A.

BECOMING AN EFFECTIVE MANAGER
HOW TO IMPRESS HIGH-LEVEL MANAGERS

Your exposure to higher level managers is usually limited, so you need to make a good impression when you have the opportunity. After all, the managers above your boss can affect your pay, promotions, assignments, and even your job security. Whetever they are in business, government, or the non-profit sector, all executives appreciate certain things. Here are a few ways to make the most of your encounters with the higher-ups. 1. Consider the big pictures. The higher you go in an organization, the wider the view. Executives really appreciate employees who think about issues beyond their own narrow job description. If you seem to understand and care about larger organizational goals, you will make a positive impression. 2. Collaborate across function. Part of seeing the bigger picture is recognizing how your job function connects to others. All too often employees and lower-level managers get stuck in their “solos” and focus only on their own objectives. But high-level managers want different functions to work together to achieve organizational goals. 3. Be smart about money. All high-level managers are concerned about money in one way or another, whetever it’s increasing sales, reducing costs, managing budgets, or insuring overall profitability. If you show concern for finances, top managers will know that you appreciate the issues that they must deal with on a regular basis. 4. Ask intelligent questions. Executives appreciate employees who take an interest in the business, and they usually love to share their knowledge or perspective. When you have a chance to interact with the managers above your boss, try to have a few well-thought-out questions ready. 5. Propose solutions. Managers constantly hear about problems, so they really appreciate people who focus on solving them. Even if an executive doesn’t agree with your ideas, the fact that you think about solutions will be viewed positively. 6. Share interesting information. Even thought executives have a broader view, they know little about the everyday details of most functions. And they are usually quite interested in hearing more about what’s going on. Any new information about customers, employees, finances, or projects will usually be greeted with interest. 7. Be succinct. Executives have limited time, so don’t expect them to sit through lengthy descriptions of projects or problems. Be prepared to convey your information quickly and concisely. If they wan to know more, they will ask. 8. Disagree respectfully. Most high-level managers have little respect for wimps. On the other hand, they expect people to respect their position and their authority. So presenting different view will often be viewed positively, as long as you are non-confrontational and respectful. 9. Make effective presentations. Whenever you present information to an executive, you have a chance to make a positive impression. Many people make bad presentations, so good ones really stand out. If you are unsure of your presentation skill, read up the topic or study people who do it well.

Why Bother with Strategic Planning?
Do you really need to do strategic planning? Only if you care about the future of your organization. As an old saying states, “If you don’t know where you’re going, then you’ll probably end up somewhere else.”

The primary purpose of strategic planning is to identify critical priorities that must be addressed to insure a successful future. Here are some things that you can learn through the planning process:        What your customers like about your products or services and what they dislike. Why customers might decide to take their business elsewhere. How your future success could be derailed or enhanced by upcoming changes in the business environment. Where the quality of work may be suffering in your organization. Why employees may decide to leave your organization and pursue their careers elsewhere. Whetever you current allocation of human and financial resources is in line with your goals. How you can do a better job of holding people accountable for results.

At the strategic level, the planning process take a “big picture” look at the organization, studying external trends and changes as well as internal strengths and weaknesses. At the end of strategic planning process, you will have agreed on limited number of Strategic Priorities & Goals that need to be addressed over the next three to five years. WHAT QUESTIONS DO YOU NEED TO ASK? Essentially, strategic planning is about answering questions. The most important questions to ask depend upon your current circumstances. The relevant questions may therefore change from one planning cycle to the next. Here are some of the questions you may want to address. ESTABLISHING HE FOUNDATION To plant effectively, you must know why your organization exists and what you hope to accomplish in the future.      Mission: What is our purpose? Why was this organization created and what are we here to do? Vision: Considering our purpose, what results do we hope to have accomplished three to five years from now? Stakeholders: Who are we here to serve? Whose interest must we consider as we work towards our purpose? Values: What do we believe about the way we should do our work? What are our ethical principles? Core functions: To accomplish our purpose successfully, what must our organization be able to do well?

ASSESSING THE CURRENT SITUATION To be successful, organizations must have the internal capability to respond effectively to their external environment. Therefore, an important aspect of planning is identifying trends outside the organization and evaluating effectiveness inside the organization.  Environmental Scan: What change or trends may affect us in the next three to five years?  Internal Assessment: Considering our purpose and our environment, what are our strengths and weaknesses?

An Operating Plan contains the specific objectives and action steps needed to accomplish your strategic goals. Option 3: BEFORE DECIDING. You already know which decision is likely to be best. While strategic planning is done every three to five years. CHOOSING A DECISION-MAKING STRATEGY Decision-making involves more than processing information. Including others in the process will increase acceptance of the decision. Reasons to use this strategy: The best decision is not clear. CONSULT WITH OTHERS ONE-ON-ONE TO GET THEIR VIEWS. operational planning is done at the beginning of each year. . A decision must be made quickly. Reasons to use this strategy: You have all the information you need. Five possible approaches to decision-making are listed below. You have time for consultation.    Organizational Structure: Are you organized correctly for the results you want to achieve? Critical Processes: Do your critical work processes operate effectively and efficiently? Outcome Measures: What indicators will let you know if you are successful in carrying out your purpose? Once you have completed the strategic planning process. It is also an interpersonal process. what are the specific results that you hope to accomplish? ORGANIZING FOR SUCCESS Once you know what you need to be doing. Acceptance by others is not important. With this information. what things must you focus on in order to be successful? Goals: For each priority area. you will be better equipped to sharpen your focus on during the next three to five years. A decision must be made quickly. (3) acceptance of the decision by others. You must decide how to involve others in making the decision – or whether to include them at all. and the critical factors in your current situation. Others may have conflicting views or different priorities. Acceptance by others is not important. Reasons to use this strategy: You lack critical information that others have. you are then ready to develop your Operating Plan for the first year. THEN DECIDE BY YOURSELF. Your decisionmaking strategy should be influenced by these four variables: (1) availability of information. Goals and objectives for each department or unit should grow out of the annual Operating Plan. then you must be sure that your structures and processes will help you accomplish desired results. (2) superiority of one decision. Option 1: MAKE THE DECISION BY YOURSELF. with indicators for choosing each one. Option 2: GET INFORMATION FROM OTHERS. A group discussion would not be helpful. Both strategic and operational planning are necessary for longterm success.   Strategic Priorities: Given all available information.DEFENING YOUR FOCUS Having identified your purpose. your hopes for the future. you will be able to tell which decision is best. (4) amount of time to decide. Hearing different perspectives will help you make a better decision.

You have time for consensus-building. then the ability is not the issue. When confronted with the performance issue. 2. Every job is the responsibility of two people: the employee. access to people. because ability problems and motivation problems need to be addressed quite differently. ABILITY QUESTIONS 1. then it may be impossible to deliver desired results no matter how much they want to. What Causes Performance Problems? Managers become very frustrated with employee performance problems. Before talking with someone about the performance issue. Are obstacles or barriers preventing good performance? . the questions below may help your short things out. could they produce the correct performance? If they could. who is accountable for producing desired results. Others may have conflicting views or different priorities. look for appropriate occasions to try a different approach. who creates the environment in which the employee works. or encouragement will make it happen. equipment. When the employee does not have the ability to do the work. The group has a history of working well together. However. Here’s the differentiating question: if you put a gun the person’s head (which is not recommended). THE KEY QUESTION Is it an Ability Problem or Motivation Problem? This is the most fundamental question about performance issue. HAVE A GROUP DISCUSSION TO EXPLORE OPTIONS. but is simply not motivated. Acceptance by the group is important. then training and skills coaching is a waste of time and money. And here’s a key point to consider: as the manager. punishment. Group members share your priorities and can agree on common goals. Group discussion is logistically possible. or whatever. but also on involving the right people in the right way. Having a group discussion will allow more possibilities to be explored. Reasons to use this strategy: The best decision is not clear.Option 4: BEFORE DECIDING. and the manager. Does the employee have sufficient resources? If and employee doesn’t have the time. you may inadvertently be contributing to the situation. If you tend to overuse one or two of the above strategies. Group members have all relevant information. but often don’t take time to do “detective work” on the cause. You have time for group participation. Hearing the views of others will help group members understand and accept the decision. The group has a big stake in the outcome. if the person has the ability. You need to hear other perspectives to make a good decision. Option 5: ASK THE GROUP TO REACH A CONSENSUS INDEPENDENTLY Reasons to use this strategy: The best decision is not clear. Group decision is logistically possible. money. then no amount of recognition. You have no strong preferences. Making good decisions depends not only on locating all necessary information. give some thought to possible reasons for the problem.

When it’s difficult to obtain the final decision. 4. Or that just telling someone to do something is sufficient. then the manager needs to kindly help the person find a more suitable type of work. Does the employee have the skills needed to produce desired results? Have employees had sufficient training? Coaching? Enough time to get through the learning curve? Or are they expected to just “sink or swim”? If someone doesn’t have the skills – or enough time to learn the skills – then they can’t do the work. then odds are the expectations won’t be met. If no one says “thanks” or “good job”. 3. with the result that some turn out to be square pegs in round-hole jobs. they will likely assume everything is okay. goals. 9. This is called a “passive-aggressive” response. get collaboration from another department. Is good performance being recognized and rewarded? When managers want to encourage particular behaviors or results. Are there negative consequences for poor performance? Managers sometimes unintentionally reward the very behavior they don’t want. Otherwise. 7. then all the skills training in the world will be of no help at all. Angry employees may passiveaggressively express displeasure by putting less energy into their work. A simple explanation of the reason for the requests. . Does the employee have the innate talent for this type of work? When someone is a complete mismatch for the job. Is the employee angry or resentful about something? When some is afraid to address an issue directly. If this is the case. but nothing changes. And if you tell them. They sometime assume that the importance of a task or policy should be obvious. Have expectations and priorities been clearly explained? If it’s not clear what’s desired in terms of quality. then adverse consequences need to follow. the manager should explore and resolve the cause of the resentment in addition to addressing the performance issue. or any other performance dimension. Although managers usually think they have been clear and specific. If possible. the message often doesn’t get through for one reason or another. then it’s easy for an employee to assume that the task isn’t very important. When you have a problem with someone’s behavior or results. 5. speed. results may be difficult to accomplish. MOTIVATION QUESTIONS 6. People wander into career choices in all kinds of ways. or work standards will sometimes resolve motivation issues. But assumptions are always dangerous. quantity. you need to tell them. they may demonstrate their anger or resentment through their behavior. they need to express appreciation. or overcome any other obstacle. It’s absolutely amazing how often this is the source of performance issues. How? By failing to take any action to stop it. 8. Does the employee understand why performance is important? Manager don’t always share reasons with employees.

THE GOALS ARE CLEAR The purpose. Once you have considered the possible cause of an employee performance problem. And if that’s not possible. so people don’t fear being punished for them. Is the employees bored or burned out? Being burned out or bored does not give an employee a “get-out-of-jail-free” card. 2. 6. Questions usually fall into two categories: (1) standard questions for all candidates and (2) individual questions that are developed from each person’s application or resume. but take the initiative to find solutions. 9. 3. I. plan. 8. PEOPLE HELP EACH OTHER Coworkers have collaborative and supportive working relationship. They are still expected to do the work. so managers should work with these employees to help them get reenergized. INTERESTING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS HOW TO DEVELOP USEFUL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Developing effective questions is the key to a successful employment interview. EVERYONE UNDERSTANDS THE BUSINESS All employees have an understanding of the type of work done by the organization. not criticized and killed. TYPES OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS A. and key priorities are clearly communicated to all concerned. then it may be time to restructure their job or help them consider a different type of work. PROBLEMS ARE ADDRESSED AND RESOLVED People do not waste energy on blaming and fault-finding. then you need to have a coaching discussion with the person. NO ONE GETS UPSET ABOUT SMALL STUFF People focus on real issues. THE SIGNS OF OFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP 1. NEW IDEAS HAVE A CHANCE TO GROW Suggestions and ideas are discussed and explored. SUCCESSES ARE CELEBRATED! The group takes time to reflect on their successes and celebrate their accomplishments. DESIRED RESULTS ARE ACHIEVED Most importantly.10. Commonly-Asked Questions Anyone who has ever applied for a job knows that certain questions show up in interview after interview: What are your goals? What are your strengths and weaknesses? What do you know about our company? . not minor irritants or nit-picky details. the organization succeeds in fulfilling its mission and achieving its goals. 5. 10. 4. MISTAKES ARE NOT HIDDEN Errors are seen as opportunities to learn. CREDIT IS SHARED APPROPRIATELY Everyone is recognized and appreciated for their part in the organization’s achievements. But motivated employees produce better results. 7.

and fit. Here are some examples: COMMON QUESTION: What did you like about your last job? REVISED QUESTION: Give me an example of a time that you felt really excited about your work. C. The problem. experience questions are usually the best way to get information about ability. then ask a . Experience Questions Experience Questions are designed to relate the applicant’s past experiences to your current needs by asking for specific examples from their work history. Predictive Questions Sometimes an experience question may be difficult to use because the applicant has not worked in similar circumstances. Because the best predictor of future performance is past performance.One of the reasons these questions are frequently asked is that they do focus on useful information. In that case. How would you explain the major features of your company’s product to a customer with no technical knowledge?  Your previous teaching experience has been with children. you may want to pose a hypothetical question which asks how the applicant would handle a particular type a situation. Change it to an Experience Question or Predictive Question (discussed below) or simply ask it in a different way. COMMON QUESTION: What do you know about our company? REVISED QUESTION: Why are you interested in working for this company? COMMON QUESTION: What are your goals? REVISED QUESTION: How do you feel this job would help you achieve your career goals? B. When you want to ask a common question. What made that relationship difficult? If you could have made one suggestion to management in your last job. As applicants answer your questions. Here are some examples of predictive questions:  I understand that you have worked mostly with customers who have technical background. your goal is to learn much as possible about the applicant. Follow-Up Questions As an interviewer. what would it be? What about yourself would you like to improve? Give an example of how these characteristics have caused you problems in the past. You will therefore use follow-up questions to further explore the answers you are given to questions in your interview plan. Here are some examples of experience questions:    Think of someone you found it hard to work with in the past. what might you need to do differently? D. however. motivation. is that candidates are asked them so often that they usually have well-rehearsed answers. listen for points that you want them to clarify or expand. Although this does not necessarily predict what they would actually do. but this position involves teaching adults. try to give it a slightly different twist. it does let you know how they view the problem and what options they consider. If you were developing a workshop for adult learners.

your questions must be neutral – that is. how much travel would you like to have in a job? How much travel would be too much for you? B. family. Sample Interview Questions Ability         Describe your qualifications for this job. BAD QUESTION: Why do you change jobs so often? BETTER QUESTION: For your last three jobs. Describe two or three things that you learned from your last (or present) job. Open-ended You will gain more information from questions that start with words like who. Questions directly related to the job are also legally safer. Legally.follow-up question to get additional information. etc. as in the example below. how. finances. Non-threatening Applicants provide more information when they are relaxed. In your last (or present) job. what did you spend most of your time on? What are your special abilities? How have they helped you succeed in the past? . tell me why you took them and why you left them. BAD QUESTION: Do you like your present job? BETTER QUESTION: What do you find most rewarding about your present job? D. questions about the applicant’s personal life. What is the biggest mistake you’ve made during your career? Describe some difficult problems that you have had to deal with. INITIAL QUESTION: What do you do to try to calm down angry customers? FOLLOW-UP QUESTION: How do you handle customers who won’t calm down? II. BAD QUESTION: Do you have small children? BETTER QUESTION: What caused you to miss work in the past? What might limit your ability to travel? C. and non-work activities are hazardous. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD QUESTIONS A. managers ask questions which provide lots of clues about the “right” answer. You may also plan in advance to ask a follow-up to some of your standard questions. To encourage unbiased responses from the applicant. Neutral All too often. avoid questions that can be answered with a yes or no. tell me about. BAD QUESTION: Would you be able to travel about 50% of the time? BETTER QUESTION: How much do you travel in your current job? Ideally. What have you learned in school that would help you in this job? Give me some examples of the kinds of decisions you made in your last job. Since job interviews are uncomfortable for many people. Job-related Interview questions should be developed from the requirements of the job. they must not reveal the answer you want. describe. hobbies. what. try to avoid questions that will make them more anxious.

sharing perspectives. Here are the steps in a coaching discussion: 1.  What about yourself would you like to improve? Give an example of how these characteristics have caused you problems in the past. What are some things that you would like to accomplish in your career? What would cause you to get tired of a job? What have you found most frustrating about your previous job? “FIT” WITH EMPLOYER           What is it about our organization that interests you? Why do you think you would like this position? Think of some people you have worked well with. What have you done that you’re particularly proud of? MOTIVATION           Why did you choose this field of work? What jobs have you enjoyed most? Least? Why? What did you like about your last job? Not like? Why? What motivates you? Give me an example from your previous work experience. In neutral. The coaching discussion should be focused on development. what would it be? What kinds of things have bothered you most at work? Describe your last three managers. and problem solving. factual terms. Be very clear about you hope to accomplish in this conversation. What kind of manager do you prefer? Why? What were your last manager’s strengths? Weaknesses? Describe the best boss you have had. CONDUCTING A COACHING DISCUSSION Coaching discussion are needed not only to address performance problems. What made those relationships successful? Think of someone you found it hard to work with. do . Discuss what the employee does well. The worst boss. If the goal is for the person to learn a new task or skill. discuss the reasons why you feel they can be successful. Determine your goal. learning. Recognize theirs strengths. and suggestions. Why have you decided to leave jobs in the past? Describe your ideal working environment. If there are problems. Why are you considering a job change at this time? What would it take to keep you in your present job? Describe some of yours accomplishments and talk about the reasons for your success. Even if there are problems. 2. What made relationship difficult? If you could have made one suggestion to management in your last job. A coaching discussion should always end with an agreement about what action will be taken or what will be done differently in the future. no one is all good or bad. but also for employee development – when an employee is new or the job has changed in some way. 3. ideas. Both manager and employee should participate actively in the discussion. Then be sure to keep the discussion on track. Share your observations of jobs performances needs. so describe this particular person’s talents or accomplishments. describe the problem that needs to be addressed or the skill that needs to be learned.

Sometimes people really do not understand the effect of their behavior on others or on the work. customers. Appreciate their willingness to change. then nothing is likely to happen. Fundamental Leadership Behaviors Two basic responsibility of any manager are exercising control and encouraging employee involvement. Otherwise. If not. they will come up with a better idea. Agree on action steps. the more easily you can modify it when you need to. Thank the employee for participating in the discussion. Make arrangements for a follow-up discussion to assess progress. If you do not end with action steps. Discuss job behaviors or tasks. A. 4. you can always give a different opinion. At the end of the discussion. 1. 7. colleagues. but they actually are not. do not say that the person “has no initiative”. For example. . IDENTIFYING YOUR PREFERRED LEADERSHIP STYLE Just as we each have individual personality characteristic. And be sure to follow up on your agreements! If you don’t. 8. the employee will just feel that you are lecturing. The table below specifies just what is meant by Control and Involvement. the employee’s career. but explain what tasks are not being done or what problems are not being resolved. abilities.not sugarcoat them so that they no longer sound like a problem. 6. Coaching discussions should be two-way conversations. Be direct. describe how they are adversely affecting outcomes. Describe the effect of the problem. each manager has his or her own leadership style. Ask questions to get their point of view. then you send the message that the issue wasn’t actually very important. the manager’s own leadership style either promotes or inhibits an employee’s development. the two factors we will use to describe different leadership styles. so it is important to ask a question early in the conversation. You may not have given much thought to describing your leadership style. but not critical or blaming. yourself. agree on specific actions to be taken and the timeline that will be followed. but your employees could definitely tell you about it! The better you understand your natural style. and knowledge needed to be fully competent in their jobs. etc. the organization. Get input on possible solutions. These two things may sound somewhat contradictory. Be open to the idea that you might also need to do something differently to support the employee. So if there are performance issues. Before you suggest a solution. not personality traits. DEVELOPMENTAL LEADERSHIP: LEARNING TO SHIFT YOUR STYLE One of the most important tasks of manager is to help employees acquire the skills. Often. Frequently. 5. see what the employee has to say.

a 3 to the next most comfortable. Then discuss with your group members the reasons why you prefer your highest-ranked style and why you may tend to avoid your lowest-ranked style. 2. B. LEADERSHIP STYLES High High Consulting  Reviewing work  Answering questions  Active supervision INVOLVEMENT  Input on decisions Directing  Defining tasks  Giving instruction  Close supervision Low  Management decisions CONTROL  Sharing perspectives  Discussing ideas  General supervision  Mutual decisions Delegating  Agreeing on results  Allowing autonomy  Little supervision  Independent decisions Low Participating Identifying Your Style Preferences Rank the four styles according to your level of comfort with each one. CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE STYLE FOR EACH EMPLOYEE Successful managers learn that they must treat their employees both the same and differently! You want to be consistent and not show favoritism.Control         Setting goals Clarifying expectations Providing direction Giving information Defining roles Answering questions Organizing and structuring Making decisions         Listening Involvement Asking opinions Providing encouragement Getting feedback Trying new ideas Facilitating discussions Developing relationships Sharing decision making All managers need to use Control and Involvement behaviors in different combinations and at different times. These styles are not innately good or bad – the key is to use the right style at the right time – and with the right person. but at the same time you need to change your leadership to meet each employee’s individual needs. and so on. . Knowing when to use each of these behaviors appropriately is one of the keys to being an effective manager. The Developmental Leadership Model The Developmental Leadership Model combines Control and Involvement behaviors into four different leadership styles. The four styles are shown in the table below. Give a 4 to the style with which you are most comfortable.

Likely to prefer working independently? 9. Likely to stick with a task until it is completed? 6. a high-affiliation employee may want to interact more frequently than someone motivated largely by achievement. organization. Likely to be a self-starter 5. By gradually shifting from higher control and involvement to lower control and involvement. Coaching Employees through a Learning Curve Developmental leadership can help you coach employees through a learning curve when the job.Employees differ in the amount of direction and interaction they want from they manager. Eager to take responsibility? 7. which is related to several factors. so one factor influencing your style may be the employee’s preference. but attainable goals? 3. or assignment is new to them. Matching Leadership Style & Job Maturity The key to using the Developmental Leadership Model is learning to shift your style to match the developmental level of each employee and the specific situation you are facing. Willing to set high. The appropriate style is determined by assessing the employee’s job maturity. A. Low Job Maturity Little work experience Little job experience New to organization New to assignment Poor decision-making ability Poor job performance Poor work habits Avoids responsibility High Job Maturity Extensive work experience Extensive job experience Familiar with organization Familiar with assignment Good decision-making ability Outstanding job performance Good work habits Enjoys responsibility Is the person or group…… 1. Able to work without much supervision? 8. you help the employee learn to become more independent and selfsufficient. Able to set appropriate work-related goals? 2. Supportive of the objectives of the task or job? 10. This is the primary factor used in the Developmental Leadership Model. Interested in the task or job? 11. for example. . Able to solve work-related problems? 4. Another critical factor in determining the appropriate leadership style is the employee’s job maturity. Educated and/or experienced in this area? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Add up your score and see which style might be best… Low Maturity 11 22 33 44 High Maturity 55 DIRECTING – CONSULTING – PARTICIPATING – DELEGATING B. Thinking back to motivational differences.

Some characteristics of an effective delegator are described below. Can let others make decisions. Consider these questions in deciding whether to delegate to task or project. as described above. so you need to use a delegation process that will minimize the risk and maximize the rewards. Gather information about the pros and cons of different options. not methods. you can usually insure that you will achieve desired results and both you and the employee will be satisfied with the process. Arrange for feedback during the process. but report back to me when you do. but also the proper attitude on the part of manager. Select an appropriate employee. The “level” of delegation referred to in Step 3 relates to the amount of decision-making authority the person will have. Focuses on desired results. 2. 1. the process also has some potential pitfalls. Wait for my approval. 6.        Develops trusting relationships with employees. Give authority to match level of responsibility. Helps people learn from their mistakes. However. 3. Characteristics of Effective Delegators Effective delegation requires not only a structured process. 7. 5. Take action. Feel rewarded by the success of others. Define your desired results. Provide background information.        Do I really have to do this myself? Who else has the ability to do this? Who might benefit from learning to do this? What is the worst thing that may happen if I delegate this? How can I prevent that from happening? Who has the biggest stake in the outcome? Who really “owns” this problem? Seven Steps to Effective Delegation Delegation can be risk and nerve-wracking if done badly. Is open to new ideas and approaches. Give me several possible alternative actions and recommend one. Here are the five options to consider for level of delegation:      Take action independently. because you may find that you don’t get the expected results.MASTERING THE DELEGATION PROCESS Delegation means achieving results by giving someone else the authority to do work for which you are ultimately responsible. 4. Determine the “level” of delegation. by following the steps outlined below. Recommend the action you think should be taken. Clarify expectations and set parameters. . Is able to let go of detail work. Despite the fact that delegation has many benefits. No need to report back.

will it be admitted?  Will we talk about the things that I do well?  Will I be given specific examples of any problems?  Will I feel free to discuss the evaluation and my reaction to it?  Will we discuss developmental opportunities for me? Making It a Two-Way Conversation A useful performance review should be a two-way discussion about the employee’s job. The following list of questions may give some useful ideas for encouraging employee participation. After all.  Will it be scheduled in advance? Will be there be enough time for a real discussion?  Will it be private? With no interruptions?  Will it be kept confidential?  Do I know what expectations I will be evaluated on? Were they communicated in advance?  Have I been given ongoing feedback so that there won’t be any surprises?  Does my manager know what my job involves?  Will the evaluation be honest? Will it be fair and unbiased?  Will my manager listen to what I have to say?  If my manager has made a mistake. The performance review should focus on four primary areas:     Past job performance Future plans and expectations Developmental goals Employee needs and concerns The following questions reflect the concern that employees typically have about appraisals.CONDUCTING MOTIVATIONAL PERFORMANCE REVIEWS Most performance reviews should be a pleasant and productive experience. this is probably one of the few times that you spend and extended time focusing on a person’s job and discussing it with them. Job Responsibilities What do you see as the major responsibilities of your job? Which are most important? Least important? Why? What takes the most time? What do you like best about your job? Least? What would you change about your job? Expectations What accomplishments are you most pleased out? What has contributed to your success in these areas? In some areas has it been difficult to reach your objectives? How could I help you with these areas in the future? Strengths What do you consider to be your strong points? How do these abilities help you in your job? Are there ways we could use your talents more effectively? Areas for Improvement In what areas do you feel you could do a more effective job? What have you been doing to improve in these areas? How could I be of help to you? Development What abilities would you like to develop or improve? What developmental opportunities would be helpful to you? .

A “Road Map” for the Appraisal Meeting The following guidelines can help you structure a normal appraisal discussion – that is. Indicate that the reasons for the rating will be discussed as you go through the various parts of the appraisal. or performance area at a time. ask how you can help. Discussing Job Performance  If the employee has not read their review in advance. Discuss plans for professional development. Then we can discussion the “performance factors” listed on the form. tell them their overall rating. incorporate the employee’s comments into your discussion. If they say they did not understand the rating they got. one dealing with generally acceptable performance. make a note of them and indicate that you would like to include their questions in the discussion of each separate area.  Talk about one goal. however. ask if they had any questions about it. Express appreciation to the employee (for anything you sincerely do appreciate). since it relates your comments to specific job performance. If a self-appraisal was done. Establish follow-up dates. (For example. indicate that the reasons for the rating will be discussed as you go through the various parts of the appraisal. If performance is poor enough to require corrective action.  If the employee did read the review in advance. indicate how their input was gathered and used. Finally. I’d like for us to talk about each of the goals that you had for last year and the results that were achieved. If they have general questions. Give the employee an overview of how the discussion will be structured. objective.)  If others were part of the appraisal process. Starting the Discussion    Before the meeting: Consider giving the employee the review form to read in advance. since that’s usually what employees are most concerned about. In any area requiring improvement. You may ask them to elaborate on their written remarks. answer them. If their questions relate to specific goals or performance factors. This is better than simply giving an overview of the person’s strengths and weaknesses. I’d like to review your goals for this year and talk about professional development activities. Performance Planning   Agree on expectations and goals for the upcoming year (or review those that have already been set). this approach will not be appropriate. Summarizing the Discussion    Summarize the employee’s strengths and developmental needs. . Created a relaxed atmosphere at the beginning of the discussion.   Ask for employee input in each area. “First. Discuss strengths and needs for improvement in each area. Review any action steps that were agreed upon (for either the employee or yourself). even though some improvement may be needed.

government. human resources. These characteristic are often helpful in management. but usually do not enhance teamwork. not selection. Barriers to Creating a Leadership Team To many people. and coordination of activities.  Conflicting interests: Each management team member is responsible for a separate organizational unit. Team membership and leadership are determined by position. D. These units often have conflicting goals. turning a group of managers into an effective leadership team is no easy task. Members often need to work together outside the team setting. (This generalization does not apply to all managers. “management team” sounds like an oxymoron.  Staff management team: Managers who run departments who exist to support the line functions. or sell the organization’s products or service. What Is a Management Team? “Management Team” usually refers to a group of managers at the same organizational level who report to the same person. Members can be more effective individually by sharing information with one another. while Councils offer input. and high on need for control. such as information systems. The terms were surveyed using the Team Effectiveness Assessment for Management (TEAM). Management teams usually share the following characteristics:      The team’s primary purpose is to make decisions that guide organizational operations. The Management Team Research Project To find out what makes a management team effective. interests. advice. action-oriented. . and non-for-profit organizations. Many management teams fall into one of the following categories:  Executive team: The top management group in organization. for several reasons:  Management personalities: Management work tends to attract people who are analytical. Staff departments have knowledge and abilities in specialized areas. C. Management teams are part of an organization’s formal leadership structure. Members have no other connection as a group.  Line management team: Managers who run departments that produce. Teams rated in the top 25% on these effectiveness measures were compared with those in the bottom 25% to determine which characteristics differentiated successful from unsuccessful teams.BUILDING EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT TEAM A. deliver. etc. we studied more than 500 members of 72 management groups in both business and government. and needs. an instrument develop specifically to assess management groups. while large organizations have several teams at each layer of their hierarchy. Boards usually provide governance and oversight. Types of Management Teams Management teams are found in business. but is true of managers as an occupational group). In fact. They meet regularly to share information and make decisions that affect the whole organization or department. B. Small enterprises may have only one management team.  Board or Council: A formal group that meets periodically for join decision-making. All team members hold leadership positions in the organization.

or accomplishments. acquire a common history. Team members require time to become familiar with one another. When they were absent. In addition. Two factors appear to be especially important for encouraging collaboration: trust and respect. Power relationships: Management teams are embedded in a complex network of organizational relationships. A minimal degree of trust about work activities is absolutely necessary. Success Factor 1: Strategic Goals To focus activity and effort. E. For a management team to be effective.  Earned Respected: Earned respect does not come automatically – a person attains earned respect through their action. members need to have at least some degree of respect for the abilities of other team members. management team members must continually try to reach agreement in critical issues. a highly cohesive team may develop a deeper level of trust. What Makes a Management Team Successful? In the Management Team Research Project. but this is not necessary for members to work together effectively. Success Factor 4: Effective Information Processing . and develop shared perspectives. which greatly affect their ability to produce results. cohesive groups. When the five factors were present. Respect can be broken down into two types: basic respect and earned respect. management teams must access critical information from both inside and outside the organization. supportive relationships. Over time. teams had difficulty their leadership role in the organization. since differences and disagreements are a natural part of team interaction. Promoting Positive Relationships A collaborative decision-making climate does not emerge overnight.  Group decision-making: Because their primary purpose is to make decision. and laterally. management teams need a clear understanding of their purpose and the goals they intend to accomplish. To be effective. they must successfully manage relationships upward. knowledge. Conflicting interests can make this process especially difficult. Success Factor 2: Extensive Networks To make informed decisions. Team members should always show basic respect towards one another. Success Factor 3: Collaborative Relationships To cooperate in achieving team goals.  Trust: Different levels of trust may exist on a management team. These goals should address the organization’s critical strategic priorities. F. maintaining positive relationships requires successful conflict management among team members.  Basic Respect: Basic respect refers to the respectful treatment we should show to any other person simply because they are another human being. the following five Success Factors appeared to differentiate the most successful teams from unsuccessful ones. management teams that we studied worked as productive. downward. management team members be able to develop positive.

you probably have a new boss. 7. TWELVE TIPS FOR NEW MANAGERS 1. Learn from your role model. Get to know people and let them get to know you. Did you find that helpful when you were “just an employee”? 2. Acknowledge that everyone is having to adjust. You have probably worked for several different managers in your life. our research found that the leader of a management team has more influence over this aspect of team effectiveness than any other. You now have to manage a group of people who have different style of working. Discuss your role with your boss. Along with a new job. you are now at a different level and need to learn about the management culture. Understand individual differences. You must be able to provide direction to your employees. 3. Don’t let the position go to your head. This will be easier if you talk about it with them. so try to take the best from each one and avoids their bad habits. give them feedback. Discuss your role with your staff. 5. management teams must effectively process the information available to them. If you are in a new organization. communicating. take time to figure out the “lay of the land”. you do need to become comfortable with the power you now have. management teams must make the transition from discussion to action. Take time to meet with employees individually to discuss their work. You have not just become Grand Dictator of the Universe. Learn about the organizational culture. A brilliant decision that is implemented poorly will be of no benefit to the organization. people will begin to view you as a wimp. and address performance issues. get their view of the department’s strengths and weaknesses. This is where you learn that not everyone does things the way you do. Begin to hold regular staff meetings (and be clear on what those meetings should accomplish).To make good decision. talk with your Human Resources department about having one. Otherwise. what did you want from your manager? What motivated you? What turned you off? 6. If you were promoted over your peers. 8. Your new boss and your new peer group can be very helpful here. Id your organization offers “Transition Meetings” or “Assimilation Meetings”. 4. Many people have made career-killing mistakes by failing to adapt to a different ways of doing things. Ask what questions they have about . Even if you have been with your organization for along time. While you don’t want to go mad with power. so you need to be clear on his or her expectations. As an employee. But don’t be afraid to act like a manager. Success Factor 5: Focused Action To accomplish results. so is their work style. help resolve problems. Have a meeting to discuss any of the following questions that might be useful: What are the most impotant goals in my job? What is your view of my staff? What decisions do you want to be involved in? How do you want me to share information with you? What are your particular “hot buttons”? and any other questions that might be helpful. so don’t begin ordering people around and watching their every move. You are now a member of a management team and need to be able to work collaboratively with those colleagues. Do the same with your new peer group. which may be a little uncomfortable for awhile. and making decisions. all of you need to adjust to the change in roles. Talk about your goals for the department and the way that you like to work. and find out what they need from you. But as long as the results are okay.

but it will help to move things along. you are likely to really enjoy your management role. Identify the most important goals of the department. By anticipating their likely reaction to your plan or proposal. If this represents a big change. the . Manage your stress! A new management job can be stressful for awhile.the change. 9. If you did not know your predecessor. Write up an initial plan for your department and share it with your manager. If you remember the change. but the conversation will still be helpful. (2) change equals loss. Understanding normal emotional responses to change can help you anticipate reactions. sad. meet with each person individually to discuss new expectations. or trusted friend can be a good sounding board and stress reducer. Compare your leadership style with your predecessor. In this situations. it’s probably because there was an emotion attached to it. your staff become accustomed to a certain way of doing things. happy. How did you feel in that situation? Worried. encourage open discussion of similarities and differences in leadership style. One helpful hint: find someone outside of your work group to talk to about this transition. If the person is a valuable employee. Think about the recent change at home or at work. and (3) acceptance requires planning. This negative focus often blocks their awareness of positive aspects. On the other hand. angry. ask about his or her style and determine what you are likely to do differently. CHANGE IS AN EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE One of the most fundamental facts about change is that all change is an emotional experience. One he or she has signed off. motivated. Unless they are psychic. But the odds are that you felt something. However. these too are frequently followed by a period of disappointment and regret – for example. you can make intelligent decisions about how to introduce it. People seem to automatically scan the situation for any alteration that is not to their benefit. First. stressed out? Or excited. If you find that management is not for you. 1. but that you hope the two of you will be able to work together. There are three things to know about change: (1) emotions are inevitable. some changes are eagerly anticipated and welcomed. there are always other choices. Talk with any staff member who applied for the job. You might also consider having your boss talk with the staff about the goals for your department and why you were selected to lead it. Under they previous manager. your staff can’t know how expectations have changed unless you tell them. If you’re feeling frazzled. share the plan with your staff and ask for their input. But the odds are that once you get through the learning curve. To help them adapt. coach. Ask if they have any advice for you as you start this new job. Acknowledge that you know they may be disappointed. 11. HOW TO HELP PEOPLE ACCEPT CHANGE If you want someone to accept change. seek out some stress management tips and put them into practice. This may uncomfortable. 12. 10. the well-known phenomenon of “buyer’s remorse” that real estate agents have learned to expect. the transition is different. Then they complain about it. energized. A mentor. Of you have joined a new organization. the initial response to change is often negative. you must first understand why they may resist it. and optimistic? Maybe your feelings were both positive and negative. depressed. They must now get used to a different set of expectations and preference. express sincere appreciation for their contributions.

Competence: People feel that they have the skills. ACCEPTANCE REQUIRES PLANNING If you want people to accept change. you lose something. When you get married. from their perspective. the first step is to understand what. managers and colleagues (or parents and spouses. but you take a hit in the areas of freedom and autonomy. They are asked for opinions or suggestions in any area where their input may be truly considered. The more choices people have. . the losses that come with change typically fall into one of four areas:     Safety & security: You don’t feel as certain that you will continue to be employed. time. If you don’t get one. You may gain something as well. And when you have a child. places. resulting in unanticipated disappointments later on. “Well. but it no longer feels that way. Relationships: You lose contact with people who are important to you or the nature of the relationship change. you need to invest some in planning and communication. that’s just fine. All too often. Four factors are particularly important in promoting acceptance: Caring: People feel that those who have power care about their concerns and will listen to them. the more they feel in control. and cultures as well as about skills and tasks. just be happy.” These people are living in a fantasy world. Mission & purpose: Your work used to be part of your reason for being. 3. then begin to replace or compensate for the loss. higher pay. At work. The bottom line here is that you should always expect a negative reaction to any change. but a loss is always involved. but you definitely lose money. you gain a better title. you have taken a giant first step towards acceptance. And some of the energy that previously went into complaining will now go into decision-making. you gain one of life’s greatest blessings. for that matter) just throw a change out there and expect others to say. The faster you can help someone move through the learning curve. Choice: People are given options as part of the change process. To get people to accept change. Never ask for input that you don’t plan to use. CHANGE EQUALS LOSS The main reason that people have negative reactions to change is that when things change. Competence: You feel less certain of your ability to perform job duties or produce results. knowledge. When you get promoted. the faster they will accept the change. listening to people’s reactions is just as important as explaining the reasons for change. and sleep. and abilities to succeed after the change. 2. you gain a loving life partner (hopefully). they feel that they are losing. So before you begin to implement your change. Control: People have some input into how the change will be implemented. and more recognition – but also lose your former feelings of comfort and competence in your previous job.initial optimism and excitement prevent the person from seeing a complete picture. Keep in mind that “learning” can be about people. take time to develop a change plan that incorporates those four features. If you can empathize with their feelings.

ask “how can I help?”. finding out what they expect from you may make it clearer. 3. 6. There is a long period of uncertainly about what is going to happen. If it’s not clear what the problem is. 7. “I can understand why you would be upset about that. it is your work. an important part of your job involves addressing the problems and concerns of your staff. Sometimes people just don’t explain things well. Listen to their explanation without interruption. Show understanding. So don’t say. You don’t want to jump to conclusions about the behavior of others until you have actually talked to them or learned more about the situation. Too many change occur at the same time. pay even more careful attention to your communication and implementation plan. As a manager.4. When you determine that these factors are present in the situation. If they are endlessly rambling. “let me stop you for a minute to be sure that I understand”. Remain neutral about issues involving other people. or change seems to go on and on without end. FACTORS THAT INCREASE RESISTANCE Finally. Try to understand the whole situation before deciding what to do next. Some people feel that they are unfairly affected more adversely than others. You want to be emphatic and convey that you understand the problem. “That’s awful! We have to do something about it!” better to say something like. just say. If you really have no clue what the issue is. but so far you’ve only heard their version of the situation. Ask questions to get a complete picture. They are usually focused on their own point of view to the exclusion of all others. Keep in mind that dealing with employee problems and concerns is not an interruption in your work. Taking phone calls or continuing to work on your computer clearly sends the message that the employee’s concerns aren’t all that important. 1. RESPONDING TO EMPLOYEE CONCERNS As a manager. but not necessarily agreement. Give the employee your full attention. 4. Agreeing with them can therefore be hazardous. Explain what you are going to do. Unless the person is just endlessly rambling on. Then do it. . The following suggestions may help to make these discussions more pleasant and productive. you should also be aware of the circumstances that tend to make resistance worse:     Important expectations about the future will not be met as a result of the change. 2.” 5. let them finish their story. Sometimes people who are upset or angry fail to provide all the relevant information. Then summarize what you’ve heard so far.

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