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1. Separation and Delegation of Powers 1.1. In the Constitution The major departments (Art.

. VI, VII, and VIII) The constitutional commissions (Art. IX) The other independent bodies {e.g. the Electoral Tribunals [Sec. 17, Art. VI and Sec. 4 (last par), Art. VII]; the Commission on Appointments (Sec. 18, Art. VI); the Judicial and Bar Council (Sec. 8, Art. VIII)} 1.2. Manner of Conferment of Power Express o o o o Legislative power to Congress (Sec. 1, Art. VI) Executive power to the President (Sec. Art. VII) Judicial power to SC, lower courts (Sec. 1, Art. VIII) Others (e.g. powers of the independent constitutional bodies)

Implied (Doctrine of Necessary Implication) Angara vs. EC, 63 Phil 139 Arnault vs. Nazareno, 87 Phil 29 Inherent or incidental In re Dick, 38 Phil 41 In re Sotto, 82 Phil 595 1.3. Purpose of separation of powers 1.4. Corollary Concepts Blending (Overlap) of Powers Springer vs. PI, 277 US 189 Checks and Balances o Lawmaking by Congress, veto by the President, override of the veto by the Congress (Sec. 27, Art. VI) o Grant of amnesty by the president, concurrence by the Congress (Sec. 19, Art. VI) o Entry into treaty by the president, concurrence by the Senate (Sec. 20, Art. VII) o Conviction by the judiciary, pardon by the President (Sec. 19, Art. VIII) o Jurisdiction of courts may be reduced by the Congress (Sec. 2, Art. VIII) o Congress may abolish lower courts (Sec. 1 and 2, Art. VIII) Ocampo vs. Sec., GR L-7918, 1/18/55 De la Llana vs. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 Delegation of Powers o General Rule: potestas delegata non delegari potest Basis o Exception: instances of permissible delegation Tariff powers to the president [Sec. 28 (2), Art. VI] Emergency powers to the president [Sec 23 (2), Art. VI] Araneta vs. Dinglasan, 84 Phil 368 Rodriguez vs. Gella, 92 Phil 603 Legislative power to the people at large: System on initiative and referendum (Sec. 32, Art. VI) Legislative power to LGUs (See Sec. 16 and 19 of RA 7160) Legislative power to administrative bodies (power of subordinate legislation) i. Basis Cruz vs. Youngberg, 56 SCRA 234 ii. How effected iii. Tests of valid delegation: a. Completeness test US vs. Ang Tang Ho, 43 Phil 1 b. Sufficient standards test Pp vs. Rosenthal, 68 Phil 328 Cervantes vs. Auditor, 91 Phil 359

Calalang vs. Williams, 70 Phil 726 Hirabayashi vs. US, 320 SCRA 99 Dela Llana vs. Alba, supra PP vs. Vera, 65 Phil 56 Inot vs. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 iv. Application of the two tests: concurrent, not alternate Pelaez vs. Auditor, 15 SCRA 569 1.5. Role of the Judiciary in the scheme of separation of powers (Sec. 1, Art. VIII) Supremacy of the Constitution, not its own: upheld by the judiciary Angara vs. Electoral Commission, supra Justiciable and Political Questions Tanada vs. Cuenco, 100 Phil 1101 Sanidad vs. COMELEC, 73 SCRA 333 Daza vs. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 Tanada vs. Angara, GR 118295, 5/2/97 Aytona vs. Castillo, 4 SCRA 1 Javellana vs. Executive Sec., supra De la Llana vs. COMELEC, supra Custodio vs. Senate, 42 O.G. 1243 Alejandrino vs. Quezon, 46 Phil 83 Osmena vs. Pendatun, 109 Phil 863 Vera vs. Avelino, 77 SCRA 192 PBA vs. Comelec, GR 72915, 12/20/85 De Castro vs. Committee, GR 71688, 9/10/85 Romulo vs. Iniguez, 141 SCRA 263 Avelino vs. Cuenco, 83 Phil 17 Meralco vs. Pasay Trans., 57 Phil 825 Endencia vs. David, GR L-6455, 8/31/53 Expanded jurisdiction of the judiciary under the 1987 Constitution [sec. 1 (2nd par.), Art. VIII] o Also: Determination of the sufficiency of the factual basis of Martial Law: Sec. 18, Art. VII