like terms and equating sine and cosine terms. x n where n is a positive integer. and linear combinations of these.58) We use MATLAB to solve (B. sin kx . Then. the total solution is y t = yN + yF t = k1 e – 2t + k2 e – 3t – 38 50 + -------. Accordingly.sin 5t + -------.

61) = 0 .+ b ----. and kte –2 t . Therefore the forced response will have the form B-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . therefore we will express solution in terms of the constants k 1 and k 2 . and thus the natural response has the form yN = k1 e –2 t + k 2 te –2 t (B. This term with n = 1 . if a term in y F t is a duplicate of a term in the natural response y N t . s 1 = s 2 = – 2 . r = – 2 .Differential Equations TABLE B. Also.11 Find the total solution of the ODE d 2 y + 4 dy + 4y = te –2t – e –2t ----2 dt dt (B. the most general form of the forced response y F t is the linear combination of these terms.1 Form of the forced response for 2nd order differential equations dy d y Forced Response of the ODE a ------. we refer to the table of the previous page and from the last row we choose the term k t n e r t cos t .60) Solution: No initial conditions are given. Example B. we must multiply y F t by the lowest power of t that will eliminate the duplication.+ cy = f t 2 dt dt f t k (constant) k t ( n = positive integer) ke rt n 2 Form of Forced Response y F t K (constant) K0 t + K1 t Ke rt n n–1 + + Kn – 1 t + Kn ( r =real or complex) k cos t or k sin t ( =constant) k t e cos t or k t e sin t n rt n rt K 1 coa t + K 2 sin t K0 t + K1 t n n n–1 + + + K n – 1 t + K n e cos t + K n – 1 t + K n e sin t rt rt + K0 t + K1 t n–1 We must remember that if f t is the sum of several terms. The roots of the characteristic equation are equal. reduces to To find the forced response (particular solution). that is.

we equate f above with the right side of the given ODE. we get the total solution y t = k1 e –2 t + k 2 te –2 t 1 3 –2 t 1 2 –2 t + -.64) % Compute and simplify first derivative f1 = -t*exp(-2*t)*(-3*k3*t-2*k4+2*k3*t^2+2*k4*t) f2=diff(f0. We use MATLAB do the computations as shown below. This is done by substituting (B.2).t e – -.Using the Method of Undetermined Coefficients for the Forced Response yF = k3 t + k4 e –2 t (B.62) by t 2 to obtain a suitable form for the forced response which now is yF = k3 t + k4 t e 3 2 –2 t (B. that is 2 3k 3 t + k 4 e – 2t = te – 2t –e – 2t (B. f1=diff(f0). f1=simple(f1) % Define symbolic variables % Forced response (B.65) We verify this solution with MATLAB z=dsolve('D2y+4*Dy+4*y=t*exp( 2*t) exp( 2*t)') z = 1/6*exp(-2*t)*t^3-1/2*exp(-2*t)*t^2 +C1*exp(-2*t)+C2*t*exp(-2*t) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-19 . f=simple(f) f = 2*(3*k3*t+k4)*exp(-2*t) % Form and simplify the left side of the given ODE Finally.61). we need to evaluate the constants k 3 and k 4 .62) But the terms e –2t and te –2t are also present in (B.t e 6 2 (B. f2=simple(f2) % Compute and simplify second derivative f2 = 2*exp(-2*t)*(3*k3*t+k4-6*k3*t^2-4*k4*t+2*k3*t^3+2*k4*t^2) f=f2+4*f1+4*f0. By substitution of these values into (B. syms t k3 k4 f0=(k3*t^3+k4*t^2)*exp( 2*t).63) into the given ODE of (B.64) and we find k 3 = 1 6 and k 4 = – 1 2 . therefore.64) and combining the forced response with the natural response. we multiply (B.63) Now.60) and equating with the right side.

integration of these will produce u 1 and u 2 . method of undetermined coefficients b. This method will work with all linear equations including those with variable coefficients such as d2 y ------. Example B.Differential Equations B.y1 + ------. which when substituted into (B. the natural response is B-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ ------. we must first find the natural response.69) Simultaneous solution of (B.69) will yield the values of du1 dt and du 2 dt .+ dt t y = f t (B.------. The characteristic equation yields the roots s 1 = – 1 and s 2 = – 3 .+ 4 ----. then.12 Find the total solution of dy d2 y ------.+ 3y = 12 2 dt dt (B. Our discussion will be restricted to second order ODEs with constant coefficients. the right side f t cannot be determined by the method of undetermined coefficients. For these ODEs we must use the method of variation of parameters.+ 2 dt dy t ----. method of variation of parameters Solution: With either method.= f t dt dt dt dt (B.67) will yield the total solution. Therefore.70) in terms of the constants k 1 and k 2 by the a.67) (B.66) provided that the general form of the natural response is known.-----.68) and (B.6 Using the Method of Variation of Parameters for the Forced Response In certain non-homogeneous ODEs. The method of variation of parameters replaces the constants k 1 and k 2 by two variables u 1 and u 2 that satisfy the following three relations: y = u1 y1 + u2 y2 du1 du2 -----.y2 = 0 dt dt du1 dy1 du 2 dy 2 ------.68) (B.

Then. du 1 du 2 ------.Using the Method of Variation of Parameters for the Forced Response yN = k1 e + k2 e –t –3 t (B.= 6e –t – 3t – 4t – 4t – 4t dt e – 3e + e – 2e e (B.= ----------------------------.= ----------------------------------------.76) Next.– 3e –3t = 12 dt dt (B.72) b. from (B. Using the method of undetermined coefficients we let y F = k 3 (a constant).e + ------. by substitution into (B.71) and we let the solutions y 1 and y 2 be represented as y1 = e –t and y 2 = e – 3t (B.73) Then by (B.67).69).y 1 + ------. du dy1 du 2 dy 2 ------1 -----.= ----------------.74) Also.75) and from (B. the total solution is y = u1 y1 + u2 y2 or y = u1 e + u2 e –t – 3t (B.77) –e –t – 3e – 3t and Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-21 . we find du1 dt and du 2 dt by Cramer’s rule as follows: 0 e – 3t – 3t – 3t – 3t du 1 t 12 – 3e – 12e – 12e ------.68).e = 0 dt dt (B.– e –t + ------.71) a.= f t dt dt dt dt or du 1 du 2 ------.------.70) we get k 3 = 4 and thus the total solution is y t = yN + yF = k1 e + k2 e –t –3 t +4 (B.y 2 = 0 dt dt or du 1 –t du 2 –3t ------.+ ------. With the method of variation of parameters we start with the natural response found above as (B.

therefore.+ 4y = tan 2t 2 dt 2 (B.13 Find the total solution of d y ------.78) Now.79) 6e + k 1 e + – 2 e + k 2 e – 3t –t – 3t = 6 + k1 e – 2 + k2 e = k1 e + k2 e +4 (B.77) and (B. we will use the method of variation of parameters.82) We let y 1 = cos 2t and y 2 = sin 2t (B. integration of (B.= -------------.Differential Equations e –t –t 0 –t du 2 3t 12e –e 12------.78) and substitution into (B.75) yields u 1 = 6 e dt = 6e + k 1 y = u1 e + u2 e = t –t –t – 3t –t 3t – 3t t t u 2 = – 6 e dt = – 2 e + k 2 3t 3t (B.80) is the same as (B.83) B-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .81) in terms of the constants k 1 and k 2 by any method.72) of part (a).= – 6 e – 4t – 4t dt – 2e – 2e (B.= -------------------------------.80) We observe that the last expression in (B. Solution: This ODE cannot be solved by the method of undetermined coefficients. Check with MATLAB: y=dsolve('D2y+4*Dy+3*y=12') y = (4*exp(t)+C1*exp(-3*t)*exp(t)+C2)/exp(t) Example B. The characteristic equation is s 2 + 4 = 0 from which s = j2 and thus the natural response is yN = k1 e j2t + k2 e – j 2t (B.

87) and (B.88) Now.84) yields 1 sin 2t sin 2t 1 u 1 = – -. du dy1 du 2 dy 2 du 2 du ------1 -----.Using the Method of Variation of Parameters for the Forced Response Then.+ ------.67) the solution is y = u1 y 1 + u 2 y 2 = u1 cos 2t + u 2 sin 2t (B.91) Check with MATLAB: y=dsolve('D2y+4*y=tan(2*t)') y = -1/4*cos(2*t)*log((1+sin(2*t))/cos(2*t))+C1*cos(2*t)+C2*sin(2*t) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-23 .2 cos 2t = tan 2t dt dt dt dt dt dt (B.+ k 2 2 4 sin 2t cos 2t 1 sin 2t cos 2t y = u1 y 1 + u 2 y 2 = -------------------------.------.88) and substitution into (B.– -.y1 + ------. from (B.cos 2t + ------.87) and cos 2t 0 du 2 sin 2t – 2 sin 2t tan 2t------.cos 2t ln sec 2t + tan 2t + k 1 cos 2t – -------------------------.85) and from (B.dt = -----------. we find du1 dt and du 2 dt by Cramer’s rule as follows: sin 2t – -------------2 du1 tan 2t 2 cos 2t = ------------------------------------------.cos 2t ln sec 2t + tan 2t + k 1 cos 2t + k 2 sin 2t 4 2 (B.= -----------------------------------------------------2 2 cos 2t sin 2t 2 cos 2t dt 2 cos 2t + 2 sin 2t – 2 sin 2t 2 cos 2t 0 sin 2t 2 (B.= – sin 2t cos 2t ---------------------.69).– -. integration of (B.+ k 2 sin 2t .= -------------------------------------------------.ln sec 2t + tan 2t + k 1 4 2 cos 2t 4 1 cos 2t u 2 = -.sin 2t = 0 dt dt (B. du 2 du1 -----.68).4 4 4 1 = – -. by (B.84) Also.sin 2t dt = – ------------.= f t = ------1 – 2 sin 2t + ------.89) (B.86) Next.-------------.y 2 = 0 dt dt or du 2 du1 ------.= -----------2 2 dt (B.90) (B.

cos 2t + 1 ------2 dt dt 2 -.t – 7 9 2 dy ------2. d y + 4 ----. d y + 4 ----.+ y = sec t 2 dt Answer: y = k 1 cos t + k 2 sin t + t sin t + cos t ln cos t B-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 Exercises Solve the following ODEs by any method. d y + 2 ----.+ y = cos t Hint: Use cos t = -. ------.Differential Equations B.+ 3y = t – 1 2 dt dt .-------------------------------------Answer: y = k 1 e –t + k 2 te –t + 1 – 3 cos 2t – 4 sin 2t 2 50 2 d y 4. 2 dy ------1.-Answer: y = k 1 e –t + k 2 e –3t + -.+ 3y = 4e –t 2 1 3 dt dt Answer: y = k 1 e –t + k 2 e –3t + 2te –t 2 dy 1 2 2 3.

1) The numbers a ij are the elements of the matrix where the index i indicates the row. we say that the matrix elements a 11 a 22 a 33 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-1 . If m = n . These are denoted with a dagger (†) and may be skipped. and j indicates the column in which each element is positioned. but are included for subject continuity. nately. and reference to more advance topics in matrix theory. Determinants. it is said to be a square matrix of order 5. Thus. a 43 indicates the element positioned in the fourth row and third column. the elements a 11 a 22 a 33 a nn are called the main diagonal elements.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants T his appendix is an introduction to matrices and matrix operations. A matrix of m rows and n columns is said to be of m n order matrix. Cramer’s rule.1 Matrix Definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers such as those shown below. In a square matrix. are located on the main diagonal. Thus. 2 3 7 1 –1 5 1 3 1 –2 1 –5 4 –7 6 or In general form. Altera nn . and Gauss’s elimination method are reviewed. the matrix is said to be a square matrix of order m (or n). a matrix A is denoted as a 11 a 12 a 13 a 21 a 22 a 23 A = a 31 a 32 a 33 am 1 am 2 am 3 a1 n a2 n a3 n a mn (C. Some definitions and examples are not applicable to subsequent material presented in this text. C. if a matrix has five rows and five columns.

3) Example C. B=[2 3 0. C. C-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is.2 Matrix Operations Two matrices A = a ij and B = b ij are equal. where each element of C is the sum (difference) of the corresponding elements of A and B . if they are of the same order m n. C = A B = a ij b ij (C. A = B .2) Two matrices are said to be conformable for addition (subtraction). 0 1 4]. if and only if a ij = b ij i = 1 2 3 m j = 1 2 3 n (C. If A = a ij and B = b ij are conformable for addition (subtraction). These are discussed in matrix theory textbooks. is called a zero matrix. their sum (difference) will be another matrix C with the same order as A and B . † A matrix in which every element is zero.1 Compute A + B and A – B given that A = 1 2 3 and B = 2 3 0 –1 2 5 0 1 4 Solution: A+B = 1+2 0–1 2+3 1+2 3+0 = 3 5 4+5 –1 3 3 9 and A–B = 1–2 0+1 2 – 3 3 – 0 = –1 –1 3 1–2 4–5 1 –1 –1 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. that is. all paragraphs and topics preceded by a dagger ( † ) may be skipped.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants † The sum of the diagonal elements of a square matrix A is called the trace* of A . 1 2 5]. % Define matrices A and B A+B % Add A and B * Henceforth.

and not [k] which is a 1 1 matrix. k 2 A = – 3 + j2 1 –2 = 2 3 – 3 + j2 – 3 + j2 1 2 – 3 + j2 – 3 + j2 –2 3 = – 3 + j2 – 6 + j4 6 – j4 – 9 + j6 Check with MATLAB: k1=5. A=[1 2. k 2 = – 3 + j2 Solution: a. then multiplication of a matrix A by the scalar k is the multiplication of every element of A by k . k1 A = 5 1 –2 = 5 2 3 5 1 5 2 5 –2 3 = 5 – 10 10 15 b. k1*A ans = 5 -10 10 15 % Define scalars k1 and k2 % Define matrix A % Multiply matrix A by constant k1 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-3 . Example C. k 1 = 5 b.Matrix Operations ans = 3 -1 A B ans = -1 1 -1 -1 3 -1 5 3 3 9 % Subtract B from A If k is any scalar (a positive or negative number).2 Multiply the matrix A = 1 –2 2 3 by a. 2 3]. k2=( 3 + 2*j).

4. we multiply each element of a row of A by the corresponding element of a column of B .0000i Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for multiplication A B in that order.0000+ 6. The product A B will then be an m n matrix. the product A B (but not B A ) is conformable for multiplication only if A is an m p matrix and matrix B is an p n matrix. Shows that A and B are conformable for multiplication m A p p B n Indicates the dimension of the product A B For the product B A we have: Here. Example C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants k2*A ans = -3. Thus.0000+ 4. to obtain the product A B .0000+ 2. we add these products.0000i -9. A convenient way to determine if two matrices are conformable for multiplication is to write the dimensions of the two matrices sideby-side as shown below. then.0000i -6. B and A are not conformable for multiplication B p n m A p For matrix multiplication.3 Matrices C and D are defined as 1 C = 2 3 4 and D = – 1 2 Compute the products C D and D C C-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . only when the number of columns of matrix A is equal to the number of rows of matrix B .0000i %Multiply matrix A by constant k2 6. That is.0000. the operation is row by column.

and it will become apparent later in this chapter. In an upper triangular matrix. therefore the product C D is feasible. D=[1. 1 C D = 2 3 4 –1 = 2 = 7 2 1 + 3 –1 + 4 2 The dimensions for D and C are respectively 3 1 1 3 and therefore. the product D C is also feasible.4) is an upper triangular matrix.Special Forms of Matrices Solution: The dimensions of matrices C and D are respectively 1 3 3 1 . not all elements above the diagonal need to be non-zero. and will result in a 1 1 . an equivalent operation exists. is not defined. 2]. However.3 Special Forms of Matrices † A square matrix is said to be upper triangular when all the elements below the diagonal are zero. % Define matrices C and D % Multiply C by D Division of one matrix by another. that is. Multiplication of these will produce a 3 3 matrix as follows: 1 D C = –1 2 3 4 = 2 1 –1 2 2 2 2 1 –1 2 3 3 3 1 –1 2 4 4 4 2 3 4 = –2 –3 –4 4 6 8 Check with MATLAB: C=[2 3 4]. when we discuss the inverse of a matrix. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-5 . C*D ans = 7 D*C ans = 2 -2 4 3 -3 6 4 -4 8 % Multiply D by C 1. C. The matrix A of (C.

The matrix B of (C. when all the elements above the diagonal are zero. if all elements are zero. 3 3 .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants a 11 a 12 a 13 A = 0 a 22 a 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 a mn a1 n a2 n (C. a 11 B = 0 0 0 0 am 1 am 2 am 3 0 0 0 0 a mn a 21 a 22 (C.7) A scalar matrix with k = 1 . † A square matrix is said to be diagonal. a 11 0 C = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a mn = a nn = k where k is a sca- 0 a 22 0 (C. The matrix C of (C. C-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . except those in the diagonal. if a 11 = a 22 = a 33 = lar.5) In a lower triangular matrix. The matrix D of (C.5) is a lower triangular matrix. and 4 4 identity matrices.7) is a scalar matrix with k = 4.6) is a diagonal matrix.6) † A diagonal matrix is called a scalar matrix. 4 D = 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 (C. Shown below are 2 2 . is called an identity matrix I .4) † A square matrix is said to be lower triangular. not all elements below the diagonal need to be non-zero.

For example. 4 7 6] A = 1 -2 4 3 1 -7 1 -5 6 % Define matrix A then. eye(4) ans = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 % Display a 4 by 4 identity matrix Likewise. the eye(size(A)) function. let matrix A be defined as A=[1 3 1. is the matrix that is obtained when the rows and columns of matrix A are interchanged. For example. eye(size(A)) displays ans = 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 † The transpose of a matrix A .Special Forms of Matrices 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 (C. produces an identity matrix whose size is the same as matrix A . denoted as A T . if 1 1 2 3 then A T = 2 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 A= (C.8) The MATLAB eye(n) function displays an n n identity matrix. For example. 2 1 5.9) Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-7 .

is called the conjugate of A . A=[1 2 3. Using MATLAB with the matrix A defined as above.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants In MATLAB we use the apostrophe ( ) symbol to denote and obtain the transpose of a matrix. we get A = [1+2j j. 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 3 –5 6 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 = A 3 –5 6 T (C. that is. An example of a symmetric matrix is shown below. 3 2 3j] A = 1.3.0000.2.0000i % Define and display matrix A 0+ 1.0000i C-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0000+ 2. the transpose of a matrix A is the same as A . and it is denoted as A An example is shown below. computes the conjugate of a matrix A .0000i 3. conj(x). the matrix obtained from A by replacing each element by its conjugate.0000. conj(A).0000i 2. for the above example. Thus. A = 1 + j2 3 j 2 – j3 A = 1 – j2 3 –j 2 + j3 MATLAB has two built-in functions which compute the complex conjugate of a number. computes the complex conjugate of any complex number.0000i % Compute and display the conjugate of A 0.10) † If a matrix A has complex numbers as elements.0000 conj_A=conj(A) conj_A = 1.1. The first. 4 5 6] A = 1 4 A' ans = 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 5 3 6 % Display the transpose of A % Define matrix A † A symmetric matrix A is a matrix such that A T = A . and the second.

matrix A above is skew symmetric.4 Determinants Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix a 11 a 12 a 13 a 21 a 22 a 23 A = a a a 31 32 33 an 1 an 2 an3 a1 n a2 n a3 n a nn (C. 0 2 –3 A = –2 0 –4 3 4 0 A = T 0 –2 2 0 –3 –4 3 4 = –A 0 Therefore. denoted as detA .0000i † A square matrix A such that A T = – A is called skew-symmetric. j A = –1–j –2 1–j 3j j 2 j T A = 1–j j 0 2 –1–j 3j j –2 –j T* A = 1+j j 0 2 –1+j – 3j –j –2 –j = –A 0 Therefore. the determinant of A . For example.Determinants 3. † A square matrix A such that A T = – A is called skew Hermitian. † A square matrix A such that A T = A is called Hermitian.11) then. matrix A above is Hermitian. For example. 1 A = 1+j 2 1–j 3 –j 2 1 T A = 1–j j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 1 T* A = 1–j –j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 –j = A 0 Therefore. C.12) C-9 . For example.0000+ 3.0000 2. matrix A above is skew-Hermitian. is defined as detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 a nn + a 12 a 23 a 34 a n 1 + a 13 a 24 a 35 a n 2 + – a n 1 a 22 a 13 – a n 2 a 23 a 14 – a n 3 a 24 a 15 – Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (C.

detA = a 11 a 22 – a 21 a 12 (C. Let A be a determinant of order 2. that is.13) Then.15) then.14) Example C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants The determinant of a square matrix of order n is referred to as determinant of order n. 3 4]. a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 (C.4 Matrices A and B are defined as A = 1 2 and B = 2 – 1 3 4 2 0 Compute detA and detB . detA is found from C-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 0]. that is. Solution: detA = 1 4 – 3 2 = 4 – 6 = – 2 detB = 2 0 – 2 –1 = 0 – –2 = 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2. % Define matrices A and B % Compute the determinant of A Let A be a matrix of order 3. A = a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 (C. B=[2 det(A) ans = -2 det(B) ans = 2 % Compute the determinant of B 1.

5 Compute detA and detB if matrices A and B are defined as 2 A = 1 2 3 5 0 1 1 0 2 –3 –4 0 –2 0 –5 –6 and B = 1 Solution: 2 detA = 1 2 3 5 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 or detA = 2 0 0 + 3 1 1 + 5 1 1 – 2 0 5 – 1 1 2 – 0 1 3 = 11 – 2 = 9 Likewise. To evaluate higher order determinants.16) above. When this is done properly. a 11 a 12 a 13 a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32 + This method works only with second and third order determinants. and add the products formed by the diagonals from upper left to lower right. we obtain (C. these will be defined shortly. is to write the first two columns to the right of the 3 3 matrix.16) A convenient method to evaluate the determinant of order 3.Determinants detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 + a 12 a 23 a 31 + a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 (C. then subtract the products formed by the diagonals from lower left to upper right as shown on the diagram of the next page. Example C. 2 –3 –4 2 –3 detB = 1 0 – 2 1 – 2 0 –5 –6 2 –6 or detB = 2 0 – 6 + – 3 – 0 0 –4 – –5 –2 0 + –4 1 –5 –2 2 – –6 1 –3 = 20 – 38 = – 18 Check with MATLAB: Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-11 . we must first compute the cofactors.

and jth column. (C. M 13 and the cofactors 11 . M 12 . The signed minor – 1 Example C.det(B) % Define matrix B and compute detB % Define matrix A and compute detA C. 1 0 1. Solution: C-12 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the remaining n – 1 square matrix is called the minor of A . a 11 a 12 a 13 a 21 a 22 a 23 A = a a a 31 32 33 an 1 an 2 an 3 a1 n a2 n a3 n a nn (C.6 Matrix A is defined as a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 i+j M ij is called the cofactor of a ij and it is denoted as ij .18) Compute the minors M 11 . 12 and 13 .17) If we remove the elements of its ith row. 0 5 6].5 Minors and Cofactors Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix of order n as shown below. det(A) ans = 9 B=[2 ans = -18 3 4.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants A=[2 3 5. 1 0 2. 2 1 0]. and it is denoted as M ij .

19) Solution: 11 = –1 1+1 – 4 2 = 20 2 –6 2 –4 = 0 –1 2 1 –3 = –9 –1 –6 2 –3 = –8 –4 2 1 2 = –8 2 –4 12 = –1 1+2 2 2 = 10 –1 –6 2 –3 = 6 2 –6 1 2 = –4 –1 2 1 –3 = –8 2 2 (C.24) It is useful to remember that the signs of the cofactors follow the pattern Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-13 .22) 31 = –1 3+1 32 = –1 3+2 (C.Minors and Cofactors M 11 = a 22 a 23 a 32 a 33 M 12 = a 21 a 23 a 31 a 33 M 11 = a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 and 11 = –1 1+1 M 11 = M 11 12 = –1 1+2 M 12 = – M 12 13 = M 13 = – 1 1+3 M 13 The remaining minors M 21 M 22 21 22 M 23 23 31 M 31 32 M 32 and 33 M 33 and cofactors are defined similarly.21) 22 = –1 2+2 23 = –1 2+3 (C.20) 13 = –1 1+3 21 = –1 2+1 (C.7 Compute the cofactors of matrix A defined as A = 1 2 –3 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. Example C.23) 33 = –1 3+3 (C.

Solution: detA = 1 – 4 2 – 2 2 2 – 3 2 – 4 = 1 2 –6 –1 –6 –1 2 20 – 2 – 10 – 3 0 = 40 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 ans = 40 3. C-14 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the cofactors on the diagonals have the same sign as their minors. the value of the determinant of A is the sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of any row or any column by its cofactor.25) Compute the determinant of A using the elements of the first row. Example C. a fourth-order determinant can first be expressed as the sum of the products of the elements of its first row by its cofactor as shown below.8 Matrix A is defined as A = 1 2 –3 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. Let A be a square matrix of any size.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants + + + + + + + + + + + + + that is. Thus. 2 4 2.det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA We must use the above procedure to find the determinant of a matrix A of order 4 or higher. 1 2 6].

delta = det(A) delta = -33 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-15 . d = – 36 and thus detA = a + b + c + d = 6 – 3 + 0 – 36 = – 33 We can verify our answer with MATLAB as follows: A=[ 2 1 0 3.26) a 12 a 13 a 14 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 32 a 33 a 34 +a 31 a 22 a 23 a 24 – a 41 a 22 a 23 a 24 Determinants of order five or higher can be evaluated similarly. c = 0 . using the procedure of Example C. b = – 3 .27) Solution: Using the above procedure. 3 0 0 1].5 or Example C.8. we find a = 6 . 4 0 3 2. we will multiply each element of the first column by its cofactor.Minors and Cofactors a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 41 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 = a 11 a 32 a 33 a 34 – a 21 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 42 a 43 a 44 (C.9 Compute the value of the determinant of the matrix A defined as 2 –1 0 A = –1 1 0 4 0 3 –3 0 0 –3 –1 –2 1 (C. Example C. 1 1 0 1. 1 0 –1 A=2 0 3 – 2 0 0 1 a – –1 –1 0 –3 0 3 –2 0 0 1 b –1 0 –3 +4 1 0 – 1 0 0 1 c – –3 –1 0 –3 1 0 –1 0 3 –2 d Next. Then.

An example of this is the determinant of the cofactor c above. This follows from Property 2 with m = 1 . 3 6 1. For example. detA = 2 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 6 = 12 + 4 + 6 – 6 – 4 – 12 = 0 2 (C.28) then. the determinant is zero.30) and let a 11 a 12 a 13 = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 D1 = A a 11 a 13 B a 21 a 23 C a 31 a 33 D2 = a 11 A a 13 a 21 B a 23 a 31 C a 33 D3 = a 11 a 12 A a 21 a 22 B a 31 a 32 C C-16 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1 2 1]. if 2 A = 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 (C.29) Here. detA is zero because the second column in A is 2 times the first column. Property 2: If all the elements of one row or column are m times the corresponding elements of another row or column. C.det(A) ans = 0 Property 3: If two rows or two columns of a matrix are identical. the determinant is zero.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Some useful properties of determinants are given below. the determinant is zero. Check with MATLAB: A=[2 4 1.6 Cramer’s Rule Let us consider the systems of the three equations below a 11 x + a 12 y + a 13 z = A a 21 x + a 22 y + a 23 z = B a 31 x + a 32 y + a 33 z = C (C. Property 1: If all elements of one row or one column are zero.

10 Use Cramer’s rule to find v 1 . and transferring known values to the right side.30) is a homogeneous set of equations.32) and verify your answers with MATLAB.Cramer’s Rule Cramer’s rule states that the unknowns x. = 2 –1 3 –4 –3 –2 3 1 –1 5 –1 3 8 –3 –2 4 1 –1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = 6 + 6 – 12 + 27 + 4 + 4 = 35 3 1 5 –1 8 – 3 = 15 + 8 + 24 + 36 + 10 – 8 = 85 4 1 D1 = Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-17 . and z can be found from the relations D1 x = ----D2 y = ----D3 z = ----- (C. if A = B = C = 0 .31) provided that the determinant (delta) is not zero. D 1 D 2 and D 3 are all zero as we found in Property 1 above. B . for the coefficients of the desired unknown. We observe that the numerators of (C. x = y = z = 0 also. Solution: Rearranging the unknowns v. Cramer’s rule applies to systems of two or more equations. by Cramer’s rule. Then. and v 3 if 2v 1 – 5 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 0 – 2v 3 – 3v 2 – 4v 1 = 8 v 2 + 3v 1 – 4 – v 3 = 0 (C.33) Now. that is. and C . If (C. we get 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C.31) are determinants that are formed from by the substitution of the known values A . v 2 . then. y. Example C.

4 3 2. 4 1 -1]. format rat % Express answers in ratio form B=[2 1 3. % Compute the value of v2 v3=detd3/delta. -4 -3 8. % Compute he determinant of D3 v1=detd1/delta.= 85 = 17 7 35 D2 x 2 = ----. % The elements of D1 detd1=det(d1). 3 4 -1]. % The elements of the determinant D of matrix B delta=det(B).31) we get D1 --------x 1 = ----.34) C-18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . % Compute the determinant of D1 d2=[2 5 3. % The elements of D3 detd3=det(d3). 3 1 1].34) We will verify with MATLAB as follows.disp(v3). 8 -3 -2.disp(v2).Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 –4 3 5 3 8 –2 4 –1 5 8 4 2 –4 3 5 8 = – 16 – 30 – 48 – 72 + 16 – 20 = – 170 4 D2 = D3 = 2 –1 –4 –3 3 1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = – 24 – 24 – 20 + 45 – 16 – 16 = – 55 3 1 Then. using (C. % Display the value of v3 v1= 17/7 v2= -34/7 v3= -11/7 These are the same values as in (C. % The following code will compute and display the values of v1.= – 170 = – 34 -----------7 35 D3 x 3 = ----. % Display the value of v2 disp('v3='). -4 8 -2. % Compute the value of v1 v2=detd2/delta. % Compute the determinant D of matrix B d1=[5 -1 3.= – 55 = – 11 --------7 35 (C. v2 and v3. % The elements of D2 detd2=det(d2). % Compute the determinant of D2 d3=[2 -1 5. % Display the value of v1 disp('v2=').disp(v1). 3 1 4]. % Compute the value of v3 % disp('v1=').

and v 3 of the system of equations 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. 5v 1 + 2v 3 = 9 (C. by substitution to another equation with two unknowns.36) yields 11 7v 3 = – 11 or v 3 = – ----7 (C. With this method.37) Subtraction of (C.11 Use the Gaussian elimination method to find v 1 .38) into (C. we can find the last unknown v 2 from any of the three equations of (C. v 2 . This procedure is repeated until all unknowns are found.38) Now.37) from (C. we obtain the following equation. the objective is to eliminate one unknown at a time. Example C. This can be done by multiplying the terms of any of the equations of the system by a number such that we can add (or subtract) this equation to another equation in the system so that one of the unknowns will be eliminated.35) by 3.35) with the third to eliminate the unknown v2 and we obtain the following equation.7 Gaussian Elimination Method We can find the unknowns in a system of two or more equations also by the Gaussian elimination method.36) we get 5v 1 + 2 17 11 – ----.35).37).35) Solution: As a first step.36) Next.= 9 or v 1 = ----7 7 (C. Then. Subsequently. Then. we can find the unknown v 1 from either (C. substitution of the two values found can be made into an equation with three unknowns from which we can find the value of the third unknown. we add the first equation of (C.39) Finally. By substitution into the first equation we get Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-19 . This method is best illustrated with the following example which consists of the same equations as the previous example. we can find the second unknown. and we add it with the second to eliminate v 2 .36) or (C. By substitution of (C. 5v 1 – 5v 3 = 20 (C. we multiply the third equation of (C.Gaussian Elimination Method C.

8 The Adjoint of a Matrix Let us assume that A is an n square matrix and ij is the cofactor of a ij .= – ----7 7 7 7 (C.– ----.41) 1n 2n 3n nn We observe that the cofactors of the elements of the ith row (column) of A are the elements of the ith column (row) of adjA .42) Solution: 3 4 adjA = – 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 3 4 – 2 4 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 – 2 3 3 4 = –7 6 –1 1 0 –1 1 –2 1 – 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 C-20 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . C. is defined as the n square matrix below.12 Compute adjA if Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C. denoted as adjA . 11 12 21 22 23 31 32 33 n1 n2 n3 adjA = 13 (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 34 33 35 34 v 2 = 2v 1 + 3v 3 – 5 = ----. The Gaussian elimination method works well if the coefficients of the unknowns are small integers. it becomes impractical if the coefficients are large or fractional numbers.40) These are the same values as those we found in Example C. Example C. Then the adjoint of A .– ----.10. However.11. as in Example C.

9 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices An n square matrix A is called singular if detA = 0 .10 The Inverse of a Matrix If A and B are n square matrices such that AB = BA = I .43) Determine whether this matrix is singular or non-singular.Singular and Non-Singular Matrices C. Solution: detA = 1 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 1 2 2 3 = 21 + 24 + 30 – 27 – 20 – 28 = 0 3 5 Therefore.45) Compute its inverse. that is.14 Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C. find A –1 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-21 . A is called non-singular. C. if detA 0 . Example C. where I is the identity matrix. A is called the inverse of B .adjA detA (C.44) Example C. denoted as B = A –1 . A = B –1 If a matrix A is non-singular. and likewise. matrix A is singular.13 Matrix A is defined as 1 A = 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 (C. B is called the inverse of A . we can compute its inverse A –1 from the relation A –1 1 = ----------. that is.

1 4 3].5 1 – 0.1 0 – 1 = – 0.5 0 0. invA=inv(A) A = 1 1 1 invA = 3.5000 % Define matrix A and compute its inverse Multiplication of a matrix A by its inverse A –1 produces the identity matrix I .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Solution: Here. –7 6 –1 adjA = 1 0 – 1 1 –2 1 Then.5000 -0. detA = 9 + 8 + 12 – 9 – 16 – 6 = – 2 .12.47) Example C.5000 -0.5 –2 detA 1 –2 1 – 0. AA –1 = I or A A = I –1 (C. and since this is a non-zero value.0000 0 1. that is.15 Prove the validity of (C.5 (C.44). 1 3 4.47) for the Matrix A defined as A = 4 2 3 2 2 –3 –2 4 Proof: detA = 8 – 6 = 2 and adjA = C-22 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5000 2 3 4 3 4 3 -3. –1 A –7 6 –1 3.46) Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. it is possible to compute the inverse of A using (C.5000 -0.adjA = ----.0000 0.5 – 3 0. From Example C.5000 0.5 1 1 = ----------.

the given set of equations is AX = B where Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-23 .11 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Consider the relation AX = B (C.49) or X=A B –1 (C. and X is a matrix (a column vector) whose elements are the unknowns.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Then. Example C.48) by A –1 yields: A AX = A B = IX = A B –1 –1 –1 (C. A –1 1 1 1 –3 2 = ----------.48) where A and B are matrices whose elements are known.adjA = -.16 For the system of the equations 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 = 6 3x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3 = 8 (C.50) Therefore. Solution: In matrix form. Multiplication of both sides of (C.50) to solve any set of simultaneous equations that have solutions.2 – 3 = 2 –2 4 detA –1 2 3 1 –3 2 = 4 – 3 2 –1 2 2–2 –6+6 = 1 –3+4 0 and AA –1 = 4 2 0 = I 1 C. We will refer to this method as the inverse matrix method of solution of simultaneous equations. We assume that A and X are conformable for multiplication. we can use (C.51) compute the unknowns x 1 x 2 and x 3 using the inverse matrix method.

3 1 2]. and then multiply A –1 by B. 1 2 3.53) we obtain the solution as follows.29 = 29 18 = 1. A=[2 3 1.7 1 – 5 detA 18 –5 7 1 and by (C. where matrix X is the same size as matrix B. B=[9 6 8]'. x1 X = x2 x3 1 –5 7 9 35 35 18 1. we could use the MATLAB’s inv(A) function.53) or x1 x2 x3 –1 2 = 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 9 6 8 (C.55) To verify our results. X=A \ B C-24 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 1 – 5 6 = ----.61 = 18 18 –5 7 1 8 5 5 18 0. X = A B –1 (C.adjA = ----. A –1 1 –5 7 1 1 = ----------. However.52) Then. For this example.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 A= 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 x1 X = x2 x3 9 B= 6 8 (C. and the adjoint adjA detA = 18 and adjA = 1 –5 7 7 1 –5 –5 7 1 Therefore. this is MATLAB’s solution of A –1 B for the matrix equation A X = B . we find the determinant detA .94 11----.28 (C. it is easier to use the matrix left division operation X = A \ B .54) Next.

6111 0. For this example.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices X = 1. I 2 .2778 Example C. where 10 – 9 0 R = – 9 20 – 9 0 – 9 15 100 V= 0 0 I1 and I = I 2 I3 The next step is to find R – 1 .57) Therefore. This is found from the relation R –1 1 = ----------. the matrix equation is RI = V or I = R –1 V .adjR detR (C.9444 1.17 For the electric circuit of Figure C. we find the determinant and the adjoint of R . Circuit for Example C.56) Use the inverse matrix method to compute the values of the currents I 1 .1. we find that Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-25 . and I 3 Solution: For this example. 1 V = 100 v 2 2 + I1 9 9 4 I2 I3 Figure C.17 the loop equations are 10I 1 – 9I 2 = 100 0 0 – 9I 1 + 20I 2 – 9I 3 = – 9I 2 + 15I 3 = (C.1.

I=R\V I = 22.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 219 135 81 adjR = 135 150 90 81 90 119 detR = 975 (C.2.8462 8. The procedure is as follows: 1.2)=-9.1)=-9.58) Then. the above code could also have been written as: R(1. V=[100 0 0]'.17. For instance. C-26 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . R(1. 9 20 9. R(2. Then.2)=-9. We start with a blank spreadsheet and in a block of cells. 0 9 15].4615 13. to obtain the values of the three currents in Example C. Accordingly.8462 8.3)=-9.3) since it is zero. R –1 219 135 81 1 1 = ----------.3077 Spreadsheets also have the capability of solving simultaneous equations using the inverse matrix method.adjR = -------. we enter the elements of matrix R as shown in Figure C. we can use Microsoft Excel’s MINVERSE (Matrix Inversion) and MMULT (Matrix Multiplication) functions.85 0 975 975 81 90 119 0 81 8. I=R\V We can also use subscripts to address the individual elements of the matrix.135 = 13. % No need to make entry for A(1. say B3:D5. we enter the elements of matrix V in G3:G5. V=[100 0 0]'.135 150 90 = -------. R(3.31 I3 I1 Check with MATLAB: R=[10 I = 22. R(3.135 150 90 975 detR 81 90 119 and 219 135 81 100 219 22. R(2.3)=15.3077 9 0.46 1 100 I = I 2 = -------.2)=20.4615 13. R(2.1)=10.

462 7 -1 R = 0. We choose B7:D9 for the elements of this inverted matrix. we compute and display the inverse of R.846 9 0. Circuit for Example C. The values of I then appear in G7:G9. R –1 .122 8. that is.18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-27 .225 0. Now. Solution of Example C.3.092 8 I= 13. and with the cell marker positioned in G7.138 0. We format this block for number display with three decimal places. we type the formula =MMULT(B7:D9.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices 2.138 0. we highlight them.2. we choose the block of cells G7:G9 for the values of the current I. we type the formula =MININVERSE(B3:D5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously. With this range highlighted and making sure that the cell marker is in B7. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 10 -9 0 100 3 R= -9 20 -9 V= 0 4 0 -9 15 0 5 6 0.092 0. We observe that R – 1 appears in these cells.G3:G5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously.083 0.083 22.3077 10 Figure C. Next.154 0.18 85 170 + V1 VS j200 R1 C IX j100 V2 50 R3 = 100 L R2 Figure C.18 For the phasor circuit of Figure C.17 with a spreadsheet Example C. As before. 3.

and find V fprintf('\n'). and I = Current Solution: The Y matrix elements are the coefficients of V 1 and V 2 . where Y = Admit tan ce .0218 – j0.0218 – j0.60) and V 2 – 170 0 V2 – V1 V2 – 0 ------------------------------. disp(V(2)).01 0.005 – 0.03 + j0.62) in matrix form as 0.7 I (C. Y=[0.61) Compute.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants the current I X can be found from the relation V1 – V2 I X = ----------------R3 (C.03+0.01V 2 = 2 – 0. The code is shown below.01 0.59) and the voltages V1 and V2 can be computed from the nodal equations V 1 – 170 0 V1 – V2 V1 – 0 ------------------------------. 0. V = Voltage . disp('V2 = '). I.% Define Y. and to do all other computations. % Display values of V1 and V2 V1 = C-28 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .62) Next.63) where the matrices Y .= 0 – j100 100 50 (C.01. I=[2.01 V 1 + 0. we get 0. we write (C.01 V 2 = j1. % Insert a line disp('V1 = ').005 V 1 – 0.60) and (C. and I are as indicated. V . collecting.+ ----------------. and then writing the above relations in matrix form as YV = I .01j].= 0 85 100 j200 (C.0218 0. 1.01 – 0.005j 0.7 (C. Simplifying and rearranging the nodal equations of (C.+ -------------.+ ----------------.+ -------------. V=Y\I. disp(V(1)).61).7j]. and express the current I x in both rectangular and polar forms by first simplifying like terms. We will use MATLAB to compute the voltages V 1 and V 2 .03 + j0.01 Y V1 V2 V = 2 j1.

we find I X from R3=100.0490e+002 + 4.5149.0.5326 % Compute angle theta in degrees % Compute the magnitude of IX Therefore.5183 thetaIX=angle(IX)*180/pi thetaIX = -6. in polar form I X = 0.0590i % Compute the value of IX This is the rectangular form of I X . For the polar form we use magIX=abs(IX) magIX = 0. and thus we cannot use them to compute matrices that include complex numbers in their elements as in Example C.4162 + 55.9448e+001i V2 = 53.518 – 6.3439i Next.18 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-29 .Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices 1. IX=(V(1) V(2))/R3 IX = 0.53 Spreadsheets have limited capabilities with complex numbers.

Perform the following computations. A C f. a. 5. B D g. a. the matrices A . 1 3 4 a. B A b. Verify your answers with MATLAB. C A c. C . B – D d. B . A – B b.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants C. D A d. det A C c. C D · h. det A B b. – 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 3x 1 + 4x 2 – 5x 3 = 0 b. and D are defined as: 1 –1 –4 A = 5 7 –2 3 –5 6 5 9 –3 B = –2 8 2 7 –4 6 4 6 C= – 3 8 5 –2 D = 1 –2 3 –3 6 –4 1. Verify your answers with MATLAB. C + D h. if possible. if possible.12 Exercises For Problems 1 through 3 below. Verify your answers with MATLAB. x 1 – 2x 2 + x 3 = – 4 – x 1 + 2x 2 – 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 14 x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 – x 4 = 9 3x 1 – 3 x 2 + 2x 3 + 4x 4 = 19 4x 1 + 2x 2 + 5x 3 + x 4 = 27 a. detD 4. Verify your answers with MATLAB. B + D g. a. Solve the following systems of equations using Cramer’s rule. detA e. Perform the following computations. A – C c. Solve the following systems of equations using the inverse matrix method. A B e. Repeat Exercise 4 using the Gaussian elimination method. A + C f. detB f. Perform the following computations. A + B e. D C 3. C – D 2. if possible. 6. Verify your answers with MATLAB. 3 1 – 2 2 3 5 x1 x2 x3 –3 = –2 0 2 4 3 b. 2 – 4 1 –1 3 –4 2 –2 2 –2 3 2 1 x1 x2 x3 x4 1 = 10 – 14 7 C-30 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . detC d.

1. The Excel Spreadsheet Workspace Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications D-1 . It is used in many scientific and engineering applications including frequency response illustrations and Bode Plots. Semilog. Menu bar ChartWizard Chart toolbar (hidden) Figure D.1 The Excel Spreadsheet Window Figure D. paper is graph paper having one logarithmic and one linear scale. short for semilogarithmic.1 shows the Excel spreadsheet workspace and identifies the different parts of the Excel window when we first start Excel.Appendix D Constructing Semilog Plots with Microsoft Excel T his appendix contains instructions for constructing semilog plots with the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. D.

Start with a blank spreadsheet as shown in Figure D. 4. D-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2. Click on the X-Y (Scatter) Chart type under the Standard Types tab on the ChartWizard menu. 3. We can now use the Chart Objects Edit Box and Format Chart Area tools to edit our chart. Next. Series tab. as shown by the visible handles around the selected chart. Click on Next. The Chart sub-type shows five different sub-types. 2.2 shows that whenever a chart is selected. Add. Click on the upper right (the one showing two continuous curves without square points.2 Instructions for Constructing Semilog Plots 1. The Excel Spreadsheet with Chart selected D.1.) 5.Constructing Semilog Plots with Microsoft Excel Figure D. the Chart drop menu appears on the Menu bar and that the Chart toolbar now is visible. Click on ChartWizard. Menu bar ChartWizard Chart drop menu Handles Chart Objects Edit Box Format Chart Area Figure D.

you may bring the mouse near the lower right handle and stretch the plot diagonally. scroll down. The Area section on the Patterns tab shows several squares with different colors. You may wish to display the x-axis values in exponential (scientific) format. fifth row. 10. click anywhere near the x-axis (zero point). and click on OK to return to the plot area. Repeat with the right center handle to stretch the plot to the right. and click on OK to return to the plot. then click on the Format Plot Area (shown as Format Chart Area tool in Figure D. and press the Delete key on the keyboard to delete it. Bring the mouse close to the lower center handle until a bidirectional arrow appears and stretch downwards. 11. Click on the Format Chart Area tool which now displays Format Axis. make sure that the Logarithmic scale is not checked.2). Click on the Format Chart Area tool which now displays Format Axis. the handles (black squares) around the plot are visible. Click on Gridlines tab and click on all square boxes under Value X-axis and Value Y-axis to place check marks on Major and Minor gridlines. Click anywhere near the x-axis (lowest horizontal line on the plot) and observe that the Chart Objects Edit Box now displays Value (X) axis. and click on OK to return to the Chart display. The plot area normally appears in gray color. Click on the white square. Click on Logarithmic scale to place a check mark. 9. Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications D-3 . Alternately. make sure that the chart is selected (the handles are visible). 14. and observe that the Chart Objects Edit Box now displays Value (X) axis. 13. Point the mouse on the Chart Objects Edit Box tool (refer to Figure D. right-most column. This is done by clicking anywhere in the chart area. click on the Number tab and under Category click on Scientific with zero decimal places. To move them below the plot. click on the Plot Area. 8. 7. click on the Patterns tab. Check on OK to return to the plot. click on the Scale tab and make the following entries: Minimum: 1 Maximum: 100000 Major Unit: 10 Minor Unit: 10 Make sure that the squares to the left of these values are not checked. Click anywhere near the y-axis (left-most vertical line on the plot) and observe that the Chart Objects Edit Box now displays Value (Y) axis. click on Tick mark labels (lower right section). To change it to white.2). Click on Next. that is. 12. To do that. Click on the Format Chart Area tool which now displays Format Axis.Instructions for Constructing Semilog Plots 6. first make sure that the chart is selected. Also. Finish. You will observe that the x-axis values appear at the middle of the plot. click on the Series 1 box to select it. click on the Scale tab and make the following entries: Minimum: 80 Maximum: 80 Major Unit: 20 Minor Unit: 20 Make sure that the squares to the left of these values are not checked. You will observe that the Plot Area has a white background. To expand the plot so that it will look more useful and presentable. click on Format Chart Area tool.

and on the Titles tab enter the Title and the x.E+04 1. with the chart selected. 16. 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 1.E+01 1. If you wish to enter title and labels for the x. click on chart Options. your semilog plot should look like the one below.and y-axes.E+00 1.and yaxis labels.E+05 D-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .E+02 1. With the values used for this example.E+03 1. Remember that the Chart drop menu on the Menu bar and the Chart toolbar are hidden when the chart is deselected.Constructing Semilog Plots with Microsoft Excel 15. click on Chart (on the Menu bar).

Rm Lm Cm km R km L C ----km (E. we must increase the impedance of each device of the network by the same factor.Appendix E Scaling T his appendix discusses magnitude and frequency scaling procedures that allow us to transform circuits that contain passive devices with unrealistic values to equivalent circuits with realistic values. E.1 Magnitude Scaling Magnitude scaling is the process by which the impedance of a two terminal network is changed by a factor k m which is a real positive number greater or smaller than unity. If we increase the input impedance by a factor k m . if a network consists of R .2) and the t -domain to s -domain transformations R L C R sL 1 ----sC (E.2 Frequency Scaling Frequency scaling is the process in which we change the values of the network devices so that at the new frequency the impedance of each device has the same value as at the original frequency. the magnitude scaling process entails the following transformations where the subscript m denotes magnitude scaling.1) These transformations are consistent with the time-domain to frequency domain transformations R L C R j L 1 --------j C (E. Thus. and C devices and we wish to scale this network by this factor. The freCircuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications E-1 . L .3) E.

Similarly.L kf 1--------.5 L Figure E. the complex impedance of any inductor is sL .5) For the network of Figure E. The resistance value is independent of the frequency. we must replace the inductor value by another which is equal to L k f .1 compute C 0. E-2 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the maximum impedance Z max . R mf L mf C mf Example E.Appendix E Scaling quency scaling factor is denoted as k f . For frequency scaling then.5 H 2F Z R 2. However. the bandwidth BW. a capacitor with value C must be replaced with another having a capacitance value equal to C k f . the quality factor Q 0P .1. This factor is also a real positive number and can be greater or smaller than unity. Rf Lf Cf R L --kf C --kf (E. c. Network for Example E. b. d. the following transformations are necessary where the subscript f denotes magnitude scaling.C km kf (E.1 km R km ----.1 a. and in order to maintain the same impedance at a frequency k f times as great.4) A circuit can be scaled simultaneously in both magnitude and frequency using the scales values below where the subscript mf denotes simultaneous magnitude and frequency scaling. the resonant frequency 0.

005: 5.= -. magY=abs(Y). b..= G 0 CR = 1 2 2. G=1/R.*L)).5. L=0.Frequency Scaling e. The quality factor at parallel resonance is 0C Q 0P = ---------. R=2./magY. The impedance is maximum at parallel resonance.magZ). Scale this circuit so that the impedance will have a maximum value of 5 K quency of 5 10 rad s Solution: a.5 c. f. is shown in Figure E.= 0.5..2 Q 0P 5 e. Z max = 2. C=2. The magnitude of the input impedance versus radian frequency generated with the MATLAB code below. The resonant frequency of the given circuit is 0 6 at a resonant fre- 1 = ----------.01: 0. and using MATLAB sketch it as a function of frequency. magZ=1.*C 1.5 = 5 d. The bandwidth of this circuit is 1 0 BW = -------. grid Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications E-3 . Therefore.= 1 rad s LC and thus the circuit is parallel resonant. plot(w.*(w.2 and was w=0../(w. Y=G+j. the magnitude of the input impedance Z .

1 f.4. we get Rm 5000 k m = -----.2 scaled by the factor k m = 2000 The final step is to scale the above circuit to 5 10 rad s . we get: Rf = R = 5 k L f = L k f = 1000 5 10 6 6 = 200 H E-4 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 = 1000 H and –3 C 2 C m = ----. The network of Figure E.2. and the plot is shown in Figure E.5 Then. the network constants are as shown in Figure E. Using (E.4).3.Appendix E Scaling Figure E. Plot for Example E.3. Using (E.= ----------.= 2000 R 2.1). C 10 3 H 10 -3 F Z R 5K L Figure E. L m = k m L = 2000 0.= ----------.= 10 F km 2000 After being scaled in magnitude by the factor k m = 2000 .

The network of Figure E.5 and E./magY. R=5000. C=200.*10. The impedance is maximum at parallel resonance. in final form.6 respectively./(w. Z R 5K L C 200 H 200 pF Figure E.Frequency Scaling Figure E.^2+(w.2 after being scaled by the factor k m = 2000 C f = C k f = 10 –3 5 10 = 200 pF 6 The network constants and its response.2 10 0.= ---------------------------------------------------------. Plot for the network of Figure E. are as shown in Figures E.*C 1..2 10 10 rad s 6 and thus the circuit is parallel resonant at this frequency..^( 6). L=200.*10. G=1/R. magZ=1.*L)).magZ).= 5 –6 –3 –9 LC 0. magY=sqrt(G.6 was generated with the following MATLAB code: w=1: 10^3: 10^7. . Therefore. grid Check: The resonant frequency of the scaled circuit is 0 1 1 1 = ----------.^2).^( 12).2 scaled to its final form The plot of Figure E.5. Z max = 5 K Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications E-5 . plot(w.4.2 10 0.= ----------------------.

5).= G 0 CR = 5 10 6 2 10 – 10 5 10 = 5 3 and the bandwidth is 6 5 10 0 BW = -------.L kf km ----. that is.5 = 200 H R mf = k m R = 2000 km 2000 L mf = ----.L = ---------------6 kf 5 10 1 1 C mf = --------. E-6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 10 5 Q 0P 6 The values of the circuit devices could have been obtained also by direct application of (E.= ---------------.1 scaled to its final form The quality factor at parallel resonance is 0C Q 0P = ---------.5 = 5 K 0.6.C kf 2. Plot for Example E.Appendix E Scaling Figure E.C = ---------------------------------------3 6 km kf 2 10 5 10 2 = 200 pf and these values are the same as obtained before. R mf L mf C mf km R km ----.

and capacitance C = 1 F . the scaled values for the resistance and inductance are R m = k m R = 159 1 = 159 and km 159 L mf = ----. the frequency scaling factor must be 3142 k f = ----------.= ------------------------------------. Use scaling to compute the new values of R and L which will result in a circuit with the same quality factor Q OS .L = ----------3142 kf 1 = 50. Solution: The resonant frequency of the circuit before scaling is 0 1 = ----------. we use (E. and we want the resonant frequency of the scaled circuit to be 500 Hz or 2 Therefore. we must compute the magnitude scale factor.Frequency Scaling Example E.6 mH Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications E-7 .= 159 –6 k f C mf 3142 2 10 Then. 1 C mf = --------.= 3142 1 Now.C km kf or C 1 k m = -----------. and since we want the capacitor value to be 2 F .= 1 rad s LC 500 = 3142 rad s . that is.5).2 A series RLC circuit has resistance R = 1 . resonant frequency at 500 Hz and the new value of the capacitor to be 2 F . inductance L = 1 H .

in frequency by a factor of 5 c. L = 0. R = 10 and L = 1 H and C = 5 F c. Q 0s = 20 and C = 50 F . A series resonant circuit has a bandwidth of 100 rad s .3 F . in magnitude by a factor of 5 b. Compute the new resonant frequency and inductance if the circuit is scaled a.3 Exercises 1. R = 10 b.Appendix E Scaling E. L = 1 H and C = 5 F E-8 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . in both magnitude and frequency by factors of 5 2. Compute k m and k f if the original circuit had the following values before scaling. a.1 H . and C = 0. A scaled parallel resonant circuit consists of R = 4 K .

and from (1) k f = 1291 10 = 12910 6 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications E-9 . It is given that BW = 0 Q OS = 100 and Q OS = 20 .Solutions to the Exercises E. 10 –6 5 = 1 mH . C NEW = C OLD k f = 50 10 –6 –3 5 = 10 F and 2 0 NEW = 1 L NEW C NEW = 1 10 10 –6 = 10 or 8 0 NEW = 10000 r s c. Also from (E. or k m = 1291 .3 (2) 6 Substitution of (1) into (2) yields 10k m k m = 5 10 0. Also. 10 –6 L NEW = k m L OLD = 5 5 mH = 25 mH . a. L OLD = 1 = 1 4 50 10 –6 = 5 mH .1).5).1 = 10 and thus k f = 10k m (1) Also from (E. Then. k m = R NEW R OLD = 4000 10 = 400 and from (E. From (a) k m = 400 and from (E. Also. kf = 1 km C OLD C NEW = 1 400 5 0. from (E.3 10 –6 = 41677 c. C NEW = C OLD k m = 50 25 10 –3 5 = 10 F and 2 0 NEW = 1 L NEW C NEW = 1 –6 10 10 –6 = 10 8 25 or 0 NEW = 2000 r s b. with k f = 5 .3 .5) k f k m = L OLD L NEW = 1 0.3 10 –6 = 5 10 2 6 0. a. 0 = BW Q OS = 100 2 0C 20 = 2000 rad s 10 6 Since 2 0 = 1 LC .5) L NEW = k m k f C NEW = 1 2 0 NEW L OLD = 5 5 C OLD = 50 5 5 mH = 5 mH .5). and with k m = 5 . k m = 5 10 3 . From (E. Then.5) k f = L OLD L NEW k m = 1 0.5) F 10 5 –3 km kf 5 = 2 2 10 –6 F and = 10 or 8 0 NEW = 1 L NEW C NEW = 1 = 10000 r s 2. then. It is given that C OLD = 50 10 L NEW = L OLD k f = 5 10 –3 and from (a) L OLD = 5 mH . From (E.1 400 = 4000 b. k m k f = C OLD C NEW = 5 0. L OLD = 5 mH and C OLD = 50 10 .4 Solutions to the Exercises 1.

Appendix E Scaling NOTES E-10 Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

1-15. 7-14 data points in MATLAB A-15 dB . 2-7 response A-13 scaling .see scaling selectivity 2-5 frequency shifting property 4-3 full rectification waveform 4-36 function file in MATLAB A-26 fzero in MATLAB A-28 G g parameters 9-29 gamma function 4-15 Gaussian elimination method C-19 generalized factorial function 4-15 geometric mean 2-14 grid in MATLAB A-13 gtext in MATLAB A-14 H h parameters 9-24 half-power bandwidth -see bandwidth . function of 4-2 exponentiation in MATLAB dot exponentiation operator A-22 eye(n) in MATLAB C-7 F factor(s) in MATLAB 5-4 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction 8-2 feedback negative 7-4 positive 7-4 figure window in MATLAB A-14 filter low-pass multiple feed back 1-30 final value theorem 4-10 flux linkage 8-2 fmax in MATLAB A-28 fmin in MATLAB A-28 forced response B-7 format in MATLAB A-31 fplot in MATLAB A-28 frequency corner 7-9 cutoff 7-3 half-power 2-13 natural damped 1-3. 7-14 resonant 1-3.see frequency Cramer’s rule C-16 critically damped .w) in MATLAB 7-21 box in MATLAB A-13 C clc in MATLAB A-2 clear in MATLAB A-2 collect(s) in MATLAB 5-12 column vector in MATLAB A-20 command screen in MATLAB A-1 command window in MATLAB A-1 commas in MATLAB A-8 comment line in MATLAB A-2 complex conjugate pairs 5-5. 6-17 driving-point 9-5 alpha coefficient 1-3. 2-2.Index Symbols and Numerics % (percent) symbol in MATLAB A-2 3-phase systems . 3-12 sampling property 3-12 sifting property 3-13 demo in MATLAB A-2 detector circuit 2-18 determinants C-9 differential equations auxiliary equation B-8 characteristic equation B-8 classification B-3 degree B-3 most general solution B-6 solution by the method of undetermined coefficients B-10 method of variation of parameters B-20 differentiation in time domain 4-4 in complex frequency domain 4-6 Dirac(t) in MATLAB 3-15 direct term in MATLAB 5-4 discontinuous function 3-2 display formats in MATLAB A-31 distinct poles 5-2 distinct roots of characteristic equation B-9 division in MATLAB dot division operator A-22 dot convention .see transformer decade 7-4 decibel 7-1.see transformer doublet function 3-15 driving-point admittance .see natural response D damping coefficient 1-3. 7-3 beta coefficient 1-3. 6-11.w) in MATLAB 7-21 bodemag(sys. 1-15 Bode Plots 7-5 bode(sys) in MATLAB 7-21 bode(sys. A-13 deconv in MATLAB A-6 default color in MATLAB A-16 default line in MATLAB A-16 default marker in MATLAB A-16 delta function 3-8. A-4 complex numbers A-3 complex poles 5-5 complex roots of characteristic equation B-9 conj(A) in MATLAB C-8 conj(x) in MATLAB C-8 contour integration 4-2 conv(a.b) in MATLAB A-6 convolution in the complex frequency domain 4-12 in the time domain 4-11 corner frequency .see decibel DC isolation .see admittance E editor window in MATLAB A-1 editor/debugger in MATLAB A-1 electrokinetic momentum 8-1 eps in MATLAB A-23 exit in MATLAB A-2 exponential order. 1-15.see three-phase systems A abs(z) in MATLAB A-25 admittance 6-2. 6-8. 1-15 angle(z) in MATLAB A-25 antenna 2-18 antiresonance 2-6 asymptotes 7-6 asymptotic approximations 7-5 Audio Frequency (AF) Amplifier 2-18 B bandwidth 2-12. 6-16. 2-13.

see scaling matrix.see transformer mutual voltages . A-3. 5-18 Q quadratic factors A-9 quality factor at parallel resonance 2-4 quality factor at series resonance 2-4 quit in MATLAB A-2 R NaN in MATLAB A-28 natural response B-7 critically damped 1-3 overdamped 1-3 underdamped 1-3 negative feedback . C-6 Hermitian C-9 identity C-6 inverse of C-21 left division in MATLAB C-24 lower triangular C-6 minor of C-12 multiplication using MATLAB A-20 non-singular C-21 singular C-21 scalar C-6 skew-Hermitian C-9 skew-symmetric C-9 square C-1 symmetric C-8 theory 3-2 trace of C-2 transpose C-7 upper triangular C-5 zero C-2 maximum power transfer 8-32 mesh(x.half-power frequencies .y.see impedance residue 5-2.see partial differential equation plot magnitude 7-5 phase 7-5 polar A-25 plot in MATLAB A-10 plot3 in MATLAB A-16 poles 5-2. 7-6 repeated 5-8 poly(r) in MATLAB A-4 polyder(p) in MATLAB A-6 polyval in MATLAB A-6 port 9-1 preselector 2-18 primary winding 8-4 proper rational function 5-1.see ordinary differential equation one-dimensional wave equation B-3 one-port network 9-1 open circuit impedance parameters 9-19 Radio Frequency (RF) Amplifier 2-18 ramp function 3-9 rational polynomials A-8 real(z) in MATLAB A-25 reciprocal two-port networks 9-34 reciprocity theorem 9-17 reflected impedance .see feedback network bridged 7-35 pie 7-35 non-homogeneous ODE B-6 nth-order delta function 3-15 O magnetic flux 8-2 magnitude scaling . A-20 .underdamped P partial differential equation B-3 partial fraction expansion method 5-2 alternate method 5-15 PDE .repeated B-9 roots of polynomials A-3 roots(p) in MATLAB 5-6.y) in MATLAB A-18 m-file in MATLAB A-1. A-9 round(n) in MATLAB A-25 row vector in MATLAB A-3. 5-18 impedance 6-2.z) in MATLAB A-18 meshgrid(x. 5-18 L L’Hôpital’s rule 1-23.see natural response . 6-16 reflected 8-26 initial value theorem 4-9 integration in complex frequency domain 4-8 integration in time domain 4-6 inverse hybrid parameters 9-30 Inverse Laplace transform 4-1 Inverse Laplace Transform Integral 5-1. 8-6 linspace in MATLAB A-14 ln A-13 log(x) in MATLAB A-13 log10(x) in MATLAB A-13 log2(x) in MATLAB A-13 loglog(x. 4-16 Laplace Transformation 4-1 bilateral 4-1 of common functions 4-12 of several waveforms 4-23 left-hand rule 8-2 Leibnitz’s rule 4-6 Lenz’s law 8-3 lims = in MATLAB A-28 linear and quadratic factors A-9 linear factor A-9 linear inductor 8-2 linearity property 4-2 line-to-line voltages 10-7 linkage flux 8-4. A-8.see frequency right-hand rule 8-2 roots . 9-21 Order of differential equation B-3 ordinary differential equation B-3 oscillatory natural response . A-26 MINVERSE in Excel C-26 MMULT in Excel C-26 multiple poles 5-8 multiplication in MATLAB dot multiplication operator A-22 element-by-element A-20 mutual inductance . 5-13.see transformer N open circuit input impedance 9-20 open circuit output impedance 9-21 open circuit transfer impedance 9-20.y) in MATLAB A-13 M conformable for multiplication C-4 congugate of C-8 defined C-1 diagonal of C-1. 5-8 resonance parallel 2-6 series 2-1 resonant frequency .see frequency half-rectified sine wave 4-28 Heavyside(t) in MATLAB 3-15 homogeneous differential equation 1-1 hybrid parameters 9-24 I ideal transformer . matrices adjoint of C-20 cofactor of C-12 conformable for addition C-2 octave 7-4 ODE .see transformer IF amplifier 2-18 ilaplace function in MATLAB 5-4 imag(z) in MATLAB A-25 image-frequency interference 2-18 impedance matching 8-32 improper integral 4-15 improper rational function 5-1.

7-4 transformer coefficient of coupling 8-18 DC isolation 8-20 dot convention 8-8 equivalent circuit 8-33. 3-10 unit step function 3-2 W wattmeter 10-27 weber 8-2 Wronskian Determinant B-10 X xlabel in MATLAB A-13 Y y parameters 9-4. A-18 Thevenin equivalent circuit 8-34 three-phase balanced currents 10-2 computation by reduction to single phase 10-20 Delta to Y conversion 10-11 four-wire system 10-2 four-wire Y-system 10-3 equivalent Delta and Y-connected loads 10-10 instantaneous power 10-23. 8-20 mutual inductance 8-5.S saw tooth waveform 4-36 scaling frequency E-1 magnitude E-1 scaling property in complex frequency domain 4-4 script file in MATLAB A-26 secord-order circuit 1-1 semicolons in MATLAB A-8 semilog plots instructions for constructing D-1 semilogx in MATLAB A-13 semilogy in MATLAB A-13 settling time 1-20 short circuit input admittance 9-12 short circuit output admittance 9-13 short circuit transfer admittance 9-13 signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) 2-18 single-phase three-wire system 10-4 solve(equ) in MATLAB 7-24 state equations 1-1 subplot in MATLAB A-19 symmetric network 9-17. 3-12 unit ramp function 3-8. 9-35 symmetric rectangular pulse 3-6 symmetric triangular waveform 3-6 T tee network 9-35 text in MATLAB A-14.12 time periodicity 4-8 time shifting property 4-3 title(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 transfer admittance 9-5 transfer function 6-13. 6-17. 7-6 . 8-36 ideal 8-28 linear 8-5. 9-12 ylabel in MATLAB A-13 Z z parameters 9-19 zeros of a rational function 5-2. 8-6 mutual voltages 8-8 polarity markings 8-11 self-induced voltages 8-8 self-inductance 8-1. 8-5 step-down 8-14 step-up 8-14 windings close-coupled 8-19 loose-coupled 8-19 triplet function 3-15 two-port network 9-12 two-sided Laplace Transform 4-1 U unit impulse function 3-8. 10-24 line currents 10-5 line-to-line voltages 10-7 phase currents 10-5 phase voltages 10-7 positive phase sequence 10-7 power 10-21 power factor 10-21 systems 10-1 three-wire Y-system 10-3 three-wire Delta system 10-4 two wattmeter method of reading 3-phase power 10-30 Y to Delta conversion 10. 8-3.

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