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Austria is a landlocked country, set in the heart of Europe with a population of scarcely more than eight million people. It has little in the way of natural resources and relies heavily on its larger neighbour Germany in both import and export terms. Yet despite these seeming handicaps, Austrians enjoy an extremely high standard of living and an economy which is relatively robust. This is, in no small measure due, to the drive and application of those eight million Austrians. Although the current State of Austria has only existed in its current form since 1955, the country has a long and distinguished history. The capital, Vienna, was for centuries one of the major centres of the European world and as the fulcrum of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was, for a long time, a magnet for the best and the brightest amongst Europeâ€™s intelligentsia. During the Cold War period, the country managed to steer an impressively neutral path between the two competing super powers and the contacts Austrians managed to develop into the old Soviet Bloc countries during that period now stand them in good stead when developing business contacts in the burgeoning markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Austria is a country with an auspicious past and a bright future. Perfectly located to take advantage of the development and enlargement of the EU, the country has the human capital and highly developed infrastructure needed to act as bridge between Western and Eastern Europe.
PROFILE Geography Area: 83,857 sq. km. (32,377 sq. mi.) Cities: Capital-Vienna (2007 pop. 1.68 million). Other cities - Graz, Linz, Salzburg, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt. Terrain: Alpine (64%), northern highlands that form part of the Bohemian Massif (10%), lowlands to the east (26%). Climate: Continental temperate.
926 Annual population growth rate (2009): 0. Attendance .28%.032. Cuisine of Austria Austrian cuisine. Sports Common sports in Austria are association football (soccer). industry .99%.4%. Styria. 0. 4. and Vienna. Coffee: Einspänner. and ice hockey.98%. Austrian cuisine is known primarily in the rest of the world for its pastries and sweets. skiing. it is classically served in a glass. which is often incorrectly equated with Viennese cuisine.3 litre (a Seidel. Lutheran 4.2 litre (a Pfiff).5%.5%. no confession 12. agriculture and forestry . Austria's national ice hockey team ranks 13th in the world. Burgenland. Work force (2009. about 90% speak German as their everyday language. . Austrians are relatively homogeneous. Muslim 4. Education: Years compulsory .People Population (2010): 8. Religions (2001 census): Roman Catholic 73.0% Language: German about 90%.6%. Literacy . Wine: Wine is principally cultivated in the east of Austria. The most important wine-producing areas are in Lower Austria.67%. kleines Bier or Glas Bier) and 0.2%.5 litre (a Krügerl or großes Bier or Hoibe).2 million): Services .7%. Beer: Beer is generally sold in the following sizes: 0. is derived from the cuisine of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. other 5.9.
After the age of 14. Alliance-Future-Austria. Administrative Court. there is quite often no gymnasium available. revised 1929 (reinstated May 1. President-Heinz Fischer Chancellor-Werner Faymann (SPÖ) President of the National Council-Barbara Prammer (SPÖ) Independence: 27th july 1955 . Freedom Party. It has to be noted that in particular in the rural areas. Political parties: Social Democratic Party. so everyone attends the hauptschule. People's Party. The largest university is the University of Vienna. cabinet.Education in Austria Four years of elementary school (Volksschule for ages 6–10) are followed by secondary education in a Hauptschule. while 4. no matter which they have attended until then. Branches: Executive--federal president (chief of state). Government Type: Federal parliamentary democracy. chancellor (head of government). Constitution: 1920.7% consider themselves Protestant. Judicial--Constitutional Court. Supreme Court. students have their first real choice to make. Greens. Legislative— bicameral Federal Assembly (Parliament). or the first four years of Gymnasium as intermediate school. Religion 73. All state-run schools are free of charge.6% of the native population identify themselves as Roman Catholic. 1945).
1% Per capita income (2010): $44. Switzerland. greet and eat to the . tungsten. chemicals. consumer goods. China. and the United States. timber.1 billion Real GDP growth rate (2010): 2. iron and steel. natural gas. magnesite. chemicals. wine.5% of 2010 GDP): Products . Doing Business with Austria For the business person who works internationally.$144. vehicles. grains. crude oil. chemical products.2% of 2010 GDP): Types . sugarbeets.830 Currency: Euro (€) ² (EUR) Natural resources: Iron ore.iron and steel. Agriculture (1. lignite.8 billion: iron and steel products.Economy GDP (2010): $376. raw materials. paper. Industry (29. doing business in a foreign country brings with it certain intercultural communication challenges. timber. cement. Imports .3% of 2010 GDP Trade (2010): Exports . Principal trade partners: European Union. fuels.4 billion: machinery. foodstuffs. capital equipment. electro technical machinery. forest products. From the simple differences in the way people meet.livestock. foodstuffs. Services: 69.$150. potatoes. metal goods.
all industries. Do not imagine a tyrannical boss barking orders at frightened subordinates. It would be unprofessional to arrive at a meeting and to start looking through the papers as the meeting is beginning. presentations and negotiation it is always a benefit to get to understand a country's business culture. with companies managed along fairly tightly defined functional lines. managers are less consensual than would be the case in countries where a more inclusive. or social partnership. On the whole.more complex differences in communication. The head of a business function will wield a great deal of power within that business function and can seem to act in an almost autonomous manner. by and large. Thus most large Austrian organisations would tend towards a high level of hierarchy. carry them out to the letter. most basic industries were state-owned and although the level of state involvement in industry has been radically cut back through a series of privatisation measures. In fact 'charm' would be seen as one of the attributes of a good manager. extremely important to work to develop a strong sense of co-determination and co-operation when working with Austrian subsidiary companies. It is considered to be extremely inefficient to arrive late and can be classified as stealing people time. the legacy of bureaucracy and hierarchy remain. Austrian Business Structures After the creation of the current state of Austria and during its post-war reconstruction stage. Austrians would be classified as pre-planners in terms of their approach to meetings. Everything is done with great charm and warmth.) It is. Austrian Management Style As would be expected in a mainly hierarchical business culture. Thus. The organisation chart usually reflects the reality of the structure of a business. managers can tend towards the directive they give direct instructions to subordinates who will. (Trade union membership is high but industrial unrest is not. This also means that managers are expected to make the decisions and would involve their colleagues in the decision-making process to a much lesser degree than might be the case in a consensus-oriented countries such as Sweden or the Netherlands. This directive management approach goes hand-in-hand with an almost old-fashioned sense of politeness and courtesy. rather than being merely designed to impress visitors. Great emphasis is placed on punctuality and everybody is expected to arrive on time. therefore. which promotes dialogue and co-determination in industrial relations matters. trades and professions have specific bodies which work together to promote and conduct good labour relations. (See management style) Austrian business has always prided itself on the concept of Sozialpartnerschaft. matrix-style approach is employed. Managers are expected to be sector/function experts and as such should know the answers to problems. Austrian Meetings Meetings are formal affairs and people would be expected to arrive well-prepared. protocol and etiquette. meetings will run . Brainstorming type meetings might occur but it would be obvious to all concerned that the meeting was not for decision-making or information exchange in advance and everybody would prepare accordingly. Therefore. with little reference to other functional heads.
then you should use 'Herr' to address a man and 'Frau' to address a woman with their surname. . Try to smoke only when the people around you are doing so. distributed and acted upon. People would not really expect their team roles to be interchangeable. nor would they expect to be asked to do the tasks allocated to another team member. including restaurants. If someone does not have an honorific title. In a culture which places great emphasis on specialisation. Cross-departmental teams can often prove very difficult to manage. You are recommended to avoid making business appointments for the months of July and August as well as around the dates of Austrian national holidays. pat on the back etc. In many places in Austria. Austrian Teams Teamwork in Austria revolves around individuals who work on tasks given to them by the team leader. You should wait for your Austrian hosts to determine when it's appropriate to move to the use of first names. Do not feel the need to speak if you have nothing relevant to say. Make every effort to arrive for a meeting at the appointed time or. The meeting leader will invite people to speak and it is not expected that people will be interrupted or that strong emotions are shown. it the surname can be dropped and the honorific title only used. Thus decisions made at cross-departmental project group level are often revisited after group members have reported back to their superiors. Austrians adhere to a fairly formal culture and it is unlikely that body contact will progress beyond the handshake (e. written down. people are expected to speak when they have something to say about something within their area of expertise. Punctuality in Austria.to schedule and finish on time. When doing business in Austria you should use honorific titles where necessary. it is customary to bring a small gift. such as a selected wine. Meeting and Greeting Handshakes are the norm in Austria when entering a meeting. Actions will be agreed. It is important that you shake hands with all attendees and that your handshake is firm and confident and that eye contact is maintained. After the initial meeting. as people are asked to make decisions in a vacuum which might adversely affect their area of the hierarchy. there is a strict ban on smoking. etc. (Meetings may be scheduled quite early as the typical working day runs from 8:00 am to 17:00 pm in Austria) It is usual for the senior person present to control the meeting and agendas tend to be followed assiduously. a box of chocolates. in which an individual will be introduced with their honorific title and surname. is renowned throughout the world.) unless you are family or close friends. if you are a few minutes late. If you are invited to your Austrian colleague's home. Demarcation lines can be quite strong. make your apologies to your colleague. as in Germany. Most business people in Austria have a good command of English.g. The team members would expect to be given clearly defined instructions and goals by their manager and will then expect to be allowed to pursue those goals without too much interference or questioning.
Thus those cultures which tend to be more diplomatic and worried about causing offence by being too direct should try hard to ensure the use of a literal form of communication. Lack of directness in discourse can be mistaken for lack of clarity of thought or. Presentations should be accurate and precise. telephone immediately and offer an explanation. the two weeks surrounding Christmas. Ensure that what you say relates to what you mean.until asked to switch to first name terms. direct communication is appreciated. When working with Austrians (and many other European countries) it is a good idea to ensure you have all your academic qualifications visible on your business card. it is recommended that you back your presentation up with graphs or other supporting data which clearly demonstrates the points you are making. it is still probably wise to use family names with when meeting new business colleagues .Austrian Communication Styles Communication can seem a little formal to those cultures who are accustomed to using the more informal convention of addressing colleagues by their first names within the business environment. Business Meeting Etiquette Appointments are necessary and should be made 3 to 4 weeks in advance when meeting with private companies. Have back-up material and be prepared to defend everything: Austrians are meticulous about details. Meetings are formal. Meetings and Negotiation Austrians place great emphasis on supporting data and as such. what the next steps are. As with all German-speaking countries. Meetings adhere to strict agendas. Do not try to schedule meetings in August. . It is extremely rude to cancel a meeting at the last minute and it could ruin your business relationship. charm and old-fashioned courtesy are much in evidence and are highly-prized qualities. if presenting an idea or proposal during a meeting. If you have an agenda. If you expect to be delayed.) It is also common for people to be addressed by their titles — either academic or professional as great store is placed on academic qualifications and the prestige they bring. It is still customary in Austria to use family names in the workplace — even with quite close colleagues. it will be followed. Warmth and a genuine sense of hospitality await the business traveller to Austria. Follow-up with a letter outlining what was agreed. As has already been stated. (It is not unusual to hear Austrian business people addressing each other by first names when speaking English in a meeting and then changing immediately back to family names when the language switches back to German. Punctuality is taken extremely seriously. including starting and ending times. or the week before Easter. at the extreme. dishonesty. and who is the responsible party. Although there is some evidence that the younger generation are moving away from this convention towards the use of first names.
If invited out for a meal. Remember that it gets cold in Austria so make sure to pack appropriate clothing for the season. with the other hand placed on one's lap under the table.You will find that your hosts are meticulous about detail and it is important therefore that the data is robust and does not lay grounds for challenge. Include any advanced academic degrees or honor’s on your business card.) During a business meal. Have one side of your card translated into German. It is quite usual to tip in Austria. You are also advised to have any materials translated into both English and German Austrian Dress Code Dress code in Austria tends towards the more formal and people take a pride in their appearance. if in doubt. If your company has been in business for a long time. It is probably best to take your lead from your host. Successful Entertaining in Austria Austria does not have as strong a business entertaining culture as some other. include the founding date on your card as it demonstrates stability. it is safest to wear smart. (as is common in North America) is not considered particularly good table etiquette. attitudes with regard to what is business-suitable in terms of dress is changing rapidly and. Thus. you will be expected to pick up the bill. Business Cards Business cards are exchanged without formal ritual. Although not a business necessity. A tip of around 10% should be given directly to the waiter at the end of a meal. Alcohol will usually be offered at lunch and dinner but many Austrians will refrain from drinking at lunch time. (Breakfast meetings are extremely rare in Austria. it is fairly unusual to be taken out for dinner and even rarer to be invited to someone’s home. it is possible to talk about business. the host will always expect to pay. more southern European cultures which reflects the strong separation which is often made between work and private life. Men are best advised to wear a dark suit or smart sports jacket with trousers and a tie. Eating with only one hand. In Austria. Most business entertaining is done over lunch — usually at a good restaurant. Women should wear smart business suits or dresses. Therefore. Similarly. it demonstrates an attention to detail. but it might be wisest to delay introducing work related issues until the host raises the matter. . both the knife and fork are used throughout the meal. As with many western countries. business-like clothes for first meetings in order to make a professional impression. it is best to check with a local contact in advance. if you invite someone for a business lunch.
Do not assume that Austrians are exactly like Germans.Top Tips on Austrian Business Culture 1.it usually gives a close reflection of the way in which the company is actually organised. Austrian companies tend towards a hierarchical approach to corporate structure. Meetings will be run in a methodical fashion with the agenda. Try to avoid deviating from the set agenda unless it is absolutely unavoidable. Meetings may be arranged early in the morning as Austrians tend to start at 8:00 am. 16. 3. business-formal attire ' this applies to both men and women. . it is best to make sure everybody knows exactly what is expected within the meeting and what the goals of the meeting are. avoid speaking for the sake of speaking. 4. In a country which tends towards the development of specialists. It is unusual to be invited to the home of a business colleague for a meal. Managers tend to be instructional and are expected to give direct instructions to subordinates. Surnames are usually used in business circles as are academic and professional titles. Cooperation and co-determination in industrial matters are of paramount importance. 2. Most business entertaining will be done at local restaurants. People are expected to be very well prepared for meetings . Austria is a country with a great sense of historiy and a unique culture. managers are usually sector-area experts.do not arrive without having thought through the detail of the meeting in some depth. 5. If 'brainstorming' meetings are to be held. Due to certain historical and cultural influences. In a meeting situation. for a long time. by and large. Try to find the organisation chart of the company you are dealing with . 12. adhered to. been a central tenet of the Austrian approach to business. Speak only when you have something relevant to say about a topic which you are knowledgeable upon. Punctuality is prized. 6. Social partnership has. 7. 13. Dress code still tends towards the formal and it is best to wear conservative. Do not be late as this could be viewed as unprofessional behaviour. A certain amount of small talk can be expected at the start of a meeting. 17. They know what they are talking about. Charm and warmth are much prized characteristics and managers will strive to achieve a 'cosy' relationship with colleagues. 8. 9. 11. 15. 10. 14.
282 58.821.175.489.745.859 51.814. S 51 ORGANI C CHEMICALS 54 MEDICINA LAND PHA R MACEUTICA LPRODUCTS 6 MA N U FACTURED GO ODS CLASSIFIED BY MATERIA L 65 TEXTILE YARN.087 16.259 184.108.40.2064 65.006.491 .510 19.026 40.325.543 32.762 9.491.364.E.361 3.753 7. N.267 5.155.447.862.102 103.402.147 32. LUBRICANTS AN D REL .645 127.134.307.757 921.176 18. 3 MINER A LFUELS.129 2010 19.973 483.544.289 37.158.592 5.628 2 81.146.459 429.755. A P P A ICA RATU S A N D 78 RO A DVEHICLES (INCLUD ING AIR-CU SHION VEHICLES) 8 MISCEL L N A EOUS MANUFACTURED ARTICLES 84 ARTICLES OF A P P AEL A N DCLOT HING ACCESSORIES R 85 FO OTWEA R 87 P ROFES SIONA L SCIEN T AN D CONTROL L .468 14.604 999.135.943 1.266 1 1.S.571 4. 67 IRO NA N DSTEEL 7 MACHINERY A N DTRA N S ORT EQUIPMENT P 71 POWER GENERATING MACHINERY A N DEQUIPMENT 72 MACHINERY SPECIALIZED FOR P ARTICULA R INDUSTRIES 73 META L WORKING MACHINERY 74 GENERA LINDU STRIA LMACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 77 ELECT R LMACHINERY.MA TERIALS 4 A N MA LA N DVEGETABLE OILS.792 2.833.429. N.041.205.121 20.816.784 1 13.281 21.465.902 41.935.E.908 39. FABRICS AND MADE-U P ARTICLES.155 19.942.461 439.511 48.535.248.140 161.913. IFIC ING 9 COMMOD I IES NO T CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE T TOTA L 2009 23.591 1.559.India’s exports to Austria in categories for the last 5 years (in €) SITC ITEM 0 FO OD A N DLIVE A N IM L A S 1 BEVERAGES A N DTOBACCO 2 CRUDE MATERIA L INEDIBLE.053 36.024 3.377.098 179.353.S.993 1.250 74.372.060 82. FATS AND WAXES I 5 CHEMICA L A N DRELA TED P RODUCTS. 66 NONMETA L MINER A LMA N U LIC FACTURES.654. EXCEP T FUELS S.005 107.435.228.899.466 2.
560 31. FATS AND WAXES I 5 CHEMICA L A N DRELA TED P RODUCTS.692.362 73.667 327.488 27.141.547 560.363.978 1 1.513 82.435.005 35.150 36.S. 66 NONMETA L MINER A LMA N U LIC FACTURES.131 15.473 44. 67 IRO NA N DSTEEL 7 MACHINERY A N DTRA N S ORT EQUIPMENT P 71 POWER GENERATING MACHINERY A N DEQUIPMENT 72 MACHINERY SPECIALIZED FOR P ARTICULA R INDUSTRIES 73 META L WORKING MACHINERY 74 GENERA LINDU STRIA LMACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 77 ELECT R LMACHINERY.879.418.917.549 185.994 21.568. 3 MINER A LFUELS.350 59.1 18 3.962 30.868 50.892 3. EXCEP T FUELS S.659.953.355.672 170.E.643 32.882 14. N.249.432. N.511 12.022.938 316.867.096.202 76.419.061.268 3.S.631 7.010.931.086.277.866.MA TERIALS 4 A N MA LA N DVEGETABLE OILS.018 44.India’s im portsfrom Austria in categor for the last 5 years (in €) ies SITC ITEM 0 FO OD A N DLIVE A N IM L A S 1 BEVERAGES A N DTOBACCO 2 CRUDE MATERIA L INEDIBLE. IFIC ING 9 COMMOD I IES NO T CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE T TOTA L 2009 5.293.498 66. LUBRICANTS AN D REL .084 2010 2.960.595 249 57.817 41.573 26 71.595 15.500.831 38.742 .938 18.781 654. S 51 ORGANI C CHEMICALS 54 MEDICINA LAND PHA R MACEUTICA LPRODUCTS 6 MA N U FACTURED GO ODS CLASSIFIED BY MATERIA L 65 TEXTILE YARN.091 61.038 42.469 8.794 28.996 42.001.499.716.599 1 18.091.535.480 60.E.184 4.301 82.126.875. A P P A ICA RATU S A N D 78 RO A DVEHICLES (INCLUD ING AIR-CU SHION VEHICLES) 8 MISCEL L N A EOUS MANUFACTURED ARTICLES 84 ARTICLES OF A P P AEL A N DCLOT HING ACCESSORIES R 85 FO OTWEA R 87 P ROFES SIONA L SCIEN T AN D CONTROL L .080 36.722. FABRICS AND MADE-U P ARTICLES.530.483.1 13.748.799.496.
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