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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).
Republic of India भभभभ भभभभभभभ* Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit) सतयमेव जयते (Devanāgarī)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"
Jana Gana Mana
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people
I bow to thee, Mother
Area controlled by India in dark green. Claimed but uncontrolled territories in light green Capital Largest city Official language(s) Recognised regional languages National languages New Delhi 28°36.Republic 26 January 1950 Area 3.Declared 15 August 1947 . Kapadia Legislature Parliament of India .Speaker of the House Meira Kumar (INC) .263 km2 ‡(7th) 1.2011 census 1.210.Water (%) 9.060 trillion (4th) .422 (2nd) 365.193.269.Per capita $3.5′E / 28.Upper House Rajya Sabha .Total $4.339 GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate .President Pratibha Patil .2083°E Mumbai Hindi.Prime Minister Manmohan Singh (INC) .8′N 77°12. English[show] 8th Schedule:[show] None defined by the Constitution Demonym Indian Federal parliamentary Government constitutional republic .Chief Justice S.287.6133°N 77.Density 947/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate .Lower House Lok Sabha Independence from the United Kingdom .6/km2 (31st) . H.219 sq mi .56 Population .
it has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks tenth in military expenditure among nations. Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires. Buddhism. Four of the world's major religions—Hinduism. however. see also official names of India).in International TLDs[show] 91 India i/ˈɪndiə/. India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories. multilingual. whereas Zoroastrianism. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.Total . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991. India has become one of the fastest growing major economies. it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. officially the Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराजय Bhārat Gaṇarājya. It is the seventhlargest country by geographical area. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. Christianity and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also helped shape the region's diverse culture. and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. the People's Republic of China and Nepal to the northeast. the second-most populous country with over 1. the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. and the most populous democracy in the world.632 trillion (9th) $1. illiteracy. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power. In the Indian Ocean.8 (79th) 0. is a country in South Asia. Bhutan.519 (medium) (119th) Indian rupee ( ) (INR) IST (UTC+05:30) not observed (UTC+05:30) dd/mm/yyyy (AD) left IN . and Bangladesh and Burma to the east. Gradually annexed and administered by the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom from the mid19th century. it continues to face the challenges of poverty..2 billion people. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south. in addition.Per capita Gini (2004) HDI (2010) Currency Time zone .371 36. . India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence which was marked by non-violent resistance and led by Mahatma Gandhi. corruption and inadequate public health.Summer (DST) Date formats Drives on the ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Calling code Non-numbered Footnotes:[show] $1. Jainism and Sikhism—originated here. the Arabian Sea on the southwest. and multiethnic society. It is one of the 5 BRICS nations. The Indian economy is the world's ninth-largest economy by nominal GDP and fourth largest economy by purchasing power parity (PPP). and is considered a newly industrialized country. India is a pluralistic.
 History Main articles: History of India and History of the Republic of India .3 Foreign relations and military 5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Culture o 7. The Constitution of India and usage in many Indian languages also recognises Bharat (pronounced [ˈbʱaːrət] ( listen)) as an official name of equal status. Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈstaːn] ( listen)). The name Bharat ̪ is derived from the name of the legendary king Bharata in Hindu scriptures.4 Modern India 3 Geography o 3. which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu. from Sanskrit िसनधु Sindhu.1 Ancient India o 2.2 Music.Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 Etymology 2 History o 2. dance.2 Medieval India o 2.1 Biodiversity 4 Politics o 4.1 Society and traditions o 7. is also occasionally used as a synonym for all of India.1 Government o 4. the people of the Indus. the historic local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί).3 Sport 8 Notes 9 Cited references 10 External links Etymology Main article: Names of India The name India is derived from Indus.3 Early modern India o 2.2 Administrative divisions o 4. theatre and cinema o 7. originally a Persian word for “Land of the Hindus” referring to ̪ northern India and Pakistan before 1947.
 The emerging urbanization as well as the orthodoxies of the late Vedic age created the religious reform movements of Buddhism and Jainism. the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. the first urban culture in South Asia. sixth century During the period 2000–500 BCE. In the Deccan. Dholavira. Buddhism. the small chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the northwest regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies called Mahajanapadas.Ancient India The earliest anatomically modern human remains found in South Asia are from approximately 30. the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. In South India. Near contemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent. which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in Pakistan and western India. The caste system. and nearby evidence of agriculture. The empire was . and relying on varied forms of subsistence. by the 3rd century BCE. the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad. Maharashtra. Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the northwest. both religions held up renunciation as an ideal. By the fifth century BCE. and historians have analyzed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Ganges Plain. creating a social hierarchy. appeared during this period. and Kalibangan. including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organization. Around 7000 BCE. Jainism came into prominence around the same time during the life of its exemplar. irrigation tanks. based on the teachings of India's first historical figure. attracted followers from all social classes. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro. Mahavira. In an age of increasing urban wealth. many regions of the subcontinent evolved from copper age to iron age cultures. Gautam Buddha. Politically. The Vedas.000 years ago. the large number of megalithic monuments found from this period. the first known neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sites in western Pakistan. were composed during this period. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa. and both established longlasting monasteries. and craft traditions suggest progression to sedentary life.
astronomy. The Maurya kings are known as much for their empire building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka the Great's renunciation of militarism and his far flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma. the Gupta Empire had created a complex administrative and taxation system in the greater Ganges Plain that became a model for later Indian kingdoms. medicine. Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family. the Cholas and the Pandyas. When his successor attempted to expand eastwards. he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan. was built by the Cholas in 1010 CE. attempted to expand southwards. When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards. which found patrons among an urban elite. Medieval India The Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur. The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that during the period 200 BCE–200 CE. the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region. a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself and was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture. In north India during the same time. Under the Guptas. who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south. By the fourth and fifth centuries CE. who ruled much of the Ganges plain from 606 to 647 CE.once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south. dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with west and south-east Asia. When Harsha of Kannauj. in the state of Tamil Nadu. he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. During this time. Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well. pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agriculture economy were accommodated within caste society. and mathematics made significant advances. The Indian early medieval age (600 CE to 1200 CE) is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. and Indian science. as were new non- . but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas.
the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language. The Sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India. mystics. and the temples they patronized drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities. and artisans from that region into India. in particular to what today are Thailand. Indian royalty. and to make many forays into South India. Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the Sultanate. the effects were evident elsewhere as well as South Indian culture and political systems were being exported to Southeast Asia. Laos. Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation. scholars. Indian merchants. and to influence the society and culture of South India for long afterwards. Cambodia. traders. By the eight and ninth centuries. learned men. and set the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers. These were imitated all over India and led both to the resurgence of Hinduism and to the development of all the modern languages of the subcontinent. In the sixth and seventh centuries CE.  By repeatedly repulsing the Mongol raiders in the thirteenth century. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences. the Sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. and led eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206. using swift horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion. and south-east Asians took the initiative as well with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages. the Sultanate saved India from the destruction seen in west and central Asia. artists. The Sultanate was to control much of North India. After the tenth century. Malaysia and Java. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites.traditional ruling classes. the empire came to control much of peninsular India. and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission. repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains. paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans. which became economic hubs as well. Vietnam. big and small. Early modern India . thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north.
 and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency. India was now no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had. including the English East India Company. which resulted. leading to more systematic. through collaboration or adversity. literary forms. gave them both recognition and military experience.  The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the seventeenth century was a factor in India's economic expansion. but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices. and resulted in greater patronage of painting. By the early 18th century. with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred. centralized and uniform rule. being ruled then mainly by Muslim rulers. had established outposts on the coast of India. its greater resources. which. Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites in the southern and eastern coastal India. the Mughals united their far flung realms through loyalty.  and diverse and inclusive ruling elites. deriving most revenues from agriculture. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity.  fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors. expressed through a Persianized culture. and its army's more advanced training methods and technology. Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India. to an emperor who had near divine status. led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite. northern India.Scribes and artists in the Mughal court. textiles. caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule. and architecture. and sidelining the other European companies. The East India Company's control of the seas. a number of European trading companies. such as the Marathas. The Mughal state's economic policies. The Mughal empire. and the Sikhs gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule. As the empire disintegrated. but was . both these factors were crucial in the Company becoming the ruler of the Bengal region by 1765. 1590–1595. the Rajputs. especially under Akbar. In the early sixteenth century. many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.
social reform. and most historians consider this to be the true onset of India's colonial period. with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and effectively now an arm of British administration. the Company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education. . By this time also. and culture.instead supplying the British empire with raw materials.
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