Disaster Preparedness Planning Toolkit




BACKGROUND INFORMATION Y Care International’s vision is one of a world where young people are protected from the impact of disasters and emergencies. Over the years it has strived to achieve this by supporting YMCAs’ efforts around the world to respond effectively to the needs of young people following a disaster or emergency. The Disaster Preparedness Planning Guide and Toolkit form part of Y Care International’s ongoing commitment to increasing the capacity of YMCAs to reduce the impact of disasters and emergencies on young people’s lives.

WRITTEN BY: Claire O’Meara, Emergency Programmes Coordinator, Y Care international DESIGN: Ian Dunn Design ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Disaster Preparedness Planning Guide and accompanying Toolkit have been developed with the support of the World Alliance of YMCAs. This initiative aims to complement the World Alliance’s work in strengthening the quality of YMCAs’ emergency response activities and international coordination of efforts, through its ‘Coordination Protocol’ and ‘Emergency Appeal and Reporting Templates’. Y Care International would like to thank the staff and volunteers of Liberia and Sri Lanka YMCAs’ national and local branches, for their support and commitment to the in-country piloting of the Disaster Preparedness Planning Guide and Toolkit.


04 06

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction to the toolkit Notes for facilitators Page reference in Guide

Page number in Toolkit

1 1a 2 3 4 5 6

Understanding in Practice Natural disasters? List of disasters Disaster impacts Benefits of preparedness planning How did this plan get developed? Case study for exercises 4-6: Mapaniland earthquake But it’s not what we’re good at! How can we stop it from happening again? Participatory Tools Stakeholder mapping Establishing a timeline of activities Building a country context Vulnerability and risk analysis (part A) Historical risk profiling 5 Vulnerability and risk analysis (part B) Community vulnerability and hazard mapping 6 Risk ranking 7 Problem tree and response ranking 8 Sharing and summarising organisational systems 9 Mapping staff knowledge and skills 10 Evaluating the process (part A) The evaluation bus 11 Evaluating the process (part B) Hitting the target 1 2 3 4 26 27 29 30 30 31 33 37 38 40 40 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 11 n/a 11 14 16 n/a 18 19 10 11 13 14 16 18 20 21


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Templates and Tables Process planning table Country context template Historical profiling matrix Summary matrix of risks identified Scenario description template Response plan template Summary table for systems review process Staff and volunteers chart Human resources SWOT chart Financial resources table Physical resources table Preparedness action plan table Structure of a written Disaster Preparedness Plan 27 29 30 30 32 34 37 38 38 39 39 41 41 48 49 51 52 53 54 56 57 58 59 60 61 62



INTRODUCTION TO THE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS PLANNING TOOLKIT What is the Toolkit? The Disaster Preparedness Planning Toolkit has been designed to accompany the Guide to Disaster Preparedness Planning, and should be used in conjunction with the information provided in the Guide. The Toolkit itself is a set of 17 participatory activities and tools intended to support learning, encourage discussion and analyse information related to disaster preparedness. It also contains 13 tables and templates designed to help present information gathered through the course of the participative activities and other information gathering exercises for inclusion in the written disaster preparedness plan. Who is it for? As with the Guide to Disaster Preparedness Planning this Toolkit is for YMCAs interested in improving their capacity to respond to the needs of their communities in the event of a disaster. The tools are not limited to any particular region or country, or type of disaster or emergency. More specifically, the Toolkit is aimed at YMCA staff and volunteers who will be facilitating and leading workshops related to the process of disaster preparedness planning. For those interested in finding out more about what the process of disaster preparedness planning entails, they should refer to the accompanying Guide.

How should it be used? As stated above, the Toolkit should be used in combination with the Guide in order to help put the activities in context. The Toolkit is broken up into 3 sections; Understanding in Practice, Participatory Tools, and Templates and Tables. The first section contains activities called ‘Understanding in Practice’. These are related to information in Part One of the Guide which explains key definitions, concepts and principals related to disasters and preparedness planning. They should be used to help build understanding amongst staff and volunteers about the importance of disaster preparedness and the principles it is based upon. Ideally this should be done before beginning the process of planning. The second section relates to Part Two of the Guide and is made up of Participatory Tools directly related to the process of disaster preparedness planning. They are a mix of information gathering, problem solving, ranking and analysis tools. In many cases these tools will need to be repeated in different locations or with different groups of participants. The third section contains the Templates and Tables which have been created to help present information in the final written disaster preparedness plan. Some of them relate directly to the participatory tools so can be used to summarise and document information gathered in these workshops – where this is the case it will be highlighted. Where they do not relate to a specific activity it may be that information needs to come from a number of sources or activities. Again it will be clear in the Guide what information you are expected to use to fill in the templates and tables. Each tool will be presented in the following format, Figure 1 opposite is a guide to the different elements of the tool description:



FIGURE 1: Example layout of tools throughout the Toolkit Symbols are used throughout the Toolkit and these correspond with the symbols in the Guide.

G Understanding in Practice L Participatory Tools I Templates and Tables G
TITLE: This title should be same as the one in the Guide AIM: The name of the activity - this is the same as the one in the Guide

OBJECTIVES: The objectives provide guidance as to the specific outcomes expected through the activity and can be used to assess how well an activity has gone.

OVERALL TIME NEEDED Indication of time required (not exact)

MATERIALS REQUIRED A list of materials or equipment specifically required by the activity.

RELATED ITEMS A list of tables or templates relevant to the tool, as well as related case-studies or activities to refer to.

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE A step-by-step explanation what the activity involves.

TIME NEEDED Indication of time to be spent on each step.

TIPS FOR FACILITATORS Additional advice to facilitators to help them manage the activity. It may be some ideas on further issues to consider, or advice on how to avoid potential challenges.



NOTES FOR FACILITATORS Below are some useful tips for facilitators on how to prepare and deliver participative workshops and activities. A participatory approach A participatory approach is about helping participants engage actively in the issues being discussed and to encourage them to learn and think for themselves. This approach is central to the process of disaster preparedness planning, and all of the activities described in this toolkit involve groups of people working together to gather or analyse information. A participatory approach, is also a way of ensuring that learning is shared amongst participants, enabling them to draw on personal experiences, skills and knowledge when problem solving and creating solutions which are appropriate to their context. As discussed in the accompanying Guide, disaster preparedness planning is a process which involves people from national and local YMCA branches, as well as community members and members of external organisations. Participatory workshops are an effective way of bringing people together to ensure that a range of views are heard and that plans made are coordinated between the different stakeholders. They are also excellent ways to allow young people to engage effectively in workshops too.

The role of the facilitator The facilitator has a crucial role in supporting effective participation, with their main aim to ensure that all participants have equal opportunities to share their ideas. In more detail their role involves: • Creating an environment which supports discussion and sharing of ideas • Helping participants to feel comfortable with a participative approach • Encouraging participants to share information, ideas, concerns and knowledge • Helping participants to communicate effectively • Managing group dynamics • Keeping the work practical and relevant • Enabling the group to take control of the learning and sharing process What makes a good facilitator A good facilitator does not have to be an expert in disasters or disaster preparedness. They do however require a few basic professional and personal characteristics to help them in their role.

KNOWLEDGE BASE Including: • the YMCA and other local organisations and the challenges they face • the community and country context • the subject matter of the activity

ATTITUDES Including: • friendly and honest • committed to helping people to learn for themselves • gender sensitive • respectful of culture • ‘equal’ to participants • self-aware

SKILLS Including: • active listening and good questioning • open communication • managing group work • conflict resolution • summarising • time keeping



Facilitating a workshop: things to consider The tools contained in this toolkit are all complete activities in themselves. Other aspects of the workshop or meeting where they are used need to be considered and planned for. Creating an inclusive environment: The physical place in which the workshop or meeting takes place can greatly influence its success. Dark rooms, which are too hot, too small, or badly laid out can limit people’s participation. Equally, it is important to create the right atmosphere so that people feel comfortable and free to participate.

Facilitator tips • Choose a room that is big enough to fit everyone comfortably. • Try to use a room that has plenty of natural light and is not too hot or cold. Get to the venue early to open windows / put on the air-conditioning / heating if it is available. • Arrange the chairs and tables into a layout which helps encourage discussion. A circle is a good shape for helping everyone feel included. • Think about how many tables you have and where they are positioned. • Start the workshop informally, build in time before you begin for participants to chat to each other and to you – why not provide drinks and snacks when people arrive? • Put up posters or pictures on the walls or around the space that will help to create the right atmosphere and inspire participants.

Facilitator tips • Be clear from the start about what the aims and objectives of the workshop are. Address any concerns that participants have about the proposed agenda at the start and be willing to make changes if necessary. This will help the participants to feel control and ownership over the process, which is important for motivation. • Start with some ice-breaker activities, these are short and fun activities which help to relax the participants and feel comfortable with each other. • Plan plenty of breaks so that people have time to make phone calls, have refreshments and relax. This will help maintain energy levels during the day. • Include energisers – these are quick activities which help to wake people up. You can use these after breaks to focus everyone’s attention back on the workshop (especially useful after lunch), use them in between activities to maintain momentum, or even in the middle of an activity if you notice attention and energy going down. • Keep aware of the group dynamic. Be ready to change your plans if you notice that some activities are working better than others or people are not engaging. Be prepared, be aware, be flexible but don’t be proud to change what you have planned.

Energy and enthusiasm: Participative workshops require lots of energy from their participants when discussing issues, or trying to take in new ideas. If energy levels are low people can get distracted or may not contribute as much as they would otherwise. Likewise if there is not much enthusiasm or motivation for the subject or activity being undertaken participation may reduce.



Keeping focus: With many people participating in discussions, it can be easy to get side-tracked from the main issues or objectives at hand. Mobile phones and laptops can reduce people’s focus, people constantly leaving the room or talking on their phones is distracting for everyone. Facilitator tips • Be clear about the objectives and outputs you want to achieve from each activity. If you feel that discussions are going off-course then guide the group back to the main points. A list of guiding questions may help you to do this. • Have a ‘parking-bay’: this is simply a blank piece of paper on the wall where ideas or issues which can’t be resolved at the time can be ‘parked’, to be returned to later. • At the end of discussions or activities try to sum up the main points of the discussion and how they relate to the objectives of the workshop. • If the workshop is spread over multiple days, hold regular recap sessions so that participants are reminded of what they have already discussed or learnt. • Establish ground-rules or a ‘compact’ at the start of the workshop about people’s attitudes, willingness to listen, respect for other and so on. This should also cover use of mobile phones and laptops. Ideally ask people to switch them off and only take calls during their breaks.

Meeting the needs of young people: For the YMCA, as a young-people focused movement, the inclusion of young people in disaster preparedness planning is essential. Part of this involves supporting them to participate effectively. For the most part, the tips outlined above for good facilitation apply as much to the facilitation of young people as they do for adults. You may however need to consider the differences in experience and knowledge levels of young people. • Think about the language you use to explain ideas, avoid technical language or jargon and ask follow up questions to check understanding. • Take time to explain activities which may be unfamiliar to young people in the group. Also, if you are working with a mixed group of adults and young people, less experienced and younger participants may feel shyer in expressing their opinions. • Do not let adults dominate the discussion or interrupt young people. Provide opportunities for the young people to have their say and make sure that their contributions are seen as valid. • Encourage adults and young people to work in mixed groups (unless necessary) so that experiences and ideas are mixed up.

Disaster Preparedness Understanding in Practice




Understanding in Practice 1 TITLE: Natural disasters? AIM: To think about factors which cause disasters OBJECTIVES: • To challenge assumptions around what makes a ‘natural’ disaster and how social factors affect the natural environment • To encourage participants to consider risk reduction prevention opportunities • To inspire participants to think about the physical, financial and social effects of disasters on different individuals and where possible to relate this to YMCA experience OVERALL TIME NEEDED Approx 50 minutes-1 hour MATERIALS REQUIRED A1 sheets of paper Tape/Blu-tac to attach sheets to wall Pens List of disasters (p11) RELATED ITEMS List of disasters (p11-12)

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Split the group into smaller groups of 3-4 people. Distribute the list of disasters listed (p11) to each group and ask each group to identify which are examples of ‘natural disasters’. Get each group to appoint a spokesperson to feedback to the main group. After each group has given feedback, discuss any differences of opinion. Split into smaller groups again and discuss the factors involved in causing the disasters in the list. Ask each group to discuss whether any of the disasters could have been avoided and if so, how? Ask them to pick one example from the list to present to the rest of the group. Encourage them to write down the main causes they have identified for the disaster and their ideas for how it could have been avoided. Have each group present their findings and discuss how realistic some of the options are for avoiding disasters. TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

TIME NEEDED 15 minutes

15 minutes

15 minutes

10 minutes

Encourage participants to challenge to what extent the disaster was ‘natural’ and to think about underlying causes. When identifying ways the disaster could have been avoided, encourage participants to think about big and small ideas, and to not worry if they sound impractical.

Understanding in Practice 1a – List of Disasters WHEN February 2007 SCALE AND EFFECTS Up to 40 people killed as flooding hit, tens of thousands lost homes, wide-spread outbreak of cases of dengue fever and malaria as a result of poor sanitary conditions in the wake of the flooding. Between 1,500–2,000 killed, tens of thousands evacuated from homes. Mudslides in areas of intense deforestation and environmental degradation destroyed entire villages and raised the death toll. According to the state government of Madhya Pradesh, approximately 3,800 people died and several thousand other individuals experienced permanent or partial disabilities. 13,200 square miles (34,000 sq km) of rainforest in Northern Brazil burned and as many as 3,800 square miles (10,000 sq km) were damaged or destroyed. Fires were started by subsistence farmers seeking to use the land for pasture and agricultural purposes and spread quickly due to a period of sustained drought leading up to the fires. An earthquake of 6.3 magnitude struck near to the city of Padang. 70 killed under falling buildings as infrastructure was unable to withstand the impact and many buildings collapsed. Conflict spread into the country from neighbouring Liberia and took place between national armies and rebels. An estimated 50,000 people died, with hundreds of thousands more affected by the violence and 2m people displaced by the conflict. 80,000 people died and millions lost their homes as an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 struck the province. There is speculation that the earthquake was caused by the massive pressure placed on the fault line by a 511ft-high dam which lies 550 yards from the fault line, and three miles from the epicentre. 4000 people died and more than 80,000 affected. Poor water supplies, broken sewers and uncollected waste in urban areas blamed for spread of disease, which was compounded by the closure of many hospitals.





Hurricane Stan

Central America – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador worst affected. December 1984

October 2005

Gas leak

Union Carbide gas plant, Bhopal, India January 1998

Forest fires

Northern Amazon region, Brazil


Sumatra, Indonesia

March 2007

Civil war

Sierra Leone




Sichuan Province, China

May 2008

Cholera outbreak


November 2008


WHAT HAPPENED August 2005 An earthquake of magnitude 7.2 hit Japan’s north east coast shaking buildings in Tokyo 300km away. Up to 40 people were injured, one badly. Experts said that a similar magnitude quake elsewhere in the world would have proved deadly. More than 200,000 people killed and more than a million people displaced since early 2003 by fighting between rebel troops and progovernment militia in Darfur. Nearly 200,000 villagers fled to neighbouring Chad. Darfur fighting took place against the backdrop of a 20-year long conflict which led to 2.2 million internally displaced people in refugee camps within the country. Nearly 140,000 people dead or missing and 2.4 million people thought to be severely affected. UN estimates suggest that the number of people displaced by the cyclone may have been as high as 800,000 with some 260,000 seeking refuge in temporary settlements in the immediate aftermath. An independent report into the disaster found that international aid was deliberately blocked by the military regime. Forest fires in Portugal killed 19 as country experienced worst drought since records began in 1947. Water rationed across half of Spain and two thirds of Portugal. Economy hit as tourism, fishing and agriculture severely affected. Between July and September 1998, Bangladesh suffered one of its worst ever floods, resulting in over 1,000 deaths and 30 million people being made homeless. Increased population pressure and deforestation have made the already-vulnerable country more prone to flooding, and Bangladesh is universally recognised as one of the countries most affected by climate change. An estimated 1m people died as civil war occurred alongside severe drought. The famine was the worst of a series of food crises which took place during the 1970s and 80s in the agriculture-dependent country. Up to 1,500 killed and many thousands severely injured. At the height of the crisis, an estimated 100,000 people were displaced including those in shelters and with host families, virtually all of Gaza’s 1.4 million people were without electricity and at any given time during the fighting, at least 500,000 people were without water.





Civil conflict

Darfur, Western Sudan 2003-2005


Cyclone Nargis


May 2008


Iberian Peninsula

June-August 2003



July-September 1998

Famine Dec 2008-Jan 2009

Ethiopia and Eritrea



Gaza Strip



Understanding in Practice 2


TITLE: Disaster impacts AIM: To understand the many ways a disaster impacts upon a community OBJECTIVES: • To think about the seen and unseen ways that disasters impact different members and groups within a community • To think about the financial, physical and social consequences of a disaster OVERALL TIME NEEDED 1 hour MATERIALS REQUIRED A1 sheets of paper Tape/Blu-tac to attach sheets to wall Pens RELATED ITEMS List of disasters in Understanding in Practice 1a (Toolkit p11-12) Figure 1-Disaster Impacts diagram (Guide p12) TIME NEEDED 20 minutes

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Split the group into groups of 3-4 people. Ask each group to think about a disaster they know, and the variety of ways that the community members were affected by it in the short and long term. If the group has no experience of disasters, ask them to choose one of the disasters from the list used in Understanding in Practice 1. Have them prepare a poster (using words or pictures) which depicts their findings. Ask the groups to present their posters in turn to the main group. As a whole group categorise the impacts which have been identified into ‘financial’, ‘physical’ and ‘social’ impacts. Are there any other types? Identify any areas where you know that your YMCA has had related experience of dealing with these sorts of impacts. TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

15 minutes 30 minutes

When thinking about impact encourage participants to think about all members of the community and the unseen effects (increased household tension, strain on community relations) as well as the seen. Encourage participants to draw on real experiences where possible.



Understanding in Practice 3 TITLE: Benefits of preparedness planning AIM: To gain commitment of participants for planning process OBJECTIVES: • To give participants first-hand experience of the benefits of planning on efficiency outcomes • To highlight the link between good planning and good practice in disaster response

OVERALL TIME NEEDED 45 minutes-1 hour

MATERIALS REQUIRED Ruler (1 per group) Pile of scrap paper (per group) Scissors (1 per group) Stapler with staples (1 per group) Pencil or pen (1 per group)


OUTLINE OF EXERCISE TIME NEEDED Divide the group into two smaller groups (if there are more than 8 people per group, make more groups) and ensure each group is given the same set of materials (see above). Explain that each group has to create as many scrap paper notebooks as possible within 15 minutes. Explain that notebooks must meet the following specification and if they don’t they will not be counted. Specification: • Each notebook must be 10cm wide by 14cm long • It must contain 5 pages and be held together by a single staple in the top left-hand corner • It must have straight edges (i.e. not roughly torn) • Waste must be kept to a minimum Allow one group to start and tell the other that they are not allowed to start making notebooks for the first 5 minutes. They are however allowed to look at the materials and plan how they will complete the exercise. After 5 minutes allow the second group to start. At the end of 15 minutes ask both groups to stop. Check the quality of the completed notebooks. Only those which meet the standard should be counted. Each notebook which passes ‘quality control’ gets 2 points. Disqualify notebooks: • without matching sized pages • of the wrong size • with staples in the wrong place • with the wrong number of pages • with non-straight edges 15 minutes 5 minutes

15 minutes



Understanding in Practice 3 (continued)

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE (CONTINUED) For every notebook which fails to pass quality control, take away one point from the group. Points can also be deducted for too much waste being produced. Add up the points for each group. The team with the most points is the winner. Following the completion of the exercise, have a short discussion in which you comparing the experiences of the two groups and consider the following questions: • Which group got the most points overall? • Which group had the most notebooks discarded or made the most mess – why? What were the problems they encountered? • What was it like for the group that had to plan for 5 minutes before starting – did this affect the way that they worked? How did it make them feel? • Could mistakes have been avoided if more planning had been allowed? • Was anyone responsible for checking quality? TIPS FOR FACILITATORS


10 minutes

Make sure that the group told to plan does not start before the 5 minutes and encourage them to spend the time planning the exercise. Be very strict on the notebooks that are accepted and be public in discounting the notebooks which don’t meet the specifications. In the discussion try and relate the exercise to a disaster response. You can relate the number of notebooks produced to efficiency levels in response, the quality control aspect can be related to effectiveness and the lack of waste to good practice. Ideally the group who took the time to plan will have produced more and better quality notebooks. If they haven’t ask them to discuss what went wrong in their planning. Did they actually implement the plan they came up with? Did the group which won have a plan or any other secrets for success?



Understanding in Practice 4 TITLE: How did this plan get developed? AIM: To understand the importance of a practical disaster preparedness plan based on a good process of collecting and analysing information OBJECTIVES: • To show the impracticality of a disaster preparedness plan if it has not been created using a participative approach • For participants to engage with case study • For participants to relate issues of role play to their own experiences OVERALL TIME NEEDED 50 minutes-1 hour MATERIALS REQUIRED Copies of Mapaniland case study (p18-19) RELATED ITEMS Mapaniland case study

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Share the accompanying case study (p17) with the whole group. Give them time to read it and tell them that they will be using this as the basis for a number of activities. Invite a small group of volunteers (at least 4 people) to take part in a role-play and assign them the following roles: Consultant; National Senior Staff member; Branch Director; Project Coordinator Give them the following scenario (in the grey box opposite) and give them some time to prepare a short performance of around 5 minutes which depicts the story. Ask them to perform the scene in front of the rest of the group before having a discussion with everyone. During the discussion try to address the following questions: 1. How did the actors feel in their roles? What do they think the frustrations of their characters were? 2. Do they agree with the reactions they were asked to portray? 3. Which of the characters did the audience feel most sympathy for and why? 4. Why do you think the characters disagree with each other? 5. What do they think the impact of having a consultant run the disaster preparedness planning process, had on the finished product 6. How could the process have been improved to avoid these disagreements? TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

TIME NEEDED 10 minutes

20 minutes

5-10 minutes

15 minutes

Share the role play with the volunteers just before a break so that they have some time to prepare in private. It does not need to be a polished performance!



SCENARIO DESCRIPTION: ROLE PLAY It is the day after the earthquake has struck. A meeting is being held in Acacia YMCA Branch. A disaster preparedness plan was written by a consultant one year ago – it includes a scenario which matches the current situation. The Acacia YMCA Branch Director is at the meeting as well as a local project co-ordinator (plus other field staff if necessary). A senior staff member from Mapaniland National office has just arrived, and on the phone is the consultant who wrote the disaster preparedness plan. They are discussing what they should do in response to the earthquake. The consultant is very confident that the response plan meets their needs and should be followed by the local branch. The senior staff member from the national office managed the consultant but does not remember much about the plan apart from a few things related to the national office. The Branch Director is aware of the plan, as he/she was interviewed by the consultant at the time it was being written, but he/she never actually read the finished document. He/she is not sure how useful the plan it suggests is, but wants to make sure they get support from the national office and make a quick start to the response. The project coordinator has never heard of the plan before and is not at all happy about using it as it doesn’t take into account the views of young people or the local staff and is not relevant to their experience.



Mapaniland earthquake – case study for Understanding in practice tools 4-6

Earthquake situation report One region was hit (see map), with both rural and urban areas affected. Acacia local branch already works in several of the villages and towns affected (see map). Approximately 5,000 people have been displaced from their homes. Temporary camps are being set up to house the displaced people. So far services in the camps are basic, the Red Cross and UN agencies are focusing on providing food and shelters (prioritising young children and female headed households) and Oxfam is setting up sanitation facilities. There are many children in the camps, also many female-headed households due to migration of men to larger cities for work. There are reports coming from young people arriving into temporary camps from the illegal mines (grey area on map within earthquake affected area). Their reports state that a landslide triggered by the earthquake has destroyed their accommodation around the illegal mines. Many young people are hurt and others are deeply upset and without shelter. Fear of arrest by authorities is preventing many of those hurt from coming forward to ask for help.



Mapaniland YMCA background information Strategic objectives 1. To increase youth leadership and the recognition of the rights of young people in the government and at the local level 2. To ensure the health and the well-being of children and young people 3. To have YMCA as the leading organisation in child and youth protection issues Target groups • Marginalised young men and women • Street children Target locations The YMCA has 3 local branches. One of these branches (Acacia YMCA) works in 3 locations within the affected area. Acacia YMCA project experience. Current projects include: • Providing health education and psychosocial support (counselling) to young men and women working in or near illegal mines . • Running drop-in centres for street children providing a safe space to socialise, as well as access to child and youth-friendly health services. • Campaigning for youth justice (this is part of a national programme). Numbers of staff and volunteers in Acacia YMCA • 5 staff in branch office (branch director, finance, admin, programme manager and coordinator) • 3 field staff (providing outreach health education and psychosocial support) • 25 volunteers (mostly involved in running drop-in centres for street children, experienced in child care and youth participatory facilitation) • 200 members of which about 100 are actively involved in supporting activities. Many have been involved in campaigns activities.

Pre-prepared Disaster Response Plan (from consultant) Aim To provide relief to families with children under 5 affected by the earthquake Objectives • To provide 500 families in and around the 3 locations where Acacia YMCA works with clothes • To provide 1000 families with mosquito nets Key Activities • Collection of clothes through clothing drives held by other YMCA branches and transportation to Acacia YMCA for distribution (within 2 weeks of earthquake) • Identification of families with children under 5 by local YMCA field staff in three locations • Purchase of 1,000 mosquito nets by national office and transported to local branch for distribution • Distribution of mosquito nets to 1,000 families (within one week of earthquake)



Understanding in Practice 5 TITLE: But it’s not what we’re good at! AIM: To recognise how disaster response activities can work towards YMCA objectives and aims OBJECTIVES: • To be able to assess critically how well a response plan reflects a YMCA’s capacity and objectives • To be able to identify more relevant response strategies OVERALL TIME NEEDED 1 hour MATERIALS REQUIRED Flipchart Pens Mapaniland case study (Toolkit p18-19) RELATED ITEMS Mapaniland case-study

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE In the case study materials look at the background information for Acacia YMCA; its strategic objectives, areas of experience, target beneficiary groups and capacity levels. In groups, compare the background information on Acacia YMCA with the brief description of the response plan written by the consultant for the preparedness plan. Consider the following: 1) Are the aims and objectives in the Disaster Response Plan relevant to Acacia YMCA’s own aims, objectives and experience? Why? 2) Do you think the activities being suggested are appropriate to the situation? Why? 3) How could the response plan be made more relevant? What activities would they recommend? Bring the groups back together and discuss their findings. If there is time, look at all the ideas being proposed to make the response more relevant. Tell them that they have been pledged US$30,000 towards their response from international YMCAs. What activities would they prioritise? TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

TIME NEEDED 10 minutes

30 minutes

20 minutes 15 minutes

Once the groups are formed, display the questions on a flipchart for the groups to consider in their discussion. Have one member in each group present their views and findings. During feedback encourage groups to challenge each others’ findings.



Understanding in Practice 6


TITLE: How can we stop it from happening again? AIM: To recognise that prevention can be more effective than response OBJECTIVES: • To raise awareness of the relationship between vulnerability and disaster risk • To increase interest in the role of YMCAs in reducing disaster risk through their core programmes, as opposed to just responding to disasters OVERALL TIME NEEDED 45 minutes MATERIALS REQUIRED Mapaniland case study (p18-19) RELATED ITEMS Mapaniland case study

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Explain to the group that they are all playing the role of Acacia YMCA staff members, about to take part in a staff meeting to think about possible new project ideas. Read out or share the following with the group: It is now one year since the earthquake, most of the initial relief work is over and almost everyone has now either returned home or moved into more permanent shelters. Despite the threat of further landslides, young people have begun to return to the illegal mines. The risk of future earthquakes in the area remains high. Due to the high threat of further landslides your updated preparedness plan now includes plans to provide relief and support to young people in these areas in the event of another disaster. As stated in the case study materials your current core activities with young people from this area involve health education and counselling. In groups think about the situation of the young people working in and around the illegal mines. Discuss the following: • What could be done to help prevent a further disaster from happening? • What could the role of the YMCA be in achieving this? Are there any ways it could help protect young people from the risk of landslides through its work? Bring everyone back together and discuss what each group came up with. Has is it made anyone think differently about their approach to disasters? Can they think of any activities their own YMCA currently undertakes which may be related to reducing vulnerability to disasters? TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

TIME NEEDED 10 minutes

15 minutes

20 minutes

Once the groups are formed, display the questions on a flipchart for the groups to consider in their discussion. Have one member in each group present their views and findings.



Disaster Preparedness Participatory Tools




Participatory Tool 1 TITLE: Stakeholder mapping AIM: To establish a clear picture of who should be involved in the disaster preparedness planning process OBJECTIVES: • To identify a range of stakeholders relevant to the process of disaster preparedness planning • To establish the level of participation that they require OVERALL TIME NEEDED 2 hours MATERIALS REQUIRED Flipchart Pens Red and blue card RELATED ITEMS Figure 4 – Table of potential stakeholders (Guide p26)

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Begin by asking participants what they mean by the term ‘stakeholders’. Ask them to discuss this for 2 minutes with the person sitting next to them before asking a few people to feed back their ideas. Key points to gather from the discussion are: • stakeholders are people who benefit from, have responsibility for, or have an interest in the project • stakeholders can be a wide range of people including: staff, beneficiaries, donors, other community members, government departments or other organisations Explain to the group the aim and objectives of the session. Stage one – identifying stakeholders Ask participants to work in small groups to identify all the possible stakeholders for their process of disaster preparedness planning. Provide the groups with blue and red cards. Ask them to write on the blue cards stakeholders from within the YMCA movement, and write stakeholders external to the YMCA on the red cards. Stage two – assessing level of involvement Explain that not all stakeholders have to be involved in the same way or to the same extent. Introduce participants to the chart (p25). Where there is a sliding scale of ‘level of participation’ (y axis) and a scale of ‘frequency of involvement’ (x axis). Ask the groups to now place their stakeholders where they think they belong on the chart. Stage three – bringing it all together Bring the groups back together. Have a large version of the chart in the centre that everyone can see. Ask a member from one group to start presenting their stakeholders and placing them on the chart. Invite participants from other groups to agree or disagree with their inclusion and placement. Rotate around the groups, but don’t repeat stakeholders.

TIME NEEDED 10 minutes

20 minutes

30 minutes

40 minutes



Participatory Tool 1 (continued)

x: Frequency of involvement

Leading stakeholder

Worked with Occasional One-off involvement input All stages Frequent involvement of planning

Consultant for input

y: Level of participation

Informed of outcomes

TIPS FOR FACILITATORS Stakeholders may include local YMCA branches, other organisations and institutions, groups of people or key individuals. Encourage participants to not just include stakeholders they have worked with in the past. This is about identifying who is relevant – not just who is easy. There is table of potential stakeholders included in the Guide which may help stimulate some ideas (see Figure 4 page 26). Encourage the groups to be specific about the stakeholder. Instead of saying civil society organisations (CSOs) – ask them which CSOs? Are there specific people within organisations they can target. Ensure groups to think carefully about how stakeholders will be involved by challenging them to justify their decisions. Make sure they are realistic about their level of involvement. For each stakeholder ensure you have whole group consensus before moving on to the next stakeholder.



Participatory Tool 2 TITLE: Establishing a timeline of activities AIM: To produce a realistic work plan of activities needed to complete a preparedness plan. OBJECTIVES: • To identify and order activities relevant to the five stages of planning • To reach consensus about the intended outputs for the preparedness plan • To set targets and divide the work according to the local context • To think practically about resources needed


MATERIALS REQUIRED Card or paper in 5 colours Pens

RELATED ITEMS Figure 3 in Guide (p24-25)

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Stage one – identifying the activities Split the group into 5 groups. Allocate each group one of the stages of preparedness planning and give them a set of coloured cards: 1. preparation 2. analysis 3. response planning 4. organisational planning 5. finalising In their groups ask them to list all the activities which need to be undertaken in relation to their stage. Then for each activity think where it needs to take place (national / local levels) and who needs to be involved. Write each activity on a piece of card (one activity per card) using the following format. Use Figure 3 in the Guide (p24-25) as a reference for possible activities. WHAT
(the activity to take place)

TIME NEEDED 40 minutes



While still in the groups, ask participants to put their activities in order, noting which (if any) are ongoing, which overlap or need something else to happen before they can start.

20 minutes



Participatory Tool 2 (continued)

Stage 2 – producing an activity timeline Draw a long line (timeline) to represent the length of the planning process – for example 9 months. Write the intended end date at the far end of the line. Discuss as a group the order in which the activities need to happen, and place the activity cards on the timeline in the order they should take place. Where there is overlap between activities place cards under each other. When you have placed all the activity cards on the timeline, review the timeline as a group. • Check you are happy with the activities included • Have all stages been adequately addressed? • Do any activities need to be added / removed? Discuss whether the timeline is realistic and if not, what changes need to be made. Start thinking about the resources you need to complete the activities. TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

20 minutes-1 hour

Make sure participants are very specific about the activities they are discussing. Try to help participants to break down large activities into smaller activities that are more manageable. The activities identified through this exercise need to be transferred into the Process Planning Table (Templates and Tables 1) ready for the next participatory tool.



Participatory Tool 3 TITLE: Building a country context AIM: To establish the context of the YMCA’s work in relation to disasters and emergencies OBJECTIVES: • To map visually events and activities over a period of time which relate to and affect the YMCA’s work and its working environment. • To consider the role that the YMCA has taken in responding to external factors and how these have shaped its activities and priorities. OVERALL TIME NEEDED Up to 2 hours MATERIALS REQUIRED 4 colours of post-it notes or cards Pens Ball of string Scissors Newspaper cuttings Camera RELATED ITEMS Templates and tables 2 – country context template

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE If possible split the group into three smaller groups and allocate them one of the following topics: 1) The history and background of the YMCA, including key or defining projects, changes in direction, times of expansion or contraction 2) Disasters and major emergencies in the country – local or national and their impacts on the working environment of the YMCA 3) Social and economic events and how these events / changes have affected the context of the YMCA’s work Give each group a set of coloured post-it notes or cards. E.g. yellow for the group thinking about the YMCA history, blue for disasters and red for social and economic events. Establish the time period to be covered and make sure each group is agreed on this. Place a piece of string along the floor, or draw a line along a wall to represent this time period. Indicate years to help people place their events. Ask each group to write or draw events relevant to their theme on their cards and place them on the timeline. Once the groups have finished attaching events to the line, invite them all to look at what is there, check it’s in the right order and suggest anything that needs adding. Add any relevant events. Identify any gaps or missing information that needs gathering. Ask each group to think about links between events. For example, if one event has triggered another, or influenced its outcomes. When the groups are feeding back, mark the links they make with pen or with string. Use the fourth set of coloured cards to note the issues which link events and ideas that come out of the discussion.

TIME NEEDED 40 minutes

15 minutes

15 minutes to discuss in groups

5 minutes per group for feedback



Participatory Tool 3 (continued)

If the YMCA has responded directly to a disaster or emergency discuss this experience further. Did this experience have an impact on the YMCA itself, if yes, what changed? What lessons did they learn from that experience? TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

20 minutes

If people have done advance work to check dates and statistics on events make sure that they are spread amongst the groups. Bring newspaper cuttings, headlines and pictures which may help to trigger people’s memories of past and recent events. Spread these out on the table centrally within the space for people to look at. When including events on the timeline, it doesn’t matter if different groups come up with the same event from their different perspectives – include them all. Make sure that the timeline is photographed or recorded accurately. At the end, take care to collect all the information on the cards and from the discussion and give it to the person responsible for writing the country and YMCA context. If the timeline exercise happens at the beginning of a longer workshop, try to leave the timeline up on the wall to provide a visual context to later discussions.



Participatory Tool 4 TITLE: Vulnerability and risk analysis (Part A) Historical risk profiling AIM: To establish risks facing the community by identifying and understanding the nature of past events. OBJECTIVES: • To document major events which have happened in the community • To identify patterns associated with these events to do with time of year or other trigger factors • To understand how past events have affected the community and its development OVERALL TIME NEEDED 1.5 hours MATERIALS REQUIRED Pieces of card and pens Camera RELATED ITEMS Templates and Tables 3 Historical profiling matrix Templates and Tables 4 Summary matrix of risks identified TIME NEEDED 5 minutes

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Gather participants together and explain to them that you are interested in finding out about past events in their community in relation to hazards and disasters (natural, social etc). Ask them to think of difficult events and/or disasters which have occurred in their community in the past. Ask someone (either a participant or co-facilitator) to write down the events on pieces of card and place them in chronological order (if they know the dates of the event make sure these are included). Next record what kind of impacts these events had on the community – short and long term. Next find out how people responded to these events, what was done and by whom? Make sure that these actions are also captured on the timeline. Once the timeline is complete take some time to discuss what it shows. 1) Patterns in events: • Are any events associated with the time of year or have any other predictable trigger? • Are any linked to national or regional events or were they only experienced locally? 2) Impact: • Was everyone in the community affected the same or did some people feel greater impacts than others? • Which event had the biggest impact on the community and which had the least? Why? • Which event are people most worried will happen again?

40 minutes

40 minutes



Participatory Tool 4 (continued)

3) Responses: • Which responses were the most effective and useful? • Did any of these responses have a negative impact on the community? • Could more have been done, how? • If external actors/agencies were involved in any of the responses are they still there now? Document discussions as they take place. Take photographs of the final timeline. A simplified version should be written up using the Historical Profiling matrix found in Templates and Tables 3. TIPS FOR FACILITATORS Think carefully about the groups. It is important that you get input from a cross-section of the community; young and old, male and female as well as different levels of leadership and ethnic groups. It may be necessary to hold a number of different discussions with different groups to help bring out their different perspectives. For example split groups up by elder males; elder females; young boys and men; and young girls and women. Be aware that some events may have lasting sensitivities, especially if they relate to conflict or tensions between different ethnic groups. Make sure that participants feel comfortable with discussing the issues and try to avoid getting into heated discussions. If tensions are very strong it may be necessary to work with groups separately. Try to identify potential problems such as this in advance and plan accordingly. Make sure you document the discussion as some of the most valuable information will come out here. Based on activity from the IFRC ‘Make that Change’ toolkit



Participatory Tool 5 TITLE: Vulnerability and risk analysis (Part B) Community vulnerability and hazard mapping AIM: To produce a visual representation of risks and vulnerabilities in and around communities OBJECTIVES: • To identify the locations of physical risk in and around the community • To identify the location of vulnerable groups and the reasons for their vulnerability OVERALL TIME NEEDED Up to 1.5 hours MATERIALS REQUIRED Map of the community – laminated if possible Coloured pens Camera RELATED ITEMS Participatory Tool 4: Historical risk profiling Templates and Tables 4: Summary matrix of risks identified TIME NEEDED

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Explain to the group that the map they are going to design is help people plan for emergencies, so it will need to capture where the needs are likely to be as well as resources which will may be useful in a response effort. Stage one Ask the group to draw a map of their community (or provide them with a ready prepared map). Ask them to mark on the map where there are risks in the community. Have the group draw a picture or symbol to identify where the risk is and label it. Stage two Next mark on the map vulnerable people in the community. This may be individuals or groups of vulnerable people. Stage three Finally mark on the map sources of capacity in the community (e.g. health facilities, water supplies, volunteers etc.) Make sure everyone is happy with the completed map and take a photo of it. Stage four Display maps and invite participants to present their maps to any observers or YMCA staff explaining what they show. Discussion questions Why do the risks they have identified exist? What makes some people vulnerable to them? Have any actions have been taken to address the risks? (by the community or external organisations) How do people cope with the risks on a day-to-day basis? Which risks are people most concerned about?

1 hour

30 minutes



Participatory Tool 5 (continued)

TIPS FOR FACILITATORS See tips for Participatory Tool 4: historical risk profiling about group participants and dynamics. Having participants create maps can take time but does provide additional insights as to how they see their community. To save time you can use existing maps such as satellite photos or GPS printouts. Google maps is a good place to start as these are free. If you provide the map make sure it is big enough for participants to be able to see clearly and add to. Do not do any of the drawing or map marking yourself, make sure that the participants have enough pens and materials to do the work themselves. Symbols and pictures can be used instead of words to make the map more visually interesting and enable non-literate community members to participate. Again, make sure you document the discussion had when the maps are presented. If more than one group has mapped an area compare them. Are they the same or have they identified different things? To make the maps more durable you could laminate them. Make sure they are photographed at the end so they can be included as reference materials in the disaster preparedness plan. Filming the process can also be a useful way of sharing results and learning with others, as the discussions are an important part of the process. You may want to leave a copy of the map with the community rather than taking it away with you as it is a good source of information. The map could serve as an educational tool so think about other ways it can be used.



Participatory Tool 6 TITLE: Risk ranking AIM: To prioritise risks for planning purposes OBJECTIVES: • To analyse potential risks and their impact • To reach consensus on which risks should be prioritised in planning OVERALL TIME NEEDED Up to 1.5 hours MATERIALS REQUIRED Whiteboard and pen or flipchart Coloured pens, pebbles or stickers to fill in chart (depending on the level of creativity of the group) RELATED ITEMS Participatory Tool 5 – community vulnerability and hazard mapping Templates and Tables 4 – summary matrix of risks identified Figure 6 – risk assessment example (Guide p31) TIME NEEDED 30 minutes

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Draw a grid which is large enough for all participants to see and to input into (see sample template overleaf). Along the top of the grid list the main risks which have been identified through the vulnerability mapping exercises. Agree the factors to be used to prioritise risks and write them down the side of the grid, (the factors listed in the template overleaf are just examples). Establish a rating system, for example between 1 and 5, with 1=low and 5=high. Ask participants to score each of the risks against the different factors using the rating system. This can be done anonymously (see facilitator’s tips) Once everyone has rated the risks, add up the scores. The risks with the highest scores should reflect the priority risks needing to be planned for. Make sure everyone in the group is agreed about these. Review the totals produced, are the priorities what the participants expected and are they happy with what has been prioritised?

15 minutes

30 minutes



Participatory Tool 6 (continued)

TIPS FOR FACILITATORS You may need to explain to participants what the different risks are, especially if they were not involved in establishing all of the risks listed. Be aware of potential bias within the group. If there are many more participants from one area of the country there may be bias towards planning for events taking place near there. Try to ensure that the group is as representative as possible. You can use pebbles, stickers or tally marks to fill the grid. If the results are very surprising check that everyone understood the rankings and made their decisions accordingly.

Flooding in Eastern Region Likelihood of occurrence Level of impact Location of relevance Relevance of issues involved to YMCA Total

Outbreak of conflict in capital city

Earthquake in Northern Region



Participatory Tool 7 TITLE: Problem tree and response ranking AIM: To establish the main issues to be addressed by the YMCA in a given situation and the types of response required OBJECTIVES: • To identify the key issues which are presented by a scenario and the groups who are affected • To establish broad response approaches required • To identify which issues and response approaches are most relevant to the YMCA OVERALL TIME NEEDED Up to 3 hours MATERIALS REQUIRED Whiteboard or flipchart and pen Different coloured cards and pens for each group Blu-tac or tape to attach the cards Scenario descriptions RELATED ITEMS Templates and Tables 5 – Scenario description template Templates and Tables 6 – Response plan template Figure 6 – Risk Assessment example (Guide p31) TIME NEEDED

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Stage one – identifying the issues Explain to the group that you are going to be creating a ‘problem tree’ with the purpose of identifying the main causes and effects of a disaster. Draw a large tree with roots and branches, and smaller roots and branches linking into them. On the trunk of the tree write the name of a disaster that needs to be planned for, as identified in one of the scenarios. (You will need to repeat this exercise for each of your scenarios). Ask participants to identify the different causes of the disaster. Ask them to write their ideas on cards and place them on the roots of the picture. Once all the cards are there and everyone has had a chance to participate, try and group the cards by themes. Establish which are the main causes and label the main roots accordingly (you might want to draw pictures which represent the issue). Secondary or contributory causes should be attached to the roots which feed into the main roots. Add as many roots as you need to make the picture complete Next ask participants to think about all the different effects of the disaster, writing their ideas on cards and this time placing them on the branches. As before, group the issues by related themes, with the thick branches representing the main issues with secondary or subsidiary issues represented by smaller branches coming off the main branches. Stage two – assessing potential response strategies Once everyone is happy with the effects identified and the way they have been grouped, ask if there are any ‘effects’ particularly relevant to the YMCA and its current areas of work. If there are you

5 minutes

30 minutes

30 minutes

20 minutes



Participatory Tool 7 (continued)

may want to concentrate on these issues throughout the rest of the exercise. Next think as a whole group about the types of response strategies which could address the effects. Appoint one member of the group to write each of the response ideas on a card (one card per idea). When you have gathered all the response ideas, explain to the group that the next step is to think about which response ideas are most relevant to the YMCA. Decide the criteria that you will use to rate the relevance of the response ideas. Think about the target group, strengths and experience of the YMCA, cost of the response, most essential needs and so on. There may think of many criteria for ranking you think of but try to limit to a maximum of 4. Take the first criteria for ranking the response ideas. For example, ‘how relevant is the response to the objectives and mission of the YMCA’. Draw a line to represent this reason, with one end representing ‘very relevant’, and the other end representing ‘irrelevant’. Discuss each of the response ideas in turn, placing the response cards along the line according to how relevant they are. Record the results and then repeat the exercise with your other criteria. Once you have completed the exercise with all the criteria, discuss what the ranking lines have shown. Are there any response ideas that have consistently ranked high up on the lines? Think about how this information can help you to prioritise the response strategies you should use when responding to the scenario. TIPS FOR FACILITATORS Stage one • Make sure that you have sufficient space around the roots and branches on the picture of the tree to add in more branches and roots as needed. • Encourage participants to identify who the different issues affect. Ask them to consider whether different groups are affected in different ways? • Make sure that young people’s issues are being discussed. What specific issues do you think that they may face? Stage two There are a number of questions included in the Guide (Part 2 section 3.1 p33) which may help to establish criteria to use for ranking purposes. Try to keep to a maximum of 4 criteria, other issues can always be addressed more generally in the following discussion. Leave plenty of time for the ranking process and be strict on participants ranking according to the criteria in question. Remind them they are not being asked if a response is more or less important overall, but instead identifying what as a YMCA is their priority and within their capacity to achieve. 30 minutes 5 minutes

15 minutes

1 hour (time may be more or less depending on how many criteria and response ideas there are)



Participatory Tool 8 TITLE: Sharing and summarising organisational systems AIM: To ensure that information about organisational systems relevant to disaster preparedness planning have been shared amongst key stakeholders OBJECTIVES: • For each working group to feedback on the outcomes of their discussion • For resulting actions to be identified, documented and agreed upon • To clarify and confirm the roles and responsibilities of people to undertake these activities. OVERALL TIME NEEDED 15-30 minutes per working group MATERIALS REQUIRED Pens RELATED ITEMS Templates and Tables 7 – Summary table for systems review process Discussion points for Organisational Systems Review in Guide p36-37 TIME NEEDED 20-30 minutes per working group

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Gather representatives of the different working groups together, plus other relevant staff or actors. Introduce the participants to the discussion points for organisational systems review in the Guide, p36-37 and the Summary table for systems review process (Templates and Tables 7). Down the left-hand side are the systems / functions being addressed by the different working groups (you may need to add to these if you have considered additional systems). Along the top are various questions designed to monitor the progress of the working group. Invite the representatives to present their working group discussions through answering the following questions: • What questions were discussed by the group? • What tools and methods were used to address them? (e.g. the number and nature of meetings held, did they use any participative tools to analyse information) • Who was involved? • What needs and problems were identified? • What solutions were produced? • What actions were identified to be taken forward? If presentations haven’t been prepared in advance give the representatives time to prepare their answers to these questions. Address each system in turn. The template should be filled in with the information presented by the working group representatives. Try and keep the information concise and easy to understand. At the end of each group presentation make sure that everyone is happy with the action points agreed upon, and that what was presented was an accurate reflection of the working groups’ conclusions, and then move onto the next group.



Participatory Tool 8 (continued)

TIPS FOR FACILITATORS Be clear that this is not a planning session in itself. It is about feeding back on decisions already made. Encourage participants to ask questions as the working groups present their results, but try not to re-open issues for discussion, especially where it is clear that the working group has already had a thorough discussion of the issues and come to a conclusion. By sharing the presentation questions in advance and asking the groups to come prepared with their presentations you will save time in the meeting. If too much time is being spent on one group or a particular issue, suggest that you move on and come back to the discussion at the end. Have a ‘parking space’ (a sheet on the wall) where issues that need returning to can be listed so they are not forgotten. Make sure you leave some time at the end to do this!



Participatory Tool 9 TITLE: Mapping staff knowledge and skills AIM: To assess skills and knowledge owned by the YMCA branch and highlight areas which need to be strengthened OBJECTIVES: • To ascertain what skills and knowledge are necessary for disaster response • To compare these with the skills and knowledge owned by the branch • To use this comparison to draw up a picture of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the branch OVERALL TIME NEEDED 1 hour 40 minutes (this activity may need to be conducted over 2 sessions with preparation work in between) OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Draw a picture of a human being over two large pieces of paper – ask someone to volunteer to do this if you are not confident about your drawing skills! Give each participant some post-it notes and ask them to write a type of skill or area of knowledge which may be needed when responding to a disaster. Participants should then stick their post-it notes on the part of the body they think is most relevant to the skill or knowledge selected – for example practical skills could go on the hands. Let everyone do this at once. Read out what people have written and group together duplicated ideas or related sets of skills and knowledge. If the same idea has been stuck on different body parts then ask the group to decide where they think it best sits. Identify which of these skills are present within the YMCA. If there are representatives from different local branches who have good knowledge of the staff and members then this next step can be completed at the same time. If this isn’t possible, create a short self-assessment questionnaire based on the skills and knowledge identified for staff and volunteers at all branches to fill in. Based on the results of the surveys or on participants’ knowledge ask each branch to produce a drawing of a body which reflects the level of knowledge and skills they feel is present. The body may end up looking quite strange, with some body parts missing and multiple other body parts. Discuss the findings presented by the diagrams as a group. Note where strengths and weaknesses lie and identify the most important gaps to fill. MATERIALS REQUIRED Two pieces of A1 size paper Marker pen Post-it notes RELATED ITEMS Templates and Tables 9 – Human resources SWOT chart

TIME NEEDED 5 minutes

10 minutes

10 minutes

20 minutes (or longer if questionnaire is undertaken)

15 minutes

15 minutes



Participatory Tool 9 (continued)

Use the diagrams and discussion to produce a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) diagram which can go into the preparedness plan (for a template see Templates and Tables 9 – Human resources SWOT chart). Opportunities should consider how available skills and knowledge can be shared within the organisation, as well as how they will benefit the organisation in the event of a disaster. Threats should take into account how gaps in skills and knowledge may reduce capacity to undertake planned responses. TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

30 minutes

Try to get participants to be specific about the body part the skill or knowledge area is connected to. For example, ‘co-ordination skills’ could be linked to the ‘brain’,‘eyes’ or ‘ears’ could represent the needs assessment or for monitoring and evaluation skills. It doesn’t matter if more than one person writes the same skill, or if they put it in a different place, this will be resolved during the discussion afterwards. When assigning the skills to body parts, try not to attribute more than one skill per body part to avoid confusion later.



Participatory Tool 10 TITLE: Evaluating the process (Part A) The evaluation bus! AIM: To capture learning about the disaster preparedness planning process to help inform and improve future disaster preparedness plan updating exercises OBJECTIVES: For participants • To assess whether objectives and outputs for each stage of the planning and the sections of the plan were met • To review the strengths and weaknesses of the process undertaken • To identify clear and concrete ways future disaster preparedness planning exercises can be improved • To commit personally to an action they will take to strengthen a future disaster preparedness planning process OVERALL TIME NEEDED 1 hour 45 minutes MATERIALS REQUIRED Four ‘bus stop’ signs Coloured pens CD player and CDs Post-it notes Photos from previous activities RELATED ITEMS Templates and Tables 1 – Process Planning Table (last column)

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Designate five ‘bus stops’ in the room. The bus stops represent stages in the process of disaster preparedness planning (preparation, analysis, response planning, organisational planning and finalising – see the Guide p20 for descriptions of these stages). Attached to each bus stop should be information about the activities and objectives, with accompanying sheets of paper labelled ‘my role’, ‘I liked’, ‘I learnt’, ‘I would suggest’. Explain to participants that they are passengers on an ‘evaluation bus’! They are free to join the bus at which stop they like but they must visit all stops. At each stop the passengers are asked to identify one or more ways that they were involved in or contributed towards an activity related to that stage. Ask them to make a note of this on the sheet labelled ‘my role’ (they don’t have to attach their name if they don’t want to). They are also asked to think of things they liked, things that they learnt and things they would suggest to make it work better next time. Ask participants to either write directly on the sheets of paper or attach post-it notes to the sheets with the relevant title. Encourage them to discuss the activities with the other passengers at their stop and read what others have already written, but to make sure that they write down their own ideas.

TIME NEEDED 5 minutes

50 minutes-1 hour



Participatory Tool 10 (continued)

Once everyone has visited all five bus stops ask the participants to sit back down. The facilitator should then lead a discussion drawing together people’s overall feelings about the process. TIPS FOR FACILITATORS

45 minutes

Include photographs from the activities or other visual images that help people to remember what happened. Have some music playing whilst the activity is going on – this can help to reduce people’s selfconsciousness and encourage them to talk to each other. Ending the music is also a simple way to indicate that the activity has finished. When leading the discussion, use comments from the different bus stops to stimulate discussion. Ask whether people agree or disagree with statements which have been made. Probe deeper into issues that have been presented in general terms e.g. If people write ‘I would suggest more time being taken’ then find out why and what impact they think this has had on the process or particularly activity in question. Make sure that both the information collected at the bus stops and through the discussion is documented and shared back with the participants at a later date.



Participatory Tool 11 TITLE: Evaluating the process (Part B) Hitting the target AIM: To capture learning that can inform future preparedness planning processes. OBJECTIVES: • To assess how well the guiding principles were adhered to • To identify ways in which they can inform the implementation of the preparedness plan and future planning exercises OVERALL TIME NEEDED 1 hour MATERIALS REQUIRED Large sheet of paper with diagram below on Coloured pens Post-it notes TIME NEEDED 30 minutes

OUTLINE OF EXERCISE Draw a large target like the one in the diagram opposite. Explain to the participants they are going to assess how well the guiding principles for disaster preparedness planning were adhered to. Ask them to place a dot on the target for each of the 5 principles. If they place their dot in the centre circle that means they think the guiding principle was fully adhered to. The further away from the centre of the circle they place their dot the less they think the principle was achieved. Ask participants to add comments by writing on post-it notes and sticking them around the target. Once everyone has finished adding their dots, identify any patterns that emerge. Ask participants to comment on these patterns. If it looks like one principle was well kept to (i.e. most dots in the centre of the target), but another was not (few or no dots in the centre), ask them why they think that was. If no clear picture emerges (dots all over target) then discuss that too. Ask the participants whether they think the principles are or were helpful? Do they agree with them or are their other issues that need to be taken into account? If one or more principles weren’t adhered to in their process, do they think that made any difference to the quality of the disaster preparedness plan they produced? Finally ask the participants to discuss ways that the ongoing implementation of the preparedness plan could benefit from adherence to these principles and how they can ensure they are followed.

20 minutes

10 minutes



Participatory Tool 11 (continued)

Prevention before response

Collaboration not isolation

Ongoing learning

Participation and local ownership

Commitment to good practice

TIPS FOR FACILITATORS You may need to start with a quick recap of what the principles were. Part One of the Guide explains the principles and why they are important. This is a quick way of assessing how on-target the process has been but does not provide much space for deeper thinking. Make sure that post-it notes are available so participants can add comments to the chart that expand their ideas. Encourage them to stick the notes outside the target but near the relevant principle. If there are not too many people present, try holding the discussion with people gathered around the target.



Disaster Preparedness Templates and Tables


Templates and Tables 1: Process planning table




















Templates and Tables 2: Country context template Name of country: Year produced:

ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE To include: Statistics on employment and unemployment levels among youth – levels of access to jobs and credit; main types of employment for young people within the country, formal and informal; quality and coverage of infrastructure – roads / transport accessibility and communication systems.

SOCIO-POLITICAL CONTEXT To include: Overview of levels of poverty in the country (statistics) and summary of key issues affecting young people and children across the country; levels of education and access to education across the country (statistics); health care access and potential health risks (for example statistics on malaria prevalence, HIV and AIDS infection rates, malnutrition); stability of the political system, history of or potential for conflict.



ENVIRONMENT To include: Geography of the country; seasonal weather patterns; occurrence of other natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis.

DISASTERS To include: Types of disaster which have occurred and the impacts felt; levels of response from government and the international community.

YMCA CONTEXT To include: Size of YMCA – number and location of local branches; overview of programmes, thematic focus and target beneficiary groups; past experiences of responding to disasters (if any); type and scope of response key lessons learnt, or particular successes / challenges.

Templates and Tables 3: Historical profiling matrix

Guidance for completion - Historical profiling should be completed for each local branch and written up using this matrix - Highlight events which were related to national events (for example local flooding as a result of a hurricane which hit the whole country) Impacts Responses Early warning indicators and trigger factors







Templates and Tables 4: Summary matrix of risks identified Guidance for completion • Complete this table using information collected through Participatory Tools 4 and 5 (historical risk profiling and vulnerability and capacity mapping) • Where a risk has been identified in multiple locations include it once in the table making sure to list all the potentially affected locations and all identified potential impacts • Likelihood of occurrence should be stated as high, medium or low Risk Potentially affected locations Types of impact expected Likelihood of occurrence



Templates and Tables 5: Scenario description template Guidance for filling in scenario description template • Draw on information gathered through your historical profiling exercises, secondary source searches and information from expert sources • Remember the aim is to produce something which will allow you to identify suitable response interventions. Capturing a range of potential impacts is more important than exactly estimating the scope of their impact • Also remember that this is just a prediction; it will never be exactly right. Do not try to include all possible outcomes or making things too detailed • Use the template below to write up your scenario and limit your description to a maximum of 2 pages

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF DISASTER This should be a brief description of what happens. The type of event it is, where it is located and the scope of the situation, include an indication of total numbers likely to be affected etc.

TIMELINE / EVENT DESCRIPTION This section gives an overview of what happened in what order. It should start by identifying the early warning indicators and triggers. Then go on to pinpoint key moments in the situation, such as numbers affected, launch of key response activities and secondary problems (such as disease). Make clear the time lapses between the events.

KEY IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF EVENT This section should complement the timeline, explaining what impacts have been felt by different groups, and what the implications of the changing events are.

ACTIONS IT HAS TRIGGERED This section should highlight the key actions and activities undertaken by different groups in response to the situation. Make sure to include the type of response they undertake, the scope of their response and any target beneficiary groups.



Templates and Tables 6: Response plan template Name of scenario:




INTERVENTION STRATEGY Please explain why these activities have been chosen to meet the objectives

IMPLEMENTATION TIMESCALE Please state the estimated timescale for the intended response



Templates and Tables 6: Response plan template (continued)

BENEFICIARIES AND LOCATION OF RESPONSE Identify briefly who the intended beneficiaries of the response will be and where they will be located.

GOOD PRACTICE IN PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Please give some information on: 1) How beneficiaries and community members will participate in the planning and implementation of response in the event of this scenario occurring 2) How the ICRC code of conduct been addressed in the planning 3) What has been done to ensure that young peoples’ needs have been addressed, as well as gender and other cross-cutting issues

NB Make sure your Aims, Objectives and Activities are SMART! For more information see Figure 7 in the Guide (p34).


Templates and Tables 7: Summary table for systems review process Methods and tools used Who was involved Needs / problems identified Solutions produced Actions to be taken forward

System / Function

Questions discussed

Early warning and when to act


Needs assessment


Human resources

Child and youth protection

Monitoring and evaluation



Templates and Tables 8: Staff and volunteers chart Please complete this chart for the national office as well as for local offices Name of YMCA Description Male Under 30 Over 30 Female Under 30 Over 30 Total

Number of full-time staff

Number of part-time staff


Number of members

Number of active members (e.g. those members that volunteer their time for the YMCA)

Any other volunteers that are not members?



Templates and Tables 9: Human resources SWOT chart







Templates and Tables 10: Financial Resources Table Upon completing this table you should have an idea of your organisation’s financial capacity to respond to a disaster by calculating: • What internal funds are available within the organisation? • What funds can be accessed externally? • You may want to add additional lines to include in-kind support from donors or members INTERNAL FUNDS Where from / who responsible Funds available to fund response activities1 Funds available to pre-finance activities2 Amount available

EXTERNAL FUNDS What you could expect to receive in donations from members / local branches to fund an emergency response What you could expect to receive in donations from other YMCAs3

Other potential sources of local funding and what you could expect to receive from each source (list name of potential funder and amount available)4 Total external funds available from local sources Total funds (internal and external) available to finance a disaster response – please enter on next page

1 2 3


These are funds which are available to spend, which don’t require more money to be found to replace them. These are funds which are available, but must be replaced as they have been allocated to other programme activities. If possible try to contact your existing partners to find out if they have funds available for emergencies and what terms they attach to these. For local funding organisations, try to find out whether you need to be official partners with an organisation or coalition of organisations to access their emergency money, and if appropriate take action to become a partner. Also be clear about what procedures are there to request funds, and keep a good record of this procedure.



Tables and Templates 11: Physical resources table TYPES OF RESOURCE Buildings and land OWNED / RENTED BY YMCA? HOW MANY? COMMENTS

Communications equipment

Office equipment


Project-related materials and equipment

Other physical assets

Templates and Tables 12: Preparedness action plan table By when Who will check it’s being done? Indicator for success (i.e. evidence it’s been done) Resources needed Sources of funding / resources Monitoring and evaluation How will you improve the action next time?


By who

With who





Templates and Tables 13: Standard structure of a written Disaster Preparedness Plan Cover page • Name of YMCA • Authors of document • Date of production • Proposed date of next plan update Introduction • Background to document • Map of country with YMCA locations marked • Overview of process undertaken to produce the plan: key participants, methodologies used, timescale, challenges to process Section 1. Context building and risk assessment • The economic, political and social context of the country • The history of disasters in the country – causes and impacts as well as responses provided • The YMCA context – areas of work, beneficiary groups, prior disaster response experience • Analysis of principle hazards and vulnerabilities of the country and its population, by geographical area or other relevant grouping. This should include conflict as well as natural and technological hazards Section 2. Scenario development • Identification of high-risk scenarios and an assessment of the type and extent of impact most likely to occur. To include information on key beneficiary groups (including young people) • Expected responses by other actors in relation to the scenarios – government, international and national NGOs, Community-based organisations (CBOs) and private sector Section 3. Proposed response to scenarios • Identification of priority response strategies for YMCA, including thematic area, geographical location and target beneficiary groups (for each scenario) • Aim, objectives and response activities to be undertaken • Identification of good practice within the response plan Section 4. Supporting organisational functions • Outline of supporting organisation management functions, including: communications, human resources and financial systems • Outline of project implementation systems including: early warning, needs assessment and monitoring and evaluation • Clear outline of roles and responsibilities for staff with respect to these systems Section 5. Capacity analysis and resource allocation • Identification of organisational assets relevant to the response, including human, physical and financial resources, as well as less tangible assets such as relationships with relevant organisations, supporting policies and documents • Analysis of gaps in resources and capacity necessary for being prepared and what is required to fill these Section 6. Implementing the preparedness action plan • Action points for implementing the plan: including timeline, key tasks, role allocation and deliverables between now the next review of the plan • Date of next planned review Annexes • Data gathered through analysis exercises (including maps, analysis results and notes from focus groups etc) as well as list of written sources and websites consulted • Full list of staff details including emergency contacts • Full list of external contacts: partners, government agencies, donors and suppliers • WAY emergencies protocol • WAY templates for YMCA appeals and situation reports • Internal guidelines (if available) for security, evacuation and communications

Y Care International is the international relief and development agency of the YMCA in the UK and Ireland. It works in partnership with YMCAs in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East to empower young people and their communities to find alternatives to a future of poverty and disadvantage, and to build lives and communities marked by hope and positive change.

Y Care International Kemp House 152-160 City Road London EC1V 2NP United Kingdom Tel +44 (0)20 7549 3150 Fax +44 (0)20 7549 3151 enq@ycareinternational.org www.ycareinternational.org

Y Care International is a registered charity and a company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity no: 1109789. Company no: 3997006. Registered office: Kemp House, 152-160 City Road, London EC1V 2NP.

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