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Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B)
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Disclaimers / Terms and Conditions Mathematics need practice. This note gets you the ‘U’ grade if you only read it. There might be errors. Please use some discretion when reading through. This note is definitely not the best. At A’ Levels now, it is assumed that many proofs and concepts are already exposed to you. Should you be interested, please research yourself for proofs. The use of the graphic calculator is not covered in this note. It is assumed that you have prior knowledge on its use. Assumptions are made to save time and cut back on redundancy. Strong O’ level concepts greatly assist in reading this note. Included are some relevant concepts that are not in the H2 Mathematics syllabus for enthusiasts. (Denoted by *) Distribute only to students by email or thumbdrive. The usage of these notes by any school or tuition teacher is stricyl prohibited. This is meant for J1 students only. I strongly recommend all J2 students to practice on problems instead of wasting time here. If you bought a copy of this, please ask for a refund. It is free!

Foreword I feel that amongst all Singapore students, many of us may not have the privilege of receiving quality education in the subject of mathematics due to differing teaching pedagogies in various institutions and teachers/mentors. Despite my limited ability, I hope that these notes will assist you in your learning journey for mathematics, be it the ‘A’ you are aiming for, or to sustain your genuine interest in the subject. It is also apparent many of us learn for the sake of learning. Should you feel that I am actually somewhat trustworthy, I strongly urge you to consider why you are actually in school. Ultimately, it was never about your interest, it is only about the usefulness of the subject. (Supposedly) In JC, I believe all readers can already see how mathematics is useful in daily life. It’s like how the NASSA swimming test could be really boring but could save your life should you accidentally fall into the ocean. In essence, learn math for a purpose. With that understanding, I wish you all the best for H2 Mathematics for your promotional exams. Ang Ray Yan Hwa Chong Institution (11S7B)







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H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Contents Basic O’ Level Revision Laws of Indices Laws of Logarithms Completing the Square Partial Fractions Graphs Trigonometry
Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) Page 3l5l 3l 3l 3r 3r 4l 4r5l 5r9l 5r6l 6l7l 7l 7r8l 8l9l 9l10r 9l 9r 10l 10l 10r 11l12l 11l 11r 12l 12r16l 12r 13l 13l 13r 13r 14l 14l 14r 14r 14r15l 15l15r 15r 15r16l 16l20r 16l16r 16r17r 17r18l 18l 
All Rights Reserved 18l 18r 19l 19l19r 19r 20l 20l 20r 20r 20r
Integration by Substitution Integration by Parts Special Types* Finding Area Under Graph Integrating Parametric Equations Solid of Revolution Shell method* Approximation* Length of Curve* Surface of Revolution*
Graphing Techniques Rational Functions, Asymptotes Conics Parametric Equations Transformation of Graphs Special Graphs
Vectors Definitions 21l Properties of Vectors 21l21r Ratio Theorem 22l Scalar (dot) Product 22l22r Vector (cross) Product 22r Projection Vectors 23l Perpendicular Distance 23l Area of Parallelogram / Triangle 23l Straight Lines 23r Interactions between Straight Lines 23r24l Planes 24r Interactions (btw. Lines and Planes) 24r25l Interactions between Planes 25r26r Angle Bisectors 26r Distance between Skew Lines 26r 27l28l 27l 27l27r 27r 28l 28l32l 28l 28l28r 28r 29l 29l29r 29r30r 30r 31l32l 32l32r
Functions Definition / Set Notation One to One / Inverse Functions Composite Functions Piecewise Functions Hyperbolic Functions*
Inequalities Rational Functions Modulus Inequalities System of Linear Equations
Binomial Expansion Pascal’s Triangle and Expansion The Binomial Series Approximation Maclaurin/Taylor Series*
Differentiation Limits Differentiation by First Principle Techniques of Differentiation Implicit Differentiation Trigonometric Functions Inverse Trigonometric Functions Exponential / Logarithmic Function Parametric Equations Tangents and Normals Rates of Change Stationary Points Maxima / Minima problems Graph of derivatives
Sequences and Series Arithmetic Progression (AP) Geometric Progression (GP) Sequences / Recurrence Relation Sigma Notation and Properties Method of Differences Method of Common Differences* Mathematical Induction Convergence and Divergence*
Miscellaneous 
Integration Definitions Integration of Standard Forms Integration using Partial Fractions Integration of Modulus Functions
Formulas for Shapes and 3D Shapes 32l32r 32r
Credits
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H2 Mathematics (J1 Only)
Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 1.3 Completing the Square
All Rights Reserved
Chapter 1: Basic O’ Level Revision
Before we proceed, it is assumed that you have got a moderate grasp of your O level syllabus. This section only serves as a revision, not teaching material. Hence, materials are mostly in brief. If you wish to revise your O’ level syllabus, please grab a copy of my notes catered for O’ levels. 1.1 Laws of Indices For an index notation, we have the following:
The objective of this technique is as follows: → Hence, starting from ( ) ,
This is exactly equal to: ( ( ) ( ) )
As such, the law of indices states that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ( ) (√ ) Given
(
)
, we observe the following:
1. Minimum / maximum value = 2. Stationary point at 1.4 Partial Fractions For any function ,
1.2 Laws of Logarithms Rewriting the index notation, we obtain a logarithmic expression as shown: We need to first perform long division. Otherwise, the following sections detail the basic rules: 1.4.1 Similarly, the law of logarithms exists as such: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (change of base) 1.4.3 Note: ( ) All methods can be used simultaneously. Note: All 3 methods use substitution (of ) or comparing coefficients (of ) to solve. Page 3 of 32 Irreducible Quadratic Factors Linear Factors
1.4.2
Repeated Linear Factors
5 Graphs (Basic) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 1. Using (discriminant). we deduce: To plot a polynomial graph in general: The 4 quadrants here represent which trigonometric ratio will be positive. Angles are calculated in an anticlockwise manner. which involves the use of completing the square. Page 4 of 32 . tangent ( ( The red line is a linear graph with equation: ( ) ) ) The blue line is a quadratic graph with equation: We have the following special values for special angles for application to the 4 quadrants (ASTC): Angle Sin Cos √ Tan To find the xintercepts (or roots) are given by: √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ It is assumed the reader knows the proof.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 1. with the roots ( ) known. we know that: √ √ Also.6 Trigonometry All Rights Reserved Consider a right angle triangle as shown: 𝜃 Hypotenuse Opposite Adjacent 𝜃 The 3 basic ratios are sine. consine.
1 Rational Functions.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Some basic identities include: ( ) ( ) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved Chapter 2: Graphing Techniques 2. Asymptotes Rational functions are defined as: Advanced formulas include: The 2 main types of asymptotes are as follows: Vertical ( ) Horizontal ( ) Other asymptotes ( the expression of ) would depend on and √ Furthermore 2 rules must be known for the following triangle: The following are some graphs with asymptotes: 𝑃 𝑥 𝑐 Page 5 of 32 .
the points A and B] The equation for asymptote (green) is given by: Page 6 of 32 . an ellipse has a general equation as follows: To plot in your Graphic Calculator (GC) without the Conics application.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 𝑃 𝑥 𝑐𝑥 𝑑 Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 1.e. we rewrite it as follows: √ Circles are formed when 2.6. the equation of conics is formed by intersecting a plane and a cone: 1.2 Ellipse and Circle All Rights Reserved 𝑃 𝑥 𝑐𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑒 Given the above diagram.3 Hyperbola : A hyperbola can be defined by 2 different equations: Source: http://mrhiggins.1 Parabola There are only 2 types of equations: √ Properties follow either that of a quadratic or root graph. The vertices of this hyperbola is given by [i.6.net/algebra2/?p=210 1.6.2 Conics Generally.
just substitute x = y to eliminate the 3rd variable. press mode. 2 standard instances are: ( ) ( ) Do take note of the restrictions / domain for the 3rd variable. Then.4.1 All Rights Reserved Translation / Reflecting Graphs : The graph below shows the translation of The vertices of this hyperbola is given by [i.e. Scale parallel to yaxis Scale parallel to xaxis (by factor of 1/a) The graph below shows the reflection of To plot the graph in GC.4 Transformation of Graphs 2. the points A and B] The equation for asymptotes (green) is given by: Up/Down Left/Right The graph below shows the scaling of Note: It is highly unlikely your GC is of any use here because neither the conics app nor normal graph lets you find the asymptotes and vertices. 2. x and y can be expressed in Cartesian form.e. Sometimes. e. The limit can be set in your GC by accessing window and changing the value of Tmin and Tmax. If possible. select Par (for parametric) before keying the equations.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 2. Reflect in yaxis Reflect in xaxis Page 7 of 32 .3 Parametric Equations Parametric equations occur when x and y are expressed as a function of a third variable.g. i.
we apply the modulus function in 2 ways to transform the graph: Using the graph Horizontal Asymptote Horizontal Asymptote Oblique asymptote Approach Stationary Points Maximum Minimum Minimum Minimum To deduce Reflect graph below yaxis upwards 2.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved The sequence of transformations is as follows: ycoordinate → → → → Note: Always apply to the variable x or y only [not the parameter inside the function]. Reflect graph where x>0 in yaxis from . √ Take only the positive part of the graph! Following which.4. 2. take the negative portion is positive) Page 8 of 32 of the graph! (So that √ .2 Applying the Modulus Positive Negative Gradient Vertical Asymptote xintercept + +  x –intercept at Vertical Asymptote For .5 Special Graphs To deduce from . Note: for . reflect it in the xaxis.
other typical sets include: √ By definition.e. (The blue function is not one to one. we use the vertical line test.2 One to One / Inverse Functions Defined 0 or 1 yintercept xintercept Vertical asymptote Horizontal Asymptote Stationary Points √ √ √ To verify a function. we make x the subject. ensuring that maps only 1 yvalue for every xvalue.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved 3. given that: For instance. for all one to one functions. Furthermore. unlike the red) √ Maximum Maximum √ Minimum √ Minimum √ Maximum √ Minimum Chapter 3: Functions 3. For instance. mapping x to y). We see that graphically. the line of . (For instance. X is the domain ( ) and Y is the range ( ). circles fail the test) If a function is one to one. if is the domain. we use the horizontal line test to verify its existence. a function (f) is a rule assigning x ( ) to y ( ) (i. is a reflection in Page 9 of 32 . Note that [] stands for closed interval (inclusive) and () stands for open interval (exclusive). Hence. then the blue function is a one to one function too. to find from for the graph below. Hence.1 Definition / Set Notation For a typical set defined as follows. Note: The domain also determines if a function is one to one.
we observe that trigonometric and hyperbolic functions share the relation: Thus. For instance. Hence. { We can obtain repeated patterns from piecewise functions. Hence.4 Piecewise Functions Piecewise functions use different rules for different parts of the domain. we have: { √ ).org/wiki/File:HyperbolicAnimation. (e. addition theorems. As an example.wikipedia.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 3. we need to ensure the following holds: This means that the range of g is a subset of or is equal to the domain of f. double argument formulas) Lastly. the hyperbolic sine and cosine functions are defined by: Using Euler’s Formula ( 3. in order for to exist. ( ) The diagram below shows how forms a circle and how form the right half of an equilateral hyperbola. we have a function in another. here are some graphs for and : (Do note the range) Page 10 of 32 .3 Composite Functions Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 3. Here are some properties of composite functions: Source: http://en.g. As an example. .5 Hyperbolic Functions* All Rights Reserved For a composite function. they share many similar properties with trigonometric ratios.gif Hence.
This is illustrated in the following example: 1 1 2 x Note: Sometimes the GC is required to solve inequalities. All Rights Reserved Chapter 4: Inequalities 4.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 4. For instance. we can solve other inequalities if a substitution can occur. (DO NOT cancel) 2) Remove all factors that are always positive (proven via complete the square) 3) Plot the graph with the roots.     To summarize the above. However. to get values in exact form. we must solve them. E.e. done via finding intersection points.g.: Page 11 of 32 . your solution) For all factorisable or . we note that for . we can just plot the graph using GC. we know that: √ √ Also note that by letting .2 Modulus Inequalities First. an example is provided: √ ( ) After plotting the graphs using GC. 1) Bring all terms to one side. √ Then. 4) Determine interval of graph that satisfies the inequality (i.1 Rational Functions To solve for all inequalities with rational functions. we observe useful results for inequalities: ⇔ ⇔ Most of the time.
H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 4. leveraging on the elementary row operations (ERO) on matrices. approaches L.1 Introduction A system of linear equations is a set of 2 or more equations with 2 or more variables.1 Limits 5. The above expression means that as x approaches . and represent approaching from the right and left of respectively (onesided limit). is [ ][ ] ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) ) ) [ ][ ] ( ( [ ][ ] 5. where denoted by . For any Matrix [A][B].1. I represents the identity matrix and S represents the solution.1.1. For example. You will only be tested on your ability to formulate the equations. Page 12 of 32 . we use the GaussJordan Elimination technique. To do it manually*. For rational functions.3 System of Linear Equations Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved Chapter 5: Differentiation Legend: 5.2 l'Hôpital's Rule [ ][ ] [ ][ ]( ) 5. Its solution is a set of values satisfying all equations in the system (not all systems have unique solutions). we wish to get [I][S]. please use the Graphic Calculator (Plysmlt2) to solve any system.3 Squeeze Theorem [ ][ ] [ ][ ] However. Also. possibly different for discontinuous functions. where A and B represent the LHS and RHS of the equations. not solve them manually.
3.3.3 Product / Quotient Rule ( ) Trigonometric derivatives are summarized below: Page 13 of 32 . differentiate y w. we start with: ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) 5. 5. 5.1 Polynomials Hence.r.t.3 Techniques of Differentiation Assuming you do not already know this. then times dy/dx.4 Implicit Differentiation ( ) ( ) All Rights Reserved 5.2 Chain Rule 5.2 Differentiation by First Principle As an example of finding a differential. brief proofs will be given throughout this section: 5. y. we take 2 points.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 5.5 Trigonometric Functions Assuming you don’t know the proof. .3. For the graph and .
9 Tangents and Normals At a point along a curve . For instance. 5. √ √  To summarize.7 Exponential / Logarithmic Functions ( ) To summarize the derivatives.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 5. substitute: Also remember to express 5.  √ √ Note: for parametric equations.6 Inverse Trigonometric Functions ( √ √ ) 5.8 Parametric Equations All Rights Reserved 5.10 Rates of Change in terms of . This is used to prove if a curve is strictly increasing/decreasing. Page 14 of 32 .
Find the rate of decrease of radius and volume at the same instant. As an example: An 8cm wire is cut into 2 wires.12 Maxima / Minima problems With the above knowledge. A spherical balloon is deflated. and the green showing a stationary point of inflexion (POI). Page 15 of 32 .1 Second Derivative Test Condition         Conclusion Maximum at Minimum at Possible stationary POI. Prove that the sum of areas of the square and circle is a minimum when the radius of the circle is ( 5. The second is bent to form a square of perimeter . For instance. we look at the value of and . its Surface Area is decreasing at 2m2s1. we can now solve maxima/minima problems.13 Graph of derivatives When we plot the graph of derivatives (blue).11 Stationary Points ) ( ) The red graph shows the global and local stationary points (maximum and minimum). The blue graph shows a nonstationary point of inflexion.11. The first of is bent into a circle of circumference . When its radius is 3m. Possible nonstationary POI. 5. 5.2 First Derivative Test (left) + Same Sign All Rights Reserved The chain rule is also used to solve problems involving connected rates of change.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 5.  Maximum Minimum POI 0 0 0 / Not 0 (stationary or not) (right) + Same Sign 5.11.
∫ 2 properties are observed for indefinite integrals: The definite integral introduces 2 limits. E.g. the lower limit a and upper limit b: ∫ Page 16 of 32 .e.3 Hence.2. Exponential Functions ∫ Sometimes. we need to multiply the numerator and denominator by the same factor to differentiate.1 ∫ 6.2.2 Some Fractions ∫ 6. Chapter 6: Integration 6.4 ∫ Trigonometric Functions ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ( ) Polynomials As with regards to the concavity of the curve.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved The relevant changes are as follows: Above xaxis Below xaxis Vertical asymptote at Nonvertical asymptote Important properties for definite integrals are: ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ Vertical asymptote at Any other asymptote 6.2.1 Definitions Integration was discovered by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century. i. we immediately observe the following standard forms: 6.: ∫ 6.2 Integration of Standard Forms Using antiderivatives. a point of inflexion is the point where changes in sign.2. It is generally regarded as the antiderivative.
H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ : ∫ ∫ The following is the full proof for integrating ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ 6. Page 17 of 32 . the first part is immediately solvable: ∫ Hence to summarize the above. we finalize our result with the following: Form ∫ ∫ ∫   Result ( )   The proofs can be derived using implicit differentiation and partial fractions.3 Integration using Complete the Square ∫ ∫  ∫  We first express it in this form: ∫ ) ∫ √ ( Hence. ∫ ∫ Using double angle. we complete the square: ( ( ) ( ) ) Then. we have the following: ∫ ∫ ( ∫ ∫ ( ∫ ∫ ) ) For the second part. factor formulas and trigonometric identities.
we derive the following: We always need to complete the square.: Hence. This suggests we must find the xintercepts of that graph. ∫ √ ∫ ∫ √ √ [ ( √ ] [ √ ) √ ( ] ) The following 2 examples illustrate the above: ∫ ∫ 6.g.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 6. Trig A Algebraic T Trig E Exp. we see that we need integrate v and differentiate u. E. 6. we integrate the negative of it.6 Integration by Parts All Rights Reserved ∫ √ Given the product rule.5 Integration by Substitution To solve an integral given the following: ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ The following are common substitutions*: Given √ √ √ √ Use Result ∫ Integrating by parts a second time: ∫ ∫ Page 18 of 32 .4 Integration of Modulus Functions For the portion of the graph that is negative. We choose u like this: L I Log / Ln Inv. Only then can we apply the following: ∫ √ ( ) ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ The proof is done by implicit differentiation.
8 Finding Area Under Graph Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved From the above diagram.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 6. Regardless of the way we place the rectangles of width (right. it is obvious that the area between the graphs is the red portion minus the green portion: ∫ For H2 mathematics. we observe that: ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ Page 19 of 32 . maximum or left). Using the example. To solve them.7 Special Types* ∫ ∫ ∫ √ 6.9 Integrating Parametric Equations : Sometimes curves are expressed in parametric equations. the area between the curve and the yaxis for some interval : ∫ 6. we obtain the following: ∑ As approximation is more accurate as ∑ The following is useful for ∫ . the integral for intersecting graphs is: ∫ ∫ Also. we explore the use of the Riemann Integral in solving area under graph. minimum.
11 Shell method* √ √ ( ) √ to ) ( ) is: To save yourself some trouble.: Page 20 of 32 .14 ( Surface of Revolution* For interest. making x the subject. ∑ Note: ∫ is rotated about the yaxis. we use a new method for finding the volume when is rotated about the yaxis. ∫ ( ∫ ) ( ( ∫ ) ) ) Rotated about the xaxis. the surface area is given by: ∫ √ ( ) Hence. This is given by Pappus’s centroid theorem (first). your graphic calculator uses the trapezium rule to approximate your definite integrals. Hence.12 Approximation* All Rights Reserved The solid of revolution is obtained by rotating a curve about a straight line. Instead of using rectangles. we observed that instead of adding up disks. ∫ 6. length of curve from ∫ √ From this view.e. we see that this solid comprises many disks.10 Solid of Revolution Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 6. Hence. the Disk method to calculate its volume is used as follows: ∑ ∫ ( 6. we add cylindrical shells (left). i. rewrite y.13 Length of Curve* To express rotation about the yaxis. Each shell (right) when unfolded gives a volume: 6.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 6. where the surface area is equal to the product of the length of curve and distance travelled by the geometric centroid. to find the volume of the solid.
Lastly. This also forces you to use spatial imagination. Vectors however. we conclude: ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ̂ Position vectors originate from the origin O.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved Chapter 7: Vectors 7. have magnitude and direction. this note tries to use minimal diagrams because anything beyond 3D is not really visual anymore. expressing in column notation: ( ) ( ) From the above. we observe that: ( ) Hence. vectors are represented as: ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ Furthermore. Displacement vectors can be any other vector. They can be equal in magnitude and direction as a position vector.com/science_mathematics/vect or_analysis/vector_picture/position_vector_xyz. 7. For this notes.png Hence. for collinear points.2 Properties of Vectors Vectors (3D) can be defined by using the coordinates: Source:http://www.technology2skill. Hence. and the polygon law of addition shows how to sum all vectors. we observe that: Other useful properties include: ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ Page 21 of 32 . the magnitude is of √(√ √ ( ) is therefore: ) Unit vectors (denoted by the ^ above it) [magnitude = 1] of any vector is thus: The parallelogram law of addition (left) demonstrates how to sum 2 vectors.1 Definitions Scalars have a magnitude.
b and p must all point inwards or outwards there must be a common point From the above diagram. For instance. Alternatively. we also know that: ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) Basically. ( ) √ ( ) √ The vector product can give us a vector that is perpendicular to both a and b.5 Vector (cross) Product Given that p divides AB is the ratio ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ Conditions for using ratio theorem: a.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 7. it is computed as follows: ( Here is the acute/obtuse angle formed when both vectors point towards/away from a point.4 Scalar (dot) Product For any two vectors and : Note that n is the perpendicular vector to both a and b. we observe that: ̂ . My personal opinion is that it is only a shortcut. we can find the angle between the 2 vectors. otherwise it is more or less redundant. Important results from cross product: Given this.3 Ratio Theorem Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved Important results from dot product: 7. second row for the second and third row for the third. For instance: ( ) ( ) √ √ ( ) ( ) Page 22 of 32 . 7. Alternatively. we ignore the first row for the first row of our product. The result is a scalar.
H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 7.10. we know that: ̂ This is the Cartesian equation of the line. For any line AB. ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑   ̂  ̂  ( 7.uk/~jenolive/vecline. a is the position vector and b is the displacement vector. 7.gif We see that a line as such would take the form: When expressed in column notation. By Pythagoras theorem.7 Perpendicular Distance ̂ ̂) ̂ In this case. we test for parallel lines: Page 23 of 32 .8 Area of Parallelogram / Triangle Given the above. we know that since:  ̂  ̂  7.10 Interactions between Straight Lines 7. Parallel and Skew Lines The above represents the 3 possible interactions involving straight lines.co.6 Projection Vectors Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 7. given 2 straight lines: First. Hence. to get the displacement vector. ( ) ( ) ( ) ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑  Source: http://www. the projection vector of a on b is ON.9 Straight Lines All Rights Reserved From the diagram.1 Intersecting.netcomuk. we know that: √  ̂ ( ) ( ) Alternatively.
10. we just need the displacement vectors this time round: This is the scalar product form of a plane.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) : 7.2 Angles between intersecting/skew Lines Like what we do when finding angle between vectors. we just need a point on the line: 7.12 Interactions between Lines and Planes ) 7. ( ) ( The Cartesian form of a plane is: 7.2 Angle between Lines and Planes First.1 Intersecting Lines and Planes ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ (⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ̂) ̂ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ̂ 7. solving For instance.3 Foot of Perpendicular (Point to Line) Like what we do when finding projection vectors.10.12. Also.10. Alternatively. knowing that: ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ 7. In the parametric form: Use the GC (to save time) to solve (using PlySmlt2). equate both lines. we check if line is parallel to plane: 7.12.4 Reflection in line for a point To do this we use the ratio theorem ( ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ Page 24 of 32 ): . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Equation both lines: A plane is defined by a point A and 2 directional vectors that must be parallel to the plane.11 Planes All Rights Reserved Otherwise.
One could equate both equations of the planes but I prefer substitution: 7. Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 7.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) If line is not parallel to plane.4 Distance between Parallel Line and Plane ( ) ( )) ( ) ( ) To put it in short.13 All Rights Reserved Interactions between Planes 7. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) For vectors.12. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (( ) 7.12.13. For instance: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) To do it by equating both planes: ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ (( ) ( )) ( ) ( ̂ Note: √ ( ) √ ) ( ) ( ) Note: For distance from point to plane. do create points when you need them.1 Intersection of 2 Planes Otherwise.3 Angle between Line and Plane To find the angle between lines and planes. we just wish to find . A is given! Page 25 of 32 .
we once again let A and B be points in the respective planes: Source: http://www. the displacement vector for any angle bisector is: ̂ ̂ ( ) 7.14 ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑  ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑ ̂ ⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑⃑  Angle Bisectors To find the angle bisector. we realize that the resultant vector must be as such: Hence. in general.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved 7.vitutor.html By no intersection we mean that there is no common point/line of intersection for all 3 planes.13.13.e. Page 26 of 32 .4 Distance between 2 Planes No Intersection At a Line No Intersection Very obviously. The 2 examples show the results: 7.3 Angle between Planes 8. PlySmlt2).1 Distance between Skew Lines ( ) The point of intersection (x) (if lines are given) can be solved by using your GC. (̂ ̂) We see that the angle between the planes is the angle between their normal vectors.com/geometry/space/three_planes. The fastest way to solve this is just to solve a system of equations in 3 variables (i.2 Intersection of 3 Planes At a Point No Intersection 7. Hence.13.
otherwise use or 8.1 Pascal’s Triangle and Expansion Pascal’s triangle (below) shows the binomial coefficient of each term for : Very useful shortcuts (it is quite obvious actually): For any rational function. 8. we should try to express in partial fractions first: If for . we can also extend it to the following: ( ) ( ) Page 27 of 32 . then we use: ( )( √ ) This only applies if . then we know that: ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) If you encounter something like this: ( Note: to find coefficient for term : ) ) ( ) Use if r is positive when even and negative when odd.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved Chapter 8: Binomial Expansion 8. if n is a negative integer or fraction.2 The Binomial Series However. ( √ ) ( √ ) ( ) Hence. We either group the terms together before use binomial expansion or we can use the multinomial theorem*.3 Approximation using Binomial Expansion Being an infinite series. For instance. we can use this series to approximate our solutions.
2 Geometric Progression (GP) For an arithmetic progression. the nth term is defined as the following: A sequence may/may not converge: The sum of the first n terms is given by: Page 28 of 32 . the sum only exists when Hence. expressing a known term in terms of its relationship with consecutive terms. the nth term is defined as the following: √ 9. we have the Arithmetic Mean (AM) and Geometric Mean (GM) This is useful in helping us get the derivatives at the point .H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 8.1 Arithmetic Progression (AP) For an arithmetic progression.4 Maclaurin / Taylor Series* Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved Here are some useful properties of GP: For any real and complex function that is infinite differentiable in a neighbourhood of real or complex can be expressed as: For an infinite GP. the Fibonacci sequence is: 9. when . For instance. √ Chapter 9: Sequences and Series 9. we get the Maclaurin Series: Additionally.3 Sequences / Recurrence Relation A sequence can be defined by expressing the nth term in terms of n: √ The sum of the first n terms is given by: Here are some useful properties of GP: A sequence can also be defined using a recurrence relation.
H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 9. repeats itself every Page 29 of 32 . then we can use the method of differences: 9. For instance.1 Sequences generated using Exponentials ∑ ∑ We observe that the sequence repeats in the differences. the sigma notation is used for sums: ∑ ∑ Properties of sigma notation: ∑ ∑ ∑ ( ) ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 9. Here we see that time we take differences.5 Method of Differences If the general term can be expressed as 2 or more terms. The main idea behind is that: ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 9.4 Sigma Notation and Properties Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) Questions usually provide All Rights Reserved For instance. As seen sometimes previously in this note.6.6 Method of Common Differences* We use the method of common differences to try and deduce the polynomial that generated the sequence.
6. we can stop.2 Sequences generated using Polynomials To prove the following used in Chap 6 (integration) Fibonacci sequences have the following pattern: We generate the first few differences as shown below: and take Generally. The following shows 2 examples of proving: The 3! appears because we differentiated the function 3 times. it is generalized as follows: When we observe a common difference. ∑ We finally obtain: Page 30 of 32 .3 Others All Rights Reserved 9. any sequence that adds the previous terms see that their differences go in the reverse order. 9. we can assume that: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Write the proposition Verify proposition with smallest value of n Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k Use P(k) to prove that P(k+1) is true State Conclusion.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) 9.6.7 Mathematical Induction A method for proving. Since we have taken differences 3 times to get a constant. Then we proceed to generate the same triangle for : ∑ ( ) After repeating as shown below.
9.1 Comparison Test Hence.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) 9. we observe that: ∑ ∫ ∑ ∑ Page 31 of 32 .org/wiki/Integral_test_for_convergence Ratio Test ∑ Note that: ∑ From the above.8.wikipedia.8.2 Integral Test ∑ [ ] ∑ 9.8 Convergence and Divergence* Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved ∑ The following applies to all sequences that are eventually nonnegative. for any ∑ ∑ ∫ ∑ operating on interval : ∑ ∑ ∑ An example is provided as follows: ∑ { An example is provided as follows: ∑ ∫ ∑ ∑ [ ] ∑ 9.3 Source: http://en.8.
Sim Hui Min for correcting many of my calculation mistakes. Hwa Chong Institution 11S7B.H2 Mathematics (J1 Only) Prepared by Ang Ray Yan (HCI 11S7B) All Rights Reserved The following 2 examples demonstrate its use: ∑ 3D Shape Regular Pyramid Cube Cone Cylinder Sphere ∑ Rectangular Prism Surface Area Volume Credits ∑ ( ( ) ) This set of math notes is done by Ang Ray Yan. Phang Zheng Xun for correcting my formatting and introducing other ways of presenting certain oncepts. my math tutor.1 Formulas for Shapes and 3D Shapes   Shape Square Circle Triangle Sector Trapezium Ellipse Parallelogram Area Page 32 of 32 . The following people deserve their due recognition in the making of this set of notes: Mr Yee. ∑  Chapter 10: Miscellaneous 10. Yuan Yu Chuan for improving my command of English that is deemed as “powderful”. especially integration. for his wonderful applets that helped in my illustration for many points.