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for cell membranes, and as energy storage for the body. Those fatty acids not used up as energy are converted into triglycerides. A triglyceride is a molecule formed by attaching three fatty acids onto a glycerol compound that serves as a backbone. Triglycerides are then stored in the body as fat (adipose) tissue.
Saturated fatty Saturated fatty acids contain single bonds only. Fats containing saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats. Examples of foods high in saturated fats include lard, butter, whole milk, cream, eggs, red meat, chocolate, and solid shortenings. Excess intake of saturated fat can raise one's blood cholesterol and increase the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Saturated Fat:
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A "bad" fat Increases overall cholesterol levels, specifically LDL or "bad" cholesterol Found in animal-based foods such as meat, poultry and eggs, and also in butter, cream and other dairy products Also found in plant-based products such as coconut, so-called "tropical oils" like coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil, and cocoa butter
Unsaturated An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. A fat molecule is monounsaturated if it contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if it contains more than one double bond. Where double bonds are formed, hydrogen atoms are eliminated. Monounsaturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fatty acids contain one double bond. Examples of foods high in monounsaturated fat include avocados, nuts, and olive, peanut and canola oils. Scientists believe that increased consumption of monounsaturated fats (for example eating more nuts) is beneficial in lowering LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) and lowering the risk of coronary heart disease, especially if monounsaturated fats are used to substitute for saturated fats and refined sugars.
• • •
A "good" fat Reduces overall cholesterol levels, and specifically LDL or "bad" cholesterol, while increasing levels of HDL or "good" cholesterol Found in nuts and seeds, avocados, olive oil and canola oil
Polyunsaturated fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids contain more than one double bond. Examples of foods high in polyunsaturated fats include vegetable oils, corn, sunflower, and soy. Polyunsaturated Fat:
• • •
Another "good" fat Reduces overall cholesterol levels, and specifically LDL or "bad" cholesterol Found in fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, trout and sardines, and also in corn, safflower, sunflower and soybean oils
Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids that the human body needs for metabolic functioning but cannot produce, and therefore has to be acquired from food.
omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3 fatty acids are a class of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids with the double bond in the third carbon position from the methyl terminal (hence the use of "3" in their description). Foods high in omega-3-fatty acids include salmon, halibut, sardines, albacore, trout, herring, walnut, flaxseed oil, and canola oil. Other foods that contain omega-3-fatty acids include shrimp, clams, light chunk tuna, catfish, cod, and spinach.
• • • • • •
Benefits and inhibits blood clotting Cardiovascular disease prevention - lowers blood pressure, lowers triglycerides, prevents heart arrhythmia, and inhibits plaque build-up in arteries Prevents inflammation related to disease Cancer preventative Helps with rheumatoid arthritis and reduces joint swelling and stiffness Reduces symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (Chrohn's disease)
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Osteroarthritis prevention Eases menstrual cramps Helps maintain good mental health Aids diabetes, ulcerative colitis, and lupus May help with breast cancer and colon cancer Helps migraine symptoms Helps alleviate eczema and psoriasis
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Increased bleeding if overused (normally over 3 grams per day) by a patient who is also taking aspirin or warfarin. However, this is disputed. Hemorrhagic stroke (only in case of very large doses). Reduced glycemic control among diabetics. An increase in concentration of LDL cholesterol in some individuals.
Subsequent advices from the FDA and national counterparts have permitted health claims associated with heart health.  Cardiac risk Persons with congestive heart failure, chronic recurrent angina or evidence that their heart is receiving insufficient blood flow are advised to talk to their doctor before taking n−3 fatty acids. There have been concerns if such persons take n−3 fatty acids or eating foods that contain them in substantial amounts. In a recent large study, n−3 fatty acids on top of standard heart failure therapy produced a small but statistically significant benefit in terms of mortality and hospitalization.
benefits of omega-3-fatty acids Scientific evidence is mounting that fish oil (predominantly omega-3-fatty acids) can reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death. Some scientists also believe that omega-3 fatty acids can improve one's blood lipid (cholesterol and triglyceride) levels and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease.
omega-6 fatty acids Omega-6 fatty acids are a class of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids with the initial double bond in the sixth carbon position from the methyl group (hence the "6"). Examples of foods rich in omega-6 fatty acids include corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean, and cottonseed oil.
Negative health effects Some medical research suggests that excessive levels of n−6 fatty acids, relative to n−3 fatty acids, may increase the probability of a number of diseases and depression. Excess n−6 fats interfere with the health benefits of n−3 fats; in part because they compete for the same rate-limiting enzymes. A high proportion of n−6 to n−3 fat in the diet shifts the physiological state in the tissues toward the pathogenesis of many diseases: prothrombotic, proinflammatory and proconstrictive. Chronic excessive production of n−6 eicosanoids is associated with heart attacks, thrombotic stroke, arrhythmia, arthritis, osteoporosis, inflammation, mood disorders and cancer A high consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in most types of vegetable oil, may increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer
What are the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids? These are synonyms for omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, respectively. Trans fatty acids Trans fatty acids (trans fats) are made through hydrogenation to solidify liquid oils. Heating omega-6 oils such as corn oil to high temperatures creates trans fats. Trans fats increase the shelf life of oils and are found in vegetable shortenings and in some margarines, commercial pastries, fried foods, crackers, cookies, and snack foods. Intake of trans fatty acids increases blood LDL-cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol), decreases HDL cholesterol ("good cholesterol"), and raises the risk of coronary heart disease. What is the scientific evidence behind omega-3-fatty acids? There are several types of evidence suggesting that omega-3-fatty acids prevent death from heart disease; epidemiological evidence, archeological evidence, evidence from animal studies, observation studies, and interventional studies. Cholesterol This is a type of fatty acid found in animal foods. There is a distinction between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol is that which is found in the foods themselves. Serum cholesterol is found in your bloodstream. When you have a blood test done to determine your personal cholesterol levels, the doctor will review specific
components found in the blood, known as lipoproteins. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are associated with an increased risk of developing arteriosclerosis. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to reduce the risk, since HDL actually removes LDL from your blood. LDL and HDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol is called "bad" cholesterol, because elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. LDL lipoprotein deposits cholesterol on the artery walls, causing the formation of a hard, thick substance called cholesterol plaque. Over time, cholesterol plaque causes thickening of the artery walls and narrowing of the arteries, a process called atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol is called the "good cholesterol" because HDL cholesterol particles prevent atherosclerosis by extracting cholesterol from the artery walls and disposing of them through the liver. Thus, high levels of LDL cholesterol and low levels of HDL cholesterol (high LDL/HDL ratios) are risk factors for atherosclerosis, while low levels of LDL cholesterol and high level of HDL cholesterol (low LDL/HDL ratios) are desirable.
TRANS FAT trans fat is the result of adding hydrogen to vegetable oil through a process called hydrogenation. Trans fats are more solid than oil, making them less likely to spoil. Foods produced with trans fat stays fresh longer, with a longer shelf life and a less greasy feel. Initially, trans fats were thought to be a healthy alternative to animal fats because they are unsaturated and come primarily from plant oils. Trans fat in your food COMMERCIAL baked goods such as crackers, cookies and cakes, and many fried foods such as doughnuts and french fries contain trans fat. Shortenings and some margarines also are high in these fats. Trans fat used to be more common, but in recent years food manufacturers are using less of it. Trans fat and cholesterol
DOCTORS worry about trans fat because of its unhealthy effect on your cholesterol levels - increasing your LDL and decreasing your HDL cholesterol. There are two main types of cholesterol: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL). LDL, or "bad" cholesterol transports cholesterol throughout your body. LDL cholesterol, when elevated, builds up in the walls of your arteries, making them hard and narrow. High-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL, or "good" cholesterol, picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to your liver. A high LDL cholesterol level is a major risk factor for heart disease. If your LDL is too high, over time it can cause atherosclerosis, a dangerous accumulation of fatty deposits on the walls of your arteries. These deposits - called plaque - can reduce blood flow through your arteries. If your coronary arteries are affected, you may have chest pains and other symptoms of coronary artery disease. If plaques tear or rupture, a blood clot may form - blocking the flow of blood or breaking free and plugging an artery downstream. If blood flow to part of your heart stops, you'll have a heart attack. If blood flow to part of your brain stops, a stroke occurs. Other effects of trans fat DOCTORS are most concerned about the effect of trans fat on cholesterol. However, trans fat has also been shown to have some other harmful effects: Increases triglycerides. Triglycerides are another type of fat found in your blood. A high triglyceride level may contribute to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) or thickening of the artery walls, which increases the risk of stroke, heart attack and heart disease. Increases Lp (a) lipoprotein. Lp(a) is a type of LDL cholesterol found in varying levels in your blood, depending on your genetic makeup. It's unclear how high levels of Lp(a) independent of other cholesterol levels - increases your risk of heart disease. More research is needed. Causes more inflammation. Trans fat may increase inflammation, which is a process by which your body responds to injury. It is thought that inflammation plays a key role in the formation of fatty blockages in heart blood vessels. Trans fat appears to damage the cells lining blood vessels, leading to inflammation.
Alzheimer's Disease: the intake of both trans fats and saturated fats promote the development of Alzheimer disease. Cancer: There is no scientific consensus that consumption of trans fats significantly increases cancer risks across the board. However, one recent study
has found connections between trans fat and prostate cancer. An increased intake of trans-fatty acids may raise the risk of breast cancer by 75 percent
Diabetes: There is a growing concern that the risk of diabetes increases with trans fat consumption. For example, one study found that risk is higher for those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption
Obesity: Research indicates that trans fat may increase weight gain and abdominal fat, despite a similar caloric intake.
Olive oil is an oil derived from the fruit of the olive tree, which originated in the Mediterranean area. It is produced by pressing olives and has a very high content of monounsaturated fats. Olive oil was traditionally produced by beating the trees with sticks to knock the olives off and crushing them in stone or wooden mortars or beam presses. Nowadays, olives are ground to tiny bits, obtaining a paste that is mixed with water and processed by centrifugation, separating the oil from the pomace (the other remaining substances). Edible commercial olive oil can be divided into several categories according to its chemical characteristics and the production method: Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Virgin Olive Oil, and Olive Oil. The first two, virgin olive oils, are obtained only by physical extraction from the fruits. Non virgin olive oil is obtained by the chemical refining of a low-quality non-edible grade of virgin olive oil called "lampante" olive oil. A second type of oil can be extracted from the remaining pomace. This is called Olive Pomace Oil and it is obtained, like all the other food oils, by treatment with a chemical solvent, generally hexane, and subsequent chemical refining. Of all the categories, extra virgin olive oil presents the highest organoleptic, nutritional, and health qualities, as well as the most "flowery" taste. Today olive oil is mainly used in cooking and also in cosmetics and soaps, but it has been used for medicines and as a fuel for oil lamps. "Cold Pressed" Extra Virgin Olive Oil is generally considered the best grade of olive oil. As the name suggests, it is obtained without heating the pressed mass. Heating frees more of the oil but lowers the quality of the resulting oil. Cold Pressed Extra Virgin olive oil is best suited to specialist uses such as salad dressings. Olive oil has a low smoke point (200°F for fancy flavorful grades, and 400°F for the cheap refined grades) and so is not
well suited for cooking at high temperatures. Blended oils containing olive oil are available and combine to make a higher smoke point.
Which fats are the bad fats?
Harmful fats include saturated and trans fats. Experts recommend that the saturated fat in your daily diet provide no more than 10% of your total calories. Also, you should keep trans fats as low as possible.
Saturated fats are found mainly in animal products such as meats; poultry (mostly in dark meat and skin); whole and partially skimmed dairy products, including milk, cheese, ice cream, butter, and sour cream; and lard. Eating too much saturated fat is strongly related to higher cholesterol levels. Meals high in these fats can also cause sudden increases in triglycerides and other blood fats. This, in turn, decreases blood flow through the arteries and heart. Trans fats can be found naturally in some animal products, but most of the trans fats in our diet are manufactured from polyunsaturated oils. The process is called "hydrogenation." It is done to keep fat from going rancid and to change the form of the fat from a liquid to a solid. Hydrogenated fats are used in stick margarine, processed foods, and many commercially baked and fast foods such as ice cream, cakes, cookies, chips, shortening, popcorn, and French fries. Hydrogenated fats (trans fats) may be even more dangerous for the heart than naturally occurring saturated fats and may be associated with some cancers. Food manufacturers must now list the amount of trans fats, along with saturated fat, on the Nutrition Facts label of packaged foods. Tropical oils (palm, coconut, and cocoa butter) are also high in saturated fat, but it is not known if these fats have a harmful effect on the heart.
Which fats are good fats?
Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are good or beneficial fats and oils. Some of these fats are considered essential, meaning that they are necessary for health. Polyunsaturated fats are found mostly in fish and plant oils such as safflower, corn, soybean, sunflower, and cottonseed. Monounsaturated fats are found mainly in canola, olive, and peanut oils, as well as most nuts. Recently a lot of attention has been given to some of the fatty acids that make up poly and monounsaturated fats. Three very important fatty acids are called omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9.
Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish and some plants. They are good for heart health. They may reduce the risk of stroke, high blood pressure, and other chronic disease. Good sources are oily fish such as salmon, mackerel and tuna. You can
also get fish oil supplements, but you should check first with your healthcare provider taking these supplements. Good plant sources for omega-3 fatty acids are canola oil, soybeans, flaxseed and certain nuts (especially walnuts and almonds). Omega-6 fatty acid is found in corn, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils. Omega-9 fatty acid is found in olive oil and canola oil.
Getting some of these good fats is healthful, but many Americans eat too much and become overweight. It is likely that the balance of fatty acids is very important. The American diet typically contains too much omega-6 fatty acid and not enough omega-3 fatty acid.
Fats or Oils
Description Has a subtle toasted almond aroma and flavor.
Cooking Uses Used in sauté and stir fry of Oriental foods.
Type of Fat
Smoke Point °F
Smoke Point °C
Vibrant green in color with a has a soft nutty taste and a mild avocado aroma. This is a very healthy oil with a profile similar to olive oil. This oil can be used for very high temperature applications.
Stir frying, searing
Baking, Whole butter cooking is a mix of fats, milk solids, and moisture derived by churning cream until the oil droplets
stick together and can be separated out.
Butter (Ghee), clarified
Ghee has a higher smoke point than butter since clarification eliminates the milk solids (which burn at lower temps).
375-485°F (dependin g on purity)
190-250°C (depending on purity),
Canola Oil (Rapeseed oil)
Good allA light, purpose oil. golden-colored Used in oil. salads and cooking. A heavy nearly colorless oil coatings, extracted from confectionary fresh , shortening coconuts.
A mild, mediumyellow color refined oil. Made from the germ of the corn kernel.
Frying, salad dressings, shortening
Pale-yellow oil that is extracted from the seed of the cotton plant. Light, mediumyellow oil that is a byproduct of wine making.
Margarine, salad dressings, shortening. Also used for frying.
Polyunsaturated Excellent choice of cooking oil for sautéing or frying.
Also used in salad dressings.
The nuts are ground and roasted and then pressed Hazelnut Oil in a hydraulic press to extract the delicate oil.
Salad dressings, marinades and baked goods.
Monounsaturated 430°F 221°C
The white solid or semi-solid rendered fat of a hog. This was once the most popular Baking and cooking and frying baking fat, but has been replaced by vegetable shortenings.
Macadamia Nut Oil
This oil is cold pressed from the decadent macadamia nut, extracting a light oil similar in quality to the finest extra virgin olive oil.
Saute, pan fry, sear, deep fry, stir fry, grill, broil, baking.
Monounsaturated 390°F 199 °C
Oils vary in weight and may be pale yellow to deep green depending on fruit used and processing.
cooking, salad dressings, saute, pan fry, sear, deep fry, stir fry, grill, broil, baking Cooking,
Extra Virgin 320°F Virgin 420°F Pomace 460°F Extra Light - 468°F 446°F
160°C 216°C 238°C 242°C
A yellowishorange fatty oil obtained especially from the crushed nuts of an African palm.
Pale yellow refined oil with a very subtle scent and flavor. Made from pressed steam-cooked peanuts. Used primarily in Asian cooking.
Frying, cooking, salad dressings
Rice Bran Oil
Rice bran oil is produced from the rice bran, which is removed from the grain of rice as it is processed.
Frying, sauté, salad dressings, Monounsaturated baking, dipping oils
A golden color with a light texture. Made from the seeds of safflowers.
Margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings
Comes in two types - a light, very mild Middle Eastern type and a darker Asian type pressed from toasted sesame seeds.
Cooking, salad dressings
Baking, frying Saturated
solidified using various processes, including whipping in air and hydrogenation . May have real or artificial butter flavor added.
A fairly heavy oil with a pronounced flavor and aroma.
Margarine, salad dressings, shortening
A light odorless and nearly flavorless oil pressed from sunflower seeds. Pale yellow.
Cooking, margarine, salad dressings, shortening
Made by blending several different refined oils. Designed to have a mild flavor and a high smoke point.
Cooking, salad dressings
Medium-yellow oil with a nutty flavor and aroma. More perishable than most other oils.
Saute, pan fry, sear, deep fry, stir fry, grill, broil
www.medicinenet.com http://en.wikibooks.org http://en.wikipedia.org http://health.asiaone.com/Health http://whatscookingamerica.net www.asianonlinerecipes.com http://culinaryarts.about.com http://www.realage.com
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