Life and Death in Psychoanalysis

Published Franceby Flammarionas in Vie et morl en psychanalyse



THE JOHNS HOPK]NS UNIVERSIry PRES.' fultimoreand London

Life anddearhin psychoanalysis. press The JohnsHopkinsUniversity All rightsreserved. I Transl ator's nt r oduct t on Originallypublished l9?0 as Vieet mort en psychanalyse.. Psychoanalytic theory. Flammarion o Copyrighr 1976. Sexuality and the Vital Order in PsychicalConflict 3.I 637-8(hardcover) ISBN 0-80I 8-2730-2 (paperback) N otes l ndex of Fr eudianTer m s A catalog recordfor rhisbook is available from the BririshLibrary. [DNLM: I. Translation ofVie et mort en psychanalyse. Title. Maryland2l2lB-4319 The JohnsHopkinsPress Ltd. W hy the Deat h Dr ive? C oncl usi on Ent A ppendi x:The Der ivat ionof Psychoanalyt ic it ies Library of Congress Cataloging-in-publication Dara Laplanche.l9g5 0 60 5 0 40 3 02 0l 0 09998 97 87 65 4 press The JohnsHopkinsUniversity 2715NorrhCharles Street Baltimore. . The E go and t he Vit al O r der 4.F8 5L 27 t3 r 50. in Copyright@1970. A ggress iveness Sadom asochism 6. l. The E go and Nar cissism and 5. Published 1976 Printedin the UnitedStares Americaon acid_free of paper Johns HopkinsPaperbacks edirion. of MellonFoundation. London vll l ntroducti o n l of The Order of Life and the Genesis Human Sexuality I 8 25 48 66 85 103 t25 127 140 148 2. WM460 L3l4vj BF]3 . 19' 52 7s . Freud.Contents This bookhasbeenbroughtto pubricarion with the generous assistance theAndreww. . 2. Jean.36928 ISBN 0-80I 8. psychoanalysis. Sigmund' 185G1939. conflict(psychorogy)I. 3.

i. particularly for the final. of 1915. at stakein that text. as well.we will confine ourselvesto In lhe Three Essays' any effort to grasp what is' constitutesthe object of a glanceat its in fact.But sincewe havejust alludedto a last turning point. nothing is more instructiv€than parts: sexualaberraorganization:an apparentlysimple scheme. The importance the author attributed to that work is manifestin the frequencywith which he modified it: in reeditions 1910.. infantile sexuality. Tr iebhasf r eby psychoaquently beentranslatedin French as irulincl. with the exceptionof the footnotes.instinct"):two terms which are employed by Freud even if. as instinct'Yet we encounter the German languagein general." It is in these strata and repetitions that the evolution and enrichment of the theory of sexualitymay be best situated. 1924 version. though hisfinal contribution--{oncernas ing Eros and the death drive---could but barely be integratedinto the first notion of" But-as is frequently the case with of this type' an especiallywith German-when faced with a doublet the seriousauthor approachinglatent inflectionsof vocabulary with all duplicity.Freud proposesand supports and links sexualitywith one of them-with englobingtwo typesof drives' thatbi ol ogi cal. a turning point-that final a version. And . unfortu- I The Order of Life arld the Gerusis of HumanSexunlity Our point of referencein discussing sexuality in psychoanalysis will be Freud's fundamental and resolutely innovative text Three Essays the on Theory of Sexuality. There .Whence our concern that the following attri butedsim plyt ot hem et iculousnessof at r anslat or . to delineatet.which is contemporaneous with the "last theory of drives. in addition.begun in 1920. That complexity one might term dating from different kinds of arrangement: a level the genesisof psychoanalyticdiscovery itself). problemsof from having introduced in the present case a confusion which is far remarks not be disappeared. copious isat t hat poi ntthat-our t hesiswillseem m ost openlyincont r adict ionwit hFr eud's juncture as well that a seriesof three the transformationsof puberty' And yet were order nessthey d. will attempt to exploit such objective barely to introduce a slight differenceof meaning. dr ive'') andlnst inkt (. but it is precisely at that in Freud's own work' difficultieswill also surface sexuality as it ln our first development. after 1920. follow the domito nant line of his thought in offering a thesiswhich will recur throughout our argument: it ts sexuality which representsthe model of every drive and probably constituresthe only drive in the strict senseof the term.. one senses the immensedifficulty experienced by Freud in proposinga synthesis. a heuriitic (following a polemical level (destroying the accepted conception of sexuality)' within the human being)' We shall (retracing iis ernergence geneticlevel be articulated.but describeinsteadthat drive par excellence: sexual drive.ow theseihree different levelsmay movement of Freud's thought' the heuristic level' how specificallythe of the of follows-as in every profound exercise thought-the movement "thing itself': a truth it was Hegel'sto have renderedexplicit' (Trieb\' and Th"eguiding thread in our stidy will be the notion of drive in generalthat the pair it forirs with a secondterm: ins/incl. of course. part due to interpolations would inscribedonly minimally in the text itself.1920. suchist hecasewit hTr ieb( . their etymologies are paiallel: Irieb comes from treiben' which also means"to Instinkr finds its origin in Latin.And yet even in so late a text as the Outline. For the Three Essays not presentan abstract theory of drives in do general.with additions which simultaneously and preserve the original organizationof the work and open it up to later discoveries.and 1924-25. evencosm ologicalf or cehet hencallsEr os. and transposed in Freud' and in nutyrt. greatest complication a one to reconstitute deiailedtable of contents. veri tabl eopposit ion. the final version-in the sensein which a "version" constitutesas well a way of reversing work. revisedon each occasionin the very detail of its sentences terminology. in English. and above all its transposition from one translationhave another. the So much so.can guide-but also misguide-us. If it is true language to terminology. that without pretendingto remain faithful (through some falsely eclecticsynthesis) the entirely of what Freud may have to said concerningdrives...and specificallyits third chapter.r.So that if one wantedan approximateidea of what the Three Essays might have been had they beenfirst undertaken in 1920.not one but two terms' two"signifiers"' it may be said to usea more recenttermlnology' Two signifiersthen' and m eaning'just as that i n common usaget hey have m or e or lesst he sam e "to push".one would do best to consult a text like the Outline of Psychoanalysis(1938). from instinguere. in fact. languagesand incite.ougtt.The Order of Lde a theory if it is indeedtrue that.the is." "to push. we may claim. which is occasionally to the point of constitutinga but will at times be accentuated perceptible.

t o t ake t he f ir st exam pleof a dr ive." a t ype of act ivit y. S o t h a t. "object" (Objekt).then.w eenthe s ex ual dri v e and the s ex ual obj ec t as more i nti mate than i t i n fact i s. is a preformcd behavioral pattern. almost a tautology: the latter is but the hypostasized.appar ent ly t more complex)a f ar m or e biologist icand vit alist icor ient at ionseem s o prevai l .theact to which the drive is driven.That analysis sketched for is out.l0 Life and Death in Psychoanalysis The Order o"f Ltfe ll nately. What is calledthe economic point of view in psychoanalysisis quite preciselythat of a "demand for work": if there is work. E xp eri enc e of the c as es that are c ons i dered abnormal has s how n us that .ressentiment-it alreadyuse{ to designate that our "object" should be understood. hi ch w i l l al w aysremai n a . one had best consult a later text. The aim now. we callsint o play t he f ollowing di scovertha t t he aim of t he dr ive const ant ly two factors:at times the object. We encount er or incor por at ed. "aim" (Ziet).And is in that rather broad sense yer our caution againsta vulgarizedconceptofthe love object("You treat me l i ke an o bject . w e w oul d proposethe f ollowing hy p o th e s i s :i t i s th a t a b s tra c t e l ement al one. whose arrangement is determined hereditarily and which is r epeat ed c o rd i n gto mo d a l i ti e sre l a ti v e l yadaptedto a certai ntype of ac objec t . T o d e fine a dri ve by i ts i mpetus.we shall recall first that such an object is not necessarily to the Freudian Obiekt is not opposedin essence inanimateone.say incor por at ion. The impetus. to a n ti c i p a tew h a t w i l l fo l l ow . is. this simply by following the movementof its "definition" in One perceives the Three fssays. what preciselyis that accomplishment? we refer this time to the If text "lnstincts and rheir Vicissitudes. im pliesbot h a and a cer t aint ype of object . it is the motory scheme. to is also valid. The quest ion t hen ar ises o[ det er m iningt he r elat ion betw een an aim which is ent ir ely gener al and ( as wit h "im pet us") abstract-the appeasingof t ension.the only "final" aim of definedin the most generalway: the appeasing a is alwayssatisfaction. and also a derivation from one to the other."2 There. he first tell the courseof different editionsof the Three Essays. wi th Freud.the amount of force or the measure of the demand for work which it represents. in order to find a more systematic but presentation.Thus or alit y. or.a Trieb by its Drang. w central for the s extent that Fr eud and. rel are to a real der iv at ion: he d e ri v a ti o ni n m a n o f d ri v e sfrom i nsti ncts. vir t ually all psychoanalystgr adually a which represents kind came to focus on the notion of "object relations. at others. the economi c factor." Thus.. which will remain constant in the derivation that will brine us from instinctsto drives.If in d her e.The analysisof a drive. is the motor factor in the drive. and. "as t he phr asegoes)should not be t aken as absolut e. accordingto the four "terms which are usedin reference the conceptof to a drive": "impetus" (Drang). a modification in the organism. "lnstincts and rheir vicissitudes. as in the physicalsciences. This is a derivation which is not s im ply c onc e p tu a l . a dffirence.No subjective century.drawing on different texts of Freud. w e di scover a certai n i relation betweenmeanings assumedby the two terms in Freud'sscientific discovery. Temporarily.The object'.it is because ultimatelythere is an exigency.and. the drive is decomposed accordingto four dimensions as Freud puts it. of syntheti c mod e of a par t iculardr ive act ion.seei ng sinceone f inds in Fr eud a "dr ive t o see") .b u t w h i c h w e ma y . aking love.Object of the drive? ln order to eliminaterapidly certain misconan ceptions. in the introduction. . on t he ot her hand. a thing: "objectification"of the love relation is intended. force can be definedonly through t he m eas ur eo f a q u a n ti ty o f w o rk .et c' aim : why is it t hat The probl em is t hat of t he specif icat ionof t he thelinal represents somethingquite specificand not simply appeasement aim? If we pursue the analysis. in greaterdetail thesetwo concepts object and source. in the case of a preformed instinct. through successive approximations." Theselinesare exemplaryin their reference t o m ec hanic s n d . from an epistemological point of view. t he on point of view bet ween. Instinkt. comprising an analogy.r t First their analogy:it is basedon a common substrate the analysisof in the concept. and "source"(Quelle)." seethat this accomolishment we is ahvaysthe same and ultimately rather monotonous. an instinct. The characterof exercising pressure common to all driveslit is is in fact their very essence. as it is presented us in its elements. "l of r of anal ysi s sexualaber r at ions esult sin an inver sion t his point of view: It has been brought to our noti c e that w e hav e been i n the habi t of regardi ng the connecti on b el . we certain tensioncausedpreciselyby the Drang. abstract element of the f or m er .and on t he ot her . it s pr ivileged speci fi c obj ect. one w hi ch i s capableof being swallowed by t he not ion of aim .a complex relation.the seriesof acts which resultsin a certain accomplishment. mo re p re c i s e l yto d y n a m i cs. it has been insufficientlynoted that the term Instinkt is used to somethingentirelydifferentfrom what is described designate elsewhere as sexuality. the source. It is. certai nmode of r elat ion. Freud tells us inthe Three Essays.. the "sexual object" is But t he defi nedas "t he per sonf r om whom sexualat t r act ionpr oceeds. t he ver y spcci fi cand det er m inedact s which ar e t he aim s of var ious inst inct s: m ( eati ng. in its generality. af t er him . that pressure havebeen speaki ngabout . a force. more i mportant eventhan t heir s em ant i c re s o n a n c e s n G e rma n c u lture.M or e i m p o rta n t th a n e ty m o l o g yth e n. We shallexamine. in Freud's language.. it s specif icat ion elabor at ionof herea fi rst p ossible ( we will soon seet hat t he t heor yis in f act i ts source. the term was the classicallanguageof the French seventeenth the focus of passion-/amme. t he one hand.

concer ningour f our . gr oups''o|dr ives. In concluding this analysisof the notion of isbyt heuseof per cept uallur es'whosedif f er ent char act er isti csarema det o""t V. Finally. ."6 We note here the lerm represented. of minimal concern. of impetus' object' aim' and underscoretne generalityof the definitions and utto*t them to be appliedto both instincts source.Instincts and Their in wager implicit drives' Such is' I believe.d them' To have to ask whether'tltnu-t drive is to proceedin an abstract necessarily deal with everyTrieb in generalis them' to subject To deal *iin Ari'es in generalis to biologize manner. a such..The Order o. the notion of an pat t er n' a ser ies chain anal ysi si n t he f t . fundamentalarticulationof Freud's a t3 do not allow us to which the limits of this presentation metapsychology. In the interrm. egodri ves' . themtoananalysiswhichisa/ sovalidf or so. seems between ihoughts of independent its object.and numerousother elements (excrement. the V i ci ssi tude s. .a generalityJi"i .loiu."to which referencehas been made collaterally.the definition of a source-as we shall soon see-is relativelycomplex and ambiguous.includingconsequent lyt he. we are thus warnedto loosen bond that exists our probable thesexual that driveis in the It driveandobject. .cope problem of our own the central U. elem ent s''' shall or rather."s There is a priority of satisfaction and of the satisfyingaction in relation to that "in regard to which" that action finds its conclusion. it't relation of "delegation"providedwith a mandate employsthe metaphor of a kind local biological stimulus thu' imperativethat need not be aUsotutety " life in psychical as a'drive' We do finds its delegation. . despite our reservations. whose psychicaltranslationwould in fact be the drive. specif ically'he not ion of Freud.itt.. which might be termed summarily the "contingency"of the object. it is univocal: the Quelle is an a knowablesomaticprocess. all of which have in common the fundamental characteristicof being.ethology' in recent analysesln tt e fietas of specificallyin Lorenz's psychologists' researchof contempo'u'y *i-uf is r ef er ence not r egular lym ade t o ut school .calledinst inct ualpat t er nsof concepts one needbut invoke the validity of such behavior."i-*iict no-tion of a is present in th-efrom a certain pnini of view' specific specificact' and capableofreleasing triggeringa constettaiion perceptual aspcci fi cm echanism Ut ""u"it includesaser iesof det er m inedt r ait s'As i sknow n.As evidence. If. The animal psychology-.. . it may be a partiol (or component) object.. makes ext ensive t ' t ut n'ii "im pet us" t t o his. Partial objects relatedto bodily life include breast. are too often in a stateof unfortunately. The notion . it remains relatively indifferentand contingent.of concept s "t "f "g""t which is most often invoked by is employed.or. . etc. in itself.a object's' to the science study: the relation questionof the source'which seems We shall return in a moment to the articulation betweeninstinct and particularly int. without un oii.ttitt"ntation" is of a strictly chemical in process question not know whether the somatic other (e'g'' it correspondsas well to a releaseof is enoughfor it to possess trcils which trigger the satisfyingaction. . u"t 'aswellist het r apt hat t ext set sf or t heunpr epar ed reader:theessaywouldexam inedr ivesingener al'not sim plysexual dri vesbutallt hose. ittt l'ia' aulicntoiel' adopted them' is recentpsychoanalytic the coalescence: notion of objectivity in the senseof knowledgeand the notion of objectalityin which the object. in the phrase introduced by Melanie Klein but found-and quite early-at the centerof Freud'sthought. We might here distinguish theory. to concludethis seriesof ese'r vat ivedr ives''.t simultaneously. in fact or in fantasy. uno. fantasmaticobject and that it is perhapsessentially Finally.). kind of biological unknown but theoretically x. .O by biology't Thus we encounter of. detachedor detachable.'*if"n we have been to the normalpicture. I point this out in order to emphasizethat the object of the drive can be.nor is its origin likely to be due to its first instance attractions. in the Three Essays. or whether Freud concludes' sourcesof drives' mechanical)forces: the study of the eventually oi p'ytttotogy"' and the problem might "lies outsidett.the specificityor individuality of the certain objectis. in other words' we between an instinct and a drive.penis. This brings us to a familiar problem in psychoanalyticthought. i a f ixed behavior al 'of of tension:a cyclewhich may reactionsending rn a permanentdischarge .i.or.we should insist that a the object is not necessarily "total" person. the term object appears initially to somethingwhich functions as a means:"the thing in regardto designate which or through which the drive is able to achieveits aim. . contingentand. is an objectof the drive and not a scientific or perceptualobject.concer ningwhichweshallshor t ly to in fact properly applie.f Lfe 12 Life and Death in Psychoanalysis together-a soldered object merely are andthesexual instinct in themrhesexual in of in dangerof overlooking consequence the i"". By the "source in of a drive" is meant "that somatic process an organ or part of the body in from which there resultsa stimulusrepresented mental life by a drive. we will focus our attention at greater length on the term source.child.'.yof in the oarcelof-the drive.. in the text "Instincts and Their Vicissitudes.this time.rting u' ti't point oi that articulation' we shall insist drive. is An additional dimensionof the objectin psychoanalysis that it is not necessarilyan object in the sense of the theory of knowledge: an which clearlytwo meanings "objective" object. Freud to account for the economicfactor' -by be *oul.wherethe objectappears form part and uniio. self . ethological pr ecisely aim is also present in defined. .Insofar as the objectis that "in which" the aim finds its realization. after all."beforeeiamining fi rstontheanalogywhichexist s. that the most frequent model used by elaborate: suffice it to observe betweenthe somatic and the psychical Freud to account to.'t t "t t t t t uinof t heset r igger shavebeen.

lt is generally understood be absent childhood. insist on the fact that this "popular conception. its erol ogeni c z one.a generality which includesboth a negativeaspect(sincethe definitions may appear abstract) but also a positive one (since these notions can be shown to as coincidewith those of a science concretelyempirical as ethology). . ^.in its movement. of ai inst inct ." We should.r .which is the principal iocus of this aberrations'At stake is polemical.u* for Freud the perversions. setin ar to in ro thetimeof puberty connection theprocess coming ma!urity in with of to andto be revealed the manifestations an irresistible in of attraction by exercised one sex upon the other.on the very objectof the work: the entire organizationmay be under s t o o da s a fu n c ti o n o f a c e rta i n " destructi on"(perhapsi n the sense Hegel's of Aufhebung) of this "popular"-but also biologizing-imageof sexuality. . The Three Essaysbegin: The fact of the existence sexualneeds humanbeings of in and animalsis in ex pr es s ed b i o l o g y y th ea s s u m p ti oo fa " sexual ve.e W eshouldobser veSt r aight awavt hat t heset hr eechar act er ist icsar e and t hat t hey even of found i n m ost er ot ic m aniiest at ions childhood of t he ageof childhood'.determined by its "source.a response a natural needwhoseparadigm is hunger (if we to may be allowed at this point to make more systematic use than Freud of t he c onc ep tu a lp a i r d ri v e -i n s ti n c t).i s concei ved on the model of th of an instinct.ation the Three of we Essays. ''Thesecondchapt er isent it led.or at all events actions leading that direction. of its developmentmay of a historical evolution which at every stage aberrations' in the strangest bifurcatedifferently.' "The G enesis Hum an Sexualit y. te order to sttuar t he We shall treat the first Esscyonty briefly' and in us chapter' It presents with a second.t in This "popular" conceptionis.t he t hir d chapt er ' of . ar leastin domains other than that of human sexuality.sucking sensual sexual i ty] hasalr eadygil'enust het hr eeessent ialchar act er ist icsof aninf ant ile itself to for props itself upon. coi nci des i th an i mage to w which may seemscientific.lf we return now to the organiz. but regained at "The I nst inct would pr oposept visionally a f or m ula suchas .There are three chapters. at the same time. in of of in the last anaiysis. theory of the psychoanalytic the alpha-and certainly not the omega-of is to show just how extended'almost The c. of hunger.i uU oru.sis The Order of Ltk l5 triggering device is not srop at any particular stage if the succeeding mechani smt pr es ent o p ro v o k eth e c o rre s p o n d i n g Having insistedon the generalvalue of Freud'sdefinitions. lt sexualmanifestatron. I appar at us. to their very first page." theanal ogy b n dri on ofthe instinct nutrition.The first is " S ex ual Ab e rra ti o n s . th e case of sexual i ty. ^ f .while its aim is presumed be sexual to union. "of "nadject iveder ivedf r om t heG r eek: .resulting which on a passage Our considerationof the iecond Essaywill center del i neate st heessenceof t hem at t er int hat it r edef inessexualit yasa of a section function of its infantile origins' I refer to the conclusion of lnf ant ile Sexualit y": enti tl ed" The M anif est at ions sucking t akenas a m odelof or al or [ Our st udyof t hum b. .we shall return to the Three Esso_vs. anaclit and an ef f or t ." since sexuality would focus uniquely and in a manner predetermined atl eternity on for t he ot her s e x .f r . L.almost apologeti" catalogue-ofsexual specific aim and specific obiecl an effort to destroy re"Jiued notions of a m a pr esent at ion' or eover ' lt through a descr ipt ionof per ver sions' .and is thu{ autts'err'tric. There is no basisfor seekingin t'heThree Essa-vs nessof its explanatrons. dem olishes t heir exist ence is' t uni versal. Popular opinionhasquitedefinite ideas aboutthenature characteristics and of thissexual drive. r . finally.: . he f ield of per ver sions and how f or hum an sexualit y'Sexualit y' any i dea o f a det er m inedaim or object in givesthe appea.on which is and found a succinctdescriptionof the "popular" conceptionof sexuality. e s e x u a ld ri v e .i ts " a i m " w o u l d b e s i mi l arl yfi xed: " sexualuni on. the notion of an erotogentczone' to the French reader will perhapsbe surprised Propping lEta-vagel. inFr enchaswellasint heexcellent St andar d E di ti or.. . byit sscient if icr igor nor byt heexhaust ive.or at all eventsactionsleadingin that direction. n cur r ent hear. its origin it attaches entsteht inAnlehnur t gar l] oneof r hevit alsom alicf unct ions: it hasasyet no by sexualaim is dominated an and sexualobject. .is w hi chi sdist inguishedneit t 'e. an imagewhich. Sexualit y'''andwe Finally. ..we regai necl Mi med' " c.. .is perhapsquite rvould thus be a behavioralsequence narrowly.l4 Life and Death in Psychoanal). m ar king t in transcen d lar gem easur e he sexualit v The def init ioninvokest hr ee defi ni ti velyt he ent ir et yof hum an sexualit y' of pr opping't he not ion of aut oori gi nala nd com plexnot ions:t he not ion erotism. a biologizingconcept ion in whi c h s e x u a l i ty ." but science makesuseof the word "libido" for that purpose. per hapst hen' level' Rather than a different regained?No doubt. a processof s t r ic t ly int e rn a l o ri g i n . in Fr eud'sconcept ual transl ationsof Fr eud.thi s need In would appear to be grounded in a processof maturation. " t in a sense' he inst inct of " The Trans f or m at ions Puber t y". inEnglish't heonlyt r aceof t heFr eudianconcept ist hespor adic andpoor lyjust if iedu. i s a f undam enioi."which Freud summarizes here rn or der t o exp o s ei t s u b s e q u e n tl y h i s a ttack. Everyday possesses counterlanguage no part to the word "hunger. . of that is. the sense a science life." with a fixed and quite precise"object. i n w h i c h th e p h y s i ol ogi cal moment of puberty i s determinant. n a l l y . i c-" A pr olongedconsider at ion f Fr eudiant er m inologyr 0 .rance' a one might say upon readingthis first chapter' r but t hat is only t he pr ecar iousesult nor so-cal l ed m al adult . shall understandbetter how that organizationis we recalledearlier."a n d w e mi g h t subti tl ethat fi rst chapter" The Insti nctLost .

quite different from the phase first. the fact that emergent sexualityattaches itselfto and is propped upon anot he rp ro c e s s h i c h i s b o th s i mi l a rand profoundl ydi vergent: w the sexual drive is propped upon a nonsexual." In the first -breast-sucking for nourishment-we are faced with a function or. as had not beendone before. e e s s a y On N a rci ssi sm" th " (19t4). the feeding pattern. but with a process a an abstract genesis. It is an instinctual pattern with its be the . with the feedingfunction's Now the crucial point is that simultaneous achievementof satisfactionin nourishment. the e c In adjectiveanaclitic had in turn beeninflectedby an elaboratepsychoanaly t ic t r adit io n o ri g i n a ti n gi n a p o i n t w h i c h i s al ready.propping" consistsinitially in that support which emergent of sexualityfinds in a function linked to the preservation life. we haveadoptedthat term. A specific "object" is similarly Well.and an "anaclitic" objectchoice his (Anlehnungstypus. in fact. without the terminologicalcoherence Freud's writof ings being absolutelysystematic. Finally.i n sees that originally it by no meansdesignates leaning a of the subjecton the object (of child on mother). .we find the sameduplicity: the mouth is simultaneously a sexualorgan and an organ of the feedingfunction' Thus the . that the terms generally vital registerofselffunction. it is at first barely possibleto distinguish a difference. addi ti on. upon a "bodily function essentialto life. as we have seen. and instinct characterize the preservation oppositionto the sexualregister. We have attempted thereby to bring into relief with its v ar ious r es o n a n c e s n o ti o n Io n g o b s c u redby transl ati onsmore cona cernedwith elegance than rigor.the processis in any event a "coming in". For the term anaclitic was introduced by the translatorsin a text later t han t he T h re e Es s a y s . secondary. be hidden to relate to a specifichumoral or tissual imbalancethat state of tension to correspondingsubjectively the impressionof hunger' We thus have an .impetus. in With the propping of the drive on thefunction. sincelips are also part of the digestivesystem'The aim as well is quite closeto the aim of nourishment. This stimulation is initially modeled on the function. Shall we identify it as the breast? introducedinto the discussion.The object?It would appear to be furnishedat the level of the function. with-to localize and restrict things further-those points in which appetire is most specificallyfelt. "by the mouth": at the level of the source. even if such"leaning" is the German) in which (such at least is how the matter was a bit hastily interpreted)one'ssexualityis basedon the object of the function of self-preservation. quasi-metaphysical with the utmost precisionin the archetypalexample of that is described orality. or iginal F r e n c htra n s l a to rw h o h a d a l re adyusedi t unsystemati cai l the If rcrm btayage@ropping) and its derivatives. need.a "source" as well..t6 Life and Death in Psychoanalysis The Order of Ltfe t7 at retranslating Freud's work have led us to choose. which is characterizedas "sensual sucking. In orality. to recall our earlier which man chooses love object in his own image." "lt" is the object.Anlehnung-meaning "to find support" or propping in somethingelse-takes on in Freud.and a second. The phenomenonFreud describes a reaningo/ is the drive." that processof which observershave undertaken to describewith great breast-sucking precision: the search for the nipple. which the "popular conception" assumes model of every instinct. a sexual processbegins to appear. it to it is because was necessary bring into focus." It will thus be admitted that our divergencefrom Freud's thought is minimal. it is not the breastwhich procuressatisfactionbut the nourishment: since milk. shall nevertheless we find. as Freud formulates it in terms which defy all additional commentary. so complete. that we are in fact only renderingit more precise when we say that what is described propping as is a leaningoriginally of infantilesexualityon the instincts. with a total instinctualpattern of behavior' one which is. the rigorous conceptual value which the German word.. aim. the instinct is hunger and the function feeding. feeding. two phases may be delineated: one consiiting in sucking of the breast. specifically an excessively by learnedand ins uf f ic ien tl y x p l i c i t p s e u d o s c i e n ti fite r m: anacri si s. Thus the term propping has been understoodin this tradition as a leaning on the object."and this time we should be able to specifyprecisely what may x behind the energetic term and.i n w hi ch Freud contrasts two types of "object choice..impetus. fact."an accumulationof tensions. by instinct is if m eant t hat w h i c h o ri e n ts th e " b o d i l y fu n cti on essenti al l i fe" . we can find . the digestive systlm. i n the to particular case first analyzed by Freud.we are faced not with deduction. It may thus be intuited how an elaboratetheory of a relation with the mother has come to inflect a notion intended to accountfor sexualityin its emergence. no.coming in" is the aim. drawing on psychophysiology. if one examines In that notion more closely. the release of tension' pacification.ultimately object. so that betweenthe two. along with the y. and source are intimately entwinedin an extremelysimple propositionallowing us to describethe process:"lt's coming in by the mouth.vital function or..that it is precisely to hunger. Can we be surewhetherit is still the by It The source? too is determined the feeding milk or alreadythe breast? process. and ultimately a leoningon the mother. it is shown. and whether a sexual or an alimentary aim is in question. in a manner sufficientlymotivatedto allow us in turn to "lean" upon it." two ways in which the human subjectselects love object:a "narcissistic" his objectchoice. there is a preformed process or "aim. Parallel with feedingthere is a stimulation of lips and tongue by the nipple and the flow of warm milk.

not until the periodof latency beenpassed at why thusgoodreasons a childsucking his Thereare restored. of the hasbecome prototype every breast mother. of notably Havelock Ellis. the human being.-whichthe first beginnings sexual thetaki ngo f nour ishm ent [ i.' Freud borrows the term from the sexologists his time.. the prototype of oral sexuality is not in the sucking of the breast. "it is or m out of a senset hat cer t ain discover ies ay be f or got t en.rt for In the very act sexualactivityatraches itselfto [props itself upon] fur.Jy t heir aut hor : t her e ar e clearexam plesin t hi msel f. m ilk.a sexual of activity . vrith frequently attractive arguments. In such a perspective of the object would be generatedas it were ex nihilo.. magic wand. the object is abandoned. but he brings to it a new import: He definesit essentiallyin terms of the absence an object(objektldsigkeit):. e'.it should be noted.partial.. in an immediately subsequentphase.the aim and the source also take on autonomy in relation to the activity of feedingand the digestive system. the l'irstinstance. In fact. belongs. sinceit is a loss of the breastwhich is being considered. is simultaneously entirely in the movement which disassociates from the vital il function. passages r espondingo m om ent sof i ndi catedo n sever al parti cul arl ucidit y in Fr eud'st hought . lt should be understoodthat the real o bject . drawing on the works of Lindner.conceivable so stateseems unpromisan object from an objectless solipslsm.r. not directed towards other people. t hesexualinst inct hasa lt doubt evenmore demonstratethat a . it will simultaneously lead to a major aberration in psychoanalyticthinking and.. I f we say "par t icularlucidit y.a real object. since sexuality. The satisfaction the erotogenic of zone is associated.and no doubt stimulation the warm flow of milk is the by causeof the pleasurable sensation.and not ably concer ning he point under consider at ion' located further on' in the third The following is a crucial passage. in all its generality.rning the "object" and primal absence the object. from an initial state regardedas totally "objectless. activity ofsucking the Lsuccionf but rather what Freud. of t but E ssay. 'in t he child exist s. to total ideaof the person whomtheorganthatis givinghim satisfaction is auto-erotic drivethenbecomes fauto'erotism thusnot the As a rule the sexual throughis the has and inirialstage).behave like an erotogenic zone. . the process ofpropping may be revealed a in culminating satisfactionthat already resembles orgasm. at first entirety grounded in the function.with "sensual sucking"we thus come to the second"characteristic"referredto above. sucking his mother's his at breast.but above all.ror har. Auto-erotism. in with of for To beginwith. which is vir t ually Such is the real objectwhich has preordainedto the u'orld of satisfaction.and is not. and Freud introduces at this point the prectous which t t observationhat per haps he par t ial object is lost at t he m om entin aboveall' the total object . at substitutes it. thesatisfaction the need nourishmenr." Now that definition prompts us to indicateimmediatelythat if the notion of auto-erotismwill fulfill an extremely important function in Freud's thought. wasthe child's to It first and most vital activity. perhaps. by a strole oiron. or the presence The solut ion is w hat path shall we t ake t o avoid t his f alse im passe? t cor in occasions.s from the beginning an object' but that on .the stageof the loss of the object' A loss of the .ctions serving purpose self-preservation does become the of and not independent them of until later. it i s onl y l ai ert hat he loses .beginst o em er ge'But if such a text is to be taken seriously.on".in our view. The needfor repeating sexual the satisfaction becomes now derached from theneed takingnourishment.tut t hat in so " pri mary o bject love.Deriving task to certain analysts that they do not hesitateto ing a theoretical but which only aflirm-in a reaction which is laudable in its intentions different error-that sexualityper se has an object from the leads to a aut Such is t he posit ionof a psychoanalyt ic hor like Balint who begi nni ng." The human individual must thus "open up" to his world-things as well as individuals-starting from what we are tempted to call a state of than philosophical a certain aberration in the thought of Freud himself. . originalrelation Thefindingof of relation love. f act ' has been discussionconcerningthe object nencefoittrall psychoanalytic ofobjects for to the following alternative:either a total absence restricted from the beginningof a sexual object.moment" intimately linked to the processof propping which precedesit: autoerotism. autoerotism contrary.18 Life and Death in Psychoanalysis The Order of Life 19 no better conclusion than the following quotation of another passage Freud devotesto the oral-eroticactivity of the child: It is alsoeasy guess occasions whichthechildhadhisfirstexperiences to the on of the pleasure whichhe is now striving renew. . a secondstage.No onewho hasseen babysinking a backsatiated from thebreast and fallingasleep with flushed cheeks a blissful and smile escape reflecrion can the that thispicture persists a prototype theexpression sexual as of of satisfaction later in life.'object. of own bodyin theshape his mother's the outside infant's object sexual whenhe is ablet o f or m a just at t he t im e.per haps. r 2 successf ully. child's him The lips. we witnessa separationof the two. which is also a . eclipsed' t he caseof Fr eud b represse. thar must or for havefamiliarized with thispleasure.from rhe beginning. int hepr oppingphase] . . which sum m ar izeshe t heses t he secondEssay: are satisfaction still linkedwith of At a time a. callsdas Ludeln oder Lutschen fsugotemenr].Henceforth.t he m ot her as per son.rl The text cited has an entirely different ring to it from that vast fable of a autoerotismas a state of the primary and total absenceof an object: meansthat on the one hand there the other hand sexuality does i.s of is an object in facta re-finding it. was t he object of t he f unct ion. on the state which one leavesin order to find an object.

or the t exampl eof sexualst im ulat ionlinked t o m uscularact ivit y. similarly. destroying.arisesthe impossibility of ultimately ever rediscovering the object. finally. a l o n g s i d e e fa ntasmati c th scenari o acti vi ty or (incorporation. Therein lies the key to the "duplicity" situatedat the very beginningof the sexualquest.t hus. assimilating. fo l l o w san anal ogi cal metaphori cal o or line. he dr ew on an int er pr et at ion t he sym pt om sof hypochonled st dri a.a f act t hat t he m ost or dinar y clinicalobser vat ion as for such general processes affects." We would elucidate this as follows: the object to be rediscovered not the lost object. "The finding of an object. From this..much less"dialectical": that of a "pleasuretaken on the spot.ln a lat er st ageof his t hought . ingestionis no longer limited to food.We noted earlierthat this is perhapsthe central question if what we are presentlystudying is indeed the the oiigin. including of i n so doi n g. for its part.we s h o u l d n o te .s meaningsof the word source.we thus find the idea of a source of the stricrly phyiiological sense. gener alizing ill f ur t her . th i s ti m e . he is event ually t o t he posit ion that every function and. Thus from the aim of the function to the sexual aim.r. not the erotogenic( ar eas pr oduct ive of sexual st im ulat ion) includes int er nalones. they are in a relation of essential contiguity which leads us to slide almost indifferently from one to the other. for instance. to a far more extendedseriesof processes' but even more as Freud'sconsiderations ln the text of the Three Essays. sincewe that this is with a two encounter in the Three Essa-r. a secondkind of aim.To speakof a visual incorporationmay allow for the interpretationof certain symptoms. ur et hr al. there is necessarily a complex relation that we shall have to reexamine. notably Such is also the case . a transition exists which may still be defined in terms of a certain kind of dis plac em e n t:n e w h i c h .neitherfor us nor for Freud. but adding to ingestionthe various g im plic at ions ro u p e du n d e r th e te rm " c a n ni bal i sm. a scenario borrowing from the function its registerand its language.. I t is as t hough a biologicalschem e zones. an source is taken in the most concreteand local senseof the term: as zone zone ( t o cont inuewit h t he exam pleof or alit y. but its substituteby displacement. Thus the sexual object is not identical to the object of the function. Betweenthe fantasmaticaim o[ incorporationand the far more local and far lesssubtle aim of stimulating the lips. but is displacedin relation to it. no doubt linked to the scenariobut much more localized. anal . With incorporation. before leaving the vicissitudesof the aim in the processof pr opping. every human activity can be erotogenic' We are diawing in this last observationon the chapterin the Three Essays dealingwith "indirect sources"of sexualityin order to note this time that far from being simply a biochemicalprocesslocalizablein an organ or in be as a collection of differentiatedcells.and yet there is a slight divergence betweenthe two. The aim of feeding was ingestion." The terms may seemvirtually identical.of the eyes. thus precisely sourceof sexuolity' lt should be emphasized not simply a word game.raThe n. Finally. in the case of orality). moreover. the object of the sexualdrive. sinceone can conceiveof incorporation occurring in other bodily systemsthan the digestiveapparatus: reference thus made in psychoanalysis incorporation at the level of is to other bodily orifices. of course.specif icallyo Freud comes to assertthat sport." i th such meani ngs w as: preservingwithin oneself.he capacit yt o be t he no means the of departure of sexual stimulation is revealedto be by describedas the /oci of privilege of those zones which are successively t hose I oral . as a general.the rocking of an infant or the sexualstimulation that may result from rhyhmic jolts. from the milk to the breast as its symbol. since the object which has been lost is not the same as that which is to be rediscovered. intense intellectual effort can itself be a point of departure for sexual conf ir m s' sti mul ation.or genit alsexualit y.h is at least as interesting.the aim has become the scenario of a is not exclusively but ever y cover ing' w el l -l ocalizedzones wit h t heir cut psychoanalysis.the term used is "incorporation.but ever y or gan. but the objectlinked to the autoeroticturn. for exampie. the "source" of sexuality can the body in its entirety: stimulation of as generala process the mechanical iake." Freud in concludes a formulation that has sincebecomefamous. ndeed." the sheer enjoyment of sensual sucking. r si mpl y ever y cut aneous egion. essential The sexualaim is. in a still vaster perspective. sexualityfrom certain predetermined which would secrete existed nourishexactly as certain physiologicalsetupsgive rise to the need for in a ment ihrough certain local tensions. the breast-become a fantasmaticbreast-is. point t expand thr ough br oaderclinicalexper ience.Incorporation.We pass progressively -plore Already for stimulation.20 Lift and Death in Psychoanalysis The Order of Ltfe 2l beenlost. rel ati onbet weent he t wo we shoulddo well t o f ollow' I n an init ial st age. There remains the problem of the source. in a quite specialposition in relationto the aim of the feedingfunction.pai nful " af f ect s."is in fact a refinding of it.and the objectone of seeksto refind in sexuality is an object displacedin relation to that first object. as in the courseof a railroad trip. hunger. Then. *hi. is the lost object is the object of self-preservation. t he labial erotogeni c of sti mul atedby t he passage m ilk) .m ucous f or cutaneousr egion which is capableof ser vingas point o[ depar t ur e Fr eud will posit t hat sexualsti m ulat ion.But we find as well a secondmeaning far more t. of the skin or even. a suddenly em er gentst at e of anxiet y will f r e- .. extends ingestion to an entire series of possible relations. however. and no longer an associative chain through contiguity.although simultaneously privileged from the erotogeniczone. it is simultaneously the sameand different.

vi th the not ion of a "polym or phousper ver se" within its very ler(n perver. to barely diicussed. and denaturesit: the drive. Now r f in speaki ng. the taking the rule along wirh il.sincethat indeedis the focus of the first ..metaphorizesirs aim.moreover. it regained. sei ual i ty.sionand the kind of movement operative The notion is commonly definedas a deviotionfronr . is ultimately the source of the drive? In the present perspective.a t defi nedno r m s of accom plishm ent lhat except ionendsup by under m inwhole of i ng and de st r oyingt he ver y not ion of a biologicalnor m ' The endsup by becom ing wholeof inf ant ilesexualit y. n d u n i ty . ince p. In lhe Three fssays. W e shal l put asi de a considerationof the third chapter of the Three Essays favor of other in topics. to the sourcein its so-called but "indirect" sense.T h e i n terestof thi s redefi ni ti onof the source lies in the fact that any function. muscular. we shallconsider he . W e t hus c o n c l u d ea n a l l to o b ri e f i ti nerary. for Freud's dialectic is more fundamental. the instinct.the clinamenfrom the function. then.once m or e ar e seent o m eetand separ at e. concerning that erotogeniczone. e we t hus noti on of per ver sionst r ict ly on t he sexual def is deviance necessar ily inedin r elat iont o a nor m ' t hat suggesti ng. thendetachment deviation] thecase a of and in or of greatnumberof internalprocesses stimulation. [mechanical intellectual work. "sexual What. inst inct s. Clearly.w i t h t he sexualaber r at ions adult s. displaces.since we may no longer refer to a is st ill i nsti nct.a m ovem entof exposit ion t movementof a syst emof t hought and. effect-the Nebenwirkung-we have lus t ev ok ed .. . t he social his instinct. lt is also a zone of ^nur.which should presuppose sexualfunction. and characterize simply as the moment of the instinct regained. andcur r ent lyint he"hum ansciences"' casethat a is reference often made to "deviants") its entirety.pulsionspartiellesfof sexualityare either deriveddirectly from these internal sources arecomposed elements or of both from those sources from and l5 theerotogenic zones. is perverted.We shall presently neglect this third stagein order to insist on what gives to the first two chapters their meaning.""impetus. in the human infant' lies in a moventent and internalizesits deflectsrhe on s t he m or al not quite a source in the same sense one might speak of the somatic as sourceof an instinct. I t is a kind of br eakingor orifices:mouth. not to the sourcein its strictly physiological sense. Sexualityin its entiretyis in the slight in turn the source of a processwhich mimics.any agitation may participatein it. To that extent the erotogeniczone. then.eua i . in any rediscovery-we demonstratedas much above concerning the rediscovery of the object-as other than it was in the beginning. we thus seethe priority accordedby Freud. sincewhat is in questionis aboveall sphincteral envelope.secrete" sexuality. Perversion? im pliest he choice pat a pr i nsti nct. This is so clearly the that its authors admit a glance at any psychiatric textbook reveal's concerningthe entiretyof the field of Iemarkablediversity of perversions. definedas a point particularlyexposed to the concomitant."for it defines process proppingin irs Nebenu'irkung.activity. on the contrary' Freud founds Ar per ver sions.i m selfwould r ally t o t he not ion of a sexualinst inct ?M or eover ." "aim.]as soonas the intensity thoseprocesses passes of beyond quantitative certain limits.kit and caboodlewith its four factors. with its wellpreexistent of existence a definite instinct.of t he nut r it ive of of perue. in t he last analysis. rather.inst inct Thus the t wo The dr ive pr oper ly and dri ve. displaces zone' obirr. t he only senseait hf ul t o Fr eud'sdiscover y.on. quent lyt r ig g e ra s e x u a ls ti mu l a ti o n .. in as an "internal source" which ultimately is nothing but the transcriptionof the sexual repercussions anything occurring in the body beyond a of c er t ain qua n ti ta ti v eth re s h h o l d . is that the exception-. but it is as a vital function that it is pervertedb-t' of at not ionsdiscussed t he beginning t his chapt er .as t child." and "object. the of doublemovement leaning. C o n s i d e ro n c e mo re w hat they entai l :to that end a we shall usethe term perversion. but t her e ar exchanges e bor ne by it ( t he pr im e exam pleis againf eeding. he m ovem ent the perversion-ends up by of the thing itseli.what we havecalledthe component drives fparrialtriebe. lt is in the clinamen insofaras the latter resultsin an autoeroticinternalization. any vital process. .22 Life and Death in Psychoanalysis The Order of Life well as of t he second of chapter.." as we have definedthem."a t leastin t he caseof t he sm all child?what is per ver t ed sexuality. can . the instinct.w hich esupposesspecif ic h and aim and ofadi verge nt pat h( inbiology.this phaseis oedipal. and concenlratesils sotrrceon v'ho! is ultimately a minimal which we have the erotogeniczone. The movement t which is sim ult aneouslyhe sketchedabove. n a subsequent i discussion masochism. we should indicate the interest we are inclined t ur ning point wit hin t he bodily attri buteto it .for the discovery is always a rediscoveryof something else.i nsti ncts" nd accor ding o t he num ber and classif icat ion t he inst inct s of t a aboveall' and per haps but they adopt: not only sexualper ver sions also.t. may say that it is the instinct in its entirety.The entire we instinct with its own "source. or ient at ion . in a the defi ni t ion of a "sexual inst inct " ult im at elywould consistonly Such is not t he "popular concept ion.ssexualit y' which . or at leastt he perversi o n.the privilegedsomaticzone. .. The exception. Freud'sconclusionon the subiectreads: Sexualexcitationarisesas a concomitant effect Iwe shall retain this term "marginaleffect. etc. " and im pr ovedver sionof t he revi sed we is.have occasionto return to the painful affect as of an " indir ec ts o u rc e "o f s e x u a l i ty .xuutit"y.e'.. or marginal.W e shal l . since t he pr incipal biological exchange. etc.

O n t he other hand .which wasno doubt t oo br ief t o t r acea Fr eudiangenesis of sexual i tyf r om t he vit al or der . or of graspi ngit "beneat h"what has com e t o "cover " it over ( assum inghat t theseterms st ill have any ot her t han a st r ict lydidact icf unct ion) . bea r son t he ext r aor dinar ybr oadeningof t he not ion of sexualit y occasi oned psychoanalysis. br oadening m uch in t he ext ension by a as of the concep t as in it s com pr ehension.not onl y perver sions neur that we may say. if we introduce the subjectivity of the first "part ner". t hesezonesrfocali ze poren I al n ras ies and above all m at er naI fo fantasies.we shall f ir st pr oposea ser iesof obser vat ionselat ingt o our r previ ousl ect ur e.cont ains what m ight be called a fundamental imperfection in the human being: a dehiscence. and which will pr esent lyf igur e betw eenthe lines of what we shall under t aket o explain: t he not ion of "deferredaction" (N acht rdglich ke it). attract the first erotogenic maneuversfrom the adult. t he pr oposed genesis pliesin on im fact that w h at com esf ir st .say. t he vit al or der . it should be not ed t hat our earlier effort was a necessarily imperfect approximation. namely the particular and attentivecare provided by the mother.then. t his At point we should recallthe termpansexualitltwhich was usedas a veritable 25 . rhe sexuar excitation. which is also concer nedwit h sexual i ty. rt is this arien internalentity and its evorutionwithin the human beingwhich wiil be the object of our next studv. n it s ext ension. This zoneofexchangeis also a zonefor care. should be correctedby a r ever sal: t he one hand. in what is barely a metaphor. but a f unct ion w hi ch i s som ehowf eebleor pr em at ur e. Sexunlity and the Vilal Order in Psychical Conflict In begi nning t his second elabor at ion. W hat i s " pe r ver t ed"by sexualit yis indeedt he f unct ion. ilar ly under t aken sim along wit h Freud. We only developed a singleaspecrof the problem o[ sexuality. The very term genesis evokesthe not ion of an em er gence. r ar hert he im possibilit y.f or exam ple.Life and Death in Psychoanalysis as are other exchanges well).as t he int r oducor but ti on of the conceptof sublim at ion. and alone allows us t o under st and and t o int er pr etwhat we persi sti n calling t he pr ior . An even more significant factor.that they are the points through which is in. We ar e alluding her e t o a not ion which is equal l y prevalentin Fr eud's t hought . These zones. all of hum an act ivit y. Fir st of all.since sexualit y I w oul d seemt o include not only t he sm all sect orof genit alact ivit y.oduced into the chird that arien internar entity which is.dem onst r at es. t o t hat ver y ext ent . properry speaking. possibilit y a linearunder st andt he of ing of what is later by what precedes But this perspective it.1 Our secondpr elim inar yobser vat ion. Ther einliest he whole pr oblemof the " vi tal order " in m an and of t he possibilit y. it is t he / aler which is per hapsm or e l mportant.

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